1 Introduction to ANSYS

Launch ANSYS from Windows: Start > All Programs > ANSYS9.0 > ANSYS GUI Layout in Ansys
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Mouse Left mouse button picks (or unpicks) the entity or location closest to the mouse pointer. Pressing and dragging allows you to “preview” the item being picked (or unpicked). Middle mouse button does an Apply. Saves the time required to move the mouse over to the Picker and press the Apply button. Use Shift-Right button on a two-button mouse. Right mouse button toggles between pick and unpick mode. Note, the Shift-Right button on a twobutton mouse is equivalent to the Middle mouse button on a three-button mouse. ANSYS On-line Tutorial: Utility Menu > Help > ANSYS Tutorials ANSYS provides an HTML-based on-line tutorial, which consists of detailed instructions for a set of problems solved in ANSYS. At this stage, it is required to go through, step-by-step, Chapters 1 and 2 in ANSYS Tutorials manual (The final model will be checked on this Friday). Database and Files: The term ANSYS database refers to the data ANSYS maintains in memory as you build, solve, and postprocess your model. The database stores both your input data and ANSYS results data: –Input data -- information you must enter, such as dimensions, material properties, and load data. –Results data -- quantities that ANSYS calculates, such as displacements, stresses and temperature. Defining the Jobname: Utility Menu > File> Change Jobname The jobname is a name up to 32 characters that identifies the ANSYS job. When you define a jobname for an analysis, the jobname becomes the first part of the name of all files the analysis creates. (The extension or suffix for these files' names is a file identifier such as .DB.) By using a jobname for each analysis, you ensure that no files are overwritten. Typical files in Ansysjobname.db, .dbb: Database file, binary. Compatible across all supported platforms. 1

s02. .rth. Tips on SAVE and RESUME: • Periodically save the database as you progress through an analysis. results files (. it is good practice to save it to disk frequently so that you can restore the information in the event of a computer crash or power failure. . …). jobname.db • Utility Menu > File > Save as… To restore the database from the db file back into memory.s01. .) Defining an Analysis Title: Utility Menu> File> Change Title This will define a title for the analysis.log: Log file. if any (.db already exists. load step files.err: Error file. • Use different jobnames to differentiate various analysis runs.rmg.jobname. . File Management Tips: • Run each analysis project in a separate working directory. If you save to the default file name and a jobname. The SAVE operation copies the database from memory to a file called the database file (or db file for short). ASCII.rst. Contains results data calculated by ANSYS during solution.db. jobname. binary.log).rfl: Results files. . either: Toolbar > QUIT or Utility Menu > File > Exit 2 . • SAVE is also recommended before doing a solver.. – Choosing the “Save as” or “Resume from” function does NOT change the current jobname.. but you can choose a different name by using the “Save as” or “Resume from” functions. Contains a log of every command issued during the session. use the RESUME operation.rth. ANSYS includes the title on all graphics displays and on the solution output. • RESUME can then be used as an “undo” if you don’t like the results of that operation. .dbb as a back-up. –Toolbar > RESUME_DB –or use: • Utility Menu>File>Resume Jobname. database file ( . Exiting ANSYS Two ways to exit ANSYS. • You should keep the following files after any ANSYS analysis: log file ( . ANSYS will append to the previous log file (with a time stamp). ASCII. • You should definitely SAVE the database before attempting an unfamiliar operation (such as a Boolean or meshing) or an operation that may cause major changes (such as a delete).rst. ANSYS will first copy the “old” file to jobname. –The easiest way to do a save is to click on: Toolbar > SAVE_DB –Or use: • Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname. Contains all errors and warnings encountered during the session. ANSYS does NOT do automatic saves.Compatible across all supported platforms. ANSYS will also append to an existing error file.db). If you start a second session with the same jobname in the same working directory. (Please include your name and student ID in the analysis title for all original graphs) Save and ResumeSince the database is stored in the computer’s memory (RAM).db • Utility Menu > File > Resume from… The default file name for SAVE and RESUME is jobname.

