Electrochimica Acta 57 (2011) 40–45

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Electrochimica Acta
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/electacta

A self-standing, UV-cured polymer networks-reinforced plastic crystal composite electrolyte for a lithium-ion battery
Hyo-Jeong Ha a , Yo Han Kwon b , Je Young Kim b , Sang-Young Lee a,∗
a b

Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Kangwondo, 200-701, Republic of Korea Batteries R&D, LG Chem, Yusong-gu, Daejon, 305-380, Republic of Korea

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
We demonstrate a facile approach to fabrication of a self-standing plastic crystal composite electrolyte for a lithium-ion battery, wherein UV (ultraviolet)-cured ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate (ETPTA) networks are incorporated into a plastic crystal electrolyte (PCE, 1 M lithium bistrifluoromethanesulphonimide (LiTFSI) in succinonitrile (SN)). An ETPTA monomer having trifunctional groups is successfully crosslinked within a very short UV-exposure time of 20 s without using any solvent, leading to the formation of a self-standing, transparent, and non-sticky plastic crystal composite electrolyte (X-PCCE). Owing to the introduction of the UV-cured ETPTA networks, the X-PCCE is capable of providing unprecedentedly robust mechanical strength even at a high concentration of PCE (i.e., ETPTA/PCE = 15/85%, w/w), along with affording high ionic conductivity. In contrast, a conventional plastic crystal composite electrolyte (F-PCCE) comprising polyvinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP) and PCE is difficult to be fabricated as a self-standing film and easily deformed by weak external stress. Notably, the X-PCCE shows significant improvement in electrochemical stability and interfacial resistance toward lithium metal electrodes. Ionic conductivities of the X-PCCE and the F-PCCE are examined as a function of temperature and discussed under consideration of the interaction between SN, LiTFSI, and polymers in the plastic crystal composite electrolytes. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 27 November 2010 Received in revised form 24 March 2011 Accepted 24 March 2011 Available online 1 April 2011 Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries Self-standing plastic crystal composite electrolytes Succinonitrile Lithium bis-trifluoromethanesulphonimide UV-curing Ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate

1. Introduction Rapidly growing demands for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries featuring shape versatility and better safety has motivated interest in new solid electrolytes [1–3]. Among various solid electrolytes, polymer electrolytes consisting of solvating polymers and salt mixtures have been extensively investigated due to their superior flexibility, electrolyte leakage-proof, less flammability, and low toxicity. Unfortunately, these advantages do not compensate their poor ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes, typically less than 10−4 S cm−1 , is limited by chain mobility above their glass transition temperature [3]. Radically new approaches based on the concept of dissolving salts in a flexible solid matrix such as a plastic crystal bearing excellent solvating capability have been suggested by several groups [4–8]. Plastic crystals are a kind of mesophase formed predominantly by quasi-spherical or disk-like molecules demonstrating rotational and/or orientational disorder while preserving longrange translational order [4–6]. This type of disorder is known to allow fast ionic mobility in a plastic crystal electrolyte [7].

∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 33 250 6338; fax: +82 33 251 3658. E-mail address: syleek@kangwon.ac.kr (S.-Y. Lee). 0013-4686/$ – see front matter © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2011.03.101

Succinonitrile (SN, NC–CH2 –CH2 –CN) is a non-ionic plastic crystalline organic molecule and shows a phase transition at around −40 ◦ C, above which the material has a plastic-crystalline phase until its melting temperature of approximately 60 ◦ C. The plasticcrystalline phase of SN can be used as a solid solvent capable of dissolving various types of lithium salts, providing high ionic conductivity of more than 10−3 S cm−1 at room temperature [6–8]. Below the melting temperature of SN, SN/lithium salt electrolytes offer ionic conduction behavior predominantly in the plastic phase of SN due to the presence of trans-gauche isomerism involving rotation of molecules about central C–C bonds. The trans isomer is considered an impurity phase that contributes to exacerbation of lattice defects and lowering of activation energy for ionic conduction [7]. However, SN/lithium salt-based plastic crystal electrolytes are excessively plastic and easily subjected to deformation under low stress. Therefore, they cannot be used as a self-standing solid electrolyte. Various attempts to improve the mechanical strength of SN/lithium salt-based plastic crystal electrolytes have been reported, which includes the development of composite polymeric systems involving a plastic crystal as a solid plasticizer [9–13]. The electrochemical and physical properties of these composite polymer electrolytes heavily depend on their composition. For instance, higher content of SN/lithium salt electrolyte is beneficial in deliv-

