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**“Fast is fine, but accuracy is everything.”
**

- Wyatt Earp

2

Measuring - Practice

What is the volume? 36.3

Practice • Examples .Dimensional Analysis .

2 × 10–10 .Scientific Notation If your calculator displays scientific notation as: 1.2 E–10 please write it as: 1.

Scientific Notation .

Scientific Notation .Examples • Convert into standard notation : A B .

Scientific Notation .Examples • Convert into scientific notation: A B .

Scientific Notation: Operations Examples A • Examples: .

Scientific Notation: Operations Examples B • Examples: .

Scientific Notation: Operations Examples C • Examples: .

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921 km Measurement: an estimation limited by experimental error 1 m = 100.Definition vs Measurement 1 meter = 100 cm Definition: relationship determined by convention Circumference of moon = 10.000000000…cm complete certainty = 10.???? km uncertainty .921.

01 μm As technology/skill improves. .45 ± 0. reflect limitations in the techniques used to make them.Measurements • • • • are always accompanied by a finite amount of error. always contain an element of uncertainty. amount of associated error decreases (but never disappears completely). must be reported in such a way that reflects appropriate units of measure and level of uncertainty. 13.

• Uncertainty – last digit of a measurement is estimated. • Always include the units with a measurement. .Measurement Reminders • Always read a measuring device to the maximum number of digits possible.

Measurement Error • Two sources – Limitations in the sensitivity of instruments used – Imperfections in measurement techniques used • Two classes – systematic error – random error .

Systematic vs Random Error Systematic Error results from imperfections in equipment/technique Random Error results from limitations in equipment/technique .

Precision • Accuracy – Closeness of a measurement to the true or standard value of that quantity • Precision – Degree of exactness in a measurement.Accuracy vs. Degree to which individual measurements of the same quantity agree .

but not precise .Systematic vs Random Error II Systematic Error Random Error leads to results that are precise but not accurate leads to results that may be accurate. on the average.

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Reducing Error • Systematic errors can be reduced by – increasing care and patience while measuring – increasing accuracy of measuring tools • Random errors can be reduced by – averaging the results of many measurements of the same quantity – increasing precision of measuring tools .

Accurate v Precise Chart Inaccurate (systematic error) Accurate Imprecise (random error) Precise .

B<D<A=E<C .Rank these rulers in order of increasing precision.

Measurement Reminders II 4.0 You are only allowed to estimate one level of precision beyond the markings on a measuring tool .82 cm FAIL 4.82 4.5 5.

How many students are at Westview right now? .

Significant Figures (Sig Fig’s) • Precision (exactness) of a measurement is represented by number of significant figures – those digits in a measurement that are known with certainty plus the first digit that is estimated – results can not appear more accurate than the equipment/technique used to make measurements .

0 m { 4 SF’s} 1000.Significant Figures Are… • All non-zero digits 111 m { 3 SF’s} • All zeros between non-zero digits – “captured” zeros 101 m { 3 SF’s} • All zeros to the right of a non-zero digit in a decimal measurement 100.0 m { 5 SF’s} . m { 3 SF’s} 100.

0045 g 0.0450 g { 2 SF’s} { 2 SF’s} { 3 SF’s} • All zeros to the right of last non-zero digit in a non-decimal measurement – “trailing zeros” 100 g 1010 g { 1 SF’s} { 3 SF’s} .45 g 0.Significant Figures Are NOT… • Zeros to the left of the first non-zero – “leading zeros” 0.

All non-zero digits • • • • • • 10 100 120 123 12340 10000 • • • • • • 1 sf 1 sf 2 sf 3 sf 4 sf 1 sf .

All zeros between non-zeros • • • • 103 1004 10305 1004007 • • • • 3 sf 4 sf 5 sf 7 sf .

010040 10.1030 0.All zeros to right of a non-zero in a decimal measurement • • • • • • 0.0 1000.100400 0.10 0. • • • • • • 2 sf 4 sf 6 sf 5 sf 3 sf 4 sf .

Scientific Notation & Sig Fig’s Decimal part of scientific notation only represents significant digits! 4 SF’s 4 SF’s 2 SF’s 2 SF’s .

Exact Numbers • Exact numbers have an unlimited number of significant figures – 1 km = 1000 m = 1000.022 × 1023 mol–1) is a measurement 4 SF’s .00000000 m • Coefficients (and mole ratios) are exact numbers • Constants are not necessarily exact! – Avogadro’s Number (6. m = 1000.

74 ? 0.74 0.Why bother? 5.823 + 2.214 m 2 SF right of decimal m 3 SF right of m decimal 3 SF right of m decimal FAIL uncertain! Answer must have same # of SF right of decimal as the measurement with fewest SF right of decimal! 9.651 9.21 m Win .651 9.823 + 2.214 5.

f. • Round off calculation results to achieve appropriate # of s.Significant Figures – Rules • RULES for calculating (based on answer not being more precise than least precise component): – Add/subtract: answer has same # of s. as measurement with fewest # of s.f.f. to right of decimal. – Multiply/divide: answer has same # of s. to right of decimal as measurement with fewest # of s.f. .f.

Significant Figures for Chem 1-2 Just round-off your answer to two decimal places .

Rules For Rounding If digit after last s.3 30. but typical calculators always round 5’s up .f.23 30.25 30. rounding off 5’s is actually a bit complicated.3 5 : round UP ??? In science. is 0 – 4: round DOWN 6 – 9: round UP 30.2 30.26 30.

Learn more by simply subscribing. Learn more about atoms and molecules. By reading these slides, you're off on a good start.

Learn more by simply subscribing. Learn more about atoms and molecules. By reading these slides, you're off on a good start.

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