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Orsak, G.C.

“Optimum Receivers”
Mobile Communications Handbook
Ed. Suthan S. Suthersan
Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 1999
c 1999byCRCPressLLC
Optimum Receivers
Geoffrey C. Orsak
Southern Methodist University
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Preliminaries
9.3 Karhunen–LoeveExpansion
9.4 DetectionTheory
9.5 Performance
9.6 Signal Space
9.7 StandardBinarySignallingSchemes
9.8 M-aryOptimal Receivers
9.9 MoreRealisticChannels
RandomPhaseChannels

RayleighChannel
9.10 DispersiveChannels
DefiningTerms
References
Further Information
9.1 Introduction
Everyengineerstrivesforoptimalityindesign. Thisisparticularlytrueforcommunicationsengineers
sinceinmanycasesimplementingsuboptimal receiversandsourcescanresult indramaticlossesin
performance. Assuch, thischapter focuseson design principlesleadingto theimplementation of
optimumreceiversfor themost commoncommunicationenvironments.
Themainobjectiveindigital communicationsistotransmitasequenceof bitstoaremotelocation
withthehighestdegreeof accuracy. Thisisaccomplishedbyfirstrepresentingbits(or moregenerally
short bit sequences) bydistinct waveformsof finitetimeduration. Thesetime-limitedwaveforms
arethentransmitted(broadcasted) totheremotesitesinaccordancewiththedatasequence.
Unfortunately, becauseof thenatureof thecommunicationchannel,theremotelocationreceives
acorruptedversionof theconcatenatedsignal waveforms. Themost widelyacceptedmodel for the
communicationchannel istheso-calledadditivewhiteGaussiannoise
1
channel (AWGNchannel).
1
ForthoseunfamiliarwithAWGN,arandomprocess(waveform)isformallysaidtobewhiteGaussiannoiseifall collections
of instantaneousobservationsof theprocessarejointlyGaussianandmutuallyindependent. Animportant consequence
of thispropertyisthatthepower spectral densityof theprocessisaconstantwithrespecttofrequencyvariation(spectrally
flat). For moreonAWGN, seePapoulis[4].
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Mathematical argumentsbasedupon thecentral limit theorem[7], together with supportingem-
pirical evidence, demonstratethat manycommoncommunicationchannelsareaccuratelymodeled
bythisabstraction. Moreover, fromthedesignperspective, thisisquitefortuitoussincedesignand
analysiswithrespect tothischannel model isrelativelystraightforward.
9.2 Preliminaries
To better describethedigital communicationsprocess, weshall first elaborateon so-calledbinary
communications. Inthiscase, whenthesourcewishestotransmit abit valueof 0, thetransmitter
broadcastsaspecifiedwaveforms
0
(t ) over thebitinterval t ∈ [0, T ]. Conversely, if thesourceseeks
totransmitthebitvalueof 1, thetransmitter alternativelybroadcaststhesignal s
1
(t ) over thesamebit
interval. ThereceivedwaveformR(t ) correspondingtothefirst bit isthenappropriatelydescribed
bythefollowinghypothesestestingproblem:
H
0
: R(t ) = s
0
(t ) + η(t ) 0 ≤ t ≤ T
H
1
: R(t ) = s
1
(t ) + η(t )
(9.1)
where,asstatedpreviously,η(t ) correspondstoAWGNwithspectral heightnominallygivenbyN
0
/2.
It istheobjectiveof thereceiver todeterminethebit value, i.e., themost accuratehypothesisfrom
thereceivedwaveformR(t ).
Theoptimalitycriterionof choiceindigital communicationapplicationsisthetotal probability
oferrornormallydenotedasP
e
. Thisscalar quantityisexpressedas
P
e
= Pr( declaring1 | 0 transmitted)Pr(0 transmitted)
+ Pr( declaring0 | 1 transmitted)Pr(1 transmitted) (9.2)
Theproblemof determiningtheoptimal binaryreceiver withrespect totheprobabilityof error
issolvedbyapplyingstochasticrepresentation theory[10] to detection theory[5, 9]. Thespecific
waveformrepresentationof relevanceinthisapplicationistheKarhunen–Lo` eve(KL)expansion.
9.3 Karhunen–Lo` eveExpansion
TheKarhunen–Lo` eveexpansion is a generalization of theFourier series designed to represent a
randomprocess in terms of deterministic basis functions and uncorrelated randomvariables de-
rivedfromtheprocess. WhereastheFourier seriesallowsonetomodel or represent deterministic
time-limitedenergysignalsintermsof linear combinationsof complexexponential waveforms, the
Karhunen–Lo` eveexpansionallowsustorepresent asecond-order randomprocessintermsof aset
of orthonormal basis functions scaled by asequenceof randomvariables. Theobjectivein this
representation istochoosethebasisof timefunctionssothat thecoefficientsin theexpansion are
mutuallyuncorrelatedrandomvariables.
Tobemoreprecise, if R(t ) isazeromeansecond-order randomprocessdefinedover [0, T ] with
covariancefunction K
R
(t, s), then so longas thebasis of deterministic functions satisfy certain
integral constraints[9], onemaywriteR(t ) as
R(t ) =

