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MRWXVYGXIHXSHMZIVXMXWQERYJEGXYVMRK 8LI SRP] LSTI [I LEH SJ HVMZMRK SYX
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 [SVOMRK HE] ERH RMKLX MR WLMJXW TVSHYGXUYEPMX]ERH[IVI½REPP]EFPIXS F]XLI(EMRM7IMOSWLEJEGXSV]
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WTSVX ERH XLI 7TSVXWQEXMG  [LMGL NYWX EW HIWMKR [EW FIGSQMRK QSVI VIGSKRMWIHXLIMQTSVXERGISJOIITMRK
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TISTPI[IVIEQSRKTVSHYGXWGLSWIR 8IEQ [EW HMWFERHIH MR  ERH XLI VIUYMVIQIRXW EPP SZIV XLI [SVPH &]
JSV XLI +QEVO KSSH HIWMKR E[EVH HIWMKRIVW [IVI EFWSVFIH MRXS XLI  7IMOS HIWMKR EGXMZMXMIW FIKER MR
8LITYFPMGEGGPEMQXLEXVIWYPXIHJVSQ 4VSHYGX 4PERRMRK HMZMWMSR8LI HIWMKR (YWWIPHSVJ ERH 2I[=SVO 7MRGI XLIR
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%.3962)=-28-1) 
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THESETHElRSTEVERGAMESTOBEHELD 3ABUROU )NOUE WHO WAS THE 7ATCH OBSERVETIMINGPROCEDURESv
IN!SIA4HE 0RESIDENT OF 3EIKO 3HOJI $ESIGN 3ECTION -ANAGER OF $AINI -R)NOUERECALLS h!ROUNDTHETIME
(ATTORI SAW THE SCALE OF THE OPPOR 3EIKOSHA(ESAID h)WASIN:URICHON THE/LYMPIC'AMESWEREDUETOSTART
TUNITYANDSOSETTHECOMPANYONTHE BUSINESSINTHESPRINGOFAND)GOT -R 9OKOYAMA 3EIKOSHA 0RODUCTION
PATHTHATWOULDESTABLISHIT INTHEEYES A TELEGRAM FROMTHECOMPANY)TREAD %NGINEERING 3ECTION -ANAGER AT THE
OFTHEWORLD ASTHELEADINGTECHNOLOGY @/FlCIAL WORD 4OKYO WILL HOST NEXT TIME CAMETO:URICH SO)TOLDHIM)
COMPANYINTHEWORLDWATCHINDUSTRY /LYMPIC'AMESv HADTOGOTO!MERICAANDTHENDIRECTLY
7HEN 3EIKO WAS AWARDED THE TO*APANFROMTHERE ANDASKEDHIMTO
CONTRACT TO BECOME /FlCIAL 4IMER 3IXHISTORICWORDS GO TO 2OME FOR ME AND OBSERVE (E
OF THE  /LYMPIC 'AMES IT WAS )T ADDED SIX WORDS THAT WERE TO GAVE HIS READY ASSENT SO ) RETURNED
GIVEN A RELATIVELY SHORT TIME TO MAKE DETERMINE THE COMPANYS HISTORY FOR TO*APANWITHOUTGOINGTO2OMEATALL
ALL THE PREPARATIONS BUT DESPITE THIS THE NEXT  YEARS h)NTEND TO HANDLE !S SOON AS ) GOT BACK 3HOJI (ATTORI
IT INTRODUCED NEW TIMING TECHNIQUES
AND ACHIEVED mAWLESS TIMING OF THEIR
lRST/LYMPIC 'AMES 5NTIL 3EIKO WAS
AWARDED THE CONTRACT %UROPEAN COM
PANIES HAD BEEN OFlCIAL TIMEKEEPERS
FORALLTHE'AMESSINCETHE,OS!NGELES
/LYMPIC 'AMES IN  SO IT WAS A
GREATHONOURFOR3EIKOTOBEAWARDED
THISPRESTIGIOUSRESPONSIBILITY
-ANY OF THE SPORTS TIMEKEEPING
SYSTEMS BEING USED AT THAT TIME HAD
BEEN DEVELOPED IN 3WITZERLAND AND
THEY HAD EARNED THE ABSOLUTE TRUST
OF THE SPORTS WORLD -ANY ASSUMED
THEY WOULD ALSO BE TIMING THE4OKYO 4HEOPENINGCEREMONYOFTHE/LYMPIC'AMESIN4OKYOMARKEDTHESTARTING
POINTOFANIMPORTANT LONG TERMRELATIONSHIPBETWEEN3EIKOANDTHESPORTINGWORLD
'AMES%VENWITHIN3EIKOTHEREWERE

!*/52.%9).4)-% 
SAYTOUS @!NDYOUCALLTHISAWATCH
) HAD JUST COME BACK FROM FACING
THAT SOWHENSOMEONESUDDENLYTOLD
ME @7ELL HANDLE THE NEXT /LYMPIC
'AMES ) REALISED THERE COULD BE A
DELUGE OF COMPLAINTS MAYBE ENOUGH
