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Protection of Arabic Manuscripts and


Cultural Property Heritage in Nigeria:
(Text of Paper Presentation at)

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRESERVING NIGERIA’S


SCHOLARLY AND LITERARY TRADITIONS AND MANUSCRIPTS
HERITAGE

Organized by
Arewa House and the United State Embassy,
Abuja – Nigeria
(2007)

Presenter

Muhammad Awwal Umar, Ph.D.,


Senior Lecturer,
Department of Nigerian and African Languages,
Faculty of Arts,
Ahmadu Bello University,
Zaria – Nigeria.

January, 2007
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Protection of Arabic Manuscripts


and Cultural Property Heritage in Nigeria

Abstract:

This paper defines Arabic Manuscripts in a broad cultural discourse. It also conceives

Arabic documents as a public property. Again, the paper contends that authorship in

Islam is considered as a community service and that it does not suggest any ownership of

intellectual heritage by individual other than the entire community. Therefore, the paper

explains that knowledge in Islam, just like the case with justice, is a distributive

phenomenon. The two should be obtained and maintained in order to create a healthy

society. There is no monopoly of ideas or thought. Everyone is duty-bound to protect

intellectual products in as much as one is obliged to circulate them.

The intellectual development of human intellect had made it possible for the

people of Nigeria to participate in world civilization, scholarship and its dissemination.

The past leaders sought knowledge and dispersed it across. The inherited political and

sociological mastery accredited to the North was acquired through knowledge. Thus the

notion 'knowledge is power' is only possible because the leaders of thought were able to

encourage the public to embark on learning. They personally took it a duty to mobilize

the public to read and think. The general guiding principle behind this attitude was the

theory that knowledge is conceived to be distributive by nature the same as the economic

and political empowerment.

Equally, depositories should not be an end purpose in themselves. One should not

house any intellectual property and guard it jealously to the detriment of the public

development. The archives are only important in the sense that they serve as a
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bibliographical transit terminus. Therefore, research findings can only acquire academic

authenticity and scholarship reverence if they are published and circulated. The point,

here, is that ideas are never static the same as the society which produced them. On the

contrary, ideas are always subjected to certain contextual modification, reinterpretation,

classification and adjustment. This is only possible if they are widely distributed and thus

made known to all.

Theoretically, the texts of Arabic manuscripts are viewed to perform certain

actions in society. Thus, the notion of socio-cultural interaction by means of text is

brought into perspectives. Semiotically, Arabic documents represent the latitude of

civilization and level of intellectual contribution (Umar, 2002).Therefore, we contend

further that any attempt at examining Arabic Manuscripts in Nigeria stirs up another

phenomenon of import to the historical, cultural and intellectual development of the

country.

Some conclusions are drawn from the facts that for a society to develop it must

evolve strategies for preserving and protecting its cultural heritage. It provides

suggestions on how to procure, maintain and circulate intellectual and scholarly

properties.

Arabic Manuscripts: A Definition

We may need, in what follows, to define what constitutes Arabic manuscripts and

explain how they are being generated. We shall also account for their social import by

analysis of their function in cultural framework. The point, here, is to show how relevant

are these manuscripts to our culture? Thus, emphasizing the imperative of protecting

them.
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Umar, (1997:2) describes Arabic Manuscripts, as saying:

“… Arabic source materials are treatises in prose


and poetry … They may also be correspondences
and possibly administrative documents … in
Arabic…”

They contains discourses on various subjects Law, Theology, Qur’nic and Hadith

Sciences, Philosophy, Language, Linguistics, Literature, Administration, Politics,

Sociology, History, Education, Astronomy, Mathematics and many more. (refer to

Iloriyyu, 1978; Aliyu: 1972 and Galadanci: 1993). Babalola (1993:19) describes Arabic

manuscripts looking at their contents and subject-matter too:

The works of our great scholars dating back to


the early 16th century, with particular reference
to Kanem-Borno Empire, the Sokoto Caliphate
and pats of the Central and Western Bilad al
Sudan as well as those of contemporary scholars
of present Nigeria in all branches of human
endeavor, remain inexhaustible primary sources
of information for all forms of academic
activities.

Our conception of Arabic manuscripts may be extended to include documents in other

Muslims’ languages of Nigeria, such as Hausa, Fulfulde, Kanuri or Yoruba which are

written in Arabic script, and generally called Ajami, may also be classified as Arabic

manuscripts. The inclusion of other languages besides Arabic may have been necessitated

by social function of text in a given context. Again, it may have been projected on the

bases of linguistic phonological forms and their main rhetorical ends. 1

Discoursal texture is an essential defining component of any text. It is the actual

construct which `pieces together' the various parts of a text. The parts, thus mentioned,

are the expressed notions, thoughts, feelings, etc. as the conceptual background of the

text and the linguistic parts which include the lexical, syntactic, phonological and
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morphological items put together within the constraints of Arabic language led to a

textual reality called here, Arabic Manuscripts (Umar, 2004). Such a linguistic

application is called 'Texturization'. The notion ‘…to piece together’, means to ensure the

textual coherence, cohesion and thematization ‘both linguistically and conceptually'. For

a text to be coherent it must 'have continuity of sense.' To be cohesive is to display

'connectivity between its surface elements'. And to maintain its themes means to 'be

arranged in such a fashion as to draw attention to those parts of its contents'. (Basil, H.

and Ian M., 1992:192) Arabic Manuscripts were written in the standard Arabic language

as a result of matured learning effort. Strict observation of its linguistic rules and

convention is clearly demonstrated by the texts. And the conclusive nature of its

discourse guarantees the conceptual connectivity in a thematic presentation - as our

discussion on its pragmatics will reveal. In this sense, the process of texturing is seen as a

mechanistic:

... The process of transferring meaning into text is a


mechanical one, in which lexical entries and syntactical
pattern are 'mapped into' a semantic core in the manner of a
primitive machine translating system (Ibid: 192 -3)

The other textual features in text make include the extra-linguistic factors such as the

socio-cultural, historical process, psychological state of both the authors and their

audience. That means texts are motivated by socio-linguistic and intellectual realities.

They are also considered as dependent variables:

... Actual textual occurrence, though subject to the


particular grammatical system of the language, is seen as
being motivated by contextual factors. (Ibid: 192)

The ‘mixed’ nature of Dan Fodio’s society certainly


directed his Fiqh – its nature and contents, emphasis
and approach … the Fiqh of the three jurists of
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Sokoto could be described as a ‘ practical Fiqh’ –


their writings were most concerned with what they
thought to be necessary for their ‘Brothers’ and their
state… (A. N. Hajj Nour, 1979:222)

This suggests the deterministic nature of texturization as a culture-bound event

and context-dependant. Some of the contextual factors which motivated the compilation

of Arabic Manuscripts include the prevailing social injustices, political insecurity, moral

decency and other forms of human rights violation in our society. Therefore, Arabic

Manuscripts were never a linguistic accident in this nation. The question how Arabic

manuscripts are made may be realized form what follows of contention.

Arabic Manuscripts may be taken as a compendium of data which are actualized

in form of references, co-references and re-occurrences of either external or internal texts.

In other words, this is called inter-textuality. It is a discoursal component that shows how

authors, readers and listeners recall their past textual experience with other text worlds.