the WP origin coincides with the global origin. ANSYS contains the following 2D and 3D primitives: Rectangle Circle Polygon Block Cylinder Prism Sphere Cone Torus Work Plane (WP) Primitives are located and oriented with the help of the working plane. such as a shell or 2-D plane model. –Volumes are bounded by areas. but you can move it and/or rotate it to any desired position by using following options: Utility Menu> WorkPlane> Offset WP by increment > Utility Menu> WorkPlane> Offset WP to > Utility Menu> WorkPlane> Align WP with> XYZ Locations > 3 .2 Solid Modelling Solid Modeling Be defined as the process of creating solid models in CAD system. areas. from which you “build up” lines. which are basic entities for the top-down method. etc. –Hierarchy of entities from low to high as keypoints < lines < areas < volumes –You cannot delete an entity if a higher-order entity is attached to it. areas by lines. and keypoints. which are then combined in some fashion to create the final shape. Top-down and Bottom-up • Top-down modeling starts with a definition of volumes (or areas). add Input entities Boolean operation Output entity(ies) • Bottom-up modeling starts with keypoints. Primitives The volumes or areas that you initially define are called primitives. a model with just areas and below. and lines by keypoints. The “WP” in the prompts stands for Working Plane — a movable reference plane used to locate and orient primitives. Areas Lines Keypoints Methods of Solid Modeling There are two approaches to creating a solid model in ANSYS. Volumes Definitions –A solid model is defined by volumes. Also. is still considered a solid model in ANSYS terminology. By default. areas. lines.

intersect. A2 A1 A3 A2 Glue Overlap: Same as glue. The “cutting tool” may be the working plane. e. A1 A2 A3 Add Glue: Attaches two or more entities by creating a common boundary between them. glue. except that the input entities overlap each other. However.Boolean Operations The final shape of an object is usually not as simple as primitives. Useful for “slicing and dicing” a complicated volume into simpler volumes for brick meshing. subtract. •All Boolean operations are available in the GUI: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Modeling > Operate > Booleans By default. The “input” to Boolean operations can be any geometric entity. input entities of a Boolean operation are deleted after the operation. an area. as shown. ranging from simple primitives to complicated volumes generated in previous steps. which is useful when you want to maintain the distinction between entities (such as for different materials). or even a volume. a line. which can be useful for creating holes or trimming off portions of an entity. divide. (An intersection operation would return the common keypoint and delete both lines.) L2 L1 Intersect L6 L3 L5 L4 4 . A3 A1 Divide A2 Partition: Cuts two or more intersecting entities into multiple pieces that are still connected to each other by common boundaries. A2 A1 A3 A4 Overlap A5 Subtract: Removes the overlapping portion of one or more entities from a set of “base” entities. to find the intersection point of two lines and still retain all four line segments. Add: Combines two or more entities into one. A2 A1 Subtract A3 Divide: Cuts an entity into two or more pieces that are still connected to each other by common boundaries. A2 A3 Intersect A4 Common Intersection A1 Intersect: Keeps only the overlapping portion of two or more entities.g.. Boolean operations are computations involving combinations of geometric entities. ANSYS Boolean operations include add. it is likely doable to combine a number of primitives through a series of proper Boolean operations. and overlap.

to create the FEA model. etc.3. large dof. has one dof: TEMP. tetrahedron. you need nodes and elements for the finite element solution. • Element shape -. triangle. or 3-D solid. Finite Element Discretisation Finite Element Discretization Finite Element Discretization or Meshing is the process used to “fill” the solid model with nodes and elements. –The mesh does not follow any pattern. UY. –Suitable for complex shaped areas and volumes. Default sizing 5 .2-D solid (X-Y plane only). The Solid Model in CAD does NOT participate in the finite element solution.linear vs. on a global and local level: –Global controls: SmartSizing. ROTX. Remember. for example. • Assumed displacement shape -. Meshing Solid Model FE Model Element Type The element type is an important choice that determines the following element characteristics: • Degree of Freedom (DOF) set. –Volume meshes consist of high order tetrahedral (10 nodes). whereas a structural element type may have up to six dof: UX. i. –Suitable for complex shaped areas and volumes. quadrilateral. To define an element: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete>Add Meshing MethodsThere are two main meshing methods: free and mapped. Mapped Mesh–Restricts element shapes to quadrilaterals (areas) and hexahedra (volume) –Typically has a regular pattern with obvious rows of elements. Free Mesh–Has no element shape restrictions. not just the solid model. –Suitable only for “regular” shapes such as rectangles and bricks. UZ. Global element sizing. quadratic.e. ROTZ. Free meshing Mapped meshing Mesh Density Control ANSYS provides many tools to control mesh density. ROTY. A thermal element type.brick. • Dimensionality -.