-J. i. Notable advantages of this UV curing process are that polymerization can be conducted without the use of a solvent and requires very short irradiation time ranging from a few seconds to a few minutes. and non-sticky plastic crystal composite electrolyte incorporating crosslinked ETPTA networks. in an endeavor to overcome the aforementioned limitations of plastic crystal electrolytes and facilitate their application to lithium-ion batteries. UV curing was performed using a Hg UV lamp (100 W. ionic conductivity. UV curing is a well-established. Shimadzu) at a strain rate of 50 mm min−1 . abbreviated as F-PCCE) consisting of PVdF-HFP (polyvinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and PCE [10. Experimental SN. followed by evaporation of the solvent in an argon-filled glove box for 1 day. Predetermined amounts of PVdF-HFP and PCE were dissolved into anhydrous acetone and the solutions were then vigorously mixed until the mixture appeared to be homogeneous. where the concentration of the HMPP was fixed at 1 wt% of the ETPTA. free radical photopolymerization technique that enables the facile design and control of polymer networks [16–19]. ering high ionic conductivity but at the same time deterioration of mechanical properties appears to be unavoidable. In comparison to a conventional plastic crystal composite electrolyte (hereinafter. we develop a new self-standing plastic crystal composite electrolyte (hereinafter. The weight-based composition of the F-PCCE was identical to that of the X-PCCE. The UV curing reaction and specific interaction between components of the plastic crystal composite electrolytes were examined using a FT-IR spectrometer (FT-3000.11].15]. 1 M LiTFSI in SN) was prepared by adding a predetermined amount of LiTFSI into SN melted at 60 ◦ C in an argon-filled glove box. The chemical structures of the ETPTA (UV-curable monomer) and HMPP (photo-initiator) are displayed in Fig. The mechanical properties of the plastic crystal composite electrolytes were measured from stress–strain curves using a tensile tester (AG-2000A. and PVdF-HFP are also illustrated. with a radiation peak intensity of approximately 2000 mW cm−2 on the surface of samples. ETPTA is known to be a photopolymerizable monomer under UV-exposure. Chemical structures of ETPTA (UV-curable monomer). Excalibur) with a spectral resolution of 4 cm−1 . As the first step. The weight-based composition of (ETPTA:HMPP)/PCE was fixed at 15/85. Lichtzen). the F-PCCE was prepared via a conventional solution-casting technique [9–13]. 1 M lithium bis-trifluoromethanesulphonimide (LiTFSI) in SN). X-PCCE. 1. The thickness of the F-PCCE was measured to be approximately 200 m. PCE (i. The mixture solution was cast onto a polypropylene (PP) sheet and then exposed to UV-irradiation for 20 s. The mixture was cast onto a PP sheet. which is based on incorporation of UVcured polymer networks into a plastic crystal electrolyte (PCE. abbreviated as X-PCCE). electrochemical stability. 1. and 2-hydroxy2-methyl-1-phenyl-1-propanon (HMPP) were purchased from Aldrich and PVdF-HFP (HFP content = 6 mol%) was obtained from Arkema. Thus. The gel content of the X-PCCE was determined by measuring the weight loss of the samples after being subjected to solvent extraction in dimethyl carbonate (DMC) at 70 ◦ C for 8 h and subsequently in acetone at room temperature for 24 h. A schematic representation of the UV curing process and the physical appearance of the samples are given in Fig. In this study. Ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate (ETPTA) is employed as a UV-curable monomer. The sample was further dried under vacuum at 30 ◦ C for 2 days. both of which can contribute to facile preparation of crosslinked polymeric materials. the PCE was mixed with the ETPTA and HMPP. For the fabrication of the X-PCCE. affording strong mechanical strength owing to its trifunctional groups [14. 2. and interfacial resistance toward Li metal electrodes. PVdF-HFP/PCE = 15/85. The ionic conductivity of the plastic crystal composite electrolytes . improving both the ionic conductivity and mechanical properties of plastic crystal electrolytes presents a formidable challenge. the performance benefits of the X-PCCE are elucidated in terms of mechanical properties. Ha et al. LiTFSI (Li(CF3 SO2 )2 N).H. leading to facile fabrication of a self-standing. and F-PCCE at room temperature. Meanwhile.e. The thickness of the X-PCCE was observed to be around 200 m. HMPP (photo-initiator). ETPTA (Mw = 428). 1.e. A schematic representation of UV curing process and photographs of PCE. transparent. / Electrochimica Acta 57 (2011) 40–45 41 Fig.