(Umar, 2000 :?). Again, inter-textuality, as perceived in this paper, is about how texts, of

which Arabic Manuscripts sustain, evoke and stimulate early textual familiarity.

Familiarity in this place means knowledge. And on this account, other texts are recalled

and situationalized as a dependent textual variable. This suggests the universality and

linkage of scholarship as data are always shared regardless of time, place, school of

thought and/or ethnic considerations. Thus it is:

... The process whereby a text goes back to what precedes it


adding to its ideologically neutral form the whole
underlying volume of signification, which accrues from etc.
(Basil, H. and Ian M., 1992,ob.cit:128)

As it is shown in this research, intertextuality is a textual excursion from

"ideologically neutral" denotation of language to its connotative "signification".72 :


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A text is not merely an amalgamation of 'bits and pieces'


culled from other texts. Nor should intertextuality be
understood as the mere inclusion of the occasional
reference to another text. Rather citations, reference, etc.
will be brought into a text for some reason. The motivated
nature of this inter-textual relationship may be explained in
terms of such matters as text function or overall
communicative purpose. (Ibid:128)

….. a signifying system, which operates by


connotation...Each intrusion of citation in the text, is the
culmination of a process in which a sign travels from one
text (source) to another. (Ibid: 129)

Three important points are noted here: One, inter-textuality is a dependent textual feature.

For instance, Arabic Manuscripts rhetorical intent and the communicative thrust largely

rely on the works produced by early scholars as documented in the manuscripts; Two,

Intertextuality is a fluctuating variable in the text; and three, it is universal textual

attribute linking past with present. Therefore: "the semiotic value of citation undergoes

transformation in order to adjust to its new environment." (Ibid) Such an adjustment in

form and value in the host text is equally motivated by "a variety of socio-psychological

circumstances dictated by particular communicative requirements." (Ibid). This does not

only suggest the notion that Arabic Manuscripts are motivated socio-linguistic

consequence, but they are also unique Arabic texts peculiar to their own communicative

environment and the 'circumstances which led to their production. Therefore, the

contention on how cultural are Arabic manuscripts in Nigeria must have been established

now. It may have also been projected by our contention that Arabic manuscripts are

important and useful cultural property which required appropriate protection.

Thus far, the relevance of Arabic Manuscripts as qualifying to be cultural materials that is

valued historically, culturally and intellectually must have been explicated.


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The overall significance of Arabic Manuscripts establishes the relationship

between its objective and context. Therefore, texts of which manuscripts are made are not

only recognized, as linguistic events, which perform some actions in the historical

development of a nation. That is to contend the practical intellectual evidence of the texts

as signifying the level of culture and civilization. In other words, Arabic Manuscripts

have pragmatically created "the relations between language and its context of utterance."

(Ibid:59) for instance a specific Arabic is used in an applied Fiqh convention for socio-

cultural reform in the 19th century Hausa society. Such an application of language in the

described context achieves

To determine the social functions of Arabic Manuscripts is the perlocutionary

aspect of its function and which is to focalized "the effect of the utterance on the

hearer/reader." That refers to the purported end result of the text. For instance, to what

extent Arabic Manuscripts make impact on manners and behaviors of the people of

Nigeria? The answer is a one sentence: the establishment of a culture based on Islamic

tenets. In fact, Arabic Manuscripts as a texts are aimed at consolidating and promoting

that the cultural gains. They have tremendously taught and inculcated some social values

and world views of Islam. One may not need to explain the processes of how the Islamic

culture has been introduced to this country at this occasion. It suffices to assert that

Islamic culture had taken the place of old African world views of African Muslims.

Methodologically, it had succeeded in achieving that at three stages:1) Aspects of African

culture which has no conflict with Islamic teaching are retained as Islamic. 2) Aspects

which contradict the Islamic teaching are rejected.3) In between the two there are aspects

which are being moderated to become Islamic.


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This cultural process of transformation was made successful through effective

employment of Arabic texts which were produced by the scholars in forms of

manuscripts. Besides, to what extent their impact on the behavior and intellect of listener

and reader are felt? It has been explained earlier the effect of Arabic Manuscripts are

demonstrated by one classic example that led to establishment, perpetuation and

consolidation of Sokoto Caliphate in the 19th century.

Politically, Arabic Manuscripts prepare society to appreciate and expand polity

and its categories. One may need to read Kitab Najm al-Ikhwan by Sheikh Usman ralize

the extent of our contention, here. The Sheikh makes issues clear relating to some

theocratic concepts of Islamic State and its structure. Such concepts of Caliphate,

Kingdom, Imamate, Wilayate and Sultanate are all brought to attention, hereby.

Socially, Arabic Manuscripts provide alternative social and cultural practices as

embodied in these manuscripts. That is some of functions of Arabic Manuscripts in social

interaction by means of texts.

Archival Activities on Arabic manuscripts in Nigeria:

Giving the fact that Islam makes knowledge a necessary tool for establishing a

sound society, it becomes imperative for authorities to show interest and invest in

generation, preservation and dissemination of scholarly heritage. Many past Caliphs had

demonstrated good examples by establishing libraries and printing houses in attempt to

protect intellectual properties. Thus, the legacy of Baghdad, Basra, Samarqand, Cordova,

Qairawan, Fez, Timbuktu, Azhar, Sokoto, ‘Yandotto, Katsina, Zaria Borno, Kano and

other centers of excellence around the world. Therefore, establishing depositories and

documentation houses has never new development in Islamic world. What is new is the
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fact that, individual private collections become the practice. This may not be unconnected

to the historical movement in Muslims societies after the collapse of Caliphate system

due to colonial intervention. The fact which made individual scholars and their families

to assume the responsibility of preserving the cultural and intellectual properties.

However, the colonial power realized the importance of those documents the same as it

understood that it can only succeeded in its adventure if the culture of the colonized is

fully understood. And was only possible through study and analysis of those documents.

Thus the imperative of search and procurement is underlined.

According to Babalola (1993, Ibid), the practical ‘Archival activities’ began in the

Northern Nigeria ‘on June 14th, 1959’. The search was led by S.S Waniko:

The acquisition of Arabic manuscripts


received his attention the same year when,
on going through a joint report of Dr. A.B.H.
Bivar and Mallam Halliru Binji titled:
“Report on Preliminary Survey of Arabic
manuscripts in Sokoto Province”. … The
tattered and fragile condition of Mallam
Nagwamatsi’s papers and their poor storage
facilities convinced S.S.Winko that he could
not afford to delay action to salvage such
valuable manuscripts from loss…

About 4,000 works were retrieved from Sokoto province by then. Subsequently, four-

point proposal were put for government consideration:

1. Establishment of an Arabic manuscripts Committee

2. Soliciting the eminent Scholars to facilitate in procurement and translation


of Arabic manuscripts.