i=1
R
i
φ
i
(t ) 0 ≤ t ≤ T (9.3)
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where
R
i
=
_
T
0
R(t )φ
i
(t ) dt
InthiscasetheR
i
will bemutuallyuncorrelatedrandomvariableswiththeφ
i
beingdeterministicbasis
functionsthatarecompleteinthespaceof squareintegrabletimefunctionsover [0, T ]. Importantly,
inthiscase, equalityistobeinterpretedasmean-squareequivalence,i.e.,
lim
N→∞
E
_
_
_
R(t ) −
N

i=1
R
i
φ
i
(t )
_
2
_
_
= 0
for all 0 ≤ t ≤ T .
FACT 9.1 If R(t ) isAWGN, thenanybasisof thevector spaceof squareintegrablesignalsover [0, T ]
resultsinuncorrelatedandthereforeindependent Gaussianrandomvariables.
Theuseof Fact 9.1allowsfor aconversionof acontinuoustimedetectionproblemintoafinite-
dimensional detectionproblem. Proceeding, toderivetheoptimal binaryreceiver, wefirst construct
our set of basisfunctionsastheset of functionsdefinedover t ∈ [0, T ] beginningwiththesignalsof
interest s
0
(t ) ands
1
(t ). That is,
_
s
0
(t ), s
1
(t ), plusacountablenumber of functionswhichcompletethebasis
_
Inorder toinsurethat thebasisisorthonormal, wemust applytheGramm–Schmidt procedure
2
[6]
tothefull set of functionsbeginningwiths
0
(t ) ands
1
(t ) toarriveat our final choiceof basis{φ
i
(t )}.
FACT 9.2 Let {φ
i
(t )} betheresultant set of basisfunctions.
Thenfor all i > 2, theφ
i
(t ) areorthogonal tos
0
(t ) ands
1
(t ). That is,
_
T
0
φ
i
(t )s
j
(t ) dt = 0
for all i > 2 andj = 0, 1.
Usingthisfact inconjunctionwithEq. (9.3), onemayrecognizethat onlythecoefficientsR
1
and
R
2
arefunctionsof our signalsof interest. Moreover, sincetheR
i
aremutuallyindependent, the
optimal receiver will, therefore, onlybeafunctionof thesetwovalues.
Thus, throughtheapplicationof theKL expansion, wearriveat anequivalent hypothesistesting
problemtothat giveninEq. (9.1),
H
0
: R =
_ _
T
0
φ
1
(t )s
0
(t ) dt
_
T
0
φ
2
(t )s
0
(t ) dt
_
+
_
η
1
η
2
_
H
1
: R =
_ _
T
0
φ
1
(t )s
1
(t ) dt
_
T
0
φ
2
(t )s
1
(t ) dt
_
+
_
η
1
η
2
_
(9.4)
2
TheGramm-Schmidt procedureis adeterministic algorithmthat simply converts an arbitrary set of basis functions
(vectors) intoanequivalent set of orthonormal basisfunctions(vectors).
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whereit is easily shown that η
1
and η
2
aremutually independent, zero-mean, Gaussian random
variableswith variancegiven byN
0
/2, and whereφ
1
and φ
2
arethefirst two functionsfromour
orthonormal setofbasisfunctions. Thus,thedesignoftheoptimal binaryreceiverreducestoasimple
two-dimensional detectionproblemthatisreadilysolvedthroughtheapplicationofdetectiontheory.
9.4 DetectionTheory
Itiswell knownfromdetectiontheory[5] thatundertheminimumP
e
criterion, theoptimal detector
isgivenbythemaximumaposteriori rule(MAP),
choose
i
largest p
H
i
|R
(H
i
| R = r) (9.5)
i.e., determinethehypothesisthat ismost likely, giventhat our observationvector isr. Byasimple
applicationof Bayestheorem[4], weimmediatelyarriveat thecentral result indetectiontheory: the
optimal binarydetector isgivenbythelikelihoodratiotest (LRT),
L(R) =
p
R|H
1
(R)
p
R|H
0
(R)
H
1
>
<
H
0
π
0
π
1
(9.6)
wheretheπ
i
aretheapriori probabilitiesof thehypothesesH
i
beingtrue. Sinceinthiscasewehave
assumedthat thenoiseiswhiteandGaussian, theLRT canbewrittenas
L(R) =

