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Perceptions of Crime and Safety in Green Bay Matthew D. Machnik University of Wisconsin-Green Bay
and Bill Bongle. one of the . which laid the groundwork for much of the analysis work I would do throughout the semester. The analysis was done on data obtained from surveys. In addition. learning how the police department is run. They had done a preliminary review of the results of the survey. These included riding with officers. It was interesting to see how the work of the police department influences these perceptions. I was 2 able to participate in a number of interesting and enlightening experiences. they explained these trends to me. and. and had noted several interesting trends that were present. This was especially true in regard to the data analysis work that I performed over the course of the semester. known collectively as the citizen confidence surveys. Specifically.PERCEPTIONS OF CRIME AND SAFETY Perceptions of Crime and Safety in Green Bay Over the course of my internship with the Green Bay Police Department [GBPD]. furthermore. A consistent theme that emerged across all of my experiences was how the citizens of Green Bay perceive crime rates as well as safety. although incidences of crime have been showing a significant overall decline. One of the trends involved perceptions of crime rates. I had a meeting with Michelle Arneson. how these perceptions are connected to scientific research and theory. Thus. Bill and Michelle explained to me that respondents reported feeling much safer in their homes than they did in their surrounding neighborhoods. and that they felt even less safe in other parts of Green Bay. who is a newly promoted captain in the GBPD. respondents seemed to believe that the crime rate was actually increasing. and is one of the creators of the citizen confidence surveys. and being able to witness the interaction between law enforcement and mental illness. Over the course of the meeting. who is a crime analyst for the GBPD. On the first day of my internship. which were designed to assess citizens’ perceptions of both crime and safety.
. made use of a number of polls and other social surveys regarding the concerns of the American public. I hoped that it could serve as a means of trying to find a solution to the issue. Equally intriguing was the finding that the majority of the survey respondents felt that this increase in crime was happening within a close proximity to them. I asserted that I would try my best to give them the information they desired. based upon the results obtained by Ackerman et al. After sharing the information. one idea in particular seemed to be the most plausible. Specifically. While a number of good points were raised about possible contributors. the individuals who were surveyed felt that the rate of crime was steadily increasing (Ackerman et al. I brought the article to the next meeting with Bill and Michelle. One article. and used them to make comparisons between the public’s perceptions of crime and their actual prevalence rates. (2001). authored by Ackerman et al. (2001). After finding this out. such that efforts could be undertaken to reduce the degree of citizens’ misperceptions. such as in their neighborhoods (Ackerman et al. it would seem that the city of Green Bay is not alone in this dilemma. .PERCEPTIONS OF CRIME AND SAFETY main goals intended for analyzing the data was to look for reasons why people felt this way.. 2001). despite a consistent nationwide drop in crime rates. Though I explained to them that finding a perfect source of causality is difficult. we discussed the influence of the media over people’s perceptions of crime and safety. I immediately went home and began to peruse the literature pertaining to the trends that Bill and Michelle had described. What the researchers found was that. such as racial stereotypes and forming overgeneralizations about crime following certain events. 2001). Thus. 3 After the meeting. we sat and brainstormed about what could be contributing to this problem.
It was proposed that this could cause people to make overgeneralizations about the prevalence of crime.PERCEPTIONS OF CRIME AND SAFETY For us. As the speed with which people throughout the world can move information increases. while the relationship was only hypothesized. In addition. Menendez brother’s murder trial. when comparing the current situation in Green . it would seem that there is 4 evidence supporting a strong connection between the media and perceptions of crime and safety. which led to the conclusion that there is a mismatch regarding actual versus perceived crime rates. Ackerman et al. Further research. Thus. though not finding a strong causal link between the two.. this certainly made sense. it certainly seems possible. Upon reading over some of the research regarding this topic. which. and included the Oklahoma City bombings. British citizens also reported thinking that crime rates were increasing. may be exposing people to more information than they would have had access to previously. despite a general decline in crime (Duffy et al. This connection was explored further by Duffy. would suggest that portrayals of crime related incidents in the news can possibly influence viewers’ perceptions. were administered during a time when a number of high profile crime stories were commanding the television airwaves. Specifically. For example. after it was noticed that citizens of London reported a similar discrepancy between actual and perceived crime rates. 2008). and Bremner (2008). Burrows. (2001) noted that the surveys. Thus.. Wake. 2001). (2008) that this misperception had such a significant impact on respondents. that they reported decreased perceptions of personal safety. These events were fairly prominent. in turn. it was reported by Duffy et al. as well as others (Ackerman et al. but also the world. it would seem that having the media providing a constant stream of information about crime happening throughout not only the country. could subsequently cause viewers to feel less safe.
