evsjv‡`‡ki mvs¯‹…wZK m¤ú` I b„fvlv‰eÁvwbK Rwic

:
‡cÖ¶vcU, cÖ‡qvRbxqZv I ¸izZ¡
- mvBdzi ikx` 1
- nvmvb kvdx 2
evsjv‡`‡ki GB f~LÛ eû kZvãx a‡i eû Rb‡Mvôxi wewPÎ fvlv, ms¯‹…wZ, ag© I HwZ‡n¨i mw¤§j‡bi GK Abb¨ ‡K›`ª
wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ n‡q Avm‡Q| GB GjvKvq cªvß bvbvb HwZnvwmK wb`k©b, cyivKxwZ© I ¯’vc‡Z¨i cvkvcvwk cªPwjZ bvbv
AvPvi-HwZn¨, Drme-Abyôvb, fvlv, ag©-wek¦vm e¨e¯’v, ixwZ-bxwZ I ‰`bw›`b RxebhvÎvi wewfbœ aib GB Rbc‡`i my`xN©
BwZnv‡mi ¯^v¶i enb Ki‡Q| AvcvZ`„wó‡Z evOvwj Aay¨wlZ g‡b n‡jI, evsjv‡`‡k bvbv fvlv, ag© I ms¯‹…wZi gvbyl evm
K‡i| cªwZwU RvwZ‡MvôxiB i‡q‡Q Abb¨ ms¯‹…wZ, AZxZ, fvlv, ‡ckv, ag©, AvPvi-Abyôvb, Drcvw`Z cY¨ I hš¿cvwZ,
mvgwRK msMVb Ges Ab¨ ms¯‹…wZi mv‡_ wg_w¯Œqvi we‡kl aib| hw`I g~jZ evsjvfvlx Rb‡MvôxB evsjv‡`‡k msL¨vMwiô,
mvs¯‹…wZK ‰ewP‡Î¨ mg…× evsjv‡`‡k wewfbœ fvlv, ag© I ms¯‹w… Zi ‡Mvôxi cvkvcvwk wewfbœ ‡ckvRxwe ‡Mvôx¸‡jvi ¯^ ¯^
RxebhvÎv I HwZ‡n¨i Abb¨ mswgkª‡Y evsjv‡`‡k GK ewY©j mvs¯‹…wZK aviv M‡o D‡V‡Q|
`xN© mgq a‡i emevm K‡i Avmv Gme Rb‡Mvôxi g‡a¨ bvbv ai‡bi mvs¯‹w… ZK Av`vb-cª`vb N‡U Pj‡jI ci¯ú‡ii fvlv,
ms¯‹…wZ, ag© I RxebhvÎv m¤ú‡K© Avgiv Lye KgB AeMZ| Jcwb‡ewkK hy‡Mi K‡qKRb M‡elK, Jcwb‡ewkK kvmK I
wgkbvix‡`i weeiY Qvov wewfbœ cªvwšÍK Rb‡Mvôx, Zv‡`i RbmsL¨v I mvs¯‹w… ZK msMVb m¤ú‡K© ‡Zgb wKQy Rvbv hvq bv|
Jcwb‡ewkK hy‡Mi Gme wi‡cvU© I m~PK Abymi‡Y GLbI wewfbœ Av`gïgvwi wi‡cv‡U© Gme RvwZ‡Mvôx I Zv‡`i ms¯‹…wZ I
RxebhvÎv m¤ú‡K© AZ¨šÍ mijxK…Z ev bvbv weåvwšÍKi Z_¨ cwi‡ekb Kiv nq| Gai‡bi weåvwšÍKi cªwZ‡e`‡b ïay ‡h
wewfbœ Rb‡Mvôxi Rxeb I ms¯‹…wZ m¤ú‡K© cªK…Z I wek` Z_¨ ‡bB Zv bq, eis, wewfbœ HwZnvwmK I ivR‰bwZK cªwµqvi
AwfÁZvi ‡h mgKvjxb ev¯ÍeZvq Zv‡`i Rxebhvcb- ZvI GLv‡b Abycw¯’Z| ‡h Kvi‡Y evsjv‡`‡ki RvwZMZ ‰ewPΨ I
wewfbœ RvwZ‡Mvôxi RxebhvÎv msµvšÍ ch©vß I h_vh_ Z_¨ I Dcv‡Ëi h‡_ó NvUwZ i‡q‡Q| A_P, evsjv‡`‡ki GB
mvs¯‹…wZK ‰ewPΨB RvZxq HK¨ I Dbœqb mva‡bi cªwµqv‡K Av‡iv msnZ I Kvh©Kix Kivi ‡¶‡Î Abb¨ GKwU gva¨g n‡q
DV‡Z cv‡i| BD‡b‡¯‹vi mvs¯‹…wZK ‰ewP‡Î¨i me©Rbxb ‡NvlYv‡Z (UNESCO 2002) mvs¯‹…wZK eûZ¡ev‡`i bxwZ
Abymi‡Y mvs¯‹…wZK ‰ewPΨ‡K DrmvwnZ Kivi Rb¨ we‡k¦i wewfbœ iv󪸇jv‡K we‡klfv‡e Avnevb Rvbv‡bv n‡q‡Q|
mvs¯‹…wZK eûZ¡ev‡`i Kvh©Kix A_© nj, evsjv‡`‡ki gZ GKwU eûgyLx ‰ewP‡Î¨i ‡`‡k RvZxq Dbœq‡b wewfbœ ‡Mvôx I
ms¯‹…wZi mKj e¨w³ I `‡ji AšÍf©yw³KiY I AskMªnY wbwðZ Kiv (Danspeckgruber 2002; Ganguly &
Phadnis 2001; Sheth 1989; Tierney 2004; Weinstock 1999)| BD‡b‡¯‹vi ‡NvlYvq mvs¯‹…wZK ‰ewPΨ‡K
Dbœq‡bi GK Abb¨ wbqvgK wn‡m‡e wPwýZ K‡i ejv nq Ômvs¯‹…wZK ‰ewPΨ A‡bK¸‡jv m¤¢vebvi Øvi D‡b¥vPb K‡i| GwU
Dbœq‡bi Ab¨Zg ‡gŠwjK welq, ‡Kbbv Dbœq‡b ïaygvÎ A_©‰bwZK gvcKvwV‡Z wePvh© bq, eis eyw×e…wËK, Av‡eMxq, ‰bwZK
I AvwZ¥K Aw¯Í‡Z¡i GKwU KvswLZ ¯Í‡i DËi‡Yi GK ¸iæZ¡c~Y© ch©vqÕ (UNESCO 2002)| G Kvi‡Y wewfbœ ¯Í‡i
mvs¯‹…wZK eûZ¡ev`‡K DrmvwnZ Kivi ga¨ w`‡qB GKwU HK¨e× I kw³kvjx evsjv‡`kx ivóª MVb Kiv m¤¢e| G Kvi‡Y
c…w_exi Ab¨vb¨ ‡`‡ki gZ evsjv‡`‡k GKwU kw³kvjx RvwZ MVb, msnwZ I Dbœq‡bi Ab¨Zg c~e©kZ© n‡jv G‡`‡ki mg…×
mvs¯‹…wZK m¤ú‡`i Rwic, wPÎvqY I wbix¶Y|
GB wbe‡Üi Av‡jvP¨ welq nj evsjv‡`‡ki mvs¯‹…wZK m¤ú` I b„fvlv‰eÁvwbK Rwi‡ci ‡cª¶vcU, cª‡qvRbxqZv I ¸iæZ¡|
wbe‡Üi ïiæ‡Z evsjv‡`‡ki wewfbœ b„‡Mvôx msµvšÍ ‡jLv‡jwL I M‡elYv K‡g©i Dci GKwU msw¶ß ch©v‡jvPbv i‡q‡Q|
evsjv‡`‡ki Awaevmx wewfbœ ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i fvlv I fvlvi ‰ewPΨ welqK Av‡jvPbv i‡q‡Q wØZxq As‡k| wbe‡Üi Z…Zxq
As‡k, RvZxq ch©v‡qi wewfbœ Rwic I cwimsL¨v‡b ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôxi cªvwšÍKZv I A`„k¨gvbZvi welqwU wewfbœ Z_¨-Dcv‡Ëi
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mn‡hvMx Aa¨vcK I †Pqvig¨vb, b„weÁvb wefvM, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq| B‡gBj: saifur_rashid66@hotmail.com
mn‡hvMx Aa¨vcK, b„weÁvb wefvM, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq| B‡gBj: hasanshafie@univdhaka.edu
c„ôv | 1

ga¨ w`‡q Zy‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| G RvZxq Rwic I cwimsL¨v‡b Z_¨MZ ÎywU QvovI ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôx¸‡jvi bvgKi‡Yi wewfbœ
weåv‡Ui Kvi‡Y bvbv ai‡bi weåvwšÍ ‰Zwi nq| evsjv‡`kmn c…w_exi wewfbœ ‡`‡k ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôxi cªvwšÍK cwiwPwZ I
‰elg¨g~jK Ae¯’v‡bi Av‡iKwU ¸iæZ¡cY~ © KviY n‡jv ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôxi cwiwPwZ wbg©v‡Yi cªZ¨qbMZ msKU| GB cªZ¨qbMZ
msK‡Ui welqwU‡K mvg‡b ‡i‡L wfbœ wfbœ mvgvwRK I ivR‰bwZK cwim‡i Ges wewfbœ HwZnvwmK cwi‡cªw¶‡Z ¶y`ª b…‡Mvôxi
cwiwPwZ wbg©v‡Yi cªwµqv we‡kølY Kiv n‡q‡Q PZy_© As‡k| µgcwieZ©bkxj wek¦e¨e¯’v, ivR‰bwZK I mvgvwRK AvMªvmb
Ges cªhyw³i we¯§qKi cwieZ©‡b ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôxi ms¯‹…wZ‡ZI bvbv ai‡bi cwieZ©b m~wPZ n‡q‡Q| ‡ekxi fvM ‡¶‡ÎB Zv‡`i
ms¯‹…wZ I fvlv n‡q‡Q wecbœ| evsjv‡`‡k ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôxi ms¯‹…wZ I fvlvi wecbœZv wb‡q Av‡jvPbv i‡q‡Q wbe‡Üi cÂg
As‡k| me‡k‡l, evsjv‡`‡ki mvs¯‹…wZK m¤ú` I b„fvlv‰eÁvwbK Rwi‡ci m¤¢ve¨ iƒc‡iLv, cª‡qvRbxqZv I ¸iæZ¡ Zy‡j
aivi cªqvm ‡bqv n‡q‡Q|