2
1
1

πN
0
exp
_

1
2
_
R
i
− s
1,i
_
2
N
0
/2
_

2
1
1

πN
0
exp
_

1
2
_
R
i
− s
0,i
_
2
N
0
/2
_
H
1
>
<
H
0
π
0
π
1
(9.7)
where
s
j,i
=
_
T
0
φ
i
(t )s
j
(t ) dt
Bytakingthelogarithmandcancellingcommonterms, it iseasilyshownthat theoptimumbinary
receiver canbewrittenas
2
N
0
2

1
R
i
_
s
1,i
− s
0,i
_

1
N
0
2

1
_
s
2
1,i
− s
2
0,i
_
H
1
>
<
H
0
ln
π
0
π
1
(9.8)
Thisfinite-dimensional versionof theoptimal receiver canbeconvertedbackintoacontinuoustime
receiver bythedirect applicationof Parseval’stheorem[4] whereit iseasilyshownthat
2

i=1
R
i
s
k,i
=
_
T
0
R(t )s
k
(t ) dt
2

i=1
s
2
k,i
=
_
T
0
s
2
k
(t ) dt
(9.9)
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ByapplyingEq. (9.9) toEq. (9.8) thefinal receiver structureisthengivenby
_
T
0
R(t ) [s
1
(t ) − s
0
(t )] dt −
1
2
(E
1
− E
0
)
H
1
>
<
H
0
N
0
2
ln
π
0
π
1
(9.10)
whereE
1
andE
0
aretheenergiesof signalss
1
(t ) ands
0
(t ), respectively. (SeeFig. 9.1for ablock
diagram.) Importantly, if thesignalsareequallylikely(π
0
= π
1
), theoptimal receiver isindependent
of thetypicallyunknownspectral height of thebackgroundnoise.
FIGURE9.1: Optimal correlationreceiver structurefor binarycommunications.
Onecanreadilyobservethat theoptimal binarycommunicationreceiver correlatesthereceived
waveformwiththedifferencesignal s
1
(t ) −s
0
(t ) andthencomparesthestatistictoathreshold. This
operation can beinterpreted asidentifyingthesignal waveforms
i
(t ) that best correlateswith the
receivedsignal R(t ). Basedonthisinterpretation, thereceiver isoftenreferredtoasthecorrelation
receiver.
Asanalternatemeansof implementingthecorrelationreceiver, wemayreformulatethecompu-
tationof theleft-handsideof Eq. (9.10) intermsof standardconceptsinfiltering. Let h(t ) bethe
impulseresponseof alinear, time-invariant (LTI) system. Bylettingh(t ) = s
1
(T − t ) − s
0
(T − t ),
thenit iseasilyverifiedthat theoutput of R(t ) toaLTI systemwithimpulseresponsegivenbyh(t )
andthensampledat timet = T givesthedesiredresult. (SeeFig. 9.2for ablockdiagram.) Sincethe
impulseresponseismatchedtothesignal waveforms, thisimplementationisoftenreferredtoasthe
matchedfilterreceiver.
FIGURE 9.2: Optimal matched filter receiver structurefor binary communications. In this case
h(t ) = s
1
(T − t ) − s
0
(t − t ).
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9.5 Performance
Because of the nature of the statistics of the channel and the relative simplicity of the receiver,
performanceanalysisof theoptimal binaryreceiver in AWGN isastraightforwardtask. Sincethe
conditional statisticsof theloglikelihood ratio areGaussian randomvariables, theprobabilityof
error canbecomputeddirectlyintermsof MarcumQfunctions
3
as
P
e
= Q
_
s
0
−s
1