One of the public surveys used in the research evaluated what British citizens believed was the most important issue facing their country (Duffy et al. In an attempt to better understand this phenomenon. the media can play an important role in how viewers perceive crime. the researchers made note of how newspapers began to make generalizations about crime following the death of Rhys Jones (Duffy et al. Yet.. (2008) made use of a wide variety of information. found that a consistent negative bias used by the media when reporting events can lead viewers to misperceive the issue. Given the tragedy involved with the boy’s story. 2001. when looking at the overall crime statistics from the time. Duffy et al.. (2008). crime statistics. 2008). in a review of the pertinent literature. when the tragic circumstances surrounding his death were magnified by constant media exposure.. Duffy et al. during that point in time. . media outlets across the country were continually reporting on the shooting of an 11 year-old boy named Rhys Jones (Duffy et al. Ackerman et al. their overall rates were decreasing (Duffy et al...g. Furthermore. between July of 2007. Therefore. but when it is considered that the event was a statistic among a regular decreasing trend of crime. It was noted by the researchers that.PERCEPTIONS OF CRIME AND SAFETY 5 Bay with the results of research studies (e.. crime went from being the third most important issue in Britain to the first (Duffy et al.. Not to belittle the unfortunate death of a child. 2008). it would certainly seem possible that.. it was proposed that the extensive coverage of the boy’s death led to an overall increase in concern about crime (Duffy et al. 2008). and media reports. It was reported that.. This notion was further explored by Duffy et al. and August of 2007. 2008). it can certainly be understood how people would be moved to use the event as a means of suggesting that crime is a prominent issue. 2008). 2008) it would seem that the problem of public misperception is occurring at a cross-cultural level. including public surveys. who.
a police operation led to a significant number of arrests regarding a prostitution ring being run in the area. since. The next day. Specifically. He explained that. Bill went down to the Press-Gazette to speak with the individual in charge of reporting the incident. Research would suggest that the method used by Bill to present events in a more positive light can lead to increased feelings of safety. While Bill. the researchers propose that this type of media coverage can create a gap in the perceptions of individuals. rather than a negative story depicting the area as being rife with crime that should be avoided. 2008). When combined with the negative bias and overgeneralizations made by the media regarding the boy’s death. (2008) found that individuals reported increased feelings of safety following stories of police success in fighting crime. While he did not ask that the story be changed. Duffy et al. such that they may believe that the rate of crime rates are increasing. and 6 that England was facing an inevitable decline in safety (Duffy et al. when they are actually decreasing (Duffy et al. it would . by relating media reports to ratings of safety. Specifically. and the story about the prostitution ring was released as a positive story about police success. television was consistently rated as being the top method for communicating information regarding police activities (Machnik. and I were discussing the possible influence of the media. he did ask them to present the story in a more positive light. Bill described a situation in which he had personally taken steps to reduce the negative impact of the media. in the survey administered by the GBPD. Therefore. 2008). several years ago. a movement was undertaken to make the area surrounding Broadway Street near downtown Green Bay safer and more hospitable. 2011). The reporter agreed.. Michelle. The method undertaken by Bill to provide viewers with more positive portrayals of police-related events may be especially effective.. they had begun to report the event as a signal that crime was rampant. During this process.PERCEPTIONS OF CRIME AND SAFETY 2008).