evsjv‡`‡k b„‡ Mvôx I b„‰eÁvwbK M‡elYvi ‡cÖ¶vcU
fviZxq Dcgnv‡`‡k b„‰eÁvwbK M‡elYvi, ev Av‡iv wbw`©ó K‡i ej‡j, G_‡bvMªvwdK ev RvwZZvwË¡K weeiY ‡jLvi m~Pbv
nq Jcwb‡ewkK kvmbvg‡j| kvmb Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvi myweav‡_©B e„wUk cªkvmK‡`i wewfbœ A‡ji b„‡Mvôx, eY© I
†ckv‡Mvôxmg~‡ni Av_©-mvgvwRK Ae¯’v m¤úwK©Z Z_¨ msMÖn Ki‡Z n‡Zv Ges GBme Z_¨ msKjb ‡_‡KB wewfbœ RvwZ I
mvgwRK ‡Mvôx m¤ú‡K© †ek wKQz cªwZ‡e`b I MÖš’ iwPZ n‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`kmn GB A‡ji wewfbœ b„‡Mvôxi Dci wKQz
M‡elYv Kvh©µg cwiPvwjZ n†q‡Q Dbwesk kZvãxi †kl fvMI wesk kZvãxi cÖ_g w`‡K| Gmg‡q cÖKvwkZ M‡elYv
cªwZ‡e`b, MÖš’, iPbv I msKjb GLbI mgv`„Z I bvbvfv‡e e¨eüZ nq| Gi gv‡S Ab¨Zg K‡qKwU n‡”Q : BaThin
1931; Bernot 1953; Butler 1855; Campbell 1874a; Campbell 1874b; Chaudhury 1931;
Dalton 1872; Furness 1902; Grierson 1921; Grierson 1904; Haram 1887; Hodson 1908;
Hodson 1921; Hodson 1922; Hughes 1881; Hunter 1956; Hunter 1868; 1876; 1877; 1881;
Hunter 1973; Hutchinson 1897; Hutchinson 1906; Hutchinson 1909; Lewin 1870a; Lewin 1866;
Lewin 1869; 1870b; 1885; Mackenzie 1884; Mills 1931; O'Donel 1863; Pargiter & Ba 1886;
Phayre 1841; Playfair 1909; Qanungo 1761; Riebeck et al 1885; Risley 1891a; Risley
1891b; Roy 1916a; Sen 1931; St-John 1873; Woodthorpe 1873| wek kZ‡Ki †k‡li w`K ch©šÍ
evsjv‡`‡ki wewfbœ RvwZ†Mvôxi ‡h weeiY cvIqv hvq Zv g~jZ e„wUk cÖkvmK‡`i Øviv iwPZ n‡qwQj| evsjv‡`‡ki
ZrKvjxb RvwZ‡Mvôxmgy‡ni mvgvwRK I mvs¯‹…wZK ˆewk‡ó¨i wKQz msw¶ß Z_¨ cvIqv hvq e„wUk kvmbvg‡ji wewfbœ
Av`gïgvix I †Rjv †M‡RUmgy‡n| G ai‡bi AwaKvsk weei‡Y cve©Z¨ PÆMÖvg e¨wZZ evsjv‡`‡ki Ab¨vb¨ A‡ji
b„‡Mvôx‡`i m¤ú‡K© my¯úó ‡Kvb eY©bv †bB| GQvovI, AwaKvsk eY©bvq evsjv‡`‡ki AvÂwjK I †fŠMwjK †cÖ¶vcU cwiù~U
n‡q D‡V wb e‡j GB A‡ji wewfbœ b„‡Mvôxi Rxebaviv m¤ú‡K©I c„_K †Kvb avibv cvIqv hvq bv|
cieZ©x‡Z, cvwK¯Ívb miKv‡ii Avg‡j miKvwi bw_c‡Î (1947-71), evsjv‡`‡ki RvwZ‡Mvôx msµvšÍ †Zgb †Kvb bZzb
Z‡_¨i ms‡hvRb, wKsev cwigvR©b N‡Uwb, eis AwaKvsk ‡¶‡ÎB cyi‡bv eY©bv I Z_¨mg~n ¯’vb †c‡q‡Q| Z‡e GB mg‡q,
we‡`kx b„weÁvbxiv, cÖavbZ evsjv‡`‡ki cve©Z¨ PÆMÖv‡g Ges ‡Kvb †Kvb †ÿ‡Î DËiv‡ji RvwZ‡Mvôxmgy‡ni gv‡S wKQz
D‡jøL‡hvM¨ M‡elYv cwiPvjbv K‡ib : Bernot (1953), Bernot (1957, 1960), Bessaignet 1958; 1960;
Brauns 1973; Brauns & Loffler 1990; Datta-Majumdar 1955; David 1964; Ehrenfels 1955;
Kauffmann 1962; Khan & Choudhuri 1965; Khan & Khisha 1970; Levi-Strauss 1951; 1952;
Loffler 1966; Loffler 1968; Majumdar 1948; Mey 1981; Mills 1931; Rajput 1963; Roy
1916b; Sen 1931; Serajuddin 1971; Shafer 1955; Sopher 1963| ¯^vaxbZv‡Ëvi Kv‡j, †`kx I we‡`kx
D‡`¨v‡M wKQz MÖš’, M‡elYv cÖeÜ, I w_wmm iwPZ nq, †hgb : Ali 1998; Arefeen 1986; Arens & Van Beurden
1977; Aziz 1979; Bal 2007; Bertocci 1972; 1977; 1996; Bertocci & Qureshi 1984; Choudhury
et al 1986; Chowdhury 1978; 1982; Chowdhury et al 1979; Ellickson 1972; Gomes 1988;
Gomes 1984; Hartmann & Boyce 1983; Islam 1974; Islam 1984; Jahangir 1979; Jansen &
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van Schendel & Bal 1998)| hvB ‡nvK.Norbye 1990. Campbell 1874a. †Zgwb i‡q‡Q M‡elYvi ZvwË¡K I c×wZMZ `ye©jZv| Avevi AwaKvsk †¶‡ÎB G mKj cÖKvkbvmg~n we‡kølYagx© bq eis wbZvšÍB ¯’wei I eY©bvg~jK| Gi GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© KviY nj evsjv‡`‡k ZLbI b„weÁv‡bi cÖvwZôvwbK PP©v ïiæ nq wb| evsjv‡`‡k wek¦we`¨vjq ch©v‡q b„weÁv‡bi hvÎv ïiæ nq Avwki `k‡K| Gici †_‡KB evsjv‡`‡ki wewfbœ b„‡Mvôx. Van Schendel 1992. Maloney 1984. Qureshi 1984. Bessaignet 1958. Schendel 1981. 1952. Hutchinson 1897. Hurford 2003. Grierson 1904. evsjv‡`‡ki fvlvMZ ˆewPΨ wb‡qI mymsMwVZ b„‰eÁvwbK M‡elYv †Zgb nqwb ej‡jB P‡j| Jcwb‡ewkK kvmK‡Mvôx‡`i cÖkvmwbK cÖ‡qvR‡b fvwlK ˆewPΨ wb‡q wew”Qbœfv‡e wKQz wKQz M‡elYv n‡q‡Q| D`vniY¯^iƒc.01 : evsjv‡`‡k wewfbœ fvlv-cwievi I cwiev‡ii AšÍfy©³ fvlvmg~n| fvlv-cwievi kvLv 1. Levi-Strauss 1951. AwaKvsk †¶‡ÎB GmKj M‡elYvq cÖvß Z_¨vejx h_vh_fv‡e m¤úvw`Z I cÖKvwkZ nq wb| Ab¨w`‡K. (2) wZeŸwZ-ewg©. Wood 1978| G‡`i gv‡S A‡b‡KB n‡”Qb b„weÁvbx I mgvRweÁvbx. 1885. Bernot 1957. wesk kZ‡Ki ïiæi w`‡K fvi‡Z cÖwZwôZ Anthropological Survey of India fvi‡Z b„‰eÁvwbK M‡elYvi ‡ÿ‡Î Zvrch©c~Y© Ae`vb †i‡L‡Q| Gai‡bi †Kvb cÖwZôvb evsjv‡`‡k bv _vKvq G‡`‡ki mvs¯‹…wZK I fvlv ˆewP‡Î¨i mvgwMÖK I cÖKZ … Ae¯’v m¤ú‡K© wewfbœ ai‡bi A¯úóZv i‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`‡ki ¶z`ª b„‡ Mvôx‡`i fvlv I fvlv-cwievi fvlv gvby‡li GK Abb¨ mvs¯‹w… ZK AR©b| fvlvi gva¨‡g gvbyl g‡bi fve cÖKvk K‡i| fvlv DrcwËi mgqKvj †_‡K AvR ch©šÍ wewfbœ A‡ji I ms¯‹w… Zi gvbyl wewPÎ fvlvq g‡bi fve cÖKvk K‡i‡Q| fvlvi GB wfbœZvB fvlvweÁvbx‡`i g‡a¨ wfbœ wfbœ Ôfvlv cwieviÕ aviYvi Rb¥ w`‡q‡Q| Z‡e fvlvweÁvbxMY g‡b K‡ib eZ©gvb c„w_ex‡Z cÖvq Qq nvRvi fvlv cÖPwjZ i‡q‡Q| me wgwj‡q Gkxq A‡j Kg †ewk cÖvq †`o nvRvi fvlvi cÖPjb i‡q‡Q (Evans 1993. Majumdar 1976. Prasithrathsint 1993)| c„w_ex‡Z cÖPwjZ fvlv¸‡jvi g‡a¨ wKQy mv`„‡k¨i wfwˇZ fvlvweÁvbxiv m`…k fvlv¸‡jv‡K GKB fvlv-cwievify³ e‡j wPwýZ K‡i‡Qb| evsjv‡`‡ki wewfbœ b„‡Mvôxi i‡q‡Q wfbœ wfbœ gvZ…fvlv| G‡`‡ki wewfbœ b„‡Mvôxi m`m¨iv cÖvq 30wU wfbœ wfbœ fvlv e¨envi K‡i| Zv‡`i cÖPwjZ wewfbœ fvlvi aib e¨vL¨v Ki‡j †`Lv hvq †h. cve©Z¨ PÆMÖv‡gi wewfbœ b„‡Mvôxi fvlvi Dci wKQz M‡elYv we‡ePbv Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i : Bernot 1953. Campbell 1874b. Mey 1978. ‡ckv‡Mvôx wKsev fvlv‡Mvôxi Dci msMwVZ c×wZwbf©i b„‰eÁvwbK M‡elYvi m~Pbv nq| cvk¦©eZx© fvi‡Z GKB ai‡bi b„‰eÁvwbK M‡elbv cwiPvwjZ n‡q‡Q wesk kZ‡Ki †Mvov †_‡KB (van Schendel & Bal 2002. Avevi †KD †KD mvaviY Drmvnx †jLK| G‡`i †jLvq †Kv_vI †Kv_vI †hgb weåvwšÍi AeKvk i‡q‡Q. h_v: (1) B‡›`v-BD‡ivcxq. Lewin 1869. 1960. Mukherjee 1971. Thorp 1978. Loffler 1968| GB M‡elYv¸‡jv †_‡K cve©Z¨ PÆMÖv‡gi wewfbœ b„‡Mvôxi fvlv. Khaleque 1995. Wallace & Harris 1989. 1984. Gorter 2006.01)| mviwY. AwfMg‡bi BwZnvm I Zv‡`i ˆ`wnK Mob m¤ú‡K© wKQz aviYv cvIqv hvq| Z‡e ¯^í cwim‡i Kiv GmKj M‡elYv †_‡K evsjv‡`‡ki mvwe©K fvlv ˆewPΨ m¤ú‡K© †Kvb c~Y©v½ aviYv cvIqv m¤¢e bq| Aci w`‡K. Schendel & Faraizi 1984. (3) A‡÷ªv-GwkqvwUK Ges (4) `ªvweo fvlv‡Mvôx (†`Lyb mviwY. A‡÷ªv-GwkqvwUK †gvb&-L‡gi Lvwm| b„‡ Mvôxmg~n c„ôv | 3 . fvlv¸‡jvi wKQz c„_K ˆewkó¨ _vK‡jI wKQz wKQz fvlv Avevi ci¯úi Nwbô| mv`„k¨ I ˆemv`„‡k¨i wfwˇZ evsjv‡`‡ki wewfbœ b„‡Mvôxi gv‡S cªPwjZ fvlv cÖavbZ PviwU wfbœ fvlv cwiev‡ii AšÍf©z³. Sattar 1971. Avw` wbevm. Lewin 1866. 1960. Hutchinson 1906. Mollongea et al 1975. Brauns & Loffler 1990. MZ `yB `kK a‡i evsjv‡`‡ki wewfbœ wek¦we`¨vj‡qi b„weÁvb wefvM¸‡jv ÿz`ª RvwZmËv‡`i Dci wewfbœ ai‡bi M‡elYv cwiPvjbv K‡i Avm‡jI. Hutchinson 1909. Serajuddin 1984. Karim 1990.