and click [Set] or Main Menu>Preprocessor>Meshing>Size Cntrls>ManualSize>Global >Size Material Properties Every analysis requires some material property input: Young’s modulus (EX).–Local controls: Keypoint sizing. Size level ranges from 1 (fine) to 10 (coarse). thermal conductivity (KXX) for thermal elements. etc. and set the desired size level. are available by Main Menu>Preprocessor>Meshing>Size Cntrls>SmartSize>Adv Opts Global Element Sizing: Allows you to specify a maximum element edge length for the entire model (or number of divisions per line): Go to “Size Controls”. • Preprocessing: defining the problem. rather than one-byone. the major steps in preprocessing are given below: Define keypoints/lines/areas/volumes (Solid Modeling) Define element type and material/geometric properties Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required • Solution: assigning loads. Area sizing To bring up the MeshTool: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > MeshTool SmartSizing: by turning on SmartSizing. 6 . Poisson’s ratio (PRXY) for structural elements. “Global” . To define the material properties: Main Menu>Preprocessor>Material Props>Material Models More than one set of material properties can be defined when needed. constraints and solving. Then mesh all volumes (or all areas) at once. such as mesh expansion and transition factors. System of Units The ANSYS program does not assume a system of units for your analysis (except in magnetic field analyses). Time s Density Kg/m3 Length m Conductivity J/(s⋅m⋅K) Mass kg Specific Heat J/(Kg⋅K) Force N Flux J/(s⋅m2) Temperature K Convection J/(s⋅m2⋅K) Energy J Modulus/stress Pa ANSYS FEA Procedure In general. defaults to 6. a finite element solution may be broken into the following three stages. Apply the loads (point or pressure).Advanced SmartSize controls. You can use any system of units so long as you make sure that you use that system for all the data you enter (Units must be consistent for all input data). It is suggested to use SI system whenever possible to avoid confusion. Line sizing.

Lists of nodal displacements and show the deformation Element forces and moments Stress/strain contour diagrams ANSYS Tutorials Help>Ansys Tutorials>Next • Chapter 2: "Structural Tutorial" • Chapter 3: "Thermal Tutorial" • Chapter 4: "Electromagnetics Tutorial" • Chapter 8: "Contact Tutorial" 7 . Postprocessing: further processing and viewing of the results.• Specify constraints (translational and rotational) Finally solve the problem.