TO ENGULF THE /LYMPICS THEMSELVES )F
THAT HAPPENED )D HAVE TO LEAVE THE
COMPANY.OTONLYTHAT THECOMPANY
ITSELFMIGHTFOLD%VENWORSETHANTHE
COMPANY FOLDING ) THOUGHT THAT THE
NATION WOULD BE WRITTEN OFF BY THE
WHOLE WORLD SAYING @*APAN JUST CANT
GET IT RIGHTv ! GREAT DEAL OF WORK
WAS NEEDED TO IMPROVE QUALITY AND
RELIABILITY AND DEVELOP TIMEKEEPING
EQUIPMENTINTIMEFORTHE'AMES
-R)NOUEADDED h)NTHISSITUATION
3PORTSTIMEKEEPINGWASREVOLUTIONISEDBY3EIKOWHENITTIMEDTHE3UMMER )COULDNTSEEHOWINFOURSHORTYEARS
/LYMPIC'AMESIN4OKYO5NTILTHENTIMEKEEPINGHADBEENCARRIEDOUTMANUALLY 3EIKO COULD GENERATE THE CONlDENCE
-ANYTIMEKEEPERSWEREPLACEDATTHEFINISHINGLINEWITHTHEIRSTOPWATCHES ITWOULDNEEDTOHANDLETHE/LYMPIC
nPROVIDINGASIGHTTHAT3EIKOWASTOBANISHFOREVER
'AMESv
!LTHOUGH3EIKOTHENHADSOMUCH
PRESIDENTOF+(ATTORI#O,TD CAME IN TO THE DETERMINATION OF 0RESIDENT INmUENCEINTHEDOMESTICMARKETTHAT
TO$AINI3EIKOSHAANDASKEDME @7ELL 3HOJI WHOWASVISITINGHIMEVERYWEEK
THEN AREYOUREADYTOTAKETHISON AND HE AGREED TO LAUNCH THE TIMING
h)THOUGHT @/H THISISABOUTOFlCIAL EFFORT ON ONE CONDITION h) TOLD HIM
TIMING SO ) SAID @)M SORRY WE JUST SINCE)DNEVERSEENTIMINGDEVICESFOR
CANTDOIT(ERETORTED @ANDWHYNOT THE /LYMPICS AND DIDNT KNOW HOW
9OUHAVEFOURYEARS"UTYOUHAVETO THEYUSEDTHEIRSTOPWATCHES ORWHAT
REALISE THAT FOUR YEARS ISNT NEARLY AS TYPES THEY WOULD NEED ) WOULD HAVE
LONGASITSOUNDS7ECOULDNTDOCOM
@7ELLHANDLETHENEXT
PUTERSIMULATIONS SOWEHADTOWORK
OUTEVERYSINGLETHINGBYTRIALANDERROR /LYMPIC'AMES
3O)TOLDHIM @)TSIMPLYCANTBEDONE TOMEETWITHTHETOPOFlCIALSFORTRACK
h0RESIDENT3HOJIGOTANGRYANDSAID AND SWIMMING EVENTS (E SAID @) CAN
@OURTIMEPIECESARENOWGOODENOUGH CERTAINLY ARRANGE THAT FOR YOU 4HAT
FOR THE WHOLE WORLD TO KNOW ABOUT SEALEDMYFATEv
THEM7HATDOYOUMEAN @)TCANTBE /NE OF THE INITIAL REASONS FOR -R
DONE (E FOLLOWED THAT REMARK WITH )NOUES RELUCTANCE STEMMED FROM HIS
@)LLBEBACKINAWEEK9OUDBETTERBE VISITTO!MERICAAFTERHIS:URICHTRIP h)
READYBYTHENnANDHELEFTv WENT TO!MERICA BECAUSE WE HAD TO
(EREALLYDIDRETURNINAWEEKAND HANDLE A HUGE NUMBER OF COMPLAINTS 3ABUROU)NOUEWASTOLDBYTHE
HEPRESSED-R)NOUEHARD ASKINGh!RE ABOUT THE lRST WATCHES WE EXPORTED 0RESIDENTTOMAKETHEEQUIPMENTTO
TIMETHE'AMESnFROMSCRATCH
YOUREADYNOWv-R)NOUElNALLYGAVE TOTHE537EEVENHADAWATCHSTORE

 #(!04%2
WEREOFTENDISCREPANCIESBETWEENTHE BALANCE A BIG @KICK WHEN STARTING
RECORDEDTIMESANDSOANAVERAGEWAS THE STOPWATCHv 4HE SAME HAPPENED
USED $AINI 3EIKOSHA TECHNICIANS SET WHETHER THEY USED 3WISS OR *APANESE
OUT TO DISCOVER WHETHER THE DISCREP STOPWATCHES
ANCIESWERETHERESULTOFDIFFERENTSKILL h4HESHOCKINGRESULTOFOUR+OMAKI
LEVELS OR REACTION TIMES AMONG THE MACHINEEXPERIMENTSWASTHATATIME
TIMINGPERSONNEL DIFFERENCE WAS ALWAYS RECORDED EVEN
-R)SHIWARAEXPLAINED h0ARTLYFOR WHEN OPERATION OF THE BUTTON WAS
ENDURANCE TESTS WE HAD 3HOICHIRO CONTROLLED MECHANICALLY TO ENSURE
+OMAKI AND 9OSHIO 9AMAMOTO THAT ALL WATCHES WERE OPERATED
CONSTRUCT A MACHINE THAT USED AN SIMULTANEOUSLY 3PORTS ORGANISATIONS
ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT TO ENSURE ACCU WEREAWARETHATTHEREWASAPROBLEM
RATE SIMULTANEOUS STARTS OF MULTIPLE BUT THEY THOUGHT IT WAS CONNECTED
STOPWATCHES -R +OMAKI WAS ALWAYS WITH THE SKILL OF THE OPERATOR 4HEY
AHEAD OF THE TIMES AND WAS ALREADY WERETRAININGPEOPLEHOWTOOPERATE
DEEPLY INVOLVED IN DEVELOPING DIGITAL STOPWATCHES AND LICENSING THEM BUT
TECHNOLOGY 7HEN WE TRIED OUT THIS WE FOUND THE DISCREPANCIES WERE
4ATSUYA)SHIWARAIMPROVEDTHE MACHINE USING A ROW OF lVE STOP NOTHINGTODOWITHOPERATORSKILLSTHEY
ACCURACYOFSTOPWATCHESFOR WATCHES WE FOUND THEY WOULDNT WERECAUSEDBYTHEPOSITIONOFTHEBAL
SPORTSTIMING
REGISTER THE SAME TIME 7E THOUGHT ANCEWHENTHEBUTTONWASCLICKED)D
ANYTHINGTHECOMPANYPRODUCEDWOULD THISTHROUGHANDDECIDEDITWASPROB HATE TO TELL AN ATHLETE THAT BECAUSE
BE BOUGHT AS A MATTER OF COURSE THE ABLY SOMETHING TO DO WITH GIVING THE THEY STAKE THEIR PROFESSIONAL LIVES ON
3WISS WERE STILL SUPERIOR IN THE STOP
WATCH MARKET 3EIKO HAD TO APPROACH
THE /LYMPIC AUTHORITIES TO ASK THEM
WHAT THEY WANTED4HEY BUILT ENTIRELY
NEW TIMING SYSTEMS FROM SCRATCH AN
IMMENSE UNDERTAKING THAT HAS NEVER
BEENREPEATEDIN/LYMPICHISTORY
7HILE -R )NOUE WAS HAVING PRO
FOUND MISGIVINGS A QUIET START WAS
MADE ON SOME RESEARCH THAT WAS TO
REVOLUTIONISE SPORTS TIMING ! NEW
STOPWATCH WAS BEING DEVELOPED
THAT WOULD REDUCE THE TIMING ERRORS
INHERENTINTHEEXISTINGGENERATION !T
THE TIME A MARGIN OF ERROR WAS
EXPECTED WHEN STOPWATCHES WERE
USED FOR MANUAL TIMING AND THIS WAS
ASSUMED TO BE ATTRIBUTABLE TO HUMAN
ERROR
&ORMANYYEARS TRACKEVENTSWERE
TIMEDBYATLEASTOFlCIALSWHOWERE
POSITIONEDVERTICALLYABOVEONEANOTHER 4HESEPRESSURE SENSITIVESTARTINGBLOCKS INTRODUCEDIN GAVEOFFICIALSNEWDATA
TODETECTFALSESTARTS
ATTHElNISHINGLINE.EVERTHELESS THERE

!*/52.%9).4)-% 
DIFFERENCESASSMALLASONETENTHOFA h4HE DAY BEFORE THE #OMMITTEE
SECONDv MEETING THE 0RESIDENT OF THE *APAN
!SSOCIATION OF !THLETICS &EDERATIONS
0ROBLEMSOLVED TESTEDTHESTOPWATCHES)HADBROUGHT
! HEART SHAPED CAM WAS lTTED TO WITHME vHEEXPLAINEDLATER *USTONE
THE BALANCE STAFF SO THAT THE BALANCE OFTHEMODELWATCHESSEEMEDTO
WHEELALWAYSSTOPPEDINTHEOPTIMUM HAVE A PROBLEM n THE SECONDS HAND
POSITIONTOENSURETHATITWOULDSTART WASNOTABLETOSYNCHRONISEWITHTHE
WITHANINSTANTANDCONSISTENTIMPULSE OTHER HAND4HE *!!& 0RESIDENT WAS
-R)SHIWARAEXPLAINED h7ECREATEDA SHARP WITH ME SAYING@)F THIS HAPPENS
MODELTHATSTARTEDTHEBALANCEWHEEL AT TOMORROWS #OMMITTEE MEETING IT
SMOOTHLYWHENTHEBUTTONWASPUSHED WILLALLBEOVERINANINSTANT 3O)WON
ANDTHISCUREDTHEPROBLEMv4HEENGI DEREDWHATTODO4HEREWASNTENOUGH
NEERSAT$AINI3EIKOSHAWERETHElRST TIME TO lX IT AND TESTING THE REST
EVER TO APPLY THIS TECHNIQUE TO RESET OF THEM COULD POSSIBLY CAUSE MORE
THEBALANCETOTHESAMEPOSITIONEVERY DEFECTS SO ) ELIMINATED THE DEFECTIVE
TIMETHEHANDSWERERE SET WATCH4HEN ) LISTENED TO THE TICKING