cÖwZwU fvlvB mvs¯‹…wZK Ávb I AwfÁZv‡K aviY K‡i| GB A‡ji me‡P‡q cyiv‡bv fvlv nj A‡÷ªv-GwkqvwUK cwiev‡ii AšÍf³ ©z gyÛvwi kvLvi fvlv mg~n| eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`‡ki DËi-cwð‡g emevmKvix mvuIZvj. ‡nv. B‡›`v-BD‡ivcxq mvuIZvj. nvRs BZ¨vw`| DrcwËi w`K †_‡K wePvi Ki‡j A‡bK fvlvB G‡K Ac‡ii mv‡_ mshy³| wewfbœ fvlvi gvby‡li g‡a¨ cªPzi mvs¯‹…wZK Av`vbcÖ`vbI †`Lv hvq| ZviciI cÖwZwU fvlv fve cÖKv‡ki gva¨g wn‡m‡e Abb¨ I AZzjbxq| †h †Kvb gvby‡li cwiP‡qi GKwU ¸iæZ¡cY~ © Ask n‡jv Zvi gvZ…fvlv| ïaygvÎ m„RbkxjZv I fve cÖKv‡ki Rb¨B †h fvlv Acwinvh© Zv bq. jymvB. †gªv cÖf…wZ b„‡Mvôxi fvlv wZeŸwZ-ewg© fvlv cwiev‡ii AšÍf³ ©~ | B‡›`v-BD‡ivcxq fvlv cwiev‡ii Avh© Rb‡Mvôxi AvMgb cÖvq cuvP nvRvi eQi Av‡M| GB cwiev‡ii AšÍM©Z evsjv fvlv-fvlx ‡jv‡Kiv evsjv‡`‡ki cÖvq me©ÎB emevm K‡i| Z‡e evOvwj QvovI PvKgv. GKB †`‡ki wewfbœ ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i m¤ú‡K© c„_K wKsev Zzjbvg~jK cwimsL¨vb wbZvšÍB `yj©f| ivóªxq Z_¨-m¤¢v‡ii wewfbœ cwim‡i ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôxiv `„k¨Z Abycw¯’Z nevi d‡j Zv‡`i Pvwn`v I cÖ‡qvRbmg~n Abyave‡b Ges Zv‡`i Rxebavivi Dci wewfbœ Kg©Kv‡Ûi cÖfve wbiƒc‡Yi †¶‡Î ivóªxq bxwZwba©viKiv Avkvbyiƒc f~wgKv ivL‡Z cv‡i bv| RvZxq ch©v‡qi wewfbœ c„ôv | 4 . wm‡j‡Ui weòywcÖqv gwYcywi Ges DËie‡½i mv`wi fvlv‡Mvôxi m`m¨‡`i fvlv B‡›`v-BD‡ivcxq cwievifz³| RvZxq Rwic I cwimsL¨v‡b ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôx evsjv‡`kmn c„w_exi wewfbœ †`‡kB ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i RxebhvÎv m¤ú‡K© ch©vß I wbf©i‡hvM¨ Z_¨-DcvË cvIqv hvq bv| GgbwK. wm‡j‡Ui †gB‡ZB gwYcywi I cv½vb gwYcywi. †Lqvs. mvaviY RbwgwZK. ivReskx BZ¨vw`| †gB‡ZB. cvs‡Lv. eg&. weòzwcÖqv. †gªv BZ¨vw`| PvK. Zs½v. ivRkvnx. iscyi GjvKvq A‡÷ªvGwkqvwUK fvlv‡Mvôxi muvIZvwj I gyÛv fvlvi e¨envi †`L‡Z cvIqv hvq| DËi-cwð‡gi IiuvI Ges cvnvwoqv b„‡Mvôxi KuyoyL fvlv g~jZ `ªvweo cwievifz³| wZeŸwZ-ewg© fvlv‡Mvôxi †jv‡Kiv GB A‡j Av‡m cÖvq Qq †_‡K AvU nvRvi eQi Av‡M| evsjv‡`‡ki Dˇii gvw›` (Mv‡iv). gyÛv. Vvi ev †_K| gvigv. Pxbv-wZeŸwZ gyÛvwi †ev‡ov KzwK-Pxb mvK&-jyBk wZeŸwZ-evwg©R 3. `ªvweo 4. Lywg. eg. mv`wi. e¸ov. wKsev Zv‡`i Ae¯’vbMZ Z_¨I Ach©vß| d‡j. VvKziMuvI. KKeiK. gyÛv BZ¨vw`| gvw›` (Mv‡iv).2. †KvP. ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i Rxebaviv wb‡q e¨vL¨v I we‡kølY AwaKvsk †¶‡ÎB nq Abygvbwbf©i| wKsev KLbI KLbI cwiw¯’wZ we‡kølY Kiv nq Zv‡`i Aay¨wlZ AÂj ev GjvKvi mvaviY Ae¯’vi cwi‡cÖw¶‡Z| GRb¨ †`Lv hvq. PvKgv. wÎcyiv. cve©Z¨ PÆMÖv‡gi gvigv. gvn&‡j Ges wm‡j‡Ui Lvwm b„‡Mvôxi gvbyl GB A‡÷ªv-GwkqvwUK cwiev‡ii AšÍf³ ©z fvlvq K_v e‡j| evsjv‡`‡ki DËi-cwð‡g w`bvRcyi. Lywg. cwjqv. ivLvBb BZ¨vw`| Kuyo–L I Avw` gvj‡Zv (eZ©gv‡b cÖvq jyß)| evsjv.

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2 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1974 1981 1991 2001 0.941 1.0 300.733 PvK&gv 28.535 1991 6.100 23.129 828 501.300 5.0 63.9 239.138 Z_¨m~Î: Bessaignet 1958.417 1.1 269.375 Ab¨vb¨ †gvU RbmsL¨v 61.392 103.932 16.02) cÖ`Ë Z_¨mg~n ch©‡e¶Y I we‡kølY Ki‡j Avgiv ‡ek wKQz Miwgj I AmvgÄm¨ †`L‡Z cve : ∆ cÖ_gZ: cve©Z¨ PÆMÖv‡gi mKj ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i wewfbœ ïgvwi‡Z AšÍf©³ y Kiv nqwb| gv‡S gv‡S wKQz b„‡Mvôxi Z_¨ inm¨RbKfv‡e Abycw¯’Z i‡q‡Q| Avevi †Kvb †Kvb ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i †¶‡Î c~‡e©i ïgvwi †_‡K cieZx© ïgvwi‡Z RbmsL¨v Kg †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q| ïaygvÎ gvby‡li AwfMgb wKsev g„Zy¨i kZKiv nvi w`‡q GmKj AmvgÄm¨ e¨vL¨v Kiv m¤¢e bq| ∆ wØZxqZ: Census Report of 1991-G ejv n‡q‡Q †gªv RbmsL¨v 22.273 w¶¨qvs 306 1.6 107. Francis 1902.439 270.213 35.972 jymvB 678 1.0 200.053 1. Hastinos 1892.8 173.060 30.802 459.278 ‡gªv 2.0 1871 1881 1891 1901 mviwY.334 3. Gazetteer 1908. Dc‡ii mviwY‡Z (mviwY.341 38.957 113.241 662 142.453 157.041 gvigv 22.677 133.341 1.102 105.811 gyis Z½v 8. Mead & Macgregor 1912.0 100.211 2.0 339.02 : cve©Z¨ PÆMÖv‡gi wewfbœ ¶y`ª b„‡ Mvôxi RbmsL¨v web¨vm wewfbœ Av`gïgvix‡Z wb‡`©wkZ †gvU RbmsL¨v b„‡Mvôxi bvg 1871 1901 1931 1941 1951 1981 eg& 305 696 977 5.0 500. Roy 2012.2 441.7 501. Cole 1932.540 7.427 1.117 3.889 122.549 1.706 65.453 Lywg 534 1.075 230. 041 Ges gy is RbmsL¨v 126 Rb| wKš‘ ev¯Í‡e Giv GKB b„‡Mvôx (AIPP 2007.227 22.0 736.950 1.2 153.wPÎ.8 212.8 392.246 37.041 126 19.978 239.739 PvK& 910 wÎcyiv 8.144 3.1 101.734 cv‡•Lvqv 177 241 627 2.188 KzwK 2.000 61.8 400. Shafie 2000)| ∆ Z…ZxqZ: Census Report of 1991-G ewY©Z ÔAb¨vb¨Õ b„‡Mvôxi 828 Rb m¤ú‡K© †Kvb my¯úó e¨vL¨v †`qv nq wb| c„ôv | 6 . Roy 2002.7 RbmsL¨v (nvRvi) 700.0 600.074 153. Gazetteers 1975.584 1. The CHT Regulation of 1900. CHT Regional Council Act of 1998 (Act XII of 1998).02: wewfbœ Av`gïgvix‡Z wb‡`©wkZ cve©Z¨ PÆMÖv‡gi ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôxi RbmsL¨v web¨vm 800. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics 1991 & 1981.328 12.097 44.246 54.121 17.3 124.378 10.313 17.

KzwK Kiv n‡q‡Q| †KD †KD G‡`i KzwK Rb‡Mvôx wn‡m‡eI eY©bv K‡i‡Qb| wewfbœ `wjjcÎ I mvwn‡Z¨ GB b„‡Mvôx‡K wewfbœ bv‡g D‡jøL Kiv 2 PvK& AvPvK&. mvK 2. gywiqvi. c„ôv | 7 . cve©Z¨ PÆMÖv‡gi †gvU b„‡Mvôxi msL¨v wb‡q AvR-Aewa weZK© i‡q‡Q| wb‡¤œi mviwY‡Z Gai‡bi bvg-weåv‡Ui wKQz D`vniY †`qv nj: mviwY. nvw`. evMw`. †Lvwg 1. GKwU ¯^Zš¿ b„‡Mvôx n‡jI A‡bK `wjjcÎ I mvwn‡Z¨ Zs½v‡`i PvKgv 10 Zs½v ZsZs½v. ‡Kv‡j. ivB. cvnvb.227 mvwn‡Z¨| †KD †KD G‡`i KzwK Rb‡Mvôx wn‡m‡e eY©bv K‡i‡Qb| Zb&Zb&½uv. gyiæ 22.127 n‡q‡Q| PvOugv. gymni. gv‡Pm. Wvjy. ‡nv. 1941 I 1951 mv‡j KzwK b„‡Mvôx bv‡g †h RbmsL¨v †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q †mwU AÁZvcÖmZ ~ | †Kbbv KzwK e‡j GB A‡j †Kvb c„_K b„‡Mvôx †bB| KzwK-Pxb nj GKwU fvlvcwiev‡ii bvg Ges K‡qKwU b„‡Mvôxi fvlvB KzwKPxb cwiev‡ii AšÍfy©³| ∆ lôZ: wØZxq wek¦hy‡×i mgqKv‡j †bcvj †_‡K AvMZ cve©Z¨ PÆMÖv‡gi emwZ¯’vcbKvix b„‡Mvôx m¤ú‡K© †Kvb Rwi‡c D‡jøL †bB| GgbwK. gvj cvnvwoqv.471 eb‡hvMx. 21. f~wgR. wÎcywi n‡q‡Q| Z‡e Giv wb‡R‡`i eªæ½ e‡j| GKBfv‡e mgZ‡ji ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i wb‡qI i‡q‡Q e¨vcK weåvwšÍ| ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i wewfbœ msMVb KZ©„K cwiPvwjZ Rwi‡c Ggb A‡bK ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôxi ZvwjKv i‡q‡Q hviv evsjv‡`k cwimsL¨vb ey¨‡ivi RvZxq Rwi‡c G‡Kev‡iB Abycw¯’Z| evsjv‡`k Avw`evmx †dviv‡gi `vex Abymv‡i mgZj A‡j miKvix wnmve ewnf~©Z A‡bK¸‡jv ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôx i‡q‡Q| †hgb: Avmvwg. Giv wb‡R‡`i PvOugv e‡j| RbmsL¨vi we‡ePbvq Giv evsjv‡`‡ki e„nËg 3 PvK&gv 252.∆ PZz_©Z: 1981 mv‡ji ïgvwi‡Z wÎcyiv b„‡Mvôx‡K wn›`y ag©‡Mvôx wn‡m‡e we‡ePbv K‡i Zv‡`i RbmsL¨v evOvwj wn›`y‡`i mv‡_ wgwj‡q MYbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| d‡j ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôxmg~n I evOvwj b„‡Mvôxi RbmsL¨vi AvbycvwZK ZviZg¨ I weåvwšÍi m„wó n‡q‡Q (AIPP 2007)| ∆ cÂgZ: 1931.03 : cve©Z¨ PÆMÖv‡gi ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i bvgKi‡Yi ˆewPΨ| b„‡Mvôxi Ab¨vb¨ cÖPwjZ RbmsL¨v µg gšÍe¨ bvg bvg (1991) eg&‡Rv. gvnvwj (gvwnwj). GKB ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôxi bvg wfbœ evbv‡b I Avw½‡K Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡q‡Q| d‡j. fuyBqv. Lv›`.304 n‡q‡Q| wg‡Rv‡`i kvLv Rb‡Mvôx wn‡m‡e eY©bv Kiv n‡q‡Q wewfbœ `wjjcÎ I 9 cv‡•Lvqv cv‡•Lv. 11 wÎcyiv 81. wZcÖv. LvMovQwo cve©Z¨ †Rjvq `xN© w`b †_‡K emevmiZ mvuIZvj b„‡Mvôxi RbmsL¨v m¤ú‡K©I †Kvb eY©bv †bB GmKj Rwi‡c (Ali & Shafie 2005.858 †_K& ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôx| wewfbœ `wjjcÎ I mvwn‡Z¨ G‡`i bv‡gi evsjv I Bs‡iRx evbv‡b i‡q‡Q 4 Lywg Ly‡gvB. wewfbœ `wjjcÎ I mvwn‡Z¨ GB b„‡Mvôx‡K wewfbœ bv‡g D‡jøL Kiv 6 jymvB 662 jy½‡PvB n‡q‡Q| HwZnvwmK `wjjcÎ I mvwn‡Z¨ G‡`i gM& wn‡m‡e eY©bv Kiv n‡q‡Q| 7 gvigv gM 157. Shafie 2000)| ∆ mßgZ: wewfbœ mg‡qi ïgvwimg~‡n. wewfbœ `wjjcÎ I mvwn‡Z¨ G‡`i wg‡Rv‡`i kvLv Rb‡Mvôx wn‡m‡e eY©bv 1 eg 13. f~wgj (f~Bgvwj). cvÎ. ‡ew` I evBÏv).014 wewfbœ `wjjcÎ I mvwn‡Z¨ GB b„‡Mvôx‡K wewfbœ bv‡g D‡jøL Kiv wZ‡civ. gv‡jv.639 b„‡Mvôxi AšÍ³©³ ~ wn‡m‡e eY©bv Kiv n‡q‡Q| GQvovI wewfbœ `wjjcÎ I Zsms½v mvwn‡Z¨ G‡`i bv‡gi evsjv I Bs‡iRx evbv‡b i‡q‡Q wfbœZv| fvi‡Zi wÎcyiv iv‡R¨ DrcwË e‡j evsjv‡`‡k Giv wÎcyiv bv‡g cwiwPZ| wZc&iv.241 wfbœZv| 5 w¶¨qvs ¶¨qvs 2. MÛ. eª½. Lvwiqv. cv•Ly 3. ‡ew`qv (†e‡`. evbvB. LwÎq.343 jy‡mvB. mvOgv.301 gvigv I ivLvBb‡`i fvlv I ms¯‹…wZ‡Z h‡_ó mv`„k¨ i‡q‡Q| wewfbœ `wjjcÎ I mvwn‡Z¨ GB b„‡Mvôx‡K wewfbœ bv‡g D‡jøL Kiv 8 ‡gªv gyiæs. ‡Kviv. Kg©Kvi.