055.(0.002 + substrate 0.. R2=0.11 (in meter)>OK Main Menu> Preprocessor>Modeling> Create> Volumes> Cylinder>Hollow Cylinder> R1=0.0.0.(0.-0.-0.Depth=0.(0.Depth=0.(0.(0.0.(0.Depth= radius) Main Menu> Preprocessor>Modeling> Create> Volumes> Cylinder>Hollow Cylinder> R1=]>“Normal penalty 8 ..0.04.11>OK Step 5: Callus: Main Menu> Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Keypoints>In Active CS>(0..01).>(check) “Include Initial penetration”>[Optional settings ..3 (Poisson’s Ratio)>OK> Material>Exit Step 3: Define element type: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete> Add…>”Structural Solid” (left column)>”Brick 8 node 185” (right column)> OK>Close Sep 4: Define Geometric Model of Bone (upper part): Main Menu> Preprocessor>Modeling> Create> Volumes> Cylinder>Hollow Cylinder> R1=0..>Pick surface area of outer surface of coated implants as the contact>OK Next>(drop down) “Material ID” = 1>“Coefficient of friction” = 0.03).0..03.1 (Poisson’s Ratio)>OK Material>New Model>Define Material ID = 2>OK> Structural> Linear>Elastic >Isotropic>EX = 2 (Young’s modulus)>PRXY=0.01).04.04. R2=0.06>OK Main Menu>Preprocessor>Modeling>Operate>Booleans>Glue>Volumes>Pick the above two volumes>OK Step 8: Define the Contact between implant and inner surface of cortical bone.4.005).05.2 (Poisson’s Ratio)>OK Material>New Model>Define Material ID = 3>OK> Structural> Linear>Elastic >Isotropic>EX = 3 (Young’s modulus)>PRXY=>Pick surface of inner surfaces of cortical bone as the “Target”>OK Next>(check) “Contact Surface:” = Areas>Pick Contact . R2=0.028.(0.11 (in meter)>OK Main Menu>Preprocessor>Modeling>Move/Modify>Volumes>Click above two hollow cylinders>Dz=-0.0).01)>OK Main Menu> Preprocessor>Modeling>Create>Areas>Arbitrary>Through KPs>Pick all these KPs>OK (form a close area) Main Menu>Preprocessor>Modeling>Operate>Extrude>Areas>Along Lines>Pick the close area>Pick the sweep circle (pick 4 circular segments)>OK (Form an approximate callus volume) Step 6: Glue callus to the upper and lower part of the bone Menu>Preprocessor>Modeling>Operate>Booleans>Glue>Volumes>Pick the above three volumes>OK Step 7: Implant (coating layer 0.1 (in meter)>OK Lower part: Main Menu> Preprocessor>Modeling>Copy>Volumes>Hollow Cylinder >OK>Dz=-0. Material 3=substrate): Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Structural> Linear>Elastic>Isotropic>EX = 1 (Young’s modulus)>PRXY=0.0). Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Contact Pair Contact Wizard button (located in upper left of the Contact Manager)>“Target Surface:” = Areas> (check) “Target Type:” = Flexible> Pick Target .(0. Project 1 – Implants ASDM (Nonlinear Contact Analysis) Step 1: Define Problem Type: Main Menu>Preferences>Structural>Ok Step 2: Define Multiple Material (Material 1=bone.-0. Material 2=Coated layer.02.

1>[Friction] tab>(drop down) “Stiffness matrix” = Unsymmetric>OK>Create >Finish Step 9: Prescribe Material to Different Areas Main Menu> Preprocessor>Meshing>Mesh Attributes>Picked Areas>Pick the areas of the upper and lower bones>Material=1>Apply>Pick coated layer>Material=2>Apply>Pick substrate core > Material 3>OK Step 10: Generate the meshing in the domain Main Menu> Preprocessor>Meshing>MeshTool>Smart Size = 5 >Mesh>Pick All>OK Step 11: Define Boundary Condition (fully clumped on the bottom face of the lower bone) Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement> On Areas>Pick bottom face of the lower bone (far field)>OK>“DOFs to be constrained” = All DOF> “Displacement value” = 0 > [OK] to apply the constraints Step 12: Define Transverse Load Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural>Force/Moment>On keypoints>Pick a Keypoint on the top face of the upper bone >Fx=1>OK Step 13: Solution: Main Menu> Solution>Solve>Current LS>OK Step 14: Postprocessing (Plot the Stress contour) Main Menu> General Postproc>Read Results>First Set> Main Menu> General Postproc>Plot Results>Contour Plot>Nodal Solu>von Mises stress>OK Upper part of bone Coating Implants Callus Fracture site Lower part of bone 9 .stiffness” = 0.