4HE IDEA WAS VERY SIMPLE BUT -ASATOSHI4OHYAMAPRESENTED OF THE MODEL  WATCHES AND ELIMI
BECAUSE THE PARTS WERE SO TINY IT 3EIKOSCASETOTHE)NTERNATIONAL NATED THE QUIETEST ) TOOK THOSE THAT
/LYMPIC#OMMITTEE
PROVED VERY DIFlCULT TO MANUFACTURE REMAINEDTOTHEMEETINGTHENEXTDAYv
THEM! DEVICE WAS ADDED TO ENSURE TRACK EVENTS4HEY MET IN "ELGRADE 4HE STOPWATCHES WERE TESTED
THAT WHEN THE SECOND HAND STOPPED IN 3EPTEMBER  TO CONSIDER BY TWO #OMMITTEE MEMBERS -R
BETWEEN MARKS THE TIME IN QUESTION THE TIMING OF THE  'AMES -R 0AIN THE (ONORARY 3ECRETARY OF THE
WOULDALWAYSBEROUNDEDAUTOMATICALLY -ASATOSHI4OHYAMA 2ESEARCH 3ECTION
SO THAT THE HAND WOULD STOP DIRECTLY -ANAGER AT THE TIME WAS GIVEN THE
OVER A MARK &INALLY THE DEVELOPMENT TASKOFTAKINGTHENEWSTOPWATCHESTO
TEAMPRODUCEDASTOPWATCHTHATWOULD THE#OMMITTEEFOREVALUATION(ETOOK
PROVIDETHESAMERESULTSWHENUSEDBY SIX  SECONDMODELS ANDSIX 
ANYSUFlCIENTLYSKILLEDTIMINGOFlCIAL SECONDMODELS /NTHEJOURNEY
4HEREWASAVERYGOODREASONFOR THE PLANE MADE A REFUELLING STOP IN
3EIKOTODEVOTESOMUCHEFFORTTOTHE :AGREB BEFORE IT REACHED "ELGRADE
DEVELOPMENT OF THIS NEW STOPWATCH 7HEN PASSENGERS HAD TO LEAVE THE
4HE /LYMPIC 'AMES EMBRACE A WIDE PLANEDURINGTHEREFUELLING -R4OHYAMA
VARIETY OF SPORTS THAT REQUIRE A TRE WASTOLDHECOULDLEAVEHISBAGSONHIS
MENDOUS RANGE OF SPECIALISED TIMING SEAT7HENHERETURNEDTOTHEAIRCRAFT
EQUIPMENT BUT ACCURATE TIMING WAS HE WAS HORRIlED TO lND HIS SUITCASE
MOST CRITICAL FOR TRACK AND SWIMMING WAS NO LONGER ON HIS SEAT )F IT HAD
EVENTS3EIKORECOGNISEDTHATTHEMOST BEENLOSTORSTOLEN 3EIKOSCHANCEOF
IMPORTANTCHALLENGEWASTOENSURETHAT ALIFETIMEWOULDHAVEBEENLOSTFOREVER
ITS NEW STOPWATCH WAS ADOPTED FOR &ORTUNATELY THESUITCASECONTAININGHIS 3EIKOHASDEVELOPEDSPECIAL
THESEhBLUE RIBANDv EVENTS AND MOST PRECIOUS CARGO OF WATCHES HAD BEEN TIMEPIECESFORMANYDIFFERENTSPORTS
4HISEXAMPLEMEASURESTHENUMBER
OFALL FORATHLETICS PUTONTHETARMAC#HASTENEDBYTHIS OFSTROKESPERMINUTEINROWING
!N/LYMPIC4ECHNICAL#OMMITTEE TRAUMATICINCIDENT -R4OHYAMAARRIVED COMPETITIONS)THELPSROWERSADJUST
WASRESPONSIBLEFORDETERMININGWHICH IN "ELGRADE WITHOUT FURTHER INCIDENT THEIRSTROKERATE BUTISNOTUSEDFOR
OFFICIALTIMING
EQUIPMENT WOULD BE USED TO TIME BUTMOREPROBLEMSWERETOFOLLOW

 #(!04%2
)NTERNATIONAL!SSOCIATION OF!THLETICS
&EDERATIONS )!!& AND -R 0AULEN
0RESIDENTOFTHE)!!& -R0AULENWAS
PARTICULARLY CONlDENT ABOUT HIS STOP
WATCH TIMING SKILLS (E ALWAYS CARRIED
ASTOPWATCHAROUNDANDWASREPUTED
TO lLE A COMPLAINT WHENEVER AN OFl
CIALTIMEDIFFEREDFROMHISOWNTIMING
RESULTS
-R 4OHYAMA WONDERED HOW
-R 0AULEN INTENDED TO TEST 3EIKOS
STOPWATCHES (E SAID h(E TOOK
A STOPWATCH IN EACH HAND CLICKED
BOTH SIMULTANEOUSLY AND THEN AFTER A
SPECIlEDTIMEHADPASSED CLICKEDTHEM
BOTHAGAINANDCHECKEDTHEDIFFERENCE
BETWEEN THEM (E PERFORMED THIS
TESTTHREETIMESnFORSEVERALSECONDS
SEVERAL MINUTES AND FOR NEARLY ONE
HOUR4HE lRST TEST FOR SECONDS WAS
RIGHT ON TARGET4HE TEST FOR SEVERAL 4HE3EIKOhSLIT VIDEOvPHOTO FINISHCAMERAPROVIDESTHEIMAGEFROMWHICHOFFICIALS