bvwK c„_K 4 nwiRb nvwiRb 1. fvlv‡Mvôx. 24.Gwel‡q wewfbœ weZK© i‡q‡Q| Giv AwóªK fvlv‡Mvôxi AšÍf©~³| Jcwb‡ewkK cÖkvmb G‡`i Lvwm 5 Lvwm Lvwmqv 12. ag©‡Mvôx ev ag© m¤úª`vq. wms.iv‡Rvqvi.04 : evsjv‡`‡ki mgZ‡ji ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i ˆewPΨKi bvgKi‡Yi wKQz D`vniY| b„‡Mvôxi Ab¨vb¨ cÖPwjZ RbmsL¨v µg gšÍe¨ bvg bvg (1991) 1991 Gi kygvwi Qvov Ab¨vb¨ miKvix cwimsL¨v‡b G‡`i †Kvb eb©bv 1 ey‡bv 7. gyjZ Ab¨ GKwU g~j avivi b„‡Mvôxi kvLv) GKwU c„_K b„‡Mvôx wn‡m‡e wPwýZ K‡i‡Q. G‡`i me¸‡jvB nqZ ¯^Zš¿ b„‡Mvôx bq.882 ¯^Zš¿ b„‡Mvôx‡K gwbcywi‡`i kvLv wn‡m‡e eb©bv Kivq A‡bK RwUjZvi weÂywcÖqv| m„wó n‡q‡Q| wewfbœ miKvix `wjjcÎ I mvwn‡Z¨ G‡`i bv‡gi evsjv I Bs‡iRx 7 IivIu DivI. ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôx. gwYcywi bv‡g cwiwPZ| wewfbœ miKvix `wjjcÎ I mvwn‡Z¨ GB wZbwU 6 gwbcywi cv½vj. Zzwi cÖf…wZ (Roy 2012)| Z‡e cÖK…Zc‡¶. IuivI 8. mgZ‡ji b„‡Mvôx‡`i ZvwjKv m¤ú‡K© weåvwšÍi wKQz bg~bv wb‡¤œi mviwY‡Z Zz‡j aiv nj : mviwY. ˆg‰Z. ms¯‹…wZ I fvlv m¤c‡K© mg¨K aviYv bv _vK‡j Zv‡K c„_K b„‡Mvôx wn‡m‡e wPwýZ Kiv KwVb| b„‡Mvôx. cv½vb.853 cvnvwo b„ZvwZ¡K M‡elYv cÖ‡qvRb| wewfbœ `wjjcÎ I mvwn‡Z¨ G‡`i gvigv b„‡Mvôxi AšÍf~©³ ejv n‡q‡Q| 9 ivLvBb ivLvB½. gvj cvnvwoqv.162 `wjjcÎ I mvwn‡Z¨ G‡`i bv‡gi evsjv I Bs‡iRx evbv‡b i‡q‡Q ˆewPΨ| cÖv¸³ wewfbœ M‡elYvq I cwimsL¨v‡b ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i wewfbœ kvLv I †Mvθ‡jv‡KI c„_K c„_K b„‡Mvôx wn‡m‡e wPwýZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| Avevi KLbIev GKB b„‡Mvôx wfbœ wfbœ A‡j `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK c„_K bv‡g wPwýZ n‡q‡Q| G‡ÿ‡Î Z_¨ msMÖnKvix hv‡`i KvQ †_‡K Z_¨ wb‡q‡Qb ZvivB nq‡Zv Zv‡`i b„‡Mvôxi Ab¨vb¨ kvLv Ask‡K (hv.540 b„‡Mvôxi AšÍf©³ y wn‡m‡e eY©bv Kiv n‡q‡Q| nwiRbiv wK wn›`y ag©xq e¨e¯’vi AšÍf©³ y GKwU RvwZeY©.132 b„‡Mvôx.hv GKw`‡K †hgb ‡gvU b„‡Mvôxi msL¨v evwo‡q w`‡q‡Q †Zgwb KLbI KLbI Zv‡`i RbmsL¨v wba©vi‡YI mgm¨v m„wó Ki‡Q| b„‡Mvôxi BwZnvm. AvwPK 64. gM 16.932 Avevi A‡b‡K G‡`i ¯^Zš¿ b„‡Mvôx e‡j‡Qb| RbmsL¨vi we‡ePbvq Giv evsjv‡`‡ki wØZxq e„nËg ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôx| wewfbœ 10 muvIZvj mvb&Zvj 202.216 evbv‡bi cv_©K¨ †`Lv hvq| cvnvwo. †ckvRxwe †Mvôx I gvbe`j ev bi‡Mvôx GK K_v bq| miKvwi I AmiKvwi Rwicmg~‡ni GB RwUjZv I weåvwšÍi g~j KviY nj b„‡Mvôx I ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôxi msÁvqb m¤ú‡K© cÖK…Z aviYv I Áv‡bi `ye©jZv| evsjv‡`‡ki Awaevmx‡`i Dci AvR ch©šÍ †Kvb wbqgvbyM b„‰eÁvwbK Rwic nq wb| ZvB wewfbœ b„‡Mvôx‡K Avjv`v fv‡e wPwýZ K‡i Avgv‡`i †`‡k KZ¸‡jv b„‡Mvôx Av‡Q Zv wbw`©ó K‡i ejv m¤¢e n‡q I‡V wb AvRI| wewfbœ Z_¨m~Î Abyhvqx AvbygvwbKfv‡e ejv nq Avgv‡`i †`‡k 45wUiI †ewk b„‡Mvôx i‡q‡Q| mwVK c×wZ‡Z b„‰eÁvwbK Rwic n‡j b„‡Mvôx msL¨v nqZ AviI †ewk n‡e e‡j Abygvb Kiv hvq| c„ôv | 8 . cvnvwo I gvj cvnvwo RvwZmËvi ¯^vZš¿ wel‡q h_vh_ 8 cvnvwoqv 1. mvIwiqv cvnvwoqv.280 bv‡g cwiwPZ| Z‡e Giv wb‡R‡`i gvb&w` e‡j _v‡K Ges Zv‡`i fvlvi bvg AvwPK| GKwU ¯^Zš¿ b„‡Mvôx n‡jI A‡bK `wjjcÎ I mvwn‡Z¨ nvRs‡`i Mv‡iv 3 nvRs 11.280 wn‡m‡e wPwýZ Ki‡jI A‡bK M‡elYv cÖe‡Ü G‡`i Lvwmqv wn‡m‡e D‡jøL Kiv n‡q‡Q| fvi‡Zi gwbcyi ivR¨ †_‡K AvMZ wZbwU ¯^Zš¿ b„‡MvôxB evsjv‡`‡k ‰g‡Zq.421 †bB| †gNvj‡qi Mv‡iv cvnv‡o G‡`i e„nr Rb‡Mvôxi emevm e‡j Giv Mv‡iv 2 Mv‡iv gvbw`. KviY ‡Kvb †Kvb †¶‡Î wn›`y RvwZe‡Y©i AšÍ©MZ wKQz m¤úª`vq‡K b„‡Mvôx wn‡m‡e we‡ePbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| D`vniY¯^iƒc.