3. Soliciting the sultan of Sokoto and Sardauna to consider the proposal

In an attempt to create a legal backing for this effort:


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“… it was then contended that the Public


Archives Ordinance of 1957 should be
amended in order to make provision for such
sub-committees…” (Babalola, ibid: 23)

Later development resulted in establishing the History Research Scheme in the

department of History, A.B.U., Zaria. The scheme was “Launched in 1964 as an inter-

disciplinary” research project”. The take up grant was provided by the then Government

of Northern Nigeria and Rockefeller Foundation. It started “as a joint-project of

University of Ibadan and Ahmadu Bello University. (N.H.R.S Report No.1, p.2, 1966)

More efforts to house Arabic Manuscripts were made later by some institutions in

Nigeria. This includes establishments of Documentation Section in the Library of Bayero

University, Kano; Centre for Islamic Studies, Usumanu Danfodio University; Centre for

Trans-Saharan Studies, University of Maiduguri; National Museum, Jos; Arewa House,

Kaduna; History Bureaus of Kano, Katsina and Sokoto.

Interestingly, these documentation centers share one common goal and objective.

That includes:

… to recover the past of peoples, cultures, and


civilization … to establish and maintain a
comprehensive depository for the preservation
of manuscripts in all fields of learning relating
to the area defined as Trans Sahara …”.
(CTSS, 1986:3).

The most alarming here is that there has no closed contact, or coordination and co-

operation among these centers. Each seems to exist and operate as an island of itself. This

is contrary to what is taking place in other documentation centers and units, both

individual and cooperates, in America and Europe where there is a concern on Arabic

manuscripts, particularly from Africa, south of the Sahara. (Umar, 19989)


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The interest, thus far, shown by international individual and institutions in Arabic

Manuscripts, for whatever reason, have evidently underscored the importance of these

documents culturally, historically, politically and otherwise. One interesting point which

is practical is the existing cooperation among the so many international depositories and

libraries aimed at protecting Arabic manuscripts. There are also evidence of effort at

preserving and circulating them scientifically. One may not need to emphasize the

advantage offered by current waves of computer technical development in this venture.

Computer aided programs, which very much friendly, are being used to protect and

disseminate corpus of data in their massiveness. It is so easy and much organized to store

manage and manipulate data with computer than to keep them on shelves. The following

pages provide us instances where electronic devices are being employed to secure

manuscripts and archival materials internationally.

In Egypt, for example, Arabic manuscripts are, in the first place, defined as

cultural indicant. They are the treasury of heritage. It is also focalized as a pier of cultural

bridge and pillar or backbone of national historical pride. For this realization, it becomes

necessary to take proper measures to protect them in concrete terms. The most immediate

step taken by the authorities toward achieving that is identifying the locations where the

manuscripts are housed? Who is having them? How they acquired them? One fact

emerged apparent that manuscripts are found scattered in so many places and cities.

Some are kept by individual families in a poor condition. We gathered that there are about

33 locations where Arabic manuscripts are housed in Egypt. A total sum of 132000

manuscripts are said to have been indexed thereat. In such a situation, it is increasingly

difficult for researchers to visit all these locations in order to have access to the
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documents. In fact one may not know where to start from. In an attempt to arrest the

situation, the authorities devised strategies to arrest the situation from escalating by

transferring the documents into electronic forms at each location. Then a network was

created linking them at one terminal called Central Information and Documentation Unit.

It was later developed into the Egyptian Library website. By this measure, manuscripts

are not only protected but they are also made easy to world. (Refer to Egypt library web

site). Going by its content, the website provides information on Arabic manuscripts from

the other locations in the country.

Egypt is not the only country which is demonstrating interest in protection and

preservation of scholarly cultural heritage. Earlier developments in the late 20th century

some efforts were made in investing in this kind of project around the world. For

instance, the Research Computer Technology Corporation in Torrance, California, USA

has developed a bilingual database called Al-Raed 100. It ‘consists of specially

configured microcomputer, keyboard and display terminal’ (See Anees M.A., 1987:25).

Siamwalla and Company, Bangkok, Thailand has also produced software called Qur’an

Database which enjoys “…high-resolution graphics and display with English translation

… It enables the user to retrieve any particular verse in any Surah of the Qur’an…”

(Ibid.)

Another effort is made in this respect by Applied Micro-system Technology,

London, England. The company has devised software called Salsabeel . “… The

database can be searched through a number of strategies including, name of the Surah, an

Ayah, word search, and search by phrase or even character string…” (Ibid.)
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The Islamic Bibliographic Data Service, Chicago, USA, created database and

named it Sira and Hadith Bibliographic Database.

”… The database extends special coverage


to the writing of Muslim authors since their
works are not adequately indexed… the
information for the atabase is derived from
books, journals, dissertations etc…” (Ibid.)

Other scientific progress made in this endeavor, and which we can equally use to protect
our manuscripts is the production of Islamic Law Database. The device was made by
the Islamic Research Institute, Islamic International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Observations:

It is here observed that the earlier attempts by different centers in Nigeria, at

procuring, classifying, cataloguing and analyzing the Arabic Manuscripts of Nigeria were

not scientific enough to guarantee a contextual understanding and perception of history,

cultures, and literatures of the diverse nationalities in the country, we want to put project

proposal conceiving the idea of preserving, reconstructing and disseminating our history,

cultures, languages and literatures more. This informs the need to recover all the

manuscripts for the purpose of documentation, study and translation. The process of

procurement and documentation ought to be a continuous exercise. Unfortunately the

case has been contrary. It is also observed that, there is no any attempt to study edit

and/or translate the works. The most alarming state of the matter is the poor condition of
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preservation at present. On the other hand, most scholars and students do not pay

attention to these materials.

Recommendations:

1. The imperative of improving the condition of preservation


of the materials at hand

2. To embark on academic research works (editing, textual


analysis and translation)

3. To re-commence field works to recover more materials

These are elaborated in details in what follows.

In order to arrest the situation not to result into a total damage and subsequent lost,

there is needed to use the available modern technological facilities to preserve the

materials. This can be achieved by transferring individual work into electronic form.

(i.e. computerizing).The materials will be more protected and made easy to access if are put

into a disc plates. To do this, there is need for acquiring machines and computer literate

personnel. (To determine how many or what machines and personnel needed we should

consult relevant authorities).The existing form of documentation may need to be

upgraded. There is need to develop the entries to contain more details on works. Thus, the

need to prepare an electronic descriptive catalogue will be appreciated.

A mere collection and documentation should not be an end-purpose in itself. The

primary objective of housing such important materials is to give them publicity nationally

and internationally. The most effective way of creating such publicity is by embranchment

on research on the materials. In this respect, there is need to invite write scholars to

appreciate what we have in scholarship. Besides, data should be studied, analyzed, and

distributed in a publication. The public need to know the past in order to build the present.
16

The fact that data have not been publicized for this long, the contribution of our past leader of

thought is also being denied to public. And this may also lead to intellectual

underdevelopment. The other danger is that, the failure to study those works has offered a

room to unqualified persons to engage in reprinting and circulating the works in poor forms

in markets for economic interest. This can be done in three means:

a. To initiate contacts with the interested institutions and


individuals nationally and internationally.

b. To organize conferences, workshops and seminars on the


collections.

c. To engage staff and students of our institutions to do


research on the materials

Results of research findings should be made public. This means to start publication. To

publish the results of the research means to establish a serial circulation. It may be in

form of an official Bulletin, Journal, Report or Book Series.

It is therefore, necessary to establish media to publish the works. It may be verbalized it as

A.B.U. Arabic Historical Sources Series. However, a sequence of other academic activities

(editing, translating and textual analysis) on the Arabic historical materials may also be added.