time doing. or less. I used the data to find which of the different items included in the survey had a significant influence on safety. Specifically. this analysis resulted in a number of significant relationships. much of my work involved the analysis of the results of the citizen confidence survey. During the meeting. it was not used very often. prior victimization. and reducing minor crimes. I made thorough notes regarding my findings. and I eagerly brought them to the police station to present them. .PERCEPTIONS OF CRIME AND SAFETY 7 seem that if the GBPD were to continue to be presented in a positive light. While. as not much of the patrol activity is devoted to patrolling on foot or bicycle. bicycle patrol was encouraged. these portrayals could reach a large number of people. the data indicated that increased time spent patrolling on foot or bicycle was associated with a greater level of perceived safety. This particular list included activities such as enforcement of drunken driving laws. When I presented this list to Bill. This involved comparing things such as perceptions of crimes. I assumed that this was the case because patrolling on foot or bicycle seems relatively inefficient. I proceeded to go over the results of the data analysis. spending more time investigating crimes. For example. I hypothesized that determining which of them were associated with lower levels of safety could be an indicator of how focusing on certain priorities could increase feelings of safety. one of the results caused a momentary pause in the discussion. This was surprising to him. For the remaining duration of my internship. Though not provided in the executive summary. as well as protecting personal property. One of the categories of comparison involved a number of items regarding what people believed the police department should spend more. and police priorities with safety. Though this was not explicitly stated. providing educational programs. In order to better understand citizens’ perceptions. and could result in increased feelings of safety. at the very least. Over the course of the analysis. was associated with higher levels of perceived safety.
Most importantly. Voeten. perceptions of the police tended to be more positive (Salmi et al. 2008). as well as any prior victimization (Salmi et al. 2000). They accomplished this by gathering participants’ histories of encounters with the police. The researchers conducted a study aimed at comparing individuals’ perceptions of the police following either a foot-patrol or car-patrol encounter (Salmi et al. especially when the officer made an attempt to stop and talk to them (Salmi et al. can lead to greater rapport with members of the community. according to Bill’s explanation.. This. However. participants viewed the police as being friendlier. 2008).. a number of significant findings were obtained. Specifically. Conversely. Upon analyzing the collected data. foot-patrol may be one way in which the police can work toward more positive public perceptions. it was found that. 2008).PERCEPTIONS OF CRIME AND SAFETY This is because it would seemingly take an officer a greater amount of time to get to a call if he or she was needed. Specifically. among participants who had encountered foot-patrol officers.. 2008). I suspected that it would likely take an officer longer to patrol a certain area if on foot or bicycle. it can allow for increased interaction with members of the public. Specifically.. and then assessed their perceptions of those encounters using a lengthy measure (Salmi et al. they assessed the perceived public image and visibility of the police. and Keskinen (2000) would suggest that Bill’s interpretation of foot-patrol activities is fairly accurate. Research conducted by Salmi.. which could hypothetically increase the likelihood of missing something important. and can possibly be a means of 8 gathering information regarding any problems that are present. In addition. in turn. and build better relationships with the community. this type of patrol is not without its benefits. participants who reported contact with . Thus. while it might be relatively inefficient when compared with car-patrols.
Specifically. but should rather spend more time out of their vehicles and engaging the public (Salmi et al. when connected to the insights offered by Salmi et al. respondents were asked to rate their most recent contact with the police across a number of different characteristics. a greater understanding of how perceptions of safety can be increased among the public emerges. (2008) even more interesting is how they can be connected to the results of the data analysis... the results of Salmi et al. (2008). 2008). The researchers suggest that this does not necessarily mean that officers should engage in full-time foot-patrol. when combining both of these results. the results of the data analysis suggest that positive contact ratings can result in increased perceptions of safety (Machnik. 2011). (2008) indicate that citizens develop more positive perceptions of the police when encountered through foot-patrol activities. The results showed that the majority of the contact characteristics were significantly related to perceptions of safety (Machnik. Respondents’ ratings on each of these items were compared to their ratings of safety to determine if any significant relationships were present. In addition. as contacts were rated more highly on each the characteristics. Specifically. in that they viewed them as 9 being less friendly (Salmi et al. Therefore. the researchers conclude that. Within the citizen confidence survey.PERCEPTIONS OF CRIME AND SAFETY car-patrols reported having a less positive perception of the police. police officers should engage in more foot-patrol related activities (Salmi et al. one could logically conclude that increased perceptions of safety may result from foot-patrol related encounters with . respondents’ perceptions of safety increased (Machnik. in order to form a greater rapport with the public. What makes the results of the study conducted by Salmi et al.. This included items such as professionalism. 2011). From these results. 2008). 2008). and providing impartial treatment. 2011). While this information is certainly useful per se. being respectful.