Mitchell 1974. Medin & Aguilar 1999. ÔAvgiv muvIZvjÕ wKsev ÔAvgiv gvigvÕ BZ¨vw`| GB †PZbv I †ev‡ai Rb¨B b„‡Mvôx‡K RvwZmËvI ejv nq| ∆ mvgvwRK Kg©KvÛ. 2003. Briggs 1970. Harris 1970. 2000. Banks 1996. Yelvington 1991)| ∆ b„‡Mvôxi AšÍf~©³ nIqvi †PZbv I †eva: mvaviYZ †h †Kvb b„‡Mvôxi m`m¨‡`i gv‡S b„‡MvôxMZ cwiP‡qi ‡PZbv ev †eva _v‡K| A_©vr. 2008)| ZvB GKwU b„‡Mvôx‡K c„_Kfv‡e †Pbvi Rb¨ Avgv‡`i‡K me mgq †mB b„‡Mvôxi mxgv‡iLv eRvq ivLv I m`m¨c` jv‡fi Dcvq m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z n‡e| mywbw`©ó wKQz mvgvwRK wbq‡gi ga¨ w`‡q †Kvb b„‡Mvôxi m`m¨c` jvf Ki‡Z nq| Avi GB wbqg¸‡jv cvj‡bi mvgvwRK cÖwµqvi ga¨ w`‡q wewfbœ b„‡Mvôxi cwiwPwZ I mxgv‡iLv Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q Avjv`vfv‡e ¯úó n‡q I‡V (Jacobson 1985)| †hgb. Jenkins 2003. ÔAvgiv evOvwjÕ. Levine 1999. PvKgv. ÔAvgiv gvw›`Õ. gvigv. cÖ‡Z¨KwU gvbyl Zvi wb‡Ri b„‡Mvôxi cwiwPwZ wb‡q ˆkke †_‡K †e‡o I‡V| GB b„‡MvôxMZ AvZ¥cwiwPwZ †hgb Avgiv `vex Kwi †Zgwb Ab¨vb¨ b„‡Mvôxi m`m¨ivI GB `vexi ¯^xK…wZ †`q| Gi gv‡b nj. 1994. 1994. Barth 1969. 2008. mvgvwRK mxgv‡iLv eRvq ivLvi ga¨ w`‡qB b„‡Mvôx¸‡jv Zv‡`i cwiwPwZi ¯^vZš¿¨ eRvq iv‡L (Atran et al 2005. Nagel 1994. Piers & Singer 1953. Medin et al 2002)| wewfbœ b„‡Mvôxi g‡a¨ mvs¯‹…wZK Dcv`v‡b wKQz wgj ev mv`„k¨ _vK‡jI G‡`i m`m¨‡`i cwiwPwZ me mgqB c„_K _v‡K (Epstein 1978. muvIZvj. Byrne 1997. Avi Ô‡MvôxÕ gv‡b n‡jv mvgvwRK `j| myZivs. wKsev KL‡bv gvw›` n‡Z cvi‡e bv| A_ev GKRb PvKgv e¨w³I PvB‡jB KL‡bv muvIZvj b„‡Mvôxi m`m¨c` cv‡e bv| †Kvb e¨w³i wbR¯^ B”Qv Abyhvqx †h †Kvb b„‡Mvôxi m`m¨c` jvf Kiv m¤¢e bq| myZivs. Hallowell & Hallowell 1955. 1993. muvIZvj. Barth 1969. Cohen 1981. Glazer & Moynihan 1975)| †Kbbv. 2008)| mvaviY wKQz ˆewk‡ó¨i wfwˇZ b„‡Mvôx¸‡jvi mvs¯‹…wZK cwiPq I ¯^vZš¿¨ M‡o I‡V| h_v: ∆ b„‡Mvôxi m`m¨c` I cwiwPwZi mvgvwRK ¯^xK…wZ: †h †Kvb b„‡Mvôx Zvi m`m¨‡`i wbw`©ó cwiwPwZ †`q ev Av‡ivc K‡i| A_©vr. 1966. 2005. Fox & King 2002)| c„ôv | 9 . 1998. Zv‡`i RxweKv wbe©vn c×wZ KvQvKvwQ ai‡bi wKsev Zv‡`i mvs¯‹…wZK g~j¨‡eva I Av`‡k©I h‡_ó wgj †`Lv hvq| A_©vr ms¯‹…wZi wewfbœ `„k¨gvb I A`„k¨ Dcv`vb¸‡jv GKB b„‡Mvôxi m`m¨iv mK‡jB Rv‡b I aviY K‡i (Barth 1956. 2000. Eriksen 1996. gvw›` wKsev evOvwj cÖ‡Z¨KwU b„‡MvôxB Zv‡`i Avjv`v mvgvwRK cwiwPwZ I mxgv‡iLv eRvq iv‡L Gi m`m¨c` wba©vi‡Yi gva¨‡g| AwaKvsk †¶‡ÎB Avgiv Rb¥m~‡Î Avgv‡`i b„‡MvôxMZ cwiPq I m`m¨c` jvf K‡i _vwK Ges Ab¨vb¨ b„‡Mvôxi m`m¨‡`i †_‡K Avjv`v cwiwPwZ aviY Kwi (Atran & Medin 2008. Medin & Atran 1999. Jenkins 1994. GKwU b„‡Mvôxi mKj m`m¨‡`i gv‡S AvZ¥cwiP‡qi †PZbv I RvwZmËvi ‡eva KvR K‡i (Cohen 1969. Gravlee 2005. Cohen 1994. Cohen 1977b. 1970. Sanjek 1977)| ZvB Avgiv wewfbœ gvbyl‡K ej‡Z ïwb ‡h. 1994. evOvwj BZ¨vw`i cÖ‡Z¨KwU Avjv`v b„‡Mvôx| GKRb evOvwj e¨w³ wb‡Ri B”QvgZ KL‡bv PvKgv. Barth 1969. Medin & Aguilar 1999. gvigv. Jenkins et al 1986. Heider 1991. Lutz 1985. 1987. gvby‡li wewfbœ ‡Mvôx ev mvgvwRK `j‡K Ôb„‡MvôxÕ ejv n‡q _v‡K| c„w_exi cÖ‡Z¨KwU gvbylB †Kvb bv †Kvb b„‡Mvôxi AšÍf©³ y | cÖ‡Z¨KwU b„‡MvôxB GKwU Av‡iKwU †_‡K Avjv`v| ci¯ú‡ii g‡a¨ cv_©‡K¨i GB mxgv‡iLv b„‡Mvôx¸‡jv me©`vB eRvq iv‡L (Barth 1981. 1981. Jacobson 1985. †h †Kvb b„‡Mvôx I Gi m`m¨‡`i cwiwPwZi e„nËi mvgvwRK ¯^xK…wZ i‡q‡Q (Barth 1969. 1989. 1989. Jenkins 2003.evsjv‡`‡ki ¶y`ª b„‡ Mvôx: cÖZ¨qb I cwiwPwZ msKU ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôx m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbvi c~‡e© Ôb„‡MvôxÕ m¤ú‡K© Avgv‡`i wKQz mvaviY aviYv _vKv cÖ‡qvRb| b„weÁv‡b Ôb„‡MvôxÕ ev ÔG_wbK MÖæcÕ ej‡Z wK †evSvq ? Ôb„Õ k‡ãi A_© n‡jv gvbyl. Berreman 1972. Chapman et al 1989. 1993. fvewewbgq I Av`vb-cÖ`v‡bi mvaviY †¶Î: GKB b„‡Mvôxi m`m¨‡`i Rxebaviv ev ms¯‹…wZ‡Z h‡_ó wgj ev mv`„k¨ i‡q‡Q| mvaviYZ Zviv GKB fvlvq K_v e‡j I fvewewbgq K‡i. Gluckman 1958. 2000. 1989. PvKgv. 1994. 2000. gvw›`. Atran et al 2005. 2000. Jenkins 2003.

evsjv‡`‡k emevmKvix evOvwj Qvov Ab¨vb¨ b„‡Mvôx¸‡jv msL¨vZvwË¡K w`K †_‡K ‡QvU †QvU Ae¯’v‡b i‡q‡Q| GmKj b„‡Mvôxi cÖZ¨qb wb‡q i‡q‡Q wewfbœ weZK©| wewfbœ HwZnvwmK `wjjcÎ. Van Nieuwkoop & Uquillas 2000)| Gfv‡e Zviv wbR¯^ ms¯‹…wZi cÖvPxb ev Avw` HwZn¨ I ¯^vZš¿¨ eRvq †i‡L‡Q| A_©vr. Ô¶z`ª RvwZmËvÕ.Gi aviYvi DrcwË g~jZ A‡óªwjqv I Av‡gwiKv gnv‡`‡ki cÖ_g Awaevmx Rb‡Mvôxi aviYv †_‡K| eZ©gv‡b msL¨vMwiô n‡jI ‡k¦Zv½iv g~jZ †mLv‡b ewnivMZ Ges emwZ ¯’vcbKvix| ‡mLvbKvi Avw`evmx Rb‡Mvôxi my`xN© ‰elg¨ I eÂbvi BwZnvm we‡ePbv (Freire 2004. Zinn & Arnove 2004) K‡i RvwZmsN Zv‡`i AwaKvi we‡klfv‡e msi¶‡Yi D‡`¨vM MªnY K‡i| evsjv‡`‡kI ¶z`ª RvwZmËvmg~n‡K ÔBwÛ‡Rbvm wccj&Õ ev ÔAvw`evmx Rb‡MvôxÕ ejv hv‡e wKbv Zv wb‡q miKvi. ev ÔBbwW‡RbvmÕ wn‡m‡e msÁvwqZ Kivi `vex Rvwb‡q‡Q| GB msÁvq‡bi g~j wfwË n‡”Q wbw`©ó A‡j Zv‡`i emwZ ¯’vc‡bi BwZnvm| b„‡Mvôx‡`i emwZ ¯’vc‡bi HwZnvwmK †cª¶vcU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© n‡q I‡V †m‡Þ¤^i 2007-G RvwZms‡Ni †NvlYvc‡Î ÔBwÛ‡Rbvm wccj&Õ‡`i we‡kl AwaKv‡ii ¯^xK…wZ ‡`qvi Kvi‡Y| ÔBwÛ‡Rbvm wccj&Õ Gi evsjv AvwfavwbK A_© ÔAvw`evmx Rb‡MvôxÕ| RvwZms‡Ni e¨eüZ ÔBwÛ‡Rbvm wccj&Õ. A_©‰bwZK ev ivR‰bwZK e¨e¯’v| (4) ¯^Zš¿ fvlv. Kleymeyer 1993. Ô¶z`ª b„‡MvôxÕ ev ÔAvw`evmx Rb‡MvôxÕ m¤ú‡K© KwVb ev Abgbxq msÁvqb ÒcÖ‡qvRbxq ev cªZ¨vwkZ bq. we‡klZ cÖvK-Jcwb‡ewkK hy‡Mi mvs¯‹…wZK HwZ‡n¨i avivevwnKZv| (3) ¯^Zš¿ mvgvwRK. aib wKsev Mob m¤ú‡K© †Kvb cÖZ¨qbMZ aviYv cvIqv hvq bv| Aciw`‡K. ‡`Lv hvq c„w_exi Ab¨vb¨ A‡bK †`‡kB Gai‡bi b„‡Mvôx¸‡jvi cwiwPwZ wewfbœfv‡e weKwkZ n‡q‡Q †hgb. GB Rb‡Mvôx‡`i cÖwZwbwaiv wb‡R‡`i‡K mvgwMÖKfv‡e ÔAvw`evmxÕ. ag© I ms¯‹…wZi gvbyl emevm K‡i| RbmsL¨vi we‡ePbvq GB †`‡k evOvwj b„‡Mvôx nj msL¨vMwiô| Aci w`‡K. ÔAvw`evmxÕ. eZ©gvb cÖe‡Üi welqe¯‘i Av‡jv‡K GB weZK© wb‡q `xN© ch©v‡jvPbv wKsev hyw³ Z‡K©i AeKvk †bB| eis ejv †h‡Z cv‡i. ÔZdwmwj RvwZÕ. Nahmad et al. eyw×Rxwemn wewfbœ gn‡j i‡q‡Q Pjgvb weZK©| hvB‡nvK. ÔDcRvwZÕ. †Kbbv Gi d‡j wKQz wKQz b„‡Mvôx msÁvq‡bi AvIZvi evB‡i †_‡K †h‡Z cv‡iÓ (ACHPR 2003)| ZvB GLv‡b Avgiv †Póv Kie GmKj b„‡Mvôxi mvaviY mvs¯‹…wZK ˆewk‡ó¨i Av‡jv‡K cÖv‡qvwMK cÖZ¨qb wba©viY K‡i evsjv‡`‡ki †cÖw¶‡Z Zvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Zz‡j ai‡Z| Ô¶z`ª b„‡MvôxÕ ev Ô¶z`ª RvwZmËvÕ‡`i Rxebaviv I ms¯‹…wZ evOvwj b„‡Mvôx †_‡K c„_K I ¯^Zš¿| mvs¯‹…wZK ˆewk‡ó¨i we‡ePbvq evsjv‡`‡k Ô¶z`ª b„‡MvôxÕ ev Ô¶z`ª RvwZmËvÕ ej‡Z eySv‡bv nq g~jZ AZxZ ev Avw` HwZ‡n¨i aviK I cÖwZwbwaZ¡Kvix b„‡Mvôx¸‡jv‡K| GB b„‡Mvôx¸‡jv wewfbœ HwZnvwmK I mvgvwRK cU cwieZ©‡bi g‡a¨I wbR wbR HwZn¨ I ms¯‹…wZ‡K A‡bKvs‡k a‡i †i‡L‡Q (Civallero 2007. AvBb I cÖÁvcb. Said 2000. Ôdv÷©-†bkvbÕ cÖf…wZ bvgKiY| GB msL¨vjNy b„‡Mvôx‡`i mvs¯‹…wZK HwZn¨ msi¶Y I weKv‡ki Rb¨ evsjv‡`k RvZxq msm` GwcÖj 2010-G Ò¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx mvs¯‹…wZK cÖwZôvb AvBb 2010Ó bv‡g GKwU AvBb cÖYqb K‡i| GB AvB‡b evsjv‡`‡ki ÔA-evOvwjÕ I HwZn¨evnx RvwZmËv¸‡jv‡K Ô¶z`ª b„‡MvôxÕ bv‡g AvL¨vwqZ Kiv nq| Ô¶z`ª b„‡MvôxÕ. Ô¶z`ª RvwZmËvÕ ev ÔG_wbK gvBbwiwUÕ cÖZ¨q¸‡jvi wfwËg~‡j i‡q‡Q ïaygvÎ GB ‡`‡k Zv‡`i RbmsL¨vMZ Ae¯’vb| RbmsL¨vi wfwˇZ †QvU n‡jI cÖwZwU b„‡MvôxB GK GKwU ¯^Zš¿ b„‡Mvôx I Abb¨ RvwZmËv| Gai‡bi msÁvqb †_‡K Zv‡`i ms¯‹…wZi avivevwnKZv. ivRbxwZwe`. 2011. Zinn 2005. g~j¨‡eva. eB-cy¯ÍK I iPbv Ges miKvwi bw_c‡Î evsjv‡`‡ki msL¨vjNy RvwZmËvmg~n‡K wfbœ wfbœ bv‡g mbv³ Kivi Kvi‡Y G‡`i mvaviY cÖZ¨q‡bi weZK© AviI cÖej n‡q‡Q| GB weZK© ïay evsjv‡`‡kB bq. Tran 2012.evsjv‡`‡k bvbv fvlv. ÔGewiwRbvjÕ. Loewen 2008. ÔUªvBeÕ. HwZn¨. wek¦vm I Av`k©| (5) emevmK„Z A‡ji cÖK…wZi mv‡_ wbweo I Mfxi m¤úK©| (6) AvaywbK ivóª e¨e¯’vq cÖvPxb HwZn¨evnx b„‡Mvôx¸‡jvi Ae¯’vb A‡c¶K…Z `ye©j Ges AvwacZ¨nxb| c„ôv | 10 . ‡`‡ki I Avš©ÍRvwZK cÖhyw³ Ges ms¯‹…wZi cwieZ©‡bi mv‡_ Zviv wg‡k hvqwb G‡Kev‡i| eis Zv‡`i mgvR e¨e¯’v I ms¯‹…wZi wewfbœ Dcv`v‡b A‡bKvs‡k wbR¯^Zv eRvq †i‡L‡Q| ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx¸‡jvi mvs¯‹w… ZK ˆewk‡ó¨ wKQz mvaviY mv`„k¨ i‡q‡Q| h_v: (1) b„‡Mvôxi m`m¨‡`i gv‡S ¯^Zš¿ cwiwPwZ I RvwZmËvi ‡PZbv| (2) AZxZ HwZn¨. ÔRbRvwZÕ.