Serial media means a sustained publication of the results of research findings in books or journal

forms. It shall be conducted under a supervision of senior academic workforce. Such a publication

should be supported by governments, organizations, institutions and individuals.

For its effective end-result, an editorial board constituted. The board shall serve as a technical

academic organ. It shall be responsible for initiating research themes, supervision and completion of

works. The proposed board shall not be over crowded. It shall consist of competent and committed

specialists.

Conclusion:
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History is a continuous process, culture is a dynamic social phenomenon, civilization is a

human being’s channel of development and texts and their constituent discourses are social reality

and means of mobilization and intellectual contribution. It may not be adequate enough to continue

describing both the relevance and significance of Arabic scholarship to the history of our land by

mere adjectives or attributive phrases. The discursive paradigmatic, which is established by means of

socio-political interaction with text, is the practical definition of the contribution made by Arabic

tradition to African history and cultures.

The legacy has not stopped by the period of Sokoto Jihad or by the colonial intervention in

the 19th century. It is a continuous effort in the history and development of scholarship. To this date,

scholars are still writing in Arabic language as a representative of the other side of our national and

social conscious mobilization in historical process.

Finally, the organizers of this International Conference may wish to consider the idea of

forming a committee to study the position of this paper.


18

REFERENCES:

Aliyu, Abubakar (1972), al-Thaqafah al-Arabiyyah fi Najeriya,Cairo: Matba’aty Abdul


Basit.

Basil. H. and Ian, M., (1992), Discourse and the Translator, London: Longman.

Buhairy, S.H., (2003), Madkhal ila Lughghati al-Nass, al-Qahirah: Mu’assasatu al-
Mukhtar.

__________, (2004) ‘Ilm Lughghati al-Nassi ,al-Qahirah: Mu’assasatu al-Mukhtar.


Babalola, F. O., ‘The Future of Arabic Manuscripts in Nigeria’, The Nigerian Archives,
(1993).

Galadanci, S.A.S., (1993), Cairo: al-Maktabah al-Ifriqiyyah.

Iloriyyu, A. A., (1978), al-Islam fi Najeriya, (n.p.), 2nd edition.

Nour, A.N. Hajj, ‘An Elementary Study the Fiqh of Dan Fodio’, in Usman, Y.B., ed.
(1979), Studies in the History of Sokoto Caliphate: The Sokoto Seminar Papers, Zaria:
A.B.U. Press.

Umar, M. A., (2000), The Linguistic, Political, Religious and Historical Significance of
Najm al-Ikhwan of Danfodio’ , unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.

_________ , (2002) , ‘ Pragmatic Evaluation of Arabic Literature in Nigeria: A Case


Study of Danfodiyu’s Kitab Najm’ , Maiduguri Journal of Languages and Linguistics,
Department of Languages and Linguistics, University of Maiduguri , Vol. IV , No. 1 , PP.
146 – 153.
__________, (2004), ‘Texturization Process in Arabic Disquisition’, Harshe, No. 2,
Department of Nigerian and African Languages, A.B.U., Zaria.

Umar, M.S. ( ), ‘Arabic Source Materials for the History of the Struggle for Nigeria’s
Independence: A Preliminary Inquiry’, in

Further Readings:

1Aida, A. and A. Hakima, (1965), Descriptive Catalogue of Arabic Manuscripts in


Nigeria, Amman: University Press.

1Hiskett, M., (1957), ‘Material Relating to the State of Learning among the Fulani
before their Jihad’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol.xix.

Kensdale, W.E.N., ‘Field Note on Arabic Literature of Western Sudan: Shehu


Usman Dan Fodio’, Journal of Royal Asiatic Society.
19

1Lewick, T., (1974), Arabic External Sources for the History of Africa to the South
of Sahara, Lagos, Pilgrims Books.

Steward, C. G., (1979), ‘Southern Saharan Scholarship and Bilad al-Sudan’,


Journal of African History, Vol. xvii, no.1.

Umar, M. A., (2002) , ‘Sociolinguistic Dimension of Nigerian Arabic Discourse: Analysis


of Najm al-Ikhwan’ , Maiduguri Journal of Languages and Linguistics, Department of
Languages and Linguistics, University of Maiduguri , Vol. IV , No. 2.

_________ , (2002), ‘The Linguistic and Historical Significance of al-Kanemi’s Letter to


the 19th Century Jihadists’ , in Mustafa, A. and Garba, A. , (eds.), Proceeding of the
conference of the ‘Ulam’a of Central Bilad al-Sudan, Centre for Trans Saharan Studies,
University of Maiduguri ‫ز‬

________ , (2002) , ‘Development of Arabic Manuscripts in the Centre for Trans


Saharan Studies, University of Maiduguri’, The Annals of Borno: A Journal of the
University of Maiduguri, Nigeria, Vols. 19 and 20

Umar, M. S. (2006), Islam and Colonialism: Interllectual Responses of Muslims of


Northern Nigeria to british Colonial Rule, Leiden-Boston: Brill.

Whitting, C. E. J., (1943), ‘The Unprinted Indigenous Arabic Literature of Northern


Nigeria’, Journal of African Studies, Parts One and Two.

Computer-Based Arabic Manuscript Management


C. C. Stewart; Kazumi Hatasa
History in Africa, Vol. 16. (1989), pp. 403-412.
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Mon Dec 18 13:50:43 2006
20

Preliminary Checklist
of
Uncatalogued
Islamic Manuscripts
Compiled by William M. Blair,
Mohammad H. Faghfoory,
and Karl R. Schaefer

Revised and edited by


Don C. Skemer and
James W. Weinberger

Revised by Dina Britain

Manuscripts Division
Department of Rare Books and Special Collections
Princeton University Library
2004

• Preface
• ARABIC TEXTS
o Garrett Collection
 Barudi Series
 Littmann Series
 Yahuda Series
 Yahuda Oversize
 Garrett Additional Series
o New Series
 New Series Oversize
o Third Series
• PERSIAN TEXTS
o Garrett Collection
21

Barudi Series

Garrett Series

Littmann Series

Widgery Series

Yahuda Series

 Yahuda Series Oversize
o New Series
 New Series Oversize
o Third Series
• OTTOMAN TURKISH TEXTS
o Garrett Collection
 Garrett Series
 Barudi Series
 Barudi Series Oversize
 Houtsma Series
 Littmann Series
 Yahuda Series
 Yahuda Series Oversize
 Garrett Additional Series
o New Series
o Third Series
• MISCELLANEOUS TEXTS
o Garrett Collection
 Littmann Series: Malay texts
 Widgery Series: Hindustani, Punjabi and Urdu texts
 Garrett Additional Series: Malay texts
o New Series: Various texts
• APPENDICES
o I. The Scheide Library
o II: Mrs. Dumont Clarke Collection of Islamic Calligraphy
o III: William J. Tresize Collection of Arabic Calligraphy
o IV: Third Series Recent Accessions (Arabic, Persian and Ottoman Turkish
Manuscripts acquired since 1995)

PREFACE

This preliminary checklist of mostly uncataloged Islamic manuscripts in the Department


of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Libraries, was largely
compiled by William M. Blair, Mohammad H. Faghfoory, and Karl R. Schaefer, with
assistance from Maria Dakake and ‘Abd al-Majid Hannoum. The work was completed
1993-1995 on a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Title II-C, under the
general supervision of Don C. Skemer and James W. Weinberger, who have revised and
edited the text and integrated more than two hundred and forty recent accessions from the
years 1995 to the present; with the Third Series being the one that continues to grow. This
work was further edited, revised, and enhanced in 2004 by Dina Britain. Particular
22

attention was given to the correct Romanization of the Arabic names, substituting a large
portion of the names with the authorized versions, according to LC standards, wherever
possible.