MINUTES WAS lNE TOO7HEN -R DECIDEBOTHTHERESULTANDTHETIME TOANACCURACYOF OFASECOND
0AULEN STOPPED THE WATCHES AFTER A
TEST OF NEARLY AN HOUR THE DIFFERENCE LIMINARY DECISION IN FAVOUR OF 3EIKO STOPWATCH THISWASONLYTHEBEGINNING
WASLESSTHANSECONDS STOPWATCHESv 3UBSEQUENTLY THE NEW OFTHEMAMMOTHTASKOFDEVELOPINGA
h4HAT EVEN SURPRISED -R 0AULEN STOPWATCHES WERE SUBMITTED TO THE FULL COMPLEMENT OF TIMING EQUIPMENT
AND HE ASKED ME @7HAT KIND OF TECH .ATIONAL0HYSICAL,ABORATORYIN%NGLAND FORTHE'AMES
NOLOGYISTHISSO)GOTOUTTHEMANUAL FORINSPECTIONANDFORCERTIlCATIONAS !S SOON AS 3EIKO WAS UNOFlCIALLY
AND EXPLAINED THE )SHIWARA PRINCIPLE /LYMPICTIMEKEEPINGEQUIPMENT AWARDED THE CONTRACT TO TIME THE
"OTH -R 0AULEN AND -R 0AIN OFFERED !LTHOUGH 3EIKO RECEIVED A PRE 4OKYO'AMES ITBEGANTHEENORMOUS
HEARTY PRAISE AFTER THE PRESENTATION LIMINARYNOMINATIONASTIMEKEEPERFOR TASK OF DEVELOPING DIFFERENT TYPES OF
@7HATAGOODIDEA4HATSGOODTHEORY THE4OKYO/LYMPIC'AMESAFTER STOPWATCH SUITABLE FOR TIMING MANY
4HEN THEY SAID @7E ARE NOT ASSIGNING THE)!!&#OMMITTEEMETIN"ELGRADE DIFFERENT SPORTS EVENTS .OT ONLY DID
OFlCIALTIMEKEEPINGTOA*APANESEMAN IN  IT WAS ONLY ONE YEAR BEFORE 3EIKOS SYSTEMS HAVE TO RECORD THE
UFACTURERBECAUSETHE/LYMPICSWILLBE THEEVENTTHATTHEYRECEIVEDNOTICEIN TIME OF THE WINNING COMPETITOR IN
HELD IN4OKYO BUT BECAUSE THESE ARE WRITINGOFTHEIROFlCIALAPPOINTMENT EACHEVENTTHEYALSOHADTODETERMINE
ACTUAL FUNCTIONAL STOPWATCHES BACKED $EVELOPMENT OF THE NEW STOP TIMESFORTHEOTHERCOMPETITORSANDTO
UPWITHSOLIDTHEORY WATCHWITHITSINNOVATIVEHEART SHAPED RECORDWHICHCOMPETITORWASINWHICH
CAMWASANENORMOUSUNDERTAKING BUT PLACE
/LYMPICCERTIlCATION WITHOUTIT 3EIKOWOULDPROBABLYHAVE 4HE GARGANTUAN TASK OF PREPARING
h4HAT REALLY MADE ME FEEL GOOD4HAT STOOD NO CHANCE IN ITS CAMPAIGN TO FOR THE 'AMES DID NOT STOP WITH THE
EVENING ) WAS ABSOLUTELY THRILLED TIMETHE/LYMPICS DEVELOPMENT OF NEW TIMING EQUIP
WHEN ) HEARD -R /DA -IKIO FROM $ESPITE THE TRIALS AND TRIBULA MENT)TWASALSONECESSARYTOPRODUCE
THE*!!&SAY @THEBESTTHINGTOCOME TIONS THAT HAD BEEN ENDURED DURING MANYOTHERITEMS SUCHASGIANTCLOCKS
FROM THE MEETING TODAY WAS THE PRE THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MORE ACCURATE FOR THE STADIUMS AS WELL AS DISPLAYS

!*/52.%9).4)-% 
TO ENABLE SPECTATORS TO SEE TIMES! DEVELOPED A MARINE CHRONOMETER )T
PROJECT ON THIS SCALE WAS AN ENTIRELY WAS SOON MARKETED AS A COMMERCIAL
NEW EXPERIENCE FOR 3EIKO )T IS TO CLOCK THE #RYSTAL #HRONOMETER
THEIR ETERNAL CREDIT THAT DURING THE 1#  COSTING   YEN 4HIS
ENTIRE/LYMPIC'AMES THEIRVERYlRST REVOLUTIONARY PRODUCT WAS USED TO
THERE WERE NO TIMEKEEPING ERRORS TIMESOMEEVENTSATTHE/LYMPIC
AT ALL ALTHOUGH THEY HAD NO PREVIOUS 'AMES IN 4OKYO INTRODUCING QUARTZ
EXPERIENCEANDHADONLYHADTWOYEARS ACCURACYTOSPORTSTIMEKEEPINGSYSTEM
TODESIGNANDMAKEALLTHENEWEQUIP FORTHElRSTTIME
MENTTHATWASREQUIRED HAVINGALREADY 4HEOPPORTUNITYTOACTASTHEOFl