2N
0
_
wherethes
i
arethetwo-dimensional signal vectorsobtainedfromEq. (9.4), andwherex denotes
theEuclideanlengthof thevector x. Thus, s
0
−s
1
isbest interpretedasthedistancebetweenthe
respectivesignal representations. SincetheQfunctionismonotonicallydecreasingwithanincreasing
argument, onemayrecognizethat theprobabilityof error for theoptimal receiver decreaseswith
anincreasingseparationbetweenthesignal representations, i.e., themoredissimilar thesignals, the
lower theP
e
.
9.6 Signal Space
Theconcept of asignal spaceallowsonetoviewthesignal classificationproblem(receiver design)
within ageometrical framework. Thisofferstwo primarybenefits: first it suppliesan often more
intuitiveperspectiveon thereceiver characteristics (e.g., performance) and second it allows for a
straightforwardgeneralizationtostandardM-arysignallingschemes.
To demonstratethis, in Fig. 9.3, wehaveplotted an arbitrarysignal spacefor thebinarysignal
classification problem. Theaxesaregiven in termsof thebasisfunctionsφ
1
(t ) and φ
2
(t ). Thus,
every point in thesignal spaceis atimefunction constructed as alinear combination of thetwo
basisfunctions. ByFact 9.2, werecall that bothsignalss
0
(t ) ands
1
(t ) canbeconstructedasalinear
combinationof φ
1
(t ) andφ
2
(t ) andassuchwemayidentifythesetwosignalsinthisfigureastwo
points.
SincethedecisionstatisticgiveninEq. (9.8) isalinear functionof theobservedvector R whichis
alsolocatedinthesignal space,itiseasilyshownthatthesetofvectorsunderwhichthereceiverdeclares
hypothesisH
i
isboundedbyalineinthesignal space. Thisso-calleddecisionboundaryisobtained
bysolvingtheequation ln[L(R)] = 0. (Hereagain wehaveassumed equallylikelyhypotheses.)
In thecaseunder current discussion, this decision boundary is simply thehyperplaneseparating
thetwo signals in signal space. Becauseof thegenerality of this formulation, many problems in
communicationsystemdesignarebest cast intermsof thesignal space, that is, signal locationsand
decisionboundaries.
9.7 StandardBinarySignallingSchemes
Theframework just describedallowsusto readilyanalyzethemost popular signallingschemesin
binarycommunications: amplitude-shift keying(ASK), frequency-shift keying(FSK), and phase-
3
TheQ function istheprobabilitythat astandard normal randomvariableexceedsaspecified constant, i.e., Q(x) =
_

x
1/

2π exp(−z
2
/2) dz.
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FIGURE9.3: Signal spaceanddecisionboundaryfor optimal binaryreceiver.
shiftkeying(PSK). Eachof theseexamplessimplyconstituteadifferentselectionfor signalss
0
(t ) and
s
1
(t ).
InthecaseofASK,s
0
(t ) = 0,whiles
1
(t ) =

2E/T sin(2πf
c
t ),whereEdenotestheenergyofthe
waveformandf
c
denotesthefrequencyof thecarrier wavewithf
c
T beinganinteger. Becauses
0
(t )
isthenull signal, thesignal spaceisaone-dimensional vector spacewithφ
1
(t ) =

2/T sin(2πf
c
t ).
This, inturn, impliesthat s
0
−s
1
=

E. Thus, thecorrespondingprobabilityof error for ASK is
P
e
( ASK) = Q
_
_
E
2N
0
_
For FSK, thesignalsaregivenbyequal amplitudesinusoidswithdistinct center frequencies, that
is, s
i
(t ) =

2E/T sin(2πf
i
t ) withf
i
T beingtwodistinct integers. Inthiscase, it iseasilyverified
that thesignal spaceisatwo-dimensional vector spacewithφ
i
(t ) =

2/T sin(2πf
i
t ) resultingin
s
0
−s
1
=

2E. Thecorrespondingerror rateisgiventobe
P
e
(FSK) = Q
_
_
E
N
0
_
Finally, withregardtoPSK signalling, themost frequentlyutilizedbinaryPSK signal set isanex-
ampleof anantipodal signal set. Specifically, theantipodal signal setresultsinthegreatestseparation
betweenthesignalsinthesignal spacesubject toanenergyconstraint onbothsignals. This, inturn,
translatesinto theenergyconstrained signal set with theminimumP
e
. In thiscase, thes
i
(t ) are
typicallygivenby

2E/T sin[2πf
c
t + θ(i)], whereθ(0) = 0 andθ(1) = π. AsintheASK case,
thisresultsinaone-dimensional signal space, however, inthiscases
0
− s
1
= 2