ˆelg¨. Spindler 1977. mvgvwRK ‰elg¨ Avi AmgZvi ev¯ÍeZv wb‡q wewfbœ e¨w³. Atkinson 1990. Singh 2000. Oyen 2005. 1994)| A_©‰bwZK m¤ú` Avni‡Yi Rb¨ AvšÍtcÖwZ‡hvwMZvi djvdj wn‡m‡e A‡c¶vK…Z `ye©j ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôxmg~n wewfbœfv‡e eÂbv. De Haan 2000. Wells 1980)| ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx‡f‡` GB ms¯‹…wZK AvZ¥xKi‡Yi gvÎv. Geertz 1957. Contreras et al 2007. Haan & Maxwell 1998. Barron 2008. Malinowski & Kaberry 1945. Birdsall & Sabot 1991. Hobsbawm & Ranger. Smith Marvin 1992. 1959. Haan 2009. Harriss 2003. Bentley et al 2007. Steward 1955. (2) mvs¯‹…wZK cÖvwšÍKZv I wew”QbœZvi (Marginalisation and Exclusion) d‡j AcÖavb ms¯‹w… Zi gvby‡liv avivevwnKfv‡e cÖvwšÍK ev †KvYVvmv Ae¯’v‡b P‡j wM‡q‡Q. Eggan 2009. Datta-Majumder & Herskovits 1956. Wallace & Fogelson 1961. Ji et al 2001. Ges (3) mvs¯‹…wZK m¤ú„³Ki‡Yi (Integration) ga¨ w`‡q †Kvb †Kvb ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx GKw`‡K †hgb AvwacZ¨Kvix ms¯‹…wZi AvPvi-AvPiY I g~j¨‡eva MÖnY K‡i‡Q. 1969. Shafie & Mahmood 2003)| evsjv‡`‡kI e„nËg b„‡Mvôx I msL¨vjNy ev ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i ga¨Kvi AvšÍtm¤ú‡K©i cÖK…wZ I ˆewkó¨I A‡bKUv GKB ai‡bi| GKB A‡j eû b„‡Mvôxi cvkvcvwk emevm I Ae¯’v‡bi ‡¶‡Î Drcv`b e¨e¯’v‡K wN‡i Zv‡`i g‡a¨ cÖwZ‡hvwMZvi m¤úK© M‡o I‡V (Barth 1956. Brakel 2004. †Mvôx Ges b„‡Mvôx‡`i ga¨Kvi mvgvwRK m¤úK© iƒcvwqZ nq| †Mvôxwefw³ Ges mvgvwRK †kªwYKi‡Yi gva¨‡g gvby‡li AvšÍtm¤ú‡K© ˆelg¨ I AmgZvi m„wó nq (Allport 1962 [1954])| Avi b„‡MvôxMZ cwiwPwZi wfwˇZ wefvRb I ˆel‡g¨i Kvi‡Y ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôxi gvbyliv e„nËi mvgvwRK. Spindler & Goldschmidt 1952. aib I djvdj n‡q‡Q wewfbœ : (1) mvs¯‹…wZK mgxfe‡bi (Assimilation) d‡j wKQz wKQz ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx AvwacZ¨Kvix ms¯‹…wZi AvPvi-AvPiY I g~j¨‡eva aviY K‡i eZ©gv‡b Zv‡`i wbR¯^ ¯^vZš¿ I cwiwPwZ nvwi‡q †d‡j‡Q. ‡Zgwb GKB mv‡_ Zv‡`i wbR¯^ ms¯‹…wZI jvjb Ki‡Q| A_©vr m¤ú„³Ki‡Yi gva¨‡g eZ©gv‡b AwaKvsk ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôxi m`m¨iv AvwacZ¨Kvix e„nËi ms¯‹…wZi mv‡_ hy³ †_‡KI wbR¯^ Avw`-HwZn¨ I ms¯‹…wZ eRvq †i‡L ¯^vZš¿¨ wUwK‡q ivLvi †Póv Ki‡Q| Kv‡ji cwiµgvq bvbv ai‡bi ivóªxq I mvgvwRK ˆeixZvq GKw`‡K †hgb ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i ms¯‹…wZ I fvlv ûgwKi m¤§yLxb n‡q‡Q. wbcxob I c„ôv | 11 . Obeyesekere 1963. Redfield 1955. Medin & Aguilar 1999. Shafie & Kilby 2009. e„nËi evOvwj ms¯‹…wZi ms¯ú‡k© I wek¦vq‡bi cÖfv‡e ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôxi gvbyl‡`i mgvR I ms¯‹…wZ‡ZI ax‡i ax‡i cwieZ©b G‡m‡Q| mvs¯‹…wZK cÖevn I cwie¨wß cÖwµqvi gva¨‡g ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i Rxe‡b ‡h cwieZ©b G‡m‡Q Zvi aib I djvd‡jI i‡q‡Q ˆewPΨ| AvwacZ¨Kvix e„nËi ms¯‹…wZi mv‡_ `xN©Kvj a‡i †hvMv‡hvM I Av`vbcÖ`v‡bi gva¨‡g ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i m`m¨iv mvs¯‹…wZK AvZ¥xKiY (Acculturation) cÖwµqvq e„nËi ms¯‹…wZi A‡bK Dcv`vb MÖnb K‡i‡Q ev AvqZ¡ K‡i‡Q (Anderson 2006. Psacharopoulos & Patrinos 1994. wn›`y. Cohen 1977a. Landrine & Klonoff 2004. Avevi †Kvb †Kvb ‡ÿ‡Î GmKj RvwZ‡Mvôxmgyn ag©všÍwiZ n‡q ev½vjx. Corwin 1977. Sen 2000. Miller 1966. Birdsall et al 1995. gymjgvb wKsev wLªóvb m¤úª`v‡qi Ask wn‡m‡e AšÍf©~³ n‡”Q| G‡`i †Kvb †Kvb Ask Avevi wb‡R‡`i b„‡MvôxMZ cwiwPwZ †Mvcb †i‡L (†KŠkjMZ I mgvwRK Ae¯’vbMZ Kvi‡b) e„nËi †Kvb RvwZ‡Mvôxi AšÍf©y³ n‡”Q| Gfv‡e mvs¯‹…wZK HwZ‡n¨i Ôwe¯Í…Z avivÕ (Great tradition) Ges Ô¯’vbxq avivÕi (Little tradition) mw¤§j‡b ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i mvgvwRK I mvs¯‹…wZK Rxe‡bi †Kvb †Kvb cwim‡i beavivi mgwš^Z HwZn¨ (Syncretic tradition) M‡o D‡V‡Q (Babadzan 2000. Roy 1982.¶y`ª b„‡ Mvôxi ms¯‹…wZi cwieZ©b I fvlvi wecbœZv AvaywbK wek¦e¨e¯’vq ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôxi gvbyl‡`i mvgvwRK I mvs¯‹…wZK e¨e¯’vq A‡bK cwieZ©b G‡m‡Q| mv¤úªwZKKv‡j †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vi bvbvwea ˆecøweK cwieZ©‡bi mv‡_ mv‡_ wewfbœ ms¯‹w… Zi g‡a¨ Av`vb-cÖ`vb e„w× †c‡q‡Q eû ¸‡Y| d‡j mvs¯‹…wZK cwieZ©b Z¡ivwš^Z n‡q‡Q| GKBfv‡e. Rashid et al 2009. Sangren 1984. Gupta & Ferguson 1992. wKsev A‡bKvs‡k wew”Qbœ n‡q c‡o‡Q. Duranti & Ochs 1996. Orans 1965. †Zgwb ivR‰bwZK I A_©‰bwZK cÖwZK~jZv. 2004. Nagel 1986. Spiro 1982. cÖwZeÜKZv I wbh©vZ‡bi Kvi‡b Zv‡`i Aw¯ÍZ¡I ûgwKi m¤§~Lxb n‡q‡Q| nvwi‡q hv‡”Q Zv‡`i ms¯‹…wZ I fvlvi DcKiYmgyn| A‡bK RvwZ‡MvôxB AvR Zv‡`i AvZ¥cwiPq nvwi‡q Ab¨ ‡Kvb e„nr RvwZ‡Mvôxi Ask wn‡m‡e Avwef~©Z n‡”Q. Stewart 1999)| m¤ú‡`i Amg e›Ub. ivR‰bwZK I A_©‰bwZK cwim‡i wew”QbœZv I eÂbvi wkKvi nq (Ali & Shafie 2005. Atkinson 1998.