Z coordinates of each measurement points in the bone>OK Create Spline curves of these Keypoints: Main Menu> Preprocessor >Modeling> Create> Lines > Splines > Spline Thru KPs > Pick KPs (two segments of splines may be needed to close the spline curves)>OK Create area of bone: Main Menu> Preprocessor >Modeling> Create> Areas> Arbitrary > By Lines>Pick Splines of bone>OK Step 5: Define the meat tissue (as Step 4) • Create meat tissue boundary points from the measurement or X-Ray of the meat sample: Create Spline curves of these Keypoints: Create area of meat tissue (which contains bone area that should be subtracted late): Spline curve Bone area of bone Spline curve of meat Meat area Step 6: Meat Area – Bone Area (Subtraction) Main Menu> Preprocessor >Modeling>Operate>Booleans>Subtract>Area>Pick “Meat Area”>OK>Pick “Bone Area”>OK Step 7: Recreate Bone area inside the meat tissue as Step 4 Step 8: Glue New “Bone Area” onto “Meat Area” Main Menu> Preprocessor >Modeling>Operate>Booleans>Glue>Area> Pick “Bone Area”.5. Kyy=1. Project 2 – MEAT MLA (Transient Thermal Analysis) Step 1: Define Problem Type: Main Menu>Preferences>Thermal>Ok Step 2: Define Multiple Materials (Material 1: Soft meat tissue. Material2 Bone) Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Thermal> Conductivity> Orthotropic>Kxx = 1. Kyy=2.3 >OK …Specific Heat> Orthotropic>C=210 >OK …Convection or Film coefficient> HF=220 >OK Material>Exit Step 3: Define element type: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete > Add…>”Thermal Mass” > Solid>” 8 node 77” (right column)> OK>Close Step 4: Define Geometric Model of Bone: (Bottom-Up method) Create bone boundary points from the measurement or X-Ray of the meat sample: Main Menu> Preprocessor >Modeling> Create> Keypoints > In Active CS> Enter X.1.3 >OK …Specific Heat> Orthotropic>C=110 >OK …Convection or Film coefficient> HF=120 >OK Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Thermal> Conductivity> Orthotropic>Kxx = 2.Y.2. Kzz=1.1. Kzz=2.2. Pick “Meat Area”>OK Step 9: Prescribe Material to Different Areas Main Menu> Preprocessor>Meshing>Mesh Attributes>Picked Areas>Pick Meat Area>Material=1>Apply>Pick Bone>Material=2>OK 10 .

t=0. time=0.Step 10: Generate the meshing in the domain Main Menu> Preprocessor>Meshing>MeshTool>Smart Size = 1 (fine)>Mesh>Pick All>OK Step 11: Define Thermal Boundary Condition Main Menu> Lines>Pick Main Menu> Lines>Pick Solution> the Outer Solution> the Outer Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Temperature> On Boundary of Meat>Temp=-20>OK Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Heat generate> On Boundary of Meat>Temp=-20>OK Step 12: Define the transient thermal problem: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis> Transient>OK>Full>OK Step 13: Specify the initial conditions: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Solutions> Define Loads> Apply> Initial Condit'n> Define>Pick All>Value Initial value of DOF =25(25°C initial temperature in whole meat area)>OK Main Menu> Preprocessor> Solutions> Define Loads> Apply> Initial Condit'n>Define>Pick All>Value Initial value of DOF =-30(-30°C initial temperature in the skin boundary.7>Read>Close Step 20: Plot temperature contour at t=0.7: ain Menu>General Postproc>Plot Results >Contour Plot>Nodal Solu>DOF Solution>Temperature>OK 11 .7) to plot: Plot the temperature contour: Main Menu>General Postproc>Read results>By Pick>Set 7. you must pick all nodes on the boundary)>OK Step 14: Specify the time at the end of the loading step: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Solutions> Load Step Opts> Time/ Frequenc> Time-Time Step>Time at the end of load step=10 (10 minutes)>Time Step=1> Ramped >Minimum time step size=0.g. Step 17: Set output controls: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File (Save the results at all time steps)>OK Step 18: Solve the problem: Main Menu> Solution> Solve>Current LS>OK Step 19: Pick the result at specific time step (e.1>Maximum time step =1>OK Step 15: Specify the load value at the end of the load step: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Temperature>On Lines>Pick the boundary lines>VALUE load temp value=-50(The end temperature is -50°C)>OK Step 16: Write Info to load step file: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Write LS File>LSNUM=1>OK Specify a thermal loading process: Repeat Steps 13 though 16 for next load step.