E resultingin
probabilityof error givenby
P
e
(PSK) = Q
_
_
2E
N
0
_
In all threeof thedescribed cases, onecan readily observethat theresultingperformanceis a
functionof onlythesignal-to-noiseratioE/N
0
. Inthemoregeneral case, theperformancewill bea
functionof theintersignal energytonoiseratio. Togaugetherelativedifferenceinperformanceof
thethreesignallingschemes, inFig. 9.4, wehaveplottedtheP
e
asafunctionof theSNR. Pleasenote
thelargevariationinperformancebetweenthethreeschemesfor evenmoderatevaluesof SNR.
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FIGURE 9.4: P
e
vs. thesignal to noiseratio in decibels [dB = 10 log(E/N
0
)] for amplitude-
shift keying, frequency-shift keying, andphase-shift keying; notethat thereisa3-dBdifferencein
performancefromASK toFSK toPSK.
9.8 M-aryOptimal Receivers
Inbinarysignallingschemes, oneseekstotransmitasinglebitoverthebitinterval [0, T ]. Thisistobe
contrastedwithM-arysignallingschemeswhereonetransmitsmultiplebitssimultaneouslyover the
so-calledsymbol interval [0, T ]. Forexample,usingasignal setwith16separatewaveformswill allow
onetotransmit alengthfour-bit sequenceper symbol (waveform). Examplesof M-arywaveforms
arequadraturephase-shift keying(QPSK) andquadratureamplitudemodulation(QAM).
Thederivationof theoptimumreceiverstructureforM-arysignallingrequiresthestraightforward
application of fundamental resultsin detection theory. Aswith binarysignalling, theKarhunen–
Lo` eveexpansionisthemechanismutilizedtoconvert ahypothesestestingproblembasedoncon-
tinuous waveforms into avector classification problem. Dependingon thecomplexity of theM
waveforms, thesignal spacecanbeaslargeasanM-dimensional vector space.
Byextendingresultsfromthebinarysignallingcase, it iseasilyshown that theoptimumM-ary
receiver computes
ξ
i
[R(t )] =
_
T
0
s
i
(t )R(t ) dt −
E
i
2
+
N
0
2
ln π
i
i = 1, . . . , M
where, as before, thes
i
(t ) constitutethesignal set with theπ
i
beingthecorrespondingapriori
probabilities. After computingM separatevaluesof ξ
i
, theminimumprobabilityof error receiver
simplychoosesthelargest amongst thisset. Thus, theM-aryreceiver isimplementedwithabankof
correlationor matchedfiltersfollowedbychoose-largest decisionlogic.
Inmanycasesof practical importance, thesignal setsareselectedsothat theresultingsignal space
isatwo-dimensional vector spaceirrespectiveof thenumber of signals. Thissimplifiesthereceiver
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structureinthatthesufficientstatisticsareobtainedbyimplementingonlytwomatchedfilters. Both
QPSK andQAM signal setsfit into thiscategory. Asan example, in Fig. 9.5, wehavedepictedthe
signal locationsfor standard 16-QAM signallingwith theassociated decision boundaries. In this
casewehaveassumedanequallylikelysignal set. Ascanbeseen, theoptimal decisionruleselects
thesignal representationthat isclosest tothereceivedsignal representationinthistwo-dimensional
signal space.