c„ôv | 12 . Klitgaard 1995. Psacharopoulos & Patrinos 2004. Uquillas & Rivera 1993)| HwZnvwmKfv‡e ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôx¸‡jv evsjv‡`‡ki cve©Z¨ AÂj I D”Pf~wg GjvKvi Awaevmx| evsjv‡`‡k gvÎ K‡qKkZ eQi c~‡e©I RbmsL¨v ¯^íZvi Kvi‡Y GK b„‡Mvôx Ab¨ b„‡Mvôxi emwZ A‡j cÖ‡ek K‡iwb| wKš‘ mv¤úªwZKKv‡j RbmsL¨v e„w×mn wewfbœ ivR‰bwZK I A_©‰bwZK Kvi‡Y evsjv‡`‡ki HwZn¨evnx ¶y`ª b„‡Mvôx¸‡jvi emevm A‡ji cwiwa I mxgvbv †QvU n‡q Avm‡Q (Birdsall et al 1995. Haan 2009. 2000. Garcia-Aracil & Winter 2006. 1996. 2001. A_©‰bwZK I ivR‰bwZKfv‡e cÖvwšÍK Ae¯’v‡b i‡q‡Q (Appadurai 1998. Foucault 2010. Mayes et al 2001. Hall 1992. Patrinos & Skoufias 2007. Hall & Patrinos 2006. Uquillas & Rivera 1993)| GB m¤ú` Avni‡Yi cÖwZ‡hvMxZvq myweavRbK Ae¯’v‡b _vKvi Rb¨ A‡bK †¶‡ÎB ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôxmg~‡ni cÖwZ ms¯‹viv”Qbœ `„wófw½i e¨envi Kiv nq (Allport 1962 [1954]. Hall & Patrinos 2006. Jackson et al 1996. Patrinos 1998. Klitgaard & Fedderke 1995. Becker 1975. Mincer 2008. Corcoran et al 1984. A¯^v¯’¨Ki evm¯’vb. Corcoran et al 1984. De Haan 2000. Garcia-Aracil & Winter 2006. Haan 2009. Byrne 2005. e¨vwa. Haan 2009. Jordan 1996. Barry 1998. Barron 2008. Mincer 1974a. Buvinic et al 2004. Baumann & Sunier 1995. Patrinos & Skoufias 2007. Uquillas & Rivera 1993)| Gfv‡e ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôxi m`m¨iv `wi`ª Rb‡Mvôx‡`i g‡a¨I nZ`wi`ª Ae¯’v‡b _v‡K| ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i RxebhvÎvq `ye©j ¯^v¯’¨ e¨e¯’v. Becker 1956.Aa¯ÍbZvi wkKvi n‡”Q (Atkinson 1998. b. Hechter & Levi 1979. AwaK †eKvi‡Z¡i cvkvcvwk weï× cvwb. Gupta & Ferguson 1997a. Patrinos & Skoufias 2007. Klitgaard & Fedderke 1995. 2001. Uquillas & Rivera 1993) Ges e„nËi cwim‡i wew”QbœZv I eÂbvi Kvi‡Y Zviv cÖvwšÍK Rb‡Mvôx‡Z cwiYZ n‡”Q| evsjv‡`k Z_v †MvUv we‡k¦B ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx¸‡jv mvgvwRK. Patrinos 1998.28% nj ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx Ges ïaygvÎ evOvwj b„‡Mvôxi RbmsL¨v nj evwK 98. Jenkins 2003. Schultz 1961. Barry 1998. b. ¶yav. Gupta & Ferguson 1997a. Shafie & Mahmood 2003)| GB ms¯‹viv”Qbœ `„wófw½ ax‡i ax‡i weKwkZ n‡q mvgvwRK ˆelg¨ I †kvl‡bi gva¨g n‡q I‡V (†`Lyb wPÎ. Fazio 2007. Barry 1998. Birdsall & Sabot 1991. Atkinson 1998. Fazio 2007. Garcia-Aracil & Winter 2006.03)| evsjv‡`‡ki e„nËg b„‡Mvôx Ges msL¨vjNy ev ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i cvi¯úwiK mvs¯‹…wZK Av`vbcÖ`v‡b bvbviKg cÖwZeÜKZv I mgm¨v i‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`‡ki †gvU RbmsL¨vi gvÎ 1. Acywó. Schutz 1972) GLb SuywKi m¤§yLxb| Zv‡`i g~j¨‡eva GB wek¦ e¨e¯’vi mv‡_ msMwZc~Y© bq| †mBmv‡_ eZ©gv‡b wek¦vq‡bi hy‡M ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i Abb¨ mvs¯‹…wZK ˆewkó¨mg~n ax‡i ax‡i jyß n‡q hv‡”Q (Appadurai 1996. Shafie & Kilby 2009. Ferguson 2002. Chiswick 1997. Igoe 2006. cq:wb¯‹vkb I we`y¨Zmn Ab¨vb¨ cÖv_wgK I †gŠwjK myweav †_‡K ewÂZ nIqvi ev¯ÍeZv †_‡K Zv‡`i cÖvwšÍKZv mn‡RB cÖZxqgvb nq (Atkinson 1998. Contreras et al 2007. Baumann & Sunier 1995. Hechter & Okamoto 2001. Barron 2008. Haan & Maxwell 1998.72% (BBS 2001)| RbmsL¨vMZ GB wekvj e¨eavb †_‡K evsjv‡`‡ki mvgvwRK I mvs¯‹w… ZK †cÖ¶vc‡U ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx¸‡jvi Zzjbvg~jK `ye©j Ae¯’vb mn‡RB Aby‡gq| GQvovI. Birdsall & Sabot 1991. Hechter 1975. Borofsky et al 2001. Psacharopoulos & Patrinos 1994. Rashid et al 2009. Barth 2000. wk¶vnxbZv. eZ©gvb mg‡qi ˆewk¦K cuwy Rev`x evRvi e¨e¯’v Ges RvwZiv‡óªi Avwac‡Z¨i cÖfv‡e ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i Aw¯ÍZ¡ (Appadurai 1996. Contreras et al 2007.

Tollefson & Tollefson 1995)| AwaKvsk ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôxi m`m¨ivB AšÍZ wØfvwlK Ges Zviv wbR¯^ gvZ…fvlvi cvkvcvwk evsjv fvlv e¨envi K‡i| cwievi †_‡K ïiæ K‡i mvgvwRK I ivóªxq cwim‡i GKwU fvlvi cÖPjb msKzwPZ n‡q Avm‡j ax‡i ax‡i †mB fvlv jyß n‡q hvq (Curry 2008. 2001. Bakhtin 1982. Psacharopoulos & Schultz 1984)| mvs¯‹…wZK wecbœZvi cvkvcvwk ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i gvZ…fvlvI eZ©gv‡b wecbœ cÖvq| wewfbœ Av_©-mvgvwRK I ivR‰bwZK Kvi‡Y Ges RbmsL¨vi ¯^íZvi Kvi‡Y wKQz wKQz fvlv GLb jyßcÖvq| G¸‡jvi g‡a¨ jymvB. (7) wewfbœ MYgva¨‡g Abyôvb m¤úªPv‡ii fvlv. Holland & Quinn 1987. Lywg cÖfw„ Z fvlvq †ivgvb nid e¨envi n‡PQ| †gªv‡`i g‡a¨ †gb‡j †gªv cÖewZ©Z †ivgvb Ges ewg© wjwci 8wU ¯^i I 23wU e¨Ä‡bi mgš^‡q †gªv eY©gvjv cÖPjb ïiæ n‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`‡k wÎcyiviv Zv‡`i KK‡eviK fvlvq †ivgvb nid e¨envi Ki‡Q| evsjv‡`‡ki ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx fvlv¸wj wewfbœ mg‡q cwiewZ©Z n‡q‡Q| ïay †h aŸwbMZ w`K †_‡K GB cwieZ©b N‡U‡Q Zv bq. (5) cÖkvmwbK I AvBb-Av`vj‡Z e¨eüZ fvlv. (6) mncvVx‡`i mv‡_ e¨eüZ fvlv. (3) eÜz-evÜe‡`i mv‡_ e¨eüZ fvlv. Hajime 1964. cvs‡Lvqv D‡jøL‡hvM¨| mgZj f~wgi ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx †ek wKQy fvlv B‡Zvg‡a¨ jyß n‡q‡Q| ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx cvnvwoqv I gvnvwj‡`i g‡a¨ GK mgq `ªvweo cwiev‡ii gvj‡Zv fvlv cÖPwjZ wQj. Mincer 1974b. wKš‘ eZ©gv‡b Zv Aejyß| Giv mevB GLb mv`wi e¨envi K‡i Ges mv`wi‡K wb‡Ri fvlv e‡j g‡b K‡i| evsjv‡`‡k emevmKvix cÖvq 85 nvRvi IivIu-Gi g‡a¨ Zv‡`i `ªvweo cwiev‡ii fvlv Kzuo–L Rv‡b gvÎ 25 nvRvi| cvnvwoqv‡`i gv‡S GKKv‡j cÖPwjZ gvj‡Zv (`ªvweo cwievify³) fvlvI eZ©gv‡b cy‡ivcywi wejyß| ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i fvlv wecbœ nIqvi Avi GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© KviY nj wjwLZ eY©gvjvi Abycw¯’wZ| ïaygvÎ PvKgv. Skutnabb-Kangas & Aikio-Puoskari 2003)| evsjv‡`‡k ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i wKQz fvlv eZ©gv‡b jyßcÖvq| wek¦. d'Andrade 1995. c„ôv | 13 . Conley & O'Barr 2005. GgbwK RxweKv-wbe©vn I kÖgevRv‡ii cÖK…wZ wba©vi‡YI fvlvi f~wgKv AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| ‰`bw›`b Rxe‡b GKwU fvlvi ¯^xK…wZ I e¨env‡ii mvaviY †¶Î mg~n nj : (1) cwiev‡ii m`m¨‡`i gv‡S e¨eüZ fvlv. (8) cÎ-cwÎKvq e¨eüZ fvlv. (4) N‡ii evB‡i †Nviv‡div I ‡Ljvayjvq AskMÖn‡Yi Rb¨ e¨eüZ fvlv. Igoe 2006. Mv‡iv Ges Lvwm‡`i| muvIZvj I Mv‡iv‡`i g‡a¨ mxwgZ ch©v‡q evsjv wjwci cÖ‡qvM N‡U‡Q mv¤cÖwZK Kv‡j| Ab¨w`‡K mv`wi fvlvfvlxiv evsjv wjwc e¨envi K‡i Avm‡Q A‡bKw`b †_‡KB| wgkbvwi‡`i cÖ‡Póvq eg&. (9) nvU-evRvi I †`vKvb-cv‡U e¨eüZ fvlv. Nakamura 1991. Nisbett et al 2001. wk¶v cÖf…wZ. Cummins 2000. Norenzayan & Nisbett 2000. Cole & Graham 2012. ¶gZv. eg. Lywg. 2005. SkutnabbKangas 1997.Mayes et al 2001. Bourdieu 1984. cvs‡Lvqv. Ges (11) cÖPwjZ eBcy¯Í‡K e¨eüZ fvlv| fvlv e¨env‡ii GBme †¶Îmg~‡ni we‡ePbvq ejv †h‡Z cv‡i †h evsjv‡`‡k ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i wbR¯^ fvlvmg~‡ni cÖ‡qvM I cÖPj‡bi cwiwa AZ¨šÍ mxwgZ| †mBmv‡_ evsjv‡`‡ki wk¶v I evRvi e¨e¯’vmn e„nËi mvgvwRK cwim‡i mshy³ nIqvi Rb¨ ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i Rb¨ evsjv fvlv †kLv Qvov MZ¨šÍi †bB| ZvB ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`i Rxeb-AwfÁZvq evsjv nj Avwac‡Z¨i fvlv (Abu-Lughod 1991. Krauss et al 2004. ivRbxwZ. Grenfell et al. Bourdieu & Thompson 1991. wLqvs. Lakoff 1990. (10) wk¶K‡`i mv‡_ e¨eüZ fvlv. ‡gªv. Derrida 1996. Mincer 1974c. Oyen 2005. McCarty 2005. Mohanty 2000. Magga et al 2005. gvigv I gwYcywi‡`i i‡q‡Q eY©gvjv| GQvov AwaKvsk ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôx‡`iB wbR¯^ wjwc ev †Kvb wjwLZ eY©gvjv †bB| hw`I eZ©gv‡b A‡b‡KB †ivgvb wjwc e¨envi K‡i| †ivgvb wjwc e¨env‡ii `xN©w`‡bi BwZnvm i‡q‡Q muvIZvj. (2) wewfbœ AvPvi Abyôvb I Drm‡e e¨eüZ fvlv. Fairclough 1990. ev¯ÍeZv Avi AwfÁZv‡K gvbyl aviY K‡i Zvi fvlvi gva¨‡g| c„w_ex I cÖK…wZ‡KI gvbyl iƒcvqb K‡i fvlv w`‡q| fvlv gvby‡li wPšÍv‡K cwiPvwjZ K‡i Avi GB wPšÍvi-RMr †_‡K wbg©Z nq mvgvwRK ev¯ÍeZv (Foss & Hakes 1978. PvK. Royle 2003. Psacharopoulos & Patrinos 1994. bZzb bZzb k‡ãiI AbycÖ‡ek N‡U‡Q| gvby‡li RxebhvÎvq fvlvi f~wgKv A‡bK ¸iæZ¡c~Y© I e¨vc„Z| mvgvwRK m¤úK© I cwiwPwZ wbg©vY †_‡K ïiæ K‡i wkíKjv. Kiesling 2007. Fetterman 1993.

