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Then, for questions #1 -45, answer any 40 questions. If you answer more than 40 questions, then only the first 40 answered will be scored. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Alexander prefers to dress like a woman. It has always felt more natural to him than dressing like a man. However, Alexanderʹs coworkers constantly insult and exclude him at work. According to lecture, the primary basis for Alexanderʹs problems at work is _____. B) his genetic heritage A) his personal choices C) how his coworkers treat him D) A and B only 2. Paul is studying for a test. He is worried about his ability to do well and is trying to study. Sam continually interrupts Paul, until he becomes frustrated. The next time that Sam interrupts Paul, Paul knocks Sam down and kicks him in the stomach. This situation illustrates ________. A) the frustration-aggression hypothesis B) the instinct theory D) the fighting instinct C) the excitation transfer theory 3. A devalued identity is one that promotes _____ in stigmatizing environments. A) trust and respect B) respect and distrust C) trust and disrespect D) disrespect and distrust 4. Exposure to violence on TV or in movies has been shown to ________. A) have no long-term effects on aggressive behavior B) decrease aggressive behavior because of the catharsis effect C) increase aggressive behavior in children, but not in adults D) increase the probability of aggressive behavior in viewers 5. Native-Americans were often described as savages in order to legitimate destroying their villages, killing their women and children, and stealing their land. These descriptions could be described as _____ dehumanization. A) animalistic B) enuretic C) mechanistic D) paternalistic 6. Jason is an easy-going person who is never in a hurry. He avoids competition with others, setting and meeting his goals without thinking about others. He is patient with people who move slowly or get in his way. Jason is probably ________. A) a Type A personality B) a Type B personality D) none of the above C) a Type C personality 7. ________ people are generally viewed ________ than ________ people. A) married; more negatively; divorced B) single; more positively; married C) divorced; more positively; married D) married; more positively; single 8. The self-regulation perspective suggests that aggression is _____, whereas the group norms perspective suggests that aggression is _____. A) a choice; not a choice B) not a choice; a choice C) a choice; a choice D) not a choice; not a choice 1.
9. One form of aggressive workplace behavior is based on impeding someone elseʹs job performance. This type of workplace aggression is known as ________. A) hostile aggression B) obstructionism C) overt aggression D) none of the above 10. Some people believe that race and sexual orientation are biologically determined. When people have such beliefs, they tend to view African-Americans _____ and gay men or lesbians _____. A) positively; positively B) negatively; negatively C) positively; negatively D) negatively; positively 11. Jillian was attending a county fair. The fair was unusually hot, crowded, loud, and smelly. In this environment, Jillian is _____ to become aggressive than usual. A) less likely B) no more likely C) less likely, because she is female D) more likely 12. A group of terrorists carefully planned to attack budget motels in central New York. There can be no doubt that they knew what they were doing and had total control over their behavior. What perspective best explains their aggressive actions toward New Yorkers? A) the group norms perspective B) the implicit associations perspective D) the social neuroscientific perspective C) the self-regulation perspective 13. One result of tokenism is that ________. A) it can damage the self-esteem and confidence of tokens themselves B) it increases the likelihood of affirmative action lawsuits C) it helps to maintain the perception that the existing system is unfair D) it damages the self-esteem of biased majority-group members 14. Intragroup approaches to prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination consider them to be _____. A) a problem located in the detergent aisle of your local Wegmanʹs store B) a problem located in the core of human nature that all people share C) a problem located in the minds of a limited number of bad people D) a problem located in the conflictual relations between social groups 15. Hostile aggression occurs ________. A) when the hostile attributional bias is exceptionally strong B) when catharsis is not achieved C) when the aggression is used to achieve some other goal D) when the primary goal is to inflict harm on the victim 16. Which of the following is an example of hostile aggression? A) Mr. W fantasizes about punching his enemy in the face B) Mr. X accidentally knocks his friend over a balcony C) Mr. Y intentionally humiliates an annoying coworker D) Dr. Z gives a patient a painful injection 17. Olivia watches several pornographic films and then--without even realizing it--imitates some of the behaviors from the films when she is with her partner. Ths social learning process at play here is called _____. A) displacement B) modeling C) projection D) thanatos
18. The belief that minorities are seeking and receiving more benefits than they deserve, and a denial that discrimination influences outcomes for minority members, is called ________. A) modern racism B) illusory correlation C) reverse discrimination D) implicit association 19. A culture of honor is ________. A) one in males ruthlessly beat females in order to maintain their complete subservience B) one in which norms indicate that aggression is an appropriate way to deal with disrespect C) one in which military action is the appropriate way to deal with outgroup members D) one in which aggression is primarily exploited as a tool of elite group of leaders 20. Research suggests that _____ is/are associated with decreased aggression. A) eating fewer fried foods and sugary foods B) taking vitamins C) both eating fewer fried foods and taking vitamins D) neither eating fewer fried foods or taking vitamins 21. Automatically-triggered connections between group membership and evaluative (like/dislike) responses are known as ________. A) incidental feelings B) illusory correlations C) implicit associations D) neural networks 22. The contact hypothesis is based on the idea that ________. A) contact between members of different social groups has no long-lasting effect on the level of prejudice experienced by group members B) increased contact between members of different social groups can help to reduce prejudice between the groups C) prolonged contact with prejudiced members of society will increase oneʹs own level of prejudice D) increased contact between members of different social groups may increase the degree of prejudice between the groups 23. Jessica worked her way up in her organization and is now a mid -level manager. She has treated her subordinates the same way her male counterparts treat theirs. Jessica has been passed over for numerous promotions. The jobs always went to male coworkers who were not even close to as qualified as Jessica. This situation represents ________. B) benevolent sexism A) tokenism C) the glass ceiling effect D) shifting standards 24. Matt is often bored and likes to try new things. He loves participating in exciting activities, such as autoracing and skydiving. Based on the relationship between sensation seeking and aggression, ________. A) Matt is likely to be neither more nor less aggressive than other people B) Matt is likely to be more aggressive than other people C) Matt is likely to be less aggressive than other people D) we know nothing about Matt, because there is no connection between sensation seeking and aggression 25. Research has found that when men are under stress, men respond by with _____, whereas when women are under stress, women respond with _____. A) fight or flight; tend or befriend B) fight or flight; fight or flight C) tend or befriend; fight or flight D) tend or befriend; tend or befriend