the F-PCCE comprising PVdFHFP and PCE is difficult to be fabricated as a self-standing film.00 0 10 20 30 Strain / % Fig. even at a high concentration of PCE (ETPTA/PCE = 15/85%.04 0. highly rigid. The X-PCCE shows tensile strength (∼0.16 0. This remarkable improvement in the mechanical strength of the X-PCCE is further confirmed by comparing the tensile properties of the plastic crystal composite electrolytes (Fig.-J.14 0. The physical appearance of the PCE (=1 M LiTFSI in SN). 1800 Absorbance / a. XPCCE. The present work is. 1.42 H. the first report of a self-standing plastic crystal composite electrolyte that employs the UV-cured polymer networks. . 1800 1750 1700 1650 1600 1550 1750 1700 1650 1600 1550 Wavenumber / cm -1 Wavenumber / cm -1 Fig.13 MPa) nearly 3 times higher than that (∼0.u. DuPont Q2000) at a heating rate of 10 ◦ C min−1 . which corresponds well with the results reported in the previous studies [10.06 0.12 X-PCCE F-PCCE Stress / MPa 0. The thermal characteristics of the plastic crystal composite electrolytes. w/w). PVdF- C=C Absorbance / a.u. were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. FT-IR spectra of acrylic C C double bonds of ETPTA monomer in X-PCCE: (a) before UV-irradiation and (b) after UV-irradiation. 3. Ha et al. both plastic crystal composite electrolytes (X-PCCE and F-PCCE) present a solidified gel-like appearance.u. Whereas the PCE shows liquid-like behavior. 3.11].10 0. / Electrochimica Acta 57 (2011) 40–45 was obtained by an AC impedance analysis using a VSP classic (Bio-Logic) over a frequency range of 1–106 Hz over a temperature range of 30–60 ◦ C.0 mV s−1 .08 0. 2.04 MPa) of the F-PCCE. The F-PCCE is mechanically very weak and easily deformed by weak external stress. previous studies on enhancement of the mechanical properties of plastic crystal electrolytes have been limited to the addition of linear polymers such as PEO (polyethylene oxide) [9. The X-PCCE is self-standing. Results and discussion 0. This discloses that the incorporation of crosslinked ETPTA networks effectively improves the mechanical properties of the PCE. particularly focusing on the Tcp (transition temperature from normal crystal to plastic crystal phase) and Tm (melting peak temperature) of SN. In contrast. An interesting finding is that the X-PCCE incorporating the UV-cured ETPTA networks shows unprecedentedly robust mechanical strength. The interfacial stability of the plastic crystal composite electrolytes toward Li metal electrodes was examined by measuring the time evolution of AC impedance spectra of a symmetrical cell (Li metal/plastic crystal composite electrolyte/Li metal) at room temperature.02 0. C=O Absorbance / a. to the best of our knowledge.u. and shows strong resistance to breakage upon appreciable bending or stretching. 2). To dates. C=O 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 Wavenumber / cm -1 Wavenumber / cm -1 (a) (b) Absorbance / a. The electrochemical stability window of the plastic crystal composite electrolytes was evaluated by linear sweep voltammetry performed on a working electrode of stainlesssteel and a counter and reference electrode of lithium-metal at a scan rate of 1.10]. and F-PCCE at room temperature is depicted in Fig. Stress–strain curves of X-PCCE and F-PCCE at a strain rate of 50 mm min−1 .