IMPROVEDSTOPWATCHPERFORMANCE CIALTIMEKEEPEROFTHE4OKYO/LYMPICS
(AVING BEEN GRANTED THE PRES OPENED UP A WHOLE NEW WORLD OF
TIGIOUS CONTRACT TO TIME THE /LYMPIC SPORTS TIMING OPPORTUNITIES FOR 3EIKO
'AMES FOR THE lRST TIME 3EIKO WERE 4IMING THE EVENT WAS A MAMMOTH
DETERMINED TO ENSURE THAT IN THEIR UNDERTAKING BUT THE DECISION TO TAKE
HANDS TIMEKEEPINGSHOULDREACHHIGHER ONTHECHALLENGEPROVEDTOBEONEOF
STANDARDSTHANEVERBEFORE

!N/LYMPIClRST
4HEYFULlLLEDTHEIRDREAMBYDEVELOPING
A QUARTZ CRYSTAL CHRONOMETER CLOCK
$ISTANCEMEASUREMENTISPROVIDED
FORALLFIELDEVENTS

THAT WAS USED TO TIME THE MARATHON


EVENTS n AND IT WAS ACCURATE TO
WITHIN  SECONDS A DAY )T WAS THE
lRST TIME THAT QUARTZ TIMEKEEPING
SYSTEM HAD EVER BEEN USED AT AN
INTERNATIONAL SPORTING EVENT 3PRING
WOUND MECHANICAL TIMEPIECES WHICH 3EIKOSFIRSTCOMMERCIAL PORTABLE
HADSETTHESTANDARDSFORTIMEKEEPING QUARTZCLOCK THE#RYSTAL
#HRONOMETER1#  MADEHISTORY
FOR THE PRECEDING  YEARS WERE WHENITWASUSEDTOTIMESOME
MOSTLY ONLY ABLE TO ACHIEVE ACCURACY EVENTSATTHE'AMESIN4OKYO
OF PLUS OR MINUS  SECONDS A
DAY 4HE APPEARANCE OF THE #RYSTAL THE MOST MOMENTOUS LANDMARKS IN
#HRONOMETER CLOCK CLEARLY SIGNALLED THECOMPANYSHISTORYANDITHASNEVER
TO THE WORLD THAT 3EIKO HAD BEEN LOOKEDBACKSINCE4HECOMPANYTOOK
DEVELOPINGQUARTZTECHNOLOGYANDTHAT ITS RESPONSIBILITY SO SERIOUSLY THAT IT
THEY WERE WELL PLACED IN THE RACE TO EMBARKEDONAFOUR YEARDEVELOPMENT
DEVELOPQUARTZWRISTWATCHES PROGRAMME WITHNOLIMITONDEVELOP
4HE lRST STEP ALONG THE WAY FOR MENTCOSTSORTHERESOURCESTHATCOULD
5LTRASONICWINDGAUGESMEASURETHE 3EIKO CAME IN  WHEN 3EIKOSHA BE USED )T WAS A FAR SIGHTED PROJECT
WINDSPEED !READINGOFMORETHAN CREATEDAPRACTICALQUARTZTIMEPIECEFOR THAT MUST BE UNIQUE IN /LYMPIC
TWOMETRESASECONDINVALIDATESA ARADIOSTATION BUTITWASNOTPORTABLE HISTORY "UT WAS ALL THE EXPENSE AND
WORLDTRACKRECORD
)N THE FOLLOWING YEAR 3UWA 3EIKOSHA EFFORT WORTHWHILE 3EIKO TIMED THE

 #(!04%2
DRAMATIC MOMENTS BUT THESE GAVE
3EIKOS ENGINEERS AND TECHNICIANS AN
OPPORTUNITY TO HONE THEIR SPECIALIST
TIMING SKILLS UNTIL THEY WERE AS SHARP
AS A LEGENDARY *APANESE SWORD )N
 FOR EXAMPLE 3EIKO WERE THE
OFlCIALTIMEKEEPERSFORTHE&IFTH!SIAN
'AMES HELD IN 4HAILAND !CCORDING
TO9ASUAKI!SAHARA A SENIOR MEMBER
OF THE SPORTS TIMING TEAM THE TIMING
EQUIPMENTTHATWASTAKENTO4HAILAND
4HELATESTTRANSPONDERTECHNOLOGY
WASMUCHTHESAMEASHADBEENUSED ISNOWUSEDTOGIVEINSTANTTIMES
FOR THE /LYMPIC 'AMES 4HIS FAILED ANDPOSITIONSINMARATHONS CROSS
TO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE DRAMATIC COUNTRYANDSKIRACES
9ASUAKI!SAHARAMASTERMINDED3EIKOS DIFFERENCE IN TEMPERATURES BETWEEN
SPORTSTIMINGFOROVERYEARS 4OKYO AND "ANGKOK AND RESULTED IN TIME TEMPERATURES WERE OFTEN WELL
SOMEEQUIPMENTFAILURES OVERŽ# THETEMPERATUREINSIDETHE
GAMES mAWLESSLY AND THE RESULTING BOXES CONTAINING SOME OF THE TIMING
PUBLICITYALLOVERTHEWORLDHELPEDTHE &OOLPROOFBACK UPS EQUIPMENTROSETOAROUNDŽ#4HE