While the checklist represents the work of a team, the project catalogers specialized to
some extent: Blair (Ottoman Turkish), Schaefer (Arabic), and Faghfoory (Persian). The
project focused on manuscripts that had not been described in four printed catalogs
covering about 9,500 texts found in some 11,000 volumes of Islamic manuscripts in the
Princeton University Library: (1) Philip K, Hitti, Nabih Amin Faris, and Butrus ‘Abd al-
Malik, Descriptive Catalog of the Garrett Collection of Arabic Manuscripts in the
Princeton University Library, Princeton Oriental Texts, vol. 5 (Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1938; (2) Mohammed E. Moghadam and Yahya Armajani, under the
supervision of Philip K. Hitti, Descriptive Catalog of the Garrett Collection of Persian,
Turkish and Indic Manuscripts Including Some Miniatures, Princeton Oriental Texts, vol.
6 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1939); (3) Rudolf Mach, Catalogue of Arabic
Manuscripts (Yahuda Section) in the Garrett Collection, Princeton University Library,
Princeton Studies on the Near East (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977); and (4)
Rudolf Mach and Eric L. Ormsby, Handlist of Arabic Manuscripts (New Series) in the
Princeton University Library, Princeton Studies on the Near East (Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1987). These four printed catalogs superseded earlier catalogs compiled
by Enno Littmann (1904), Nicholas N. Martinovich (1926), and Ernest Cushing
Richardson and Nabi Amin Faris (1934). Other Islamica at Princeton not described either
in the published catalogs or in this preliminary checklist include Arabic papyri in the
Manuscripts Division, early Arabic and Turkish printed books in the department's Rare
Books Division, and Persian miniatures in the Princeton University Art Museum. For
descriptions and selected digital images of Arabic papyri at Princeton, go to the Princeton
University Library Papyrus Home Page. Early printed Islamica in the Rare Books
Division may be searched online in the Princeton University Library Main Catalogue.
For digital images of 277 Persian miniatures in five illustrated Shahnamah manuscripts,
dating from 1544 to 1674, in the Manuscripts Division, go to “The Princeton Shahnama
Project” at
< http://www.princeton.edu/~shahnama/>. The manuscripts include Garrett Islamic MSS.
56G, 57G, 58G, and 59G, which were the gift of Robert Garrett, Class of 1897; and the
“Peck Shahnamah” (Islamic Manuscripts, Third Series, no. 310), which was bequeathed
to Princeton in 1983 by Clara S. Peck, the sister of Fremont C. Peck, Class of 1920.

The entries in this preliminary checklist are arranged by language and series in shelf
number order. Each entry includes brief bibliographic descriptions giving (whenever
available) author, title or uniform title, date of copy, folios, and shelf number. Appendices
list Islamic manuscripts in The Scheide Library, the Mrs. Dumont Clarke Collection of
Islamic Calligraphy, the Willima J. Tresize Collection of Arabic Calligraphy, and Third
Series Recent Accessions of Arabic, Persian, and Ottoman Turkish manuscripts acquired
since 1995. The cataloging policy of the project was to follow Library of Congress
transliteration rules. The 650 or so entries (chiefly Third Series) which have been fully
cataloged in the Voyager database uniformly follow NACO standards for name authority,
and most represent the authorized version of the name. There may be some discrepancies
23

between the authorized version in the Name Authority File and the version in the
manuscript itself.

This handlist represents the contributions of several different persons; thus


inconsistencies and mistakes may occur. It is important to emphasize that the preliminary
checklist is not a complete catalog like Princeton's published catalogs of 1939-1987,
which are organized by subject and provide bibliographic and physical descriptions.
When requesting items listed in this checklist, readers should cite the shelf number,
including the capital letter which appears at the end of the number. In the case of
OVERSIZE items, the lower case "q" should be included on the call slip, since this is part
of the shelving code.

[last updated November 11, 2004]

Top
24

The Department of Rare Books


and Special Collections has a wide
variety of online reference tools
that describe its holdings in varying
degrees of detail. While these tools
take different forms, ranging from
descriptive guides to collection-
and item-level bibliographic
records, their purpose is to describe
and, in some cases, digitally
reproduce the material in our
collections.

Links to the Department's major


reference tools appear on this page,
but they and many others have also
been broadly organized according
to the type of material they
describe, namely, Rare Books;
Manuscripts and Archives; Graphic
Arts; and Western Americana. All
are designed to be self-explanetory,
but researchers should not hesitate
to contact reference staff with
questions.

Tips on using these tools


effectively can be found in the
Department's Research Tutorial.
Researchers should also bear in
mind that not all of our holdings
are described in an online form and
that printed catalogs or inventories
may represent the only source of
information that is available.
25

© 2001 Princeton University Library


One Washington Road
Princeton, New Jersey 08544 USA
Department of Rare Books and Special
Collections
Email: rbsc@princeton.edu
Tel: (609) 258-3184
Fax: (609) 258-2324

Copyright infringement reports

http:// www.princeton.edu
/~rbsc/databases/index.shtml
Last modified Wednesday, 31-Jan-2007 22:45:38 EST

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Copyright: Arab News © 2003 All rights reserved. Site designed by: arabix and powered by Eima IT

Princeton has the largest collection of Islamic manuscripts in North America and one
of the finest such collections in the Western world. The Princeton University Library holds
some 11,000 volumes of Arabic, Persian, and Ottoman Turkish manuscripts. While the
world of Islamic learning is the chief emphasis, there are also illuminated Qur’ans, Persian
illustrated manuscripts and miniatures, and other examples of Islamic book arts. Among
the most famous examples of Persian painting are the 16th-century Peck Shahnamah and
Muin Musavvir's 1673 portrait of the Safavid-era painter Riza ‘Abbasi.

For published descriptions of manuscripts, see (1) Philip K. Hitti, Nabih Amin Faris, and
Butrus ‘Abd al-Malik, Descriptive Catalog of the Garrett Collection of Arabic Manuscripts
in the Princeton University Library, Princeton Oriental Texts, vol. 5 (Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1938); (2) Mohammed E. Moghadam and Yahya Armajani, under the
supervision of Philip K. Hitti, Descriptive Catalog of the Garrett Collection of Persian,
Turkish and Indic Manuscripts Including Some Miniatures, Princeton Oriental Texts, vol.
6 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1939); (3) Rudolf Mach, Catalogue of Arabic
Manuscripts (Yahuda Section) in the Garrett Collection , Princeton University Library,
Princeton Studies on the Near East (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977); and (4)
Rudolf Mach and Eric L. Ormsby, Handlist of Arabic Manuscripts (New Series) in the
Princeton University Library, Princeton Studies on the Near East (Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1987). These four printed catalogs and the unpublished checklist
supersede earlier printed catalogues or descriptions by Enno Littmann (1904), Nicholas N.
Martinovich (1926), and Ernest Cushing Richardson and Nabih Amin Faris (1934).