. Fig. LiTFSI.9 cm−1 (= (X-PCCE) − (X-PCCE without LiTFSI)) . in comparison to the F-PCCE. Linear sweep voltammograms of (a) X-PCCE and (b) F-PCCE on a working electrode of stainless-steel and a counter and reference electrode of lithium-metal at a scan rate of 1. While the F-PCCE (Fig. In contrast. It is generally observed that after continuous increase of impedance due to the growth of passive layers formed on electrodes during the initial stage. PVdF-HFP/SN). The plastic crystal behavior of the X-PCCE and the F-PCCE was investigated by characterizing the thermal behavior of SN in the plastic crystal composite electrolytes. which will be further investigated in subsequent studies. The gel content (i.3%. 2256. and the amplitude of a semicircle is representative of the interfacial resistance between the electrodes and electrolytes [16–19]. the addition of LiTFSI into SN leads to a large reduction in Tm (58 ◦ C → 12 ◦ C) and an insignificant change in Tcp of SN (Fig. 2254. Fig. i. insoluble fraction after being subjected to solvent (DMC and acetone) extraction) of the X-PCCE was observed to be 99. and polymers in the plastic crystal composite electrolytes. and (d) X-PCCE. both the X-PCCE and the F-PCCE present satisfactory ionic conductivities of more than 10−3 S cm−1 at room temperature.0 mV s−1 .13]. 8(a) shows that the characteristic FT-IR peaks assigned to C N bonds of SN are observed at 2254. A notable achievement in the X-PCCE. This UV curing reaction was further confirmed by measuring the gel content of the X-PCCE. Consistent with the results of previous publications [6–8]. Fig. The differences ( ) in the peaks of the C N bonds are measured to be 0. This demonstrates that the X-PCCE could be a promising solid electrolyte in high-voltage lithium-ion batteries. HFP [10. / Electrochimica Acta 57 (2011) 40–45 43 Fig. Li+ /Li.e. 6(b)). respectively. These approaches often fail to achieve satisfactory mechanical strength and this shortcoming becomes more pronounced at high concentrations of plastic crystal electrolytes.18]. Fig. while simultaneously affording high ionic conductivity. Ha et al.0 V vs. w/w). and PAN (polyacrylonitrile) [12. Fig. is the realization of strong mechanical strength. 6 shows that for both the X-PCCE and F-PCCE. 4. respectively. This reflects an increase in the concentration of structural defects (i. The suppressed growth in the interfacial resistance indicates that the X-PCCE offers better compatibility toward Li metal electrodes. 4 shows that for the pristine SN (Fig. Initially.. In comparison to the F-PCCE. thus verifying that the ETPTA monomer is successfully photo-polymerized. as compared to the F-PCCE. two endothermic peaks assigned to Tcp and Tm are observed at −39 ◦ C and 58 ◦ C. and 2254. Fig.-J. the resistive layers are stabilized. 4(b)). i.9 cm−1 (X-PCCE). which reflects continuous growth of a passive layer on the surface of the Li metal electrodes. 4(a)). DSC profiles demonstrating transition temperatures (Tcp and Tm ) of SN in: (a) pristine SN. but then reduces with time and finally stabilizes to a value below 300 after 22 days (Fig. 3 shows that after the UV-irradiation. wherein another increase of Z with time at low frequency region may indicate appearance of a semicircle related to an additional relaxation phenomenon. It is apparent that the X-PCCE as well as the F-PCCE demonstrates plastic crystal behavior.11]. and the results are discussed in terms of the interaction between SN. wherein the DSC scans were implemented in the heating mode. the ionic conductivity of the X-PCCE is slightly lower than that of the F-PCCE. The electrochemical stability window of the plastic crystal composite electrolytes was observed from linear sweep voltammograms (Fig. the interfacial resistance of the X-PCCE increases to about 700 after 3 days. the X-PCCE (Fig. The time evolution in interfacial resistance of the plastic crystal composite electrolytes toward Li metal electrodes was examined by measuring the electrochemical impedance spectra of the symmetrical cell (Li metal/plastic crystal composite electrolyte/Li metal) at room temperature. and polymers in the plastic crystal composite electrolytes.e. 4(d)) presents characteristic peaks of SN at −39 ◦ C (Tcp ) and 20 ◦ C (Tm ). UV-cured ETPTA networks/SN).e. the FT-IR peaks of the C C bonds disappear. It is of interest that the X-PCCE shows different behavior of interfacial resistance from the F-PCCE. the X-PCCE shows improved anodic stability and no decomposition of any components takes place below 5. trans isomers) of SN. 6(a)). giving a lower or constant interfacial resistance value [17.H. 7 exhibits that owing to the high concentration of PCE in the plastic crystal composite electrolytes (polymer/PCE = 15/85%. The crosslinking reaction in the X-PCCE was examined by observing the characteristic FT-IR peaks assigned to acrylic C C bonds (1610–1625 cm−1 ) of the ETPTA monomer before/after the UV-irradiation. the interfacial resistance of the cells increases with time. 4(c)) shows Tcp of −40 ◦ C and Tm of −2 ◦ C. The temperature-dependent ionic conductivity of the X-PCCE is compared with that of the F-PCCE. LiTFSI.e. The real part of the impedance at the highest frequency signifies the bulk resistance of an electrolyte. 5).0 cm−1 (X-PCCE without LiTFSI. although this value is marginally lower than that of the PCE itself. (c) F-PCCE. 5. which indicates that the crosslinking of ETPTA monomer is almost entirely completed after the UV-irradiation.0 cm−1 (FPCCE). the interfacial resistance of the F-PCCE continues to increase with time and stabilizes at about 900 after 10 days (Fig. (b) PCE. Over a wide range of temperatures.0 cm−1 (F-PCCE without LiTFSI. This difference in the ionic conductivity between the X-PCCE and the F-PCCE can be analyzed in the context of the interaction between SN. More detailed investigation of the transition temperatures of the SN in the X-PCCE and F-PCCE was carried out in the following sections.

