Network CoE Training

Continuation with Physical Layer

Network CoE Training

Layered Model (Layer n talks to Layer n)

Application

Application

Transport

Transport

Network

Network

Data Link

Data Link

Physical

Physical

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OSI Model

Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 5 Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 2

Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link

HTTP, FTP, IMAP asn.1, ASCII 3-way handshake (TCP), Graceful close (TCP) iSCSI for SANs TCP, UDP IPv4, IPv6, ICMP, BGP, OSPF Ethernet 802.3, 802.11

Layer 1

Physical

Fiber,Cat5, Modems, SONET, ADSL

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Course Outline

Basics of Optical Fiber Interfaces WAN Interfaces LAN Interfaces Media Testing instruments Modems

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Basics of Optical Fiber

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Fiber as transmission medium

Core – thin glass center of the fiber where light travels. g g Cladding – outer optical material surrounding the core Buffer Coating – plastic coating that protects the fiber.

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Applications of Optical Fiber

Telecommunications

Local Area Networks

Cable TV

Optical Fiber Sensors

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Advantages of Optical Fiber over Copper

Higher Information Carrying Capacity f Less Signal Degradation Less Expensive in terms of maintenance Carries to longer distance without signal boosters Thinner & Light Weight

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Type of Optical Fibers

Single-mode fibers – used to transmit one signal per fiber (used in telephone and cable TV). They have small cores (around 9 microns in diameter) and transmit infra-red light from laser.

Multi-mode fibers – used to transmit many signals per fiber (used in computer networks). They have larger cores (around 62.5 microns in diameter) and transmit infra red light from LED infra-red LED.

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Single Mode vs. Multimode

Single mode

Multi Mode

High transmission speed Carries data to larger distances

Less transmission speed Carries data to lesser distances

Less attenuation Less distortion

More attenuation Higher distortion

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Fiber physical transport technologies

OC-3 A fiber optic line capable of 155 megabits per second (155,000K).

OC-48 OC 48 A fiber optic line capable of 2400 megabits per second (2,400,000K).

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How Does Optical Fibre Transmit Light??

Total Internal Reflection:

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Interfaces

Interfaces

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Interfaces

WAN Interfaces
V.24 V.35 X.21 G.703

LAN Interfaces RJ-45 RJ-11 BNC C Connector t

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WAN Interfaces

WAN Interfaces

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V. 24

A ITU-T standard that defines the interchange circuits between DTE and DCE. V.24 is a specification for single-ended communications that includes the definition of connector pin allocations allocations. It is used together with V.28 to define a specification for serial asynchronous or synchronous communications.

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V.35

Commonly used for synchronous communication Commonly used for 56kbps and 64kbps data rates. It is typically used between a modem and a multiplexor.

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X.21

X.21 is a digital signaling interface recommended by ITU-T that includes specifications for DTE/DCE physical interface elements,

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G.703

G.703 is a ITU-T standard for transmitting voice or data over digital carriers such as T1 and E1.

G.703 G 703 service is typically used for interconnecting data communications equipment such as bridges, routers, and multiplexers.

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LAN Interfaces

LAN Interfaces f

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Registered Jack

RJ-45 Registered jack (RJ) is a standardized physical interface for connecting telecommunications equipment (commonly, a LAN or computer networking p g equipment.

RJ 11 RJ-11 is the standard connector utilized on 2-pair (4-wire) telephone wiring.
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BNC Connector

The BNC (Bayonet Neill-Concelman) connector is a very common type of RF connector used for terminating coaxial cable.

They are used on both on cable interconnections and network cards

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Media Testing Instruments

Media Testing Instruments

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Pentascanner

It tests following: g
Wiremap test is used to identify physical errors of the installation; proper pin termination at each end, shorts between any two or more wires, wires continuity to the remote end split pairs crossed pairs, reversed end, pairs, pairs pairs, and any other mis-wiring.

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Pentascanner tests continued (1)…

Propagation Delay The Propagation Delay test tests for the time it takes for the signal to be sent from one end and received by the other end. This time is measured in milliseconds, milliseconds nanoseconds and picoseconds picoseconds. Cable Length The Cable Length test verifies that the cable from the transmitter to receiver does not exceed the maximum recommended distance of 100 meters in a 10/100/1000baseT[X] network. Insertion or Attenuation loss Losses occuring due to characteristics of the media

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Pentascanner tests continued (2)…

Return Loss Return Loss is the measurement of the amount of signal that is reflected back toward the transmitter. The reflection of the signal is caused by the variations of impedance in the connectors and cable and is usually attributed to a poorly terminated wire Near-End Crosstalk (NEXT) Near-End Crosstalk (NEXT) is an error condition that describes the occurrence of a signal from one wire pair radiating to and interfering with the signal of another wire pair.