the motivation provided by the WOW awards can also serve as a means of increasing feelings of safety. if time is taken to step out of the vehicle and engage members of the public. In addition. recognizing and encouraging positive encounters may not be a completely sufficient means of changing citizens’ perceptions. Specifically.PERCEPTIONS OF CRIME AND SAFETY 10 the police. while conducting oneself in a professional and respectful manner. one must keep in mind that this contact does not necessarily need to be the result of foot-patrol activities. the citizen is given the opportunity to give a description of his or her positive experience. whether it is through the front desk. Doing so could be advantageous. (2008) and Machnik (2011) provide a method that can be used by police to increase public perceptions of safety. it would seem that the results of Salmi et al. and rewards. When considering the aforementioned benefits of positive encounters between the police and the public. It is also worth mentioning that the GBPD both encourages. Nevertheless. However. he or she can nominate the individual for an award. or a uniformed officer. it can also serve as a source of motivation for them to conduct themselves in a positive manner. since knowing that the police can . but can be something as simple as officers taking time to step out of their vehicles and engage the public (Salmi et al. With all of this considered. this small act on the part of officers can lead to greater perceptions of safety among the public. When a citizen encounters a member of the police department. The specific program that is used is referred to as the WOW awards.. 2008). While this process serves as means of recognizing GBPD personnel who work to ensure positive interactions with individuals with whom they come into contact. Since one cannot typically predict when and where crime will happen. it would seem necessary to ensure that the police are able to handle day-to-day events efficiently. positive encounters with citizens. records.
While there does seem to be a plethora of advantages to using this approach. Within this division. Instead. this method of policing seems to carry with it a number of other advantages. he or she can gain a better understanding of the problems present. since each CP officer is assigned to a specific. fixed area. in turn. such as landlords or businesses. ensure that problems are dealt with effectively. Bill explained to me that the GBPD will be taking it one step further. Second. a number of specialized officers are employed to address chronic problems that are present across a number of areas. During one of our meetings. This. While simply hiring more officers may be effective means of accomplishing this. Bill took this time to . it may not represent the most economical approach. the city of Green Bay was divided up into a number of different areas. Both of these advantages can. in turn. Having a dedicated individual deal with these problems on a full time basis allows other patrol officers to be more available to take calls when necessary. First. It was explained to me that this idea came about when it was noticed that patrol officers were having to spend a significant amount of time dealing with persistent problems that happened on a regular basis. In order to counteract this. we had to wait for another person to become available before we could start. and can increase rapport with the police department. can have a familiar person to contact when issues arise. Bill explained to me that the GBPD addressed this problem by creating a Community Police [CP] division. gave patrol officers more time to devote to the sporadic and potentially more significant issues that arose. those who experience these persistent problems.PERCEPTIONS OF CRIME AND SAFETY 11 respond quickly in the event of an emergency may encourage feelings of safety and confidence among the public. each of which was assigned one or two CP officers who could address these issues. In addition to making an efficient use of time and resources. and they could do so in a more quick and efficient manner.
Lowe. Abbot. as Michelle stated. and providing information regarding the methodology they undertook. it will be providing a more efficient and targeted approach to policing. which can result in a greater reduction in criminal activity. I sat in with her one day as she worked. One of the advantages they propose to the information-led approach is that it allows law enforcement to see the area from a citizen’s point of view (Innes et . aside from taking reported calls. the GBPD will begin making increasing use of information about crime. While many of the familiar elements of policing will be retained. keeping track of calls to a certain address. It was noted that this targeted method of patrol should be advantageous. By making use of this information.” Thus. or determining locations of chronic problems. These include determining prevalence rates. by using information to take the randomness out of police activities. and Roberts (2009) gives further insight into this method by detailing a case study done in England. the GBPD hopes to see better results regarding reductions in crime.PERCEPTIONS OF CRIME AND SAFETY explain the new policing strategy that will be used by the department starting in 2012. and was explained to me in greater detail by Michelle. and she showed me the different methods used to obtain this information. This particular method is known as information-led policing. This method was developed as an alternative approach to their current method of policing. such as prevalence rates and locations of chronic 12 problems. in which. for. or patrolling known problematic neighborhoods. It was explained to me on one of my ride-alongs that this can include things such as monitoring active drug houses. as it is largely her crime analysis results that will contribute to directing the actions of officers. patrol activities involve little direction. By relaying this information to patrol officers. patrol officers will be able to make more efficient use of their time by focusing their efforts on any issues that are identified. Her role in this method is crucial. “random patrols equal random results. Work done by Innes.