COMPANYTOGAINTHEINTERNATIONALREC 1UARTZ OSCILLATORS ARE PARTICULARLY TEMPORARY SOLUTION WAS A HAND HELD
OGNITIONANDCREDIBILITYITHADNEEDED SENSITIVETOTEMPERATURECHANGESAND FAN$ESPITETHEFAILUREOFSOMEITEMS
SOBADLY THE NEWLY DEVELOPED SMALL ELECTRONIC OF EQUIPMENT 3EIKO STILL MANAGED TO
!TLAST 3EIKOWASABLETOCOMPETE PRINTERS HAD BEEN DEVELOPED FOR THE TIME EVERY EVENT WITHOUT MISSING A
WITHTHE3WISSONEQUALTERMSFORTHE *APANESE CLIMATE IN /CTOBER /N A SINGLETIME
TIMING OF WORLD CLASS SPORTS EVENTS $ECEMBER DAY IN4HAILAND WHEN DAY
3INCE THAT lRST MAJOR SPORTING EVENT
THECOMPANYHASTIRELESSLYDEVISEDNEW
ANDIMPROVEDSPECIALISTTIMINGSYSTEMS
AND NOW IT HAS ONE OF THE WORLDS
MOST COMPREHENSIVE TIMEKEEPING
SYSTEMS FOR SPORTS EVENTS )T IS USED
TO SATISFY THE EVER MORE DEMANDING
REQUIREMENTS OF MAJOR SPORTS EVENTS
THE WORLD OVER 3INCE  3EIKO
HAVETIMEDlVEMORE/LYMPIC'AMES
BUT THEIR INVOLVEMENT IN SPORTS HAS
GROWN WELL BEYOND /LYMPIC EVENTS
ANDTHEYHAVEPROVIDEDTIMINGFACILITIES
AT MANY INTERNATIONAL MULTI DISCIPLINE
SPORTS EVENTS FROM THE !SIAN AND
#OMMONWEALTH 'AMES TO 7ORLD
#HAMPIONSHIPSINOVERSPORTS
$ESPITETHEmAWLESSTIMINGOFTHE
 /LYMPIC 'AMES THE EARLY YEARS
3EIKOHASSERVEDAS/FFICIAL4IMERFOREVERY)!!&7ORLD#HAMPIONSHIPSSINCE
THAT FOLLOWED WERE NOT WITHOUT THEIR

!*/52.%9).4)-% 
4HE LESSON THAT WAS LEARNT FROM SYSTEM TO ENSURE THAT WE NEVER MISS
THISUNEXPECTEDINTERLUDEWASTHATTHE RECORDINGTHETIME)TSALLRIGHTIFYOU
TIMEKEEPING TEAM HAD TO DEVELOP DIF HAVE TO USE A CALCULATOR TO COMPUTE
FERENTEQUIPMENTFOREVENTSINAUTUMN THERESULTS
SUMMER AND WINTER -R!SAHARA SAID h)TISALSOIMPORTANTTOREMEMBER
h4HEY HAD TO HAVE FOOLPROOF BACK UP THAT THE ATHLETES WHO COME IN LAST
SYSTEMSv -R!SAHARA EXPLAINED h)F A HAVEALSOGIVENITTHEIRBESTSHOTAND
PIECEOFTIMEKEEPINGEQUIPMENTWERE SOWEDONTWANTTOMISSTHEIRTIMES
TOFAIL ITREALLYWOULDONLYBEAFAILURE EITHER4HEHARDESTTHINGINTIMEKEEPING
IF THE TIMEKEEPERS DIDNT GET A TIME ISTORECORDTHETIMEOFTHELASTPERSON
ANDHADTOASKTHEATHLETESTORUNTHE TO lNISH!T THE MOMENT THE LEADING
SAMERACEFORUSAGAINv-R!SAHARA A RUNNER REACHES THE lNISHING LINE
KEENSPORTSENTHUSIAST ADDED h4HERES OFlCIALS AND CAMERAMEN ARE WAITING
4HE3EIKOSWIMMINGTOUCHPADSARE
NOWAYTHEYCOULDHAVESAID @)MSORRY EAGERLYINTHEIRASSIGNEDPOSITIONS"Y PARTOFAFULLYAUTOMATEDSYSTEM
#ARL,EWIS COULDYOURUNTHATAGAINv THE TIME THE LAST COMPETITOR GETS TO ACCURATETO OFASECOND
(EADDED h!WATCHISAMACHINEAND THE lNISHING LINE THEYRE ALL OVER THE
CAN BREAK DOWN7E HAVENT FAILED SO PLACE PARTICULARLY WITH THE   CALCULATED WITHOUT THE USE OF COM
FAR BUTYES OURWATCHESHAVEBROKEN METRERACEv PUTERS
"Y THE TIME OF THE 3APPORO 3KIINGEVENTSPRESENTTIMEKEEPERS
/LYMPICS IN  3EIKOS SPORTS WITH MORE CHALLENGES IN ADDITION
TIMING SPECIALISTS HAD DEVELOPED A TO THAT OF THE WEATHER -R !SAHARA
SYSTEM THAT COULD TIME SEVERAL SKIERS WHO RETIRED AT THE END OF THE S