9.9 MoreRealistic Channels
Asisunfortunatelyoftenthecase, manychannelsof practical interest arenot accuratelymodeledas
simplyanAWGNchannel. Itisoftenthatthesechannelsimposenonlinear effectsonthetransmitted
signals. Thebest exampleof thisarechannelsthat imposearandomphaseandrandomamplitude
ontothesignal. Thistypicallyoccursinapplicationssuchasinmobilecommunications, whereone
oftenexperiencesrapidlychangingpathlengthsfromsourcetoreceiver.
Fortunately, bythejudiciouschoiceof signal waveforms, it canbeshownthat theselectionof the
φ
i
in theKarhunen–Lo` evetransformation isoften independent of theseunwantedparameters. In
thesesituations, therandomamplitudeservesonlytoscalethesignalsinsignal space, whereasthe
randomphasesimplyimposesarotationonthesignalsinsignal space.
SincetheKarhunen–Lo` evebasisfunctionstypicallydonot dependontheunknownparameters,
wemayagainconvert thecontinuoustimeclassificationproblemtoavector channel problemwhere
thereceivedvector R iscomputedasinEq. (9.3). Sincethisvector isafunctionof boththeunknown
parameters(i.e., inthiscaseamplitudeAandphaseν), toobtainalikelihoodratiotest independent
of A andν, wesimplyapplyBayestheoremtoobtainthefollowingformfor theLRT:
L(R) =
E
_
p
R|H
1
,A,ν
(R | H
1
, A, ν)
_
E
_
p
R|H
0
,A,ν
(R | H
0
, A, ν)
_
H
1
>
<
H
0
π
0
π
1
wheretheexpectationsaretakenwithrespect toA andν, andwherep
R|H
i
,A,ν
aretheconditional
probabilitydensityfunctionsof thesignal representations. Assumingthat thebackgroundnoiseis
AWGN, it canbeshownthat theLRT simplifiestochoosingthelargest amongst
ξ
i
[R(t )] = π
i
_
A,ν
exp
_
2
N
0
_
T
0
R(t )s
i
(t | A, ν) dt −
E
i
(A, ν)
N
0
_
p
A,ν
(A, ν) dAdν
i = 1, . . . , M (9.11)
It shouldbenotedthat intheEq. (9.11) wehaveexplicitlyshownthedependenceof thetransmitted
signalss
i
ontheparametersAandν. Thefinal receiver structures, together withtheir corresponding
performanceare,thus,afunctionofboththechoiceofsignal setsandtheprobabilitydensityfunctions
of therandomamplitudeandrandomphase.
9.9.1 RandomPhaseChannels
If weconsider first thespecial casewherethechannel simplyimposesauniformrandomphaseon
thesignal, thenit canbeeasilyshownthat theso-calledin-phaseandquadraturestatisticsobtained
fromthereceivedsignal R(t ) (denotedbyR
I
andR
Q
, respectively), aresufficient statisticsfor the
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FIGURE9.5: Signal spacerepresentationof 16-QAMsignal set. Optimal decisionregionsfor equally
likelysignalsarealsonoted.
FIGURE 9.6: Optimumreceiver structurefor noncoherent (randomor unknown phase) ASK de-
modulation.
c 1999byCRCPressLLC
signal classificationproblem. Thesequantitiesarecomputedas
R
I
(i) =
_
T
0
R(t ) cos [2πf
c
(i)t ] dt
and
R
Q
(i) =
_
T
0
R(t ) sin [2πf
c
(i)t ] dt
wherein this casetheindex i corresponds to thecenter frequencies of hypothesesH
i
, (e.g., FSK
signalling). Theoptimumbinaryreceiver selectsthelargest fromamongst
ξ
i
[R(t )] = π
i
exp
_