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BERT

BERT or Bit Error Rate Tester is a testing method for digital communication circuits that uses pre-determined patterns of a sequence of logical ones or zeros.

A BERT Tester consists of a test pattern generator and a receiver that can be set to the same pattern. Based on the response to the sent bit stream, error rate is calculated. t i l l t d

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OTDR

An optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) is an optoelectronic instrument used to characterize an optical fiber

An OTDR injects a series of optical pulses into the fiber under test It also test. extracts, from the same end of the fiber, light that is scattered and reflected back from points in the fiber where the index of refraction changes h

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OTDR Continued…

The strength of the return pulses is measured and integrated as a function of time, and is plotted as a function of fiber length. An OTDR may be used for estimating the fiber's length and overall attenuation, attenuation including splice and mated connector losses. It may also be mated-connector losses used to locate faults, such as breaks.

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Modems

Modems

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MODEM

Modem (from modulator-demodulator) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. The most familiar example is a modem that turns the digital 1s and 0s of a personal computer into sounds that can be transmitted over the telephone lines of Plain Old Telephone Systems (POTS), and once received on the other side converts those 1s and 0s back into a form used by a USB side, USB, Serial, or Network connection.

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Modem LED indicators

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ASM i52 Modem

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ASM i52 Modem

PWR (green) – DATA (yellow) – SYNC A/B (green/red) – E1 or T1 SYNC ( d) – (red) only) AIS (yellow) – interface only) ALM (red) – TST (red) –

Power Transmit data (except E1 or T1 interface) Sync status of DSL line Loss ofE1 or T1 sync (E1 or T1interface L fE1 T1i t f “All 1s” string is received (E1 or T1 Alarm enters the buffer Test in progress

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Connectivity using Modem

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RAD HTU-E1 Termination Units

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Multiplexers

A multiplexer or MUX is a device that performs multiplexing i.e. selects one of many analog or digital input signals and outputs that into a single line. l di it l i t i l d t t th t i t i l li An electronic multiplexer makes it possible for several signals to share one expensive device or other resource, for example one Analog to Digital converter or one communication line instead of having one device per input signal line, signal. A multiplexer can be considered as a multiple-input, single-output switch

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De-multiplexer

A demultiplexer (or demux) is a device taking a single input signal and selecting one of many data-output-lines. A multiplexer is often used with a complementary demultiplexer on the receiving end. A demultiplexer works as a single-input, multiple-output switch

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Integrated Services Digital Network

1. Integrated Services Digital Network. A digital p g g g phone service capable p of speeds from 64 K to 128 K. 2. Provides two data channels, each with its own phone number, making simultaneous voice and data possible. 3. Services offered by ISDN: 1. Digital Telephone and Fax -with a facility to identify the calling subscriber number and other facilities. 2. Data Transmission at 64 Kbps with ISDN controller card 3. 3 Video Conferencing at 128 Kbps 4. Video Conferencing at 384 Kbps (Possible with 3 ISDN lines)

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Types of ISDN Accesses
There are two types of "accesses" (connections) for ISDN: Basic Rate Interface (BRI): 2B+D 2 Channels of 64 Kbps for Speech And Data. 1 Channel of 16 Kbps for Signaling Primary Rate Interface (PRI): 30 B+D 30 Channels of 64 Kbps for speech and data. 1 Channel of 64 Kbps for signaling. Ch l f Kb f i li

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Leased Lines
To transmit data between computer and electronic information devices, different vendors provide data communication services to its subscribers. It offers a choice of high, medium and low speed leased data circuits as well as dial-up lines. Bandwidth is available on demand in most of the cities. Managed leased Line Network (MLLN) offers flexibility of providing circuits with speeds of n x 64 Kbps up to 2 Mbps which is useful for internet leased lines and international principle Leased Lines (IPLCs). Leased circuits are provided to subscribers for internal communication between their offices/factories at various sites within a city/town or different cities/town on point to point basis, or on a network basis interconnecting the various sites.

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SONET And SDH

Synchronous optical networking (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH), are two closely related multiplexing protocols for transferring multiple digital bit streams using lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) over the same optical fiber. ( ) p

The method was developed to replace the Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) system f t t for transporting l ti larger amounts of t l h t f telephone calls and d t ll d data traffic over the same fiber wire without synchronization problems.