Thousands of additional Islamic manuscripts (including most of Princeton’s approximately


2,000 Persian and 900 Ottoman Turkish manuscripts) are described in the Preliminary
Checklist of Uncataloged Islamic Manuscripts in the Department of Rare Books and Special
Collections, Princeton University Library (2004). For a checklist of a recently acquired
collection on Arabic calligraphy, go to William J. Trezise Collection of Arabic Calligraphy.
For descriptions and selected digital images of Arabic papyri at Princeton, go to the
Princeton University Library Papyrus Home Page. Early printed Islamica in the Rare Books
Division may be searched online in the Princeton University Library Main Catalogue.
For digital images of 277 Persian miniatures in five illustrated Shahnamah manuscripts,
dating from 1544 to 1674, in the Manuscripts Division, go to “The Princeton Shahnama
Project” at
< http://www.princeton.edu/~shahnama/>The manuscripts include Garrett Islamic MSS.
56G, 57G, 58G, and 59G, which were the gift of Robert Garrett, Class of 1897; and the “Peck
Shahnamah” (Islamic Manuscripts, Third Series, no. 310), which was bequeathed to
28

Princeton in 1983 by Clara S. Peck, the sister of Fremont C. Peck, Class of 1920.

© 2001 Princeton University Library


One Washington Road
Princeton, New Jersey 08544 USA
Department of Rare Books and Special
Collections
Email: rbsc@princeton.edu
Tel: (609) 258-3184
Fax: (609) 258-2324

Copyright infringement reports


29

Resources on Arabic Manuscripts


At UNC and Duke libraries
Comprehensive Reference Works on Arabic
Manuscripts
Brockelmann, Carl. Geschichte der arabischen litteratur. 2 vols.
plus 3 suppl. vols., Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1943-. UNC Davis:
PJ7510 .B7 1943
Kâtip Çelebi. Lexicon bibliographicum et encyclopaedicum ... ad
codicum Vindobonensium Parisiensium et Berolinensis
fidem primum edidit Latine vertit et commentario
indicibusque instruxit Gustavus Fluegel. .... Arabic text
with Latin trans. by Gustav Lebrecht Fluegel. 7 vols.,
Leipzig: Published for the Oriental Translation Fund of
Great Britain and Ireland, 1835-1858. Duke Perkins ---
Quarto z892.7 K19L.
Sezgin, Fuat. Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums. 12 vol.s,
Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1967-. UNC Davis: Z7052 .S44. Duke
Perkins Library | International & Area Studies Reading
Room | z492.7 S522G. Volumes organized by subject,
covering Arabic literature up to about 950 CE.

Arabic Manuscript Catalogs in UNC Libraries


Abu Raihon Berunii nomidagi Sharqshunoslik instituti. Kratkii
katalog sufiiskikh proizvedenii XVIII- XX vv. iz sobraniia
Instituta vostokovedeniia Akademii nauk Respubliki
Uzbekistan im. al-Biruni / [sostaviteli S. Gulomov ... et al.
; redaktsionnaia kollegiia B. Babadzhanov, A. Kremer, IU.
Paul']. Berlin : Das Arabische Buch, 2000. Davis Folio:
BP189.2 .A28 2000. Handlist of Sufi manuscripts (18th-
20th centuries) in the holdings of the Oriental Institute,
Academy of Sciences, Republic of Uzbekistan (Biruni).
Aro, Jussi. Die arabischen, persischen und türkischen
Handschriften der Universitätsbibliothek zu Helsinki.
Helsinki: [s.n.], 1958. Davis: PJ9 .S86 v. 23 no. 4
Atiya, Aziz Suryal, 1898- The Arabic manuscripts of Mount Sinai;
a hand-list of the Arabic manuscripts and scrolls
microfilmed at the library of the Monastery of St.
Catherine, Mount Sinai. Foreword by Wendell Phillips.
30

Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press [1955]. Davis Reference:


Z6621.S45 A8
Biblioteca apostolica vaticana. Elenco dei manoscritti arabi
islamici della Biblioteca vaticana: vaticani, barberiniani,
borgiani, rossiani. Città del Vaticano: Biblioteca apostolica
vaticana, 1935. Davis: AS222 .V3 t. 67
Biblioteca apostolica vaticana. Secondo elenco dei manoscritti
arabi islamici della Biblioteca vaticana / [di] Giorgio Levi
della Vida. Città del Vaticano: Biblioteca Apostolica
Vaticana, 1965. Davis: AS222 .V3 t. 242
Bibliothèque nationale (France). Département des manuscrits.
Catalogue des manuscrits arabes par m. le baron de Slane:
Paris Imprimerie nationale 1883-1895. Davis: Storage
(F)--Use Request Form: 016.091 P232c
British Library. Oriental and India Office Collections. A classified
handlist of Arabic manuscripts acquired since 1912 / edited
by R. Vassie. London: British Library, 1995-. Davis
Reference: Z6621.B86 A6 1995
Choix de livres qui se trouvaient dans les bibliothèques d'Alep
(au XIIIe siècle) [Le Caire, 1946] Davis: DT43 .I625 t. 49
Danishgah-i Tihran. Kitabkhanah-'i Markazi va Markaz-i Asnad.
Fihrist-i Kitabkhanah-'i ihda'i-i Aqa-yi Sayyid Muhammad
Mishkat bih Kitabkhanah-'i Danishgah-i Tihran. [Tehran]:
Chapkhanah-i Danishgah, 1330- [1951 or 1952-. Davis:
Z6621 .T3
Dietrich, Albert, 1912- Medicinalia Arabica. Studien über
arabische medizinische Handschriften in türkischen und
syrischen Bibliotheken. Göttingen, Vandenhoeck u.
Ruprecht, 1966. Davis: AS182 .G812 Folge 3 Nr. 66
Escorial. Real Biblioteca. Bibliotheca arabico-hispaña
escurialensis; sive, librorum omnium mss. quos arabicè ab
auctoribus magnam partem arabo-hispanis compositos
bibliotheca coenobii escurialensis complectitur, recensio et
explanatio, operâ & studio Michaelis Casiri ... Matriti,
Antonius Perez de Soto, 1760-70. Wilson RBC Folio:
Z6621.E75 A6
Farmer, Henry George, 1882- The Arabic musical manuscripts in
the Bodleian library; a descriptive catalogue with
illustrations of musical instruments. By Henry George
Farmer. London, W. Reeves, 1925. Davis: Storage--Use
Request Form: 016.78 F23a
Farmer, Henry George, 1882- The sources of Arabian music: an
annotated bibliography of Arabic manuscripts which deal
with the theory, practice, and history of Arabian music. By
31