RvwZ‡Mvôx. mvs¯‹…wZK wewfbœZv Ges ‰ewk¦K mgm¨vi ¯^iƒc wba©vi‡Y wek¦e¨vcx gvbe mgvR I gvby‡li AvPiY wb‡q wk¶vg~jK I M‡elYvag©x Kvh©µ‡gi cª‡qvRbxqZv ‡`Lv ‡`q| GiB cwi‡cªw¶‡Z we‡k¦i PvikÕiI ‡ewk ms¯‹…wZ. GKwU ¯^Zš¿ Rxebavivi g„Z¨z N‡U| b„fvlv‰eÁvwbK Rwic I evsjv‡`‡ki mvs¯‹…wZK m¤ú` mvs¯‹…wZK m¤ú‡`i h_v_©Zv I e¨vwß Abyave‡bi Kvh©Kix cªwµqv wn‡m‡e b…‰eÁvwbK Rwic ‡ek wKQy Kvj a‡i wewfbœ eyw×Rxwe gnj I mvaviY gvby‡li Kv‡Q ¸iæZ¡c~Y© n‡q DV‡Q| MZ kZvãxi ïiæ ‡_‡K wewfbœ RvwZMZ Ø›Ø. lexicon. fvi‡Z 1946 mv‡j cªwZwôZ Anthropological Survey of India miKv‡ii Aax‡b wewfbœ b„‰eÁvwbK M‡elYv ïiæ K‡i| fvi‡Zi eû wewPÎ ms¯‹…wZi ‡h wecyj cwiwa I e¨vwß. Traxler & Gernsbacher 2006)| Gfv‡e fvlvi gva¨‡gB gvby‡li Rxeb `k©b M‡o I‡V| e¨w³ †h fvlvq K_v e‡j.Prasithrathsint 1993. ‡Zgwb mvs¯‹…wZK m¤ú` cªZ¨qb I Abyave‡bi ‡¶‡Î fvlv msµvšÍ Ávb Acwinvh©| mvs¯‹…wZK m¤ú` I fvlv ˆewPΨ Rwi‡ci Dcv`vbmg~n wb‡¤œi wP‡Î †`Lv‡bv nj| c„ôv | 14 . ag©xq I Ab¨vb¨ mvgvwRK `‡ji weeiY mg…× HRAF (Human Relations Area File) Collection of Ethnography n‡q I‡V GK Abb¨ m¤ú`| HRAF ‡_‡K c„w_exi wewfbœ GjvKvi gvby‡li wewPÎ RxebhvÎv m¤ú‡K© Zzjbvg~jK Ávb Avni‡Yi ga¨ w`‡q gvby‡li AvPiY I ms¯‹…wZ m¤ú‡K© AšÍ`„©wóg~ jK ZË¡xq aviYv AR©b Kiv ‡h‡Z cv‡i| GB fvebv ‡_‡K 1937 mv‡j B‡qj wek¦we`¨vj‡qi Institute of Human Relations Gi GK`j M‡elK GK GKwU mgv‡Ri mvs¯‹…wZK. etc.) _v‡K hv wPiZ‡i nvwi‡q hvq †mB fvlvi g„Zz¨i ga¨w`‡q| GKwU fvlvi g„Zy¨i ga¨ w`‡q GKwU mvs¯‹…wZK ÁvbKvÛ jyß n‡q hvq. AvPiYMZ I Ab¨vb¨ Z‡_¨i ‡kªwYe×KiY I wb‡`©wkKv cªYq‡bi ‡h cªwµqv ïiæ K‡ib Zv w`‡q GB e„n`vqZb Z_¨m~‡Îi KvR ïiæ nq| GKBfv‡e. Zv Zy‡j aivi ‡¶‡Î Anthropological Survey of India i M‡elYvK‡g©i Ae`vb Ab¯^xKvh©| GB ms¯’vi wewfbœ cªKvkbv I G_‡bvMªvwdK Pjw”PÎ mviv we‡k¦ wewfbœ M‡elYv I cvV¨µ‡g e¨eüZ Ges cªkswmZ| GKBfv‡e evsjv‡`‡ki mvs¯‹…wZK ˆewPΨ I m¤ú` wPwýZ I wPÎvq‡bi Rb¨ b…‰eÁvwbK Rwic ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv ivL‡e| mvs¯‹…wZK m¤ú` I fvlv‰ewPΨ Rwi‡ci welqvejx wK n‡Z cv‡i Zv wb‡q A‡b‡KiB my¯úó aviYv bvI _vK‡Z cv‡i| ms¯‹…wZ I fvlv ci¯úi wew”Qbœ bq. †m fvlvB Zvi wPšÍv‡K cwiPvwjZ K‡i Ges wfbœ wfbœ fvlvi gvby‡li wPšÍvi RMrI wfbœ wfbœ n‡q _v‡K| cÖwZwU fvlvi wKQy ¯^Zš¿ I ‡gŠwjK KvVv‡gv Dcv`vb (phonemic inventory. eis wewfbœ cwim‡i fvlv I ms¯‹…wZ G‡K Ac‡ii wbqvgK I aviK wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i| ZvB fvlvi ‰ewPΨMZ Z_¨vqb I Rwi‡ci ‡¶‡Î mvs¯‹…wZK cUf~wgi aviYv ‡hgb ¸iæZ¡c~Y©.

M‡o DV‡e mvs¯‹…wZK HwZn¨ I m¤ú` msi¶‡Yi cªwZ `vqe×Zv I RvZxq msnwZ Ges Zv ‡`k I gvby‡li Dbœq‡bi cª‡qvRbxq Aby‡cªiYv ‡hvMv‡e| Ab¨w`‡K. ¯’vbxq Drme-Abyôvb. Rxeb I ms¯‹…wZ| ‡MvôxMZ cwiwPwZ I web¨v‡mi Z_¨¸‡jv mvs¯‹…wZK gvbwPÎvq‡bi cªv_wgK kZ©| GQvov wewfbœ HwZnvwmK I cªZœZvwË¡K wb`k©b. McGarry 2002. ‡jvKwkí. Drcvw`Z `ªe¨vw` I n¯Íwkí. Ganguly & Phadnis 2001. G ai‡bi Rwic I gvbwPÎvq‡bi ga¨ w`‡q A‡bK jyßcªvq wKsev nviv‡bv fvlv I HwZn¨‡K wUwK‡q ivLv ev wdwi‡q Avbv ‡h‡Z cv‡i| c…w_exi ‡ek wKQy ‡`‡k Zv m¤¢eI n‡q‡Q| m‡e©vcwi. mvgvwRK cªwZôvb. ag©xq I msL¨vjNy Rb‡Mvôxi Z_¨¸‡jvI Riæix| ‡Kbbv. evsjv‡`k evOvwj Aay¨wlZ I evsjvfvlx GKwU ivóª e‡j mvaviYfv‡e cwiwPZ| Gi wecyj fvlv ‰ewPΨ I mvs¯‹…wZK mg…w× m¤ú‡K© we‡k¦i A‡b‡KB AewnZ bq| GB Rwic I Z_¨vqb m¤úbœ n‡j Zv we‡k¦i Kv‡QI ‡KŠZ~n‡jvÏxcK I mgv`„Z n‡e. eis wewfbœ ‡ckvRxwe. Miguel 2004. cªvK…wZK m¤ú` BZ¨vw` wewfbœ b…‡Mvôxi e¯‘MZ ms¯‹…wZi cwiPq enb K‡i| Ab¨w`‡K. ‡Ljvayjv. emwZ. Flora et al 1999. ¯’vcZ¨. eis mKj we‡f` `~i K‡i mse×Zv I msnwZi GKwU me©Rbxb I RvZxq ‡¶Î m„wó n‡e (Ahmed 1998. m¤úª`vq I †Mvôxi ˆewP†Î¨i mgvnv‡i GKwU ¯’v‡bi mvs¯‹…wZK HwZn¨ weKwkZ nq| evsjv‡`‡k mvs¯‹w… ZK m¤ú` Rwic I b„fvlv‰eÁvwbK M‡elYvi gva¨‡g wewfbœ b„‡Mvôx m¤ú‡K© cÖKZ … Z_¨ Ges cvi¯úwiK aviYvjv‡fi gva¨‡g b„‡Mvôx‡`i g‡a¨ Abv¯’vi m¤úK© `~i K‡i Avgv‡`i †`k‡K mvgwMÖK Dbœq‡bi w`‡K wb‡q hvIqv m¤¢e| evsjv‡`‡k Dbœq‡bi †cÖw¶‡Z b„‰eÁvwbK Rwic AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv ivL‡e| Gai‡bi Rwi‡ci gva¨‡g b„‡Mvôxiv ci¯ú‡ii RxebhvÎvi m¤ú‡K© h_vh_fv‡e AewnZ n‡e| d‡j wewfbœ b„‡Mvôxi cÖwZ ms¯‹viv”Qbœ `„wófw½i Aemv‡bi ga¨ w`‡q mvs¯‹…wZK ˆewPΨ m¤ú‡K© †`‡ki gvbyl mnbkxj n‡q DV‡e| wewfbœ b„‡Mvôxi g‡a¨ Amg m¤úK© I mvgvwRK ˆelg¨ cÖwZnZ K‡i h_vh_ Dbœqb bxwZ wba©viY I cÖYq‡Yi †¶‡Î evsjv‡`‡k b„‰eÁvwbK Rwi‡ci †Kvb weKí †bB| Gfv‡e mKj RvwZmËvi mg mse×Zvq I AskMÖn‡Y ivóª MV‡bi gva¨‡g evsjv‡`‡ki mvgwMÖK Dbœq‡bi evavmg~n‡K AwZµg Kiv m¤¢e| c„ôv | 15 . gvbeRvwZi Rb¨I fvlv I ms¯‹…wZi ˆewP‡Îi cÖ‡qvRbxqZvI Abyiƒc (UNESCO 2002)| ZvB ms¯‹…wZi ‰ewPΨ msi¶Y I weKv‡ki `vwqZ¡ Avgv‡`i mK‡ji| evsjv‡`‡ki RbM‡Yi mvs¯‹…wZK ‰ewPΨ. mvs¯‹…wZK I ag©xq ‡Mvôxi g‡a¨ m¤cÖxwZ ¯’vcb Kiv nj GB gyn~‡Z©i ‰bwZK `vwqZ¡ I Dbœq‡bi c~e©kZ©| evsjv‡`k I Gi Awaevmx‡`i b…‰eÁvwbK weei‡Yi Rb¨ cª‡qvRb h_vh_ ‰eÁvwbK M‡elYv| Gi ga¨ w`‡q ïay Ávb AR©bB m¤¢e n‡e Zv bq. Gagnon & Tully 2001. RvwZmËv. Norman 2006. hv ïay wek¦mfvq evsjv‡`‡ki Ae¯’vb‡K mymsnZ I gh©v`vkxj Ki‡e ZvB bq. Weinstock 1999)| evsjv‡`‡ki mvs¯‹…wZK gvbwPÎ eû b„‡Mvôxi mgš^‡q MwVZ| mKj b„‡Mvôx. eis Av‡iv b~Zb mn‡hvwMZv I M‡elYvi ‡¶Î‡K D‡b¥vwPZ Ki‡e| Dcmsnvi Rxe‰ewPΨ †hgb cÖK…wZi Rb¨ Acwinvh©. RvZxq msnwZ nq LwÛZ Ges RvZxq I ivó«xq Dbœqb wejw¤^Z A_ev ¶wZMª¯’ n‡Z _v‡K| A_P GB eû `„k¨gvb I cªengvb Dcv`v‡bi mgš^‡q Avgv‡`i ewY©j ms¯‹w… Zgvjvi ‡h AdyišÍ m¤ú` Zvi h_vh_ Z_¨vqb. wjwce×KiY I cªPvi Kiv m¤¢e n‡j Avgv‡`i GB ‡`‡ki mKj ms¯‹…wZi gvby‡li gv‡S cvi¯úwiK kª×v‡eva ‰Zwi n‡e. cªwZ‡hvwMZv BZ¨vw` ms¯‹…wZi A`…k¨ A_P cªengvb avivi cwiPvqK| AwaKvsk ‡¶‡ÎB Avgiv wbR wbR ms¯‹…wZi wKQy welq Qvov Ab¨vb¨ wel‡q AÁ wKsev D`vmxb _vwK| Gi KviY n‡jv Ab¨ ms¯‹…wZ m¤ú‡K© h_vh_ Ávb ev aviYvi Afve| Avi wbR I Ab¨ ms¯‹w… Zi cªwZ D`vmxbZvi djvdj¯^iƒc Avgv‡`i gv‡S ‰Zwi nq bvbv we‡f` I ‰elg¨. RvwZMZ ‰bK‡U¨i cwiwPwZi gva¨‡g msnZ I HK¨e× ivóª MV‡bi Rb¨ wek` b…‰eÁvwbK M‡elYv cª‡qvRb| bvbvfv‡e wefvwRZ I weev`gvb wewfbœ b„‡Mvôx. ‡gjv.b…‰eÁvwbK I b…fvlv‰eÁvwbK Rwi‡ci ‡¶‡Î ïaygvÎ wewfbœ b…‡Mvôx bq. cª‡Z¨‡KiB i‡q‡Q ¯^Zš¿ cwiwPwZ.

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