Another feasible explanation on the ionic mobility of the F-PCCE and X-PCCE is that the ETPTA polymer network may have a stronger interaction with the lithium ions than the PVdF-HFP due to the presence of nine oxygen atoms in each ETPTA molecule. Temperature-dependent ionic conductivity of PCE.0 6. Ha et al. the larger shift in the Tm of SN is observed in the F-PCCE. -3 . and X-PCCE.9 3.0 2. and polymers in the plastic crystal composite electrolytes. F-PCCE. the facile ionic mobility as well as favorable dissociation of LiTFSI may explain the slightly high ionic conductivity in the F-PCCE.0 2. focusing on the Tm of SN in the samples.e. In addition to this FT-IR characterization. was carried out to further examine the interaction between the components of the plastic crystal composite electrolytes.0 4. a high defect density state phase.3 3. Electrochemical impedance spectra of a symmetric cell (Li/plastic crystal composite electrolyte/Li) at room temperature: (a) X-PCCE and (b) F-PCCE. In other words. This indicates that in comparison to the SN in the X-PCCE.8 2. respectively.1 3. High dissociation of LiTFSI is expected to offer large number of lithium ions [11. i. the SN in the F-PCCE is strongly affected by the incorporation of LiTFSI. revealing deterioration in the crystalline structure of SN.2 -1 3.0 -1 Ionic Conductivity / 10 S cm 10. Along with the FT-IR characterization.44 H. It is known that the shift in the Tm of SN in plastic crystal electrolytes heavily depends on the interaction of SN with LiTFSI [10–13]. a DSC analysis. the relatively stronger interaction between the SN and the LiTFSI could be expected in the F-PCCE. 8(b) exhibits that with addition 12. The differences in the Tm (= Tm ) of SN between the samples are 31 ◦ C (=Tm (X-PCCE without LiTFSI) − Tm (X-PCCE)) and 54 ◦ C (=Tm (F-PCCE without LiTFSI) − Tm (F-PCCE)). this DSC analysis confirms that the SN in the F-PCCE is heavily influenced by the LiTFSI. This may possibly contribute to facile dissociation of LiTFSI and an increase in the lattice defects of SN. By exploiting the aforementioned understanding of the interaction between SN. The trans phase. which thus may lead to a decrease in lithium ion mobility. Interestingly. relative to the SN in the X-PCCE. / Electrochimica Acta 57 (2011) 40–45 (a) 900 800 700 1 day 3 day 16 day 24 day 28 day 300 1 day 3 day 16 day 24 day 28 day (b) 900 800 700 1 day 3 day 6 day 10 day 25 day 300 1 day 3 day 6 day 10 day 25 day -Z_im / ohm 100 -Z_im / ohm 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 -Z_im / ohm 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 -Z_im / ohm 200 200 100 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Z_re / ohm Z_re / ohm 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Z_re / ohm 1000 1000 Z_re / ohm 800 800 Z_re / ohm 600 Z_re / ohm 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 600 400 400 200 200 0 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time / day Time / day Fig. Deterioration of crystalline structure of SN is known to enhance the rate of isomer transition from gauche to trans. we will attempt to further improve the ionic conductivity of the X-PCCE in future studies.4 Temperature / 1000 K Fig. In summary.0 PCE F-PCCE X-PCCE 8. facilitates ionic mobility in SN-based plastic crystal electrolytes. 6. Fig. of LiTFSI into the polymer/SN mixtures. in comparison to the X-PCCE.12]. LiTFSI.0 3. 7.-J. which consequently increases the trans conformer concentration [6–8]. and 2.0 cm−1 (= (F-PCCE) − (F-PCCE without LiTFSI)). the Tm of SN shifts to a lower temperature.