Henry George Farmer. With five plates. Bearsden, Scotland,


Issued privately by the author, 1940. Davis: Storage--Use
Request Form: 016.78 F23s
Garrett, Robert, b. 1875. Descriptive catalog of the Garrett
collection of Arabic manuscripts in the Princeton University
library, by Philip K. Hitti, Nabih Amin Faris [and] Butrus
`Abd-al-Malik. Princeton, Princeton University Press;
London, H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1938. Davis:
PJ25 .P7 vol. 5
Graf, Georg. Catalogue de manuscrits arabes chrétiens
conservés au Caire / par Georg Graf ... Città del Vaticano:
Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 1934. Davis: AS222 .V3 t.
63
Great Britain. India Office. Library. A catalogue of the Arabic
manuscripts in the Library of the India Office, by Otto Loth
[et al] London, 1877-1940. Davis Reference: Z6621.G78
A7
Great Britain. India Office. Library. Catalogue of two collections
of Persian and Arabic manuscripts preserved in the India
office library; by E. Denison Ross, and Edward G. Browne.
London, Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1902. Davis: Z6621.G78
P41
Krek, Miroslav. A catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the Oriental
Institute of Chicago. New Haven, American Oriental
Society, 1961. Davis: Z6605.A6 K7
Rijksuniversiteit te Leiden. Bibliotheek. Catalogus codicum
arabicorum bibliothecae academiae Lugduno-Batavae /
auctoribus M. J. De Goeje et M. Th. Houtsma. Lugdun:
Batavorum: Brill, 1888-1907. Davis Reference: Z6621 .L66
Tashkandy, Abbas Saleh. A descriptive catalogue of the historical
collection of the scientific manuscripts at the library of
`Arif Hikmat in Medina, Saudi Arabia [microfilm]. 1974.
Davis: Storage(MFM)--Use Request Form Microfilm: 45-
444
Uppsala universitetsbibliotek. Die arabischen, persischen und
türkischen Handschriften der Universitätsbibliothek zu
Uppsala, verzeichnet und beschrieben von K. V.
Zetterstéen. Uppsala [Almgvist & Wiksells] 1930- Davis:
Z6621 .U690
Vajda, Georges. Index général des manuscrits arabes
musulmans de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris. Paris:
Éditions du Centre national de la recherche scientifique,
1953. Davis Reference: Z6621.P22 A7
32

Wellcome Historical Medical Library. A catalogue of Arabic


manuscripts on medicine and science in the Wellcome
Historical Medical Library, by A.Z. Iskandar. London,
Wellcome Historical Medical Library, 1967. Davis:
Z6621.L8466 A7
Yale University. Library. Arabic manuscripts in the Yale University
Library, compiled by Leon Nemoy. New Haven, 1956.
Davis: Q11 .C9 v. 40 p. [1]-273

Arabic Manuscript Catalogs in Duke Libraries


Arberry, A. J. (Arthur John), 1905-1969. The Chester Beatty
Library. A handlist of the Arabic manuscripts. Dublin, E.
Walker (Ireland), 1955-. Perkins Library | Stacks (III) |
q091 B369C
Atiya, Aziz Suryal, 1898- The Arabic manuscripts of Mount Sinai;
a hand-list of the Arabic manuscripts and scrolls
microfilmed at the library of the Monastery of St.
Catherine, Mount Sinai. Foreword by Wendell Phillips.
Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press [1955]. Divinity School
Library | Stacks Quarto | z091 A872A
Bauwens, Jan. Maktub bilyad. Manuscrits arabes a la Bibliothque
Albert Ier (Exposition. Bibliotheque Albert Ier, Bruxelles, 21
december 1968 au 26 janvier 1969). Bruxelles,
[Bibliotheque royale de Belgique], (1968). Perkins Library |
Stacks | z091 B352M
Biblioteca apostolica vaticana. Elenco dei manoscritti arabi
islamici della Biblioteca vaticana: vaticani, barberiniani,
borgiani, rossiani. Citta del Vaticano, Biblioteca apostolica
vaticana, 1935. Divinity School Library | Stacks | 270.08
V345S, v. 67, 242
Bibliotheque nationale (France). Departement des manuscrits.
Catalogue des manuscrits arabes par m. le baron de Slane
... Paris Imprimerie nationale 1883-1895. Library Service
Center | z091 P232CT LSC
Bonelli, Luigi. Catalogo dei codici arabi, persiani e turchi della
Biblioteca casanatense. Firenze: Stabilamento Tipografico
Fiorentino, 1892. Perkins Library | Stacks | z091 R762CT
British Library. Oriental and India Office Collections. A classified
handlist of Arabic manuscripts acquired since 1912. Edited
by R. Vassie. London: British Library, 1995-. Library
Service Center | 016.091 B862, C614, 1995 LSC
British Museum. Dept. of Oriental Printed Books and
Manuscripts. Catalogus codicum manuscriptorum
33

orientalium qui in Museo britannico asservantur. Londini,


impensis Curatorum Musei britannici, 1838-52. Perkins
Library | Stacks Oversize | z091 B862CO
Cambridge University Library. A hand-list of the Muammadan
manuscripts, including all those written in the Arabic
character, preserved in the library of the University of
Cambridge, by Edward G. Browne. Cambridge, University
Press, 1900. Divinity School Library | Reference | z091
C178H
Cortese, Delia. Arabic Ismaili manuscripts: the Zahid Ali
Collection in the library of the Institute of Ismaili Studies.
London; New York: I.B. Tauris in association with the
Institute of Ismaili Studies, 2003. Perkins Library | Stacks
| Z6621.I634 Z34 2003
Cortese, Delia. Ismaili and other Arabic manuscripts: a
descriptive catalogue of manuscripts in the Library of the
Institute of Ismaili Studies. London; New York: I.B. Tauris,
in association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies; New
York: distributed in the U.S. and Canada by St. Martin's
Press, 2000. Perkins Library | Stacks | 011.31 C828, I83,
2000
Farmer, Henry George, 1882- The sources of Arabian music: an
annotated bibliography of Arabic manuscripts which deal
with the theory, practice, and history of Arabian music.
With five plates. Bearsden, Scotland, Issued privately by
the author, 1940. Music Library | Reference | 016.7817
F233S
Fondazione Caetani. I manoscritti arabi di recente accessione
della Fondazione Caetani, Catalogo di Renato Traini. Roma,
Accademia dei Lincei, 1967. Perkins Library | Stacks |
065.6 R763I, no. 6
Graf, Georg. Catalogue de manuscrits arabes chretiens
conserves au Caire. Citta del Vaticano, Biblioteca
apostolica vaticana, 1934. Divinity School Library | Stacks
| 270.08 V345S, v. 63
Great Britain. India Office. Library. A catalogue of the Arabic
manuscripts in the Library of the India Office, by Otto Loth
[et al] London, 1877-1940. Perkins Library | Stacks | z091
G786C
Gujarata Vidyasabha. Descriptive catalogue of Arabic and
Persian manuscripts: Gujarat Vidya Sabha Collection.
Compiled and edited by Chhotubhai Ranchhodji Naik.
Ahmedabad, Vidya Sabha [1964]. Perkins Library | Stacks
| z091 G969DE
34

Kaiserliche Universitats- und Landesbibliothek in Strassburg.