26. The idea that providing angry people with an opportunity to express their aggressive impulses ʺsafelyʺ will lower their tendency to engage in more harmful kinds of aggression is _____. A) the catharsis hypothesis B) the displacement theory C) the drive theory D) the instrumental technique 27. Emily intentionally failed to return Mollyʹs text messages, even though she knew this would hurt Mollyʹs feelings. This could be considered an example of _____. A) passive aggression B) active aggression C) hostile aggression D) instrumental aggression 28. The idea that prejudice is caused by direct competition between social groups for scarce resources is known as ________. A) realistic conflict theory B) contact hypothesis C) social identity theory D) superordinate goals theory 29. Megan believes that overweight people are warm, but that they are also incompetent. According to the stereotype content model, Megan probably feels _____ toward overweight people. A) admiration B) contemptous C) envious D) pity 30. Which of the following are types of stigmatizing attributes thought to elicit devaluation? B) tribal stigmas A) body abominations C) A and B D) neither A or B 31. Intergroup approaches to prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination are preferred because they _____. A) emphasis the obvious importance of unconscious processes and poor brain development B) distinguish between psychological processes and our moral judgments and justifications C) they help us to identify and treat people who have prejudice or stereotypes toward others D) assume that most researchers are generally impartial when they conduct their research 32. Goals that can only be reached by cooperation between groups are known as ________. A) contingency goals B) regenerative goals C) subordinate goals D) superordinate goals 33. Friedrich believes that Jewish people are cold and heartless. However, he also believes that Jewish business successes indicate their inherent competence. According to the stereotype content model, Friedrich probably feels _____ toward Jewish people. A) admiration B) contempt C) envy D) pity 34. Among children, boys who bully others are motivated by ________. A) a desire to lessen negative feelings associated with depression and to increase their popularity among members of the opposite sex B) a desire to lessen negative feelings associated with depression and to gain the respect and admiration of others C) a desire to hold power over others and a desire to be seen as part of a ʺtoughʺ group D) a desire to hold power over others and to lessen negative feelings associated with depression E) a desire to be seen as part of a ʺtoughʺ group and to lessen negative feelings associated with depression
35. ________ refers to the practice of hiring one or a small number of people from a group, to support the claim that no organizational discrimination is occuring toward that group. A) Shifting standards B) Tokenism C) Hostile sexism D) Reverse discrimination 36. Mike, a seventh-grader, is on the playground. Mike is pushing another student around, punching him twice when a teacher intervenes. Mike explains his aggressive behavior by saying, ʺI simply wanted his coat--itʹs pretty cool.ʺ This is an example of ________. A) instrumental aggression B) hostile aggression C) passive aggression D) Type C personality 37. ________ refers to a situation in which the boundaries between an in -group and an out-group perceptually shift so that out-group members are considered to be part of a larger in -group. A) Decategorization B) Recategorization C) Subcategorization D) The Miley Cyrus Effect 38. When people drink alcohol, they are _____ to be aggressive than when they do not drink alcohol. A) less likely B) no more likely C) more likely D) more likely, but only for males 39. The idea that physiological arousal produced in one situation can persist and intensify emotional responses in a different situation is known as ________. A) the catharsis hypothesis B) the excitation transfer theory C) the frustration-aggression hypothesis D) the hostile attributional bias 40. Freud proposed that people have a life-giving instinct as well as a death instinct. He called the death instinct _____. B) Eros C) Oedipus D) Thanatos A) Jocasta 41. The four conditions that must be met for punishment to be effective are ________, ________, ________, and ________. A) it must be prompt; it must be certain to occur; it must be strong; and it must be perceived by recipients as deserved B) it must be delayed for a brief period of time; it must be relatively likely to occur; it must be mild; and it must be perceived by all parties to the punishment as deserved C) it must be delayed for a brief period of time; it must be relatively likely to occur; it must be mild; and it must be perceived by recipients as deserved D) none of the above; they are tricks being made up by my evil, mind -reading psychology professor--look at him grinning at me, hoping that I pick this foolish choice (Letter D)! 42. Karen is a shift manager at a fast food restaurant. She is generally supportive of her coworkers, but strongly dislikes one specific person. Karen repeatedly points out this personʹs faults to others and never misses an opportunity to gossip about any negative comments this person may make about the workplace or other coworkers. As a type of workplace aggression, Karenʹs behavior is best characterized as ________. B) obstructionism A) incivility C) overt aggression D) terrorism 43. Which of the following has been associated with high levels of aggression? A) low levels of serotonin B) high levels of serotonin C) low levels of dopamine D) high levels of dopamine
44. Cletus believes that African-Americans are lazy and feels hostile toward them. Cletusʹ beliefs toward African-Americans reflect _____, whereas his feelings toward them reflect _____. A) stereotypes; prejudice B) prejudice; stereotypes C) discrimination; prejudice D) stereotypes; discrimination 45. When I look back on my life in 10 years, I hope that I _____. A) have not yet finished my undergraduate degree B) have filed for bankruptcy protection six times C) am hated by my family, friends, and coworkers D) can smile about my happy and successful life