they detailed the tensions that existed between two different neighborhoods. 2009). Upon interviewing members of each neighborhood. (2009) propose that law enforcement can play an integral part in increasing perceptions of safety at the neighborhood level (Innes et al.. 2009). Therefore. 2009). Specifically. and seeking input from citizens. They propose that using this method can help determine which of the events occurring at a neighborhood level have a significant impact on citizens’ perceptions of safety (Innes et al. and law enforcement can work to resolve these issues before they become more problematic (Innes et al. collecting information regarding citizens’ perceptions of events can provide a means of determining issues that have the biggest impact on citizens’ experiences. by identifying prominent issues in certain areas. (2009) demonstrated how this approach can identify problematic crimes that impact a community’s perceptions. 2009). A trial conducted by Innes et al. one of the underlying assumptions to this approach is that.. law enforcement agencies will also be able make the most efficient use of their resources by ensuring that their primary areas of prevention are having the greatest impact on neighborhood perceptions (Innes et al... as it can lead to a greater understanding of how certain issues can serve as a signal of problems to come (Innes et al. 2009). 2009). 2009). by analyzing crime. 2009).. Innes et al. In doing so. as well as citizens. Therefore.PERCEPTIONS OF CRIME AND SAFETY 13 al. and subsequently working to resolve these issues in an efficient and organized manner. Thus.. The researchers elaborate on this further by giving a detailed assessment of how this method can benefit both law enforcement. it was . They explain that this is an improvement over prior methods of policing... law enforcement agencies will gain access to information that can provide insight into the situations happening at the neighborhood level (Innes et al. each of which had distinct ethnic demographics (Innes et al.
et al. which included making . The first involves analysis detailing items such as prevalence rates and crime location. have the greatest impact over perceptions of safety.. As Bill explained to me when detailing this approach. as it seems a significant amount of her job is devoted to these issues. 2009). they propose that information regarding the racial tensions that are present could be provided to community police officers to gain greater insight into how issues are affecting the neighborhoods’ residents (Innes. the researchers identified certain crimes. such as the graffiti. it would seem that there are two distinct types of information that are required for it to be effective. 2009). thus ensuring that levels of perceived safety are increased or maintained (Innes et al. 2009). 2009). (2009). community officers could gain knowledge pertaining to which crimes... Given the description of information-led policing by Innes et al. such as racist graffiti. and led to decreased perceptions of safety (Innes et al.. the researchers do provide an example of how this information can increase the effectiveness of community policing. and can subsequently put greater emphasis on preventing these crimes. 14 While the efficacy of this approach in reducing crime was not examined. this work would be completed by Michelle.PERCEPTIONS OF CRIME AND SAFETY determined that both groups were fearful of venturing into the other area (Innes et al. In regards to the GBPD. For example. I spent a significant amount of time working to find out which of the survey items were closely related to ratings of safety. that were related to feelings of anxiety and threat. the need for this type of information was why they chose to administer the citizen confidence survey. Applying the information-led approach. The second part of this method involves gathering information regarding citizens’ perceptions of problems throughout the community. As per the request of the GBPD. In addition.
Finally. 2011). if left unattended. 2011). This is because. From this.and low-maintained neighborhoods. but also included a number of minor offenses. can send a message of disorder to neighborhood residents. While all of these issues represent areas of concern. He explained that minor crimes. and provided implications based on their results. Upon doing a number of the analyses. graffiti. such as armed holdups. lawn. The items that had a significant impact on ratings of safety included a number of serious issues.PERCEPTIONS OF CRIME AND SAFETY comparisons between perceptions of safety and crime. such as littering. O’Brien and Wilson (2011) used a number of different studies to determine how individuals form judgments of different neighborhoods. Basing their work on theories similar to the one Jeremy proposed. Jeremy explained to me how the minor issues could play an important role in perceptions of safety. while the second involved examining perceptions of trust ascribed to the individuals from those same areas (O’Brien & Wilson. I 15 brought my results to a meeting with Bill and Lieutenant Jeremy Muraski. sexual assaults. research would suggest that the events described may be possible. While this scenario was only hypothesized by Jeremy. he suggested that it might be necessary to begin enforcing minor offenses more strictly in order to prevent further disorder. the third study took a closer look at specific elements depicted in the photographs of the neighborhoods. and can also act as an invitation to more serious crimes. The first study involved determining participants’ perceptions of residents’ lifestyles and social dynamics by looking at pictures of high. and thefts of cars. which can be perceived as a lack of willingness to address more serious ones. minor issues can send a signal that neighborhood residents do not care about the upkeep of their area. . such as the appearances of the windows. and poorly maintained properties (Machnik. such as graffiti and littering.