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GSVVIGXXMQIEWWSSREWMXMWQSZIH KSSHI\EQTPI-RWXIEHSJYWMRK/MRIXMG QSZIQIRXMRSVHIVXSGVIEXIXLI
EKEMRYTXSJSYV]IEVWPEXIV JSYV±I]IW²
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XLVIIHMEPWWLS[GLVSRSKVETLMRJSVQE LERHW SR XLMW GLVSRSKVETL XLI QSZI XYVIWEWIIXLVSYKLFEGOXSVSYRHSJJ
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XIRXLWSJEWIGSRH WSXLITS[IVKIRIVEXMSRW]WXIQMRXLMW XMQITMIGIERHXSSJJIVEGPIEVZMI[SJ
6IWTSRWMZI LERHW XLEX VIXYVR XS WTIGMEP QSHIP TVSHYGIW XLVII XMQIW MXWI\XVESVHMREV]XIGLRSPSK]
XLIMV WXEVXMRK TSMRX MRWXERXERISYWP] QSVIIPIGXVMGMX]XLERER]SXLIV/MRIXMG 9RXMP RS[ 7IMOS LEW TVSHYGIH
[LIR XLI FYXXSR MW TVIWWIH EVI SRI [EXGL QSZIQIRXW ½VWX ERH HIWMKRIH GEWIW
GLVSRSKVETLJIEXYVIXLEXRIZIVJEMPWXS 8LMW MQTSVXERX XMQITMIGI GSQ PEXIV 8SHE] ERH MR XLI JYXYVI 7IMOS
WEXMWJ] XLI YWIV8LMW LEW EP[E]W FIIR FMRIWXLIVIPMEFMPMX]ERHLMKLEGGYVEG] QSZIQIRXW EVI FIMRK HIZIPSTIH EW
EJIEXYVISJQIGLERMGEPGLVSRSKVETLW SJ 7IMOS /MRIXMG XIGLRSPSK] [MXL XLI HIWMKRW¯XLI]LEZIFIGSQIERMRXIKVEP
ERHRS[7IMOSLEWMRGSVTSVEXIHMXMR XVEHMXMSREPEXXVMFYXIWSJXLIQIGLERMGEP TEVXSJXLISZIVEPPHIWMKRTVSGIWW
XLI/MRIXMG'LVSRSKVETLYWMRKELIEVX GLVSRSKVETL;MXLEJYPPGLEVKIJVSQ )RIVK]WEZMRKTVSHYGXWEVIGIRXVEP
GEQ WRETXS^IVS W]WXIQ 8S IRWYVI MXW /MRIXMG KIRIVEXMRK W]WXIQ XLMW XS7IMOS´WTSPMG]SJMRRSZEXMSRERHGSR
XLEXQSZIQIRXSJXLILERHWMWWQSSXL [EXGL[MPPVYRJSVETTVS\MQEXIP]SRI GIVRJSVXLIIRZMVSRQIRXERH/MRIXMG
ERH XLI HEXI GLERKI MW MRWXERXERISYW QSRXL EWWYQMRK XLI GLVSRSKVETL MW XIGLRSPSK][EWXLI½VWXQERMJIWXEXMSR
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GSQTPI\ ERH XLI WMQTPI %VQFERH PEVKI LERHW FYX EPWS TS[IVW E VSXSV QSZIQIRX ERH EPWS XLI FEXXIV] XLI
9LVIR E LMKLP] VIWTIGXIH [EXGL [LSWI XMR] IPIGXVMGEP SYXTYX MRHYGIW TEVXSJEUYEVX^[EXGLXLEXRIIHWXSFI
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SRI SJ XLI YRMUYI 7IMOS XIGLRSPSKMIW GSRHYGXIH SR XLVII JVSRXW UYEVX^
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SPHTVSHYGXWXLEX´WTVITSWXIVSYW´1] PMOIRIHXSELSVSPSKMGEPLMWXSV]FSSO
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SJ XLI JSYRHIV SJ E FYWMRIWW XLI]´VI 8LI -RWXMXYXI [EW IWXEFPMWLIH -RWXMXYXI LI GSRWMHIVIH LMQWIPJ XS FI
EP[E]WOIIRSRRI[XLMRKW´²;LIRXLI RSX XS KPSVMJ] 7IMOS FYX XS QEMRXEMR EGSRWIVZEXMSRMWXSJ[SVPHXMQITMIGIW
GSQTER]VIEGLIHMXWGIRXIREV]XLIVI E VIGSVH SJ XLI HIZIPSTQIRX SJ ERHRSXNYWXXLSWIQEHIMR.ETER
GSYPH FI PMXXPI HSYFX XLEX XLI QER] [EXGLQEOMRKMRGPYHMRK7IMOS´WLMWXSV] 8LI -RWXMXYXI LSYWIW WSQI SJ XLI
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%.3962)=-28-1) 
GPSGOW [MXL X[MR ZIVKI ERH JSPMSX
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XS  %X XLI FIKMRRMRK SJ XLMW WXSVI MW SRI SJ XLI QSWX JEQSYW MXIQW EKEMR HYVMRK XLI 7MRS.ETERIWI
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GLVSRSQIXIVW EX XLI VIUYIWX SJ XLI


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%.3962)=-28-1) 
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