H. Das. Soc. indicating that the SN is weakly affected by the LiTFSI. Raymond. D. C. B 113 (2009) 5025. Electrochem. F. E. J.J.M. Long. S. Characterization of interaction between SN. L. P. V. Bhattacharyya. S. Bodoardo. J. P. M. Kim. Electrochem. A. Power Sources 174 (2007) 883. M. Bongiovanni. G. J. S. J. J.T. Niketic. Xu. Commun. G. J. Kang. Whitfield. J. Gentili. C.H. and polymers in X-PCCE and F-PCCE: (a) FT-IR spectra (C N bonds) of SN and (b) DSC profiles (Tm ) of SN. 8 (2006) 1753. Power Sources 189 (2009) 775. Hu. J. in comparison to the F-PCCE comprising PVdF-HFP and PCE. Chem. M. Fan. Successful crosslinking of the ETPTA networks was verified by analyzing the characteristic FT-IR peaks of acrylic C C bonds [16] [17] [18] [19] . I.H. D. Armand. MacFarlane. 20 (2008) 1649. Electrochim. Meanwhile. Forsyth. Acknowledgment This research was supported by the Converging Research Center Program through the Ministry of Education. Rao. Yang. M. Patel. Mater. D. M. Li. R. X. A. Fan.A. Davidson. Y. Y. G. P. 38 (2009) 2565. N. Fu. Bhattacharyya. Gerbaldi. Bhattacharyya. A. C. Alarco. 10 (2008) 1912. This may contribute to relatively poor dissociation of LiTFSI and sluggish ionic movement in the X-PCCE. S. N.W. W. Armand. A. Meligrana. Bodoardo. J. LiTFSI. Conclusion We developed a new self-standing plastic crystal composite electrolyte (X-PCCE) for a lithium-ion battery. A. Palacin. which is based on incorporation of UV-cured ETPTA networks into a PCE (=1 M LiTFSI in SN). Adv. the X-PCCE presented superior anodic stability and suppressed growth of interfacial resistance toward Li metal electrodes. R. C. Reale. MacFarlane. L. Shim. S.M. Prathapa.H. Armand.H. S. Nair.J. Menezes. Penazzi. N. Nature 424 (2003) 635. Maier. Lebdeh. Bodoardo. 8. Nair. R. Heo. The highly crosslinked ETPTA networks played a key role in endowing the X-PCCE with greater mechanical strength. when LiTFSI is incorporated into polymer/SN mixtures. 352 (2010) 95. Liao. / Electrochimica Acta 57 (2011) 40–45 45 and the gel content of the X-PCCE. Commun. J. Kim.M. S. Mater. R.K. 3 (2004) 476. Phys. Cha. Zhu. D. Yang. Choi. Penazzi. Row. Membr. A.R. Long.R. S. Gerbaldi. Power Sources 195 (2010) 6177. J. Yi. Patel. Choi. 17 (2007) 2800. B. Our future studies will focus on further improvement of the ionic conductivity of the XPCCE and characterization of the electrochemical performances of cells assembled with the X-PCCE. Fan. J. Y. M. G. Nair. S. Meligrana. T. Solid State Ionics 161 (2003) 105. which would results in slightly low ionic conductivity. Adv. Maier. M. Nature 414 (2001) 359. Huang. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] J. Power Sources 195 (2010) 1706. Sci.H. L. Bongiovanni. N. Abouimrane.J. M. K. Gerbaldi. J. Nature 402 (1999) 792. Jeon. Forsyth. Ha et al. Bongiovanni. P.S. S. Funct. L. Bhattacharyya. Chandrappa. a relatively small shift in the characteristic FT-IR peaks (C N bonds) and Tm of SN was observed in the X-PCCE.W. Kim. C. Chem. Abouimrane. Rev. Moreover. Nat. as compared to the F-PCCE. M. Mater. Meligrana. 4. Acta 55 (2010) 1460. Science and Technology (2010K001090). A. S. Ahmad. J. Y. J.R. while simultaneously delivering high ionic conductivity. Hammami. Electrochim.S. Power Sources 178 (2008) 751. Tarascon. Acta 54 (2008) 209. Wang. Penazzi.-J. Fig.

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