Katalog der hebraischen, arabischen, persischen und
turkischen handschriften der Kaiserlichen universitats-und
landesbibliothek zu Strassburg, bearb. von dr. S. Landauer
... Strassburg, K.J. Trubner, 1881. Divinity School Library |
Stacks Quarto | 378.43 S897L
Krek, Miroslav. A catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the Oriental
Institute of Chicago. New Haven, American Oriental
Society, 1961. Library Service Center | z091 K92C LSC
Kunnah, Abbas Abd Allah. Fihris al-makhtutat al-musawwarah:
al-hadith wa-`ulumuh. al-Qahirah: al-Munaamah al-
Arabiyah lil-Tarbiyah wa-al-Thaqafah wa-al-Ulum, Mahad
al-Makhuat al-Arabiyah, [1997-] Catalog of microfilmed
MSS on hadith. Divinity School Library | Stacks |
016.297124 K96, F477, 1997
Mulla Firuz Library. Catalogue raisonne of the Arabic, Hindostani,
Persian, and Turkish mss. in the Mulla Firuz Library.
Compiled by Edward Rehatsek. [Bombay] Managing
committee of the Mulla Firuz library, 1873. Library Service
Center | 091.0954 M958, C357, 1873 LSC
O'Connor, V. C. Scott. An eastern library: an introduction to the
Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library. Patna: The Library,
1977. Perkins Library | Stacks | 027.45412 O18, E13,
1977
Ozen, Mine Esiner. Dr. Emel Esin Kutuphanesi katalogu: yazma
eserler. Istanbul TEK-ESIN Turk Kulturunu Arastirma ve
Gelistirme Vakfi, 1995. Library Service Center | 011.31
E75, O99, 1995 LSC
Princeton University. Descriptive catalog of the Garrett collection
of Arabic manuscripts in the Princeton Universty library, by
Philip K. Hitti, Nabih Amin Faris [and] Burus Abd-al-Malik.
Princeton, Princeton University Press; London, H. Milford,
Oxford University Press, 1938. Perkins Library | Stacks |
016.091 G239H
Rampur Raza Laibreri. Catalogue of the Arabic manuscripts in
Raza Library, Rampur. Prepared by Imtiyaz Ali Arsi,
librarian. Rampur, U. P., Raza Library Trust, 1963-1977.
Perkins Library | Stacks | z091 R278C
Saint Catherine (Monastery: Mount Sinai). Catalogue of the
Arabic mss. in the Convent of S. Catharine on Mount Sinai;
comp. by Margaret Dunlop Gibson. London, C.J. Clay and
sons, 1894. Divinity School Library | Stacks | z091 S615C
Shiloah, Amnon. The theory of music in Arabic writings (c. 900-
1900): descriptive catalogue of manuscripts in libraries of
35

Egypt, Israel, Morocco, Russia, Tunisia, Uzbekistan, and


supplement to B X. Munchen: G. Henle Verlag, c2003.
Music Library | Reference | 781.97 I61, B10, v. 1
Sotheby's (Firm). Islamic and Indian art, Oriental manuscripts
and miniatures: London, Thursday 10th and Friday 11th
October 1991. London: Sotheby's, [1991]. Library Service
Center | 700.954 S717, I82, 1991 LSC
Univerzitna kniznica v Bratislave. Arabische, turkische und
persische Handschriften der Universitatsbibliothek in
Bratislava. Unter der Redaktion Jozef Blaskovics
bearbeiteten: die arabischen Handschriften, Karel
Petracek; die turkischen Handschriften, Jozef Blaskovic;
die persischen Handschriften, Rudolf Vesely. [Hrsg. von der
Universitatsbibliothek Bratislava. Bratislava, Verlag der
Slowakischen Akademie der Wissenschaften] 1961 [i.e.
1962]. Perkins Library | Stacks | z091 B824A
Uppsala universitetsbibliotek. Die arabischen, persischen und
turkischen Handschriften der Universitatsbibliothek zu
Uppsala, verzeichnet und beschrieben von K. V.
Zettersteen. Uppsala [Almgvist & Wiksells] 1930-. Library
Service Center | z091 U68A LSC
Vajda, Georges. Index general des manuscrits arabes
musulmans de la Bibliotheque nationale de Paris. Paris:
Editions du Centre national de la recherche scientifique,
1953. Divinity School Library | Reference | z091 V133I
Zanetti, Ugo. Les manuscrits de Dair Abu Maqar: inventaire.
Geneve: P. Cramer, 1986. Divinity School Library | Stacks
Quarto | 015.3203 Z28 M294 1986

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The Catalogue of Arab


39

the National Library o


Republic on CD-ROM
The collection of Arabic manuscripts in the Na
contains 200 items. It is a component part of la
especially Persian, Turkish, and Indian. The wh
volumes of which Indian manuscripts mainly o
library possessed a small number of Oriental m
from the documents from the period, when the
Safarik. Large acquisitions of Oriental manusc
this time also their first - rather imperfect - list
processing is taking place only towards the end
various branches of human activity as, for exam
law, astronomy, medicine, science of nature, or
their acquisition has not been preserved. This s
published.

It is appearing in these days thanks to the spon


banka as a joint publication effort of the bank w
Library, Albertina icome Praha Ltd., and the D

The CD-ROM catalogue has also been granted

There is a small gallery of samples.

However, if interested in the list of 200 manusc


of the catalogue, in which higher quality image
thanks to our colleagues from the IKAROS e-j

5 March 1999 by Adolf Knoll

Home > Tanzania - Collection of Arabic Manuscripts and Books


40

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Collection of Arabic m
Manuscripts and Books in
Nomination at
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Regional Projects F
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of the World Prize m
Programme
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Home > History Home > Historical Collections > Archives and Manuscripts

Archives and Manuscripts


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• What are archives?


• What are manuscripts?
45

NLM historical collections house a large collection of archives and


manuscripts related the history of medicine. Most of the archival and
manuscript material dates from the 17th century; however, the Library
owns about 200 pre-1601 Western and Islamic manuscripts. The
oldest item in the Library is an Arabic manuscript on gastrointestinal
diseases from al-Razi's The Comprehensive Book on Medicine (Kitab
al-Hawi fi al-tibb) dated 1094. Significant modern collections include
the papers of U.S. Surgeons General, including C. Everett Koop, and
the papers of Nobel Prize-winning scientists, particularly those
connected with NIH.

• Archives and Modern Manuscripts Program (17th century-


present)
o Manuscript Collections Sorted by Type
o Alphabetic List of Finding Aids

• Islamic Manuscripts (11th-19th century)


o Includes about 300 Persian, Arabic, and Turkish
manuscripts, dating from 1094.
o Search Islamic manuscripts in LocatorPlus.
o Islamic Medical Manuscripts at the National Library of
Medicine
o Islamic Culture and the Medical Arts
o A Shelflist of Islamic Medical Manuscripts at the NLM (pdf)

• Western Manuscripts (13th-17th century)


o Search Western manuscripts in LocatorPlus (all titles not
yet cataloged)
o Early Western Manuscripts in the NLM: A Short-Title List
o Medieval Manuscripts in the National Library of Medicine

• Digital Manuscripts Program (20th century)


o Includes digitized manuscripts of innovators in science,
medicine, and public health (Profiles in Science)

• What are archives?


Archives are organized collections of records pertaining to an
organization or institution.

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• What are manuscripts?


46

Manuscripts are unpublished hand- or typewritten material.


Manuscripts can be unpublished books, letters, articles, documents,
or other compositions. Modern manuscripts are usually defined as
manuscripts written after 1600.

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• Related Pages
o Profiles in Science
o Using the Collections

• Especially for
o First Time Visitors
o Scholars & Historians
o Image & Film Researchers
o Teachers & Students

Last reviewed: 10 January 2007


Last updated: 10 January 2007
First published: 22 April 2004
Metadata| Permanence level: Permanent: Dynamic Content
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