E
i
N
0
_
I
0
_
2
N
0
_
R
2
I
(i) + R
2
Q
(i)
_
i = 1, . . . , M
whereI
0
isazeroth-order, modifiedBessel functionof thefirst kind. If thesignalshaveequal energy
andareequallylikely(e.g., FSK signalling), thentheoptimumreceiver isgivenby
R
2
I
(1) + R
2
Q
(1)
H
1
>
<
H
0
R
2
I
(0) + R
2
Q
(0)
Onemay readily observethat theoptimumreceiver bases its decision on thevalues of thetwo
envelopesof thereceivedsignal
_
R
2
I
(i) + R
2
Q
(i) and, asaconsequence, isoften referredto asan
envelope or square-lawdetector. Moreover, it should be observed that the computation of the
envelopeisindependent of theunderlyingphaseof thesignal andisassuchknownasanoncoherent
receiver.
Thecomputationof theerror ratefor thisdetector isarelativelystraightforwardexerciseresulting
in
P
e
( noncoherent) =
1
2
exp
_

E
2N
0
_
Asbefore, notethat theerror ratefor thenoncoherent receiver issimplyafunctionof theSNR.
9.9.2 RayleighChannel
As an important generalization of the described randomphase channel, many communication
systems are designed under the assumption that the channel introduces both a randomampli-
tudeand a randomphaseon thesignal. Specifically, if theoriginal signal sets areof theform
s
i
(t ) = m
i
(t ) cos(2πf
c
t ) wherem
i
(t ) isthebasebandversionof themessage(i.e., whatdistinguishes
onesignal fromanother), thentheso-calledRayleighchannel introducesrandomdistortioninthe
receivedsignal of thefollowingform:
s
i
(t ) = Am
i
(t ) cos (2πf
c
t + ν)
wheretheamplitudeAisaRayleighrandomvariable
4
andwheretherandomphaseν isauniformly
distributedbetweenzeroand2π.
4
Thedensityof aRayleighrandomvariableisgivenbyp
A
(a) = a/σ
2
exp(−a
2
/2σ
2
) for a ≥ 0.
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To determine the optimal receiver under this distortion, we must first construct an alternate
statistical model for s
i
(t ). Tobegin, it canbeshownfromthetheoryof randomvariables[4] that if
X
I
andX
Q
arestatisticallyindependent, zeromean, Gaussianrandomvariableswithvariancegiven
byσ
2
, then
Am
i
(t ) cos (2πf
c
t + ν) = m
i
(t )X
I
cos (2πf
c
t ) + m
i
(t )X
Q
sin (2πf
c
t )
Equality hereis to beinterpreted as implyingthat both A and ν will betheappropriaterandom
variables. Fromthis, wededucethat thecombineduncertaintyin theamplitudeandphaseof the
signal isincorporatedintotheGaussianrandomvariablesX
I
andX
Q
. Thein-phaseandquadrature
componentsofthesignal s
i
(t ) aregivenbys
I i
(t ) = m
i
(t ) cos(2πf
c
t ) ands
Q
i
(t ) = m
i
(t ) sin(2πf
c
t ),
respectively. ByappealingtoEq. (9.11), it canbeshownthat theoptimumreceiver selectsthelargest
from
ξ
i
[R(t )] =
π
i
1 +
2E
i
N
0
σ
2
exp
_
_
_
_
σ
2
1
2
+
E
i
N
0
σ
2
_
R(t ), s
I i
(t )
2
+
_
R(t ), s
Q
i
(t )
_
2
_
_
¸
¸
_
wheretheinner product
R(t ), S
i
(t ) =
_
T
0
R(t )s
i
(t ) dt
Further, if weimposetheconditionsthat thesignalsbeequallylikelywithequal energyover the
symbol interval, thenoptimumreceiver selectsthelargest amongst
ξ
i
[R(t )] =
_
R(t ), s
I i
(t )
2
+
_
R(t ), s
Q
i
(t )
_
2
Thus, much likefor therandomphasechannel, theoptimumreceiver for theRayleigh channel
computestheprojection of thereceivedwaveformonto thein-phaseandquadraturecomponents
of thehypothetical signals. Fromasignal spaceperspective, thisisakintocomputingthelengthof
thereceivedvector inthesubspacespannedbythehypothetical signal. Theoptimumreceiver then
choosesthelargest amongst theselengths.
Aswiththerandomphasechannel, computingtheperformanceisastraightforwardtaskresulting
in(for theequallylikely, equal energycase)
P
e
( Rayleigh) =
1
2
_
1 +

2
N
0
_
Interestingly, in thiscasetheperformancedependsnot onlyon theSNR, but also on thevariance
(spread) of theRayleigh amplitudeA. Thus, if theamplitudespread is large, weexpect to often
experiencewhatisknownasdeepfadesintheamplitudeof thereceivedwaveformandassuchexpect
acommensuratelossinperformance.
9.10 DispersiveChannels
Thedispersivechannel model assumesthatthechannel notonlyintroducesAWGNbutalsodistorts
thesignal throughafilteringprocess. Thismodel incorporatesphysical realitiessuchasmultipath
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effectsandfrequencyselectivefading. Inparticular, thestandardmodel adoptedisdepictedinthe
blockdiagramgiveninFig. 9.7. Ascanbeseen, thereceiver observesafilteredversionof thesignal
plusAWGN. If theimpulseresponseof thechannel isknown, thenwearriveattheoptimumreceiver
designbyapplyingthepreviouslypresentedtheory. Unfortunately, thedurationof thefilteredsignal
can beacomplicatingfactor. Moreoften than not, thechannel will increasetheduration of the
transmittedsignals, hence, leadingtothedescription, dispersivechannel.
FIGURE 9.7: Standard model for dispersivechannel. Thetimevaryingimpulseresponseof the
channel isdenotedbyh
c
(t, τ).
However, if thedesignerstakethisinto account byshorteningtheduration of s
i
(t ) so that the
durationof s

i
(t ) islessthanT , thentheoptimumreceiver choosesthelargest amongst
ξ
i
(R(t )) =
N
0
2
ln π
i
+
_
R(t ), s

i
(t )
_

1
2
E

i
If welimit our considerationtoequallylikelybinarysignal sets, thentheminimumP
e
matchesthe
receivedwaveformtothefilteredversionsof thesignal waveforms. Theresultingerror rateisgiven
by
P
e
( dispersive) = Q
__
_
s