PERCEPTIONS OF CRIME AND SAFETY and litter that was present. 2011). Specifically. the results of the third study suggest that individuals form their perceptions of neighborhood environments based on an overall assessment of its features. In addition. they reason that quality of the relationships between neighborhoods is associated with crime rates. neighborhood visitors may become cognizant of the lower level of social quality based upon low . 2011). and assessed how these influenced participants’ perceptions of the neighborhood (O’Brien & Wilson. The researchers provide an explanation for how these assessments are linked to perceptions of safety and crime rates. Finally. In addition. when minor issues. as well as lower perceived social quality (O’Brien & Wilson. the results of the second study indicated that participants ascribed lower levels of trust to individuals from lesser maintained neighborhoods (O’Brien & Wilson. are not enforced. 2011). The results of the first study indicated that lower levels of neighborhood upkeep were 16 rated by participants as being linked to decreased social interaction between residents (O’Brien & Wilson. the cooperation between neighbors will likely decrease. they propose that the findings provide evidence for how individuals can accurately make judgments about the social quality of a neighborhood based on the maintenance of its physical structures (O’Brien & Wilson. In addition. such as poorly maintained properties or litter. such that lower levels of social quality can lead to less interaction when dealing with neighborhood issues (O’Brien & Wilson. These two findings add credence to the theory provided by Jeremy. 2011). with their maintenance quality being associated with the perceived level of social quality (O’Brien & Wilson. Specifically. Thus when taken together. 2011). 2011). 2011). the results suggest that individuals living in communities where the physical structures are not well maintained are subject to outside assessments of lower levels of trust.
However. but the information and insights provided by the people I interacted with has given me a greater understanding of the work necessary to reduce crime and maintain safety. for doing so could have a significant positive effect on neighborhoods where these issues are present. comparisons between my experiences and research seem to indicate that the GBPD is taking the right steps to ensure that activities are carried out efficiently. Not only did I have the opportunity to gain skills related to data analysis. it 17 would seem that Jeremy may be correct in suggesting that the GBPD may be required to enforce minor infractions more strictly in the future. and an overall increase in perceived safety is achieved. Thus. These insights were even further expanded upon when looking at the relevant literature. my internship experience with the GBPD was overwhelmingly positive. which can serve as a means to invite more serious problems. which added to the perceived complexity of law enforcement activity. I feel a great sense of gratitude for being able to be a part of this learning experience. .PERCEPTIONS OF CRIME AND SAFETY levels of maintenance. In conclusion. and I look forward to seeing the results of the new developments at the GBPD.
.. M. B. Seeing like a citizen: Field experiments in 'community intelligence-led policing’. S. N. 99-114. (2009).. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare. T. D. Ludwig. G.wmich. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 28. R. & Wilson. & Bremner. D..2-Z O'Brien.1002/1099-1298(200011/12)10:6<433::AID-CASP576>3. 17-44. S. Police Practice & Research: An International Journal. Jensen.. V. International Review of Law.. R. P. M. 10. Anderson. Closing the gaps . B. doi:10. & Keskinen. (2008). (2011). 606-620. (2000). Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology...1080/15614260802264545 Machnik. D. N. Crime rates and confidence in the police: America's changing attitudes toward crime and police.... V. G. Relation between police image and police visibility. R. C. Voeten.. D. Green Bay Police Department Citizen Confidence Survey: Executive Summary. M. M. & Roberts. Computers & Technology. Lowe.1037/a0022803 .1080/13600860801924899 Innes. WI: Author Salmi. Burrows.0. Green Bay. 100. Wake. doi:10. T. (2011). doi:10.edu/hhs/newsletters_journals/jssw/ Duffy. 1972-1999.CO.. 43-54.. Retrieved from http://www. E. Community perception: The ability to assess the safety of unfamiliar neighborhoods and respond adaptively. 22. 10. Abbott.crime and public perceptions. L. S. doi:10. B.. 433-447.PERCEPTIONS OF CRIME AND SAFETY References 18 Ackerman. (2001). Plante. Montero. & Yanez. D.
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