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Study of ISO-OSI Reference Model
A I M : Study of ISO-OSI Reference Model H/w, S/w Requirem ent Theory:
IT--Lab Manual CN 2012-13
Computer System, Wireshark software, Win XP operating system.
The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) reference model is commonly used to describe in an abstract manner the functions involved in data communication. This model, originally conceived in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), defines data communications functions in terms of layers. In the OSI reference model, each layer is responsible for certain basic functions, such as getting data from one device to another or from one application on a computer to another. The functions at each layer both depend and build on the functions-called services- provided by the layers below it. Communication between peer entities at a given layer is done via one or more protocols; this communication is invoked via the interface with the layer below. The OSI reference model is depicted in Table 0.1. Successful communication between two applications depends on successful functions at all seven layers. In terms of implementation, it is possible for some layers to be trivial; in the end what is required depends on the needs of the applications (and people) engaged in communication.
. Other models define the layer functions somewhat differently and often have fewer than seven layers. In some cases constituent protocols were specified before the abstract models defining the end-to-end communication. the OSI reference model remains the universally-accepted common denominator for abstract definition.IT--Lab Manual CN 2012-13 Table 0.1: OSI Reference Model Layer 7 Higher Layers 6 5 4 3 Lower Layers 2 1 Title Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Figure 12: The OSI reference model applied to a communications network Various companies and standards bodies have created different layered communications models.
voltages.The Phys ical Layer The physical layer functions include all physical aspects of communicating between two directly-connected physical entities. Another example is the radio frequencies used in a wireless communications system. many Layer 2 entities can be sharing a common (physical) medium such as a coaxial cable or a 10BASE-T hub. However. An example of a physical layer is the ink on paper used by this book to convey information. Typically these physical properties include electromechanical characteristics of the medium or link between the communicating physical entities such as connectors. Local area networks (LANs) operate at Layer 2. Layer 2 .IT--Lab Manual CN 2012-13 Layer 1 . etc. "Directly-connected" means that the Layer 2 entities' communication path does not require another Layer 2 entity. The data link layer is itself conceptually subdivided into two sublayers-medium access control and logical link control-which more specifically define the primary aspects of 18 . It could be likened to an intra-office correspondence between co-workers; there is a need for reliability but addressing is relatively simple. transmission frequencies.The Data Link Layer The data link layer accepts the unstructured bit stream provided by the physical layer and provides reliable transfer of data between two directly-connected Layer 2 entities. Layer 2 functionality is limited in scope-delivery of messages over a local area. This layer summarizes the physics which underlie the communication path. this does not imply a dedicated path; in the case of Ethernet. which can be used by higher layers to provide the basis for higher layer communication services. The essential service provided by the physical layer consists of an unstructured bit stream.
in which the earlier coaxial cable has been physically collapsed into a hub device. Ethernet (IEEE 802. Although this topology still applies conceptually. much as a school teacher must arbitrate between pupils' conflicting desires to speak.IT--Lab Manual CN 2012-13 data link layer functionality.5: Ethernet MAC System 19 . The MAC layer commonly provides a limited form of error control.3) is a prime example of a shared medium with a defined MAC sublayer functionality. The shared medium in Ethernet has traditionally consisted of a coaxial cable into which multiple entities were "tapped.5. a hub and spoke medium is now typically used." as depicted in Figure 0. It coordinates the attempts to seize a shared channel by multiple MAC entities. However. especially for any header information which defines the MAC-level destination and higher-layer access mechanism. this conceptual partitioning by the IEEE 802 committee is somewhat arbitrary and subject to debate. Figure 0. The M A C Sublaye r The medium access control (MAC) sublayer is closely associated with the physical layer and defines the means by which the physical channel (medium) may be accessed.
Conceptually. such as Ethernet. Ethernet defines how devices sense a channel for its availability." depicted in Figure 0. in which control of the channel is rotated between the devices sharing the channel in a deterministic round-robin manner. it passes the token to the next device attached to the topological "ring. only a single entity can transmit at a time or messages will be garbled. On a shared channel. A prime example of a contentionless shared medium is token ring (IEEE 802. wait when it is busy. control of the channel is given to the entity currently possessing a "token. Figure 0. Not all shared channels involve contention.5). seize the channel when it becomes available and back-off for a random length of time following a collision with another simultaneously transmitting device." If the device has nothing to transmit.6.IT--Lab Manual CN 2012-13 As a contention medium.6: Token Ring MAC System 1#1 .
and report delivery errors The network layer may be divided into three sublayers: Subnetwork access – that considers protocols that deal with the interface to networks. providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers. Some protocols are state. and might also perform fragmentation and reassembly. It is not responsible for reliable delivery to a next hop.25. The network layer performs network routing functions. This means that the transport