0
−s

0
_
_

2N
0
_
Thus, inthiscasetheminimumP
e
isafunctionof theseparationof thefilteredversionof thesignals
inthesignal space.
Theproblembecomes substantially morecomplex if wecannot insurethat thefiltered signal
durationsarelessthanthesymbol lengths. Inthiscaseweexperiencewhat isknownasintersymbol
interference(ISI). That is, observations over one symbol interval contain not only the symbol
information of interest but also information fromprevioussymbols. In thiscasewemust appeal
to optimumsequenceestimation [5] to takefull advantageof theinformation in thewaveform.
Thebasisfor thisprocedureisthemaximizationof thejoint likelihoodfunctionconditionedonthe
sequenceofsymbols. ThisprocedurenotonlydefinesthestructureoftheoptimumreceiverunderISI
but alsoiscritical inthedecodingof convolutional codesandcodedmodulation. Alternateadaptive
techniquestosolvethisprobleminvolvetheuseof channel equalization.
DefiningTerms
AdditivewhiteGaussiannoise(AWGN)channel: The channel whose model is that of cor-
ruptingatransmittedwaveformbytheaddition of white(i.e., spectrallyflat) Gaussian
noise.
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Bit(symbol)interval: Theperiodof timeover whichasinglesymbol istransmitted.
Communicationchannel: Themediumover which communication signalsaretransmitted.
Examplesarefiber opticcables, freespace, or telephonelines.
Correlationormatchedfilterreceiver: Theoptimal receiver structurefor digital communica-
tionsinAWGN.
Decisionboundary: The boundary in signal space between the various regions where the
receiver declaresH
i
. TypicallyahyperplanewhendealingwithAWGNchannels.
Dispersivechannel: A channel that elongatesand distortsthetransmitted signal. Normally
modeledasatime-varyinglinear system.
Intersymbol interference: Theill-effect of onesymbol smearinginto adjacent symbolsthus
interferingwiththedetectionprocess. Thisisaconsequenceof thechannel filteringthe
transmittedsignalsandthereforeelongatingtheir duration, seedispersivechannel.
Karhunen–Lo` eveexpansion: A representation for second-order randomprocesses. Allows
onetoexpressarandomprocessintermsof asuperpositionof deterministicwaveforms.
Thescalevaluesareuncorrelatedrandomvariablesobtainedfromthewaveform.
Mean-squareequivalence: Tworandomvectorsor time-limitedwaveformsaremean-square
equivalent if andonlyif theexpectedvalueof their mean-squareerror iszero.
Orthonormal: Thepropertyof twoor morevectorsor time-limitedwaveformsbeingmutually
orthogonal andindividuallyhavingunit length. Orthogonalityandlengtharetypically
measuredbythestandardEuclideaninner product.
Rayleighchannel: A channel that randomly scales thetransmitted waveformby aRayleigh
randomvariablewhileaddinganindependent uniformphasetothecarrier.
Signal space: An abstraction for representingatimelimitedwaveformin alow-dimensional
vector space. Usuallyarrivedat throughtheapplication of theKarhunen–Lo` evetrans-
formation.
Total probabilityoferror: Theprobabilityof classifyingthereceivedwaveformintoanyof the
symbolsthat werenot transmittedover aparticular bit interval.
References
[1] Gibson, J.D., Principlesof Digital andAnalogCommunications, 2nd ed., MacMillan, New
York, 1993.
[2] Haykin, S., CommunicationSystems, 3rded., JohnWiley&Sons, NewYork, 1994.
[3] Lee, E.A. and Messerschmitt, D.G., Digital Communication, Kluwer Academic Publishers,
Norwell, MA, 1988.
[4] Papoulis, A., Probability, RandomVariables, andStochasticProcesses, 3rded., McGraw-Hill,
NewYork, 1991.
[5] Poor, H.V., AnIntroductiontoSignal DetectionandEstimation, Springer-Verlag, NewYork,
1988.
[6] Proakis, J.G., Digital Communications, 2nded., McGraw-Hill, NewYork, 1989.
[7] Shiryayev, A.N., Probability, Springer-Verlag, NewYork, 1984.
[8] Sklar,B.,Digital Communications,FundamentalsandApplications,PrenticeHall,Englewood
Cliffs, NJ, 1988.
[9] VanTrees, H.L., Detection, Estimation, andModulationTheory, Part I, JohnWiley&Sons,
NewYork, 1968.
c 1999byCRCPressLLC
[10] Wong, E. and Hajek, B., StochasticProcessesin EngineeringSystems, Springer-Verlag, New
York, 1985.
[11] Wozencraft, J.M. andJacobs, I., Principlesof CommunicationEngineering, reissue, Waveland
Press, Prospect Heights, Illinois, 1990.
[12] Ziemer, R.E. and Peterson, R.L., Introduction toDigital Communication, Macmillan, New
York, 1992.
Further Information
Thefundamentalsof receiver design wereput in placebyWozencraft and Jacobsin their seminal
book. Sincethat time, therehavebeen manyoutstandingtextbooksin thisarea. For asampling
see[1, 2, 3, 8, 12]. For acompletetreatment on theuseand application of detection theory in
communicationssee[5, 9]. For deeper insightsintotheKarhunen–Lo` eveexpansionanditsusein
communicationsandsignal processingsee[10].
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