SDH or SONET may be utilized to allow several Internet Service Providers to share the same optical fiber,

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Optical Signal Hierarchy
Hierarchy Level Zero Data Rate 155.52 SONET STS-3 SDH STM1 STM4 STM16 STM64 OCx OC-3

Level One

622.08

STS-12

OC-12

Level Two

2488.32 Mbit/s 9953.28 Mbit/s

STS-48

OC-48

Level Three

STS-192

OC-192

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Optical Carrier Rates

Optical Carrier

Data Rate

PayloadSONET (SPE) 50.112 Mbit/s 150.336 Mbit/s 451.044 Mbit/s 601.344 Mbit/s 902.088 Mbit/s 1202.784 Mbit/s 1804.176 Mbit/s 2.4 Gbps 9.6 Gbps -

User Data Rate 49.536 148.608 445.824 594.824 891.648 1188.864 1783.296 2377.728 9510.912 -

SONET

SDH

OC-1 OC-3 OC-9 OC-12 OC-18 OC-24 OC-36 OC-48 OC-192 OC-768 OC-3072

51.84 Mbit/s 155.52 Mbit/s 466.56 Mbit/s 622.08 Mbit/s 933.12 Mbit/s 1244.16 Mbit/s 1866.24 Mbit/s 2488.32 Mbit/s 9953.28 Mbit/s 40Gbit/s 160Gbit/s

STS-1 STS-3 STS-9 STS-12 STS-18 STS-24 STS-36 STS-48 STS-192 STS-768 STS-3072

-STM-1 STM-3 STM-4 STM-6 STM-8 STM-12 STM-16 STM-64 STM-256 STM-1024

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Telecom and Network Speeds: -

We see network speed terms (e.g. T1, DS0, OC-192) all over the place. Here are the details: l H th d t il Tx: North American Signal Hierarchy e.g. T1, T3 etc. Ex: E E European Signal Hierarchy e.g. E1, E3 etc. Si l Hi h E1 t Optical Carrier Hierarchy for SONET and SDH: e.g. OC-1, OC-192 etc. Includes STS-x and STM-x definitions.

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North America Network Speeds
Remember: a DS0 is 64K or 64,000 bits per second.
Hierarchy Speed Digital Carrier DS0's Notes

Signal

First Level

1.544 Mbit/s

DS1

T-1

24

In ISDN PRI = 23B (user) + 1D (signaling) channels

Intermediate

3.152 Mbit/s

DS1C

-

48

-

Level

Second Level

6.312 Mbit/s

DS2

T-2

96

4 x DS1

Third Level Thi d L l

44.736 Mbi / 44 736 Mbit/s

DS3

T-3 T 3

672

28 x DS1

Intermediate Level

139.264 Mbit/s

DS4NA

?

2016

3 x DS3 Highest designed in ANSI T1.107

Fourth Level

274.176 Mbit/s

DS4

T-4

4032

Replaced with OCx

Fifth Level

400.352 Mbit/s

DS5

T-5

5760

Replaced with OCx

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European Network Speeds

Hierarchy

Speed

Carrier

DS0's

Notes

First Level

2.048 2 048 Mbit/s 8.448 Mbit/s 34.368 Mbit/s 139.264 Mbit/s 565.148 Mbit/s

E-1

32

In ISDN PRI = 30B (user) + 2D (signaling) channels -

Second Level

E-2

128

Third Level

E-3

512

-

Fourth Level

E-4

2048

-

Fifth Level

E-5

8192

-

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Summary table for Bandwidths

Speed

DS0's

North America

Europe

Japan

64 Kbps 1.544 Mbit/s 2.048 Mbit/s 2 048 Mbit/ 6.312 Mbit/s 7.786 Mbit/s 8.448 Mbit/s 32.064 Mbit/s 34.368 Mbit/s 44.736 Mbit/s 97.728 97 728 Mbit/s 139.264 Mbit/s 139.264 Mbit/s 274.176 Mbit/s 400.352 Mbit/s 565.148 Mbit/s
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1 24 32 96 120 128 480 512 672 1440 2016 2048 4032 5760 8192
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T-1 T-2 T-3 DS4NA T-4 T-5 -

E-1 E 1 E-2 E-3 E4 E-5

J-1 J-2 J-2 (alt) J-3 J-4 J-5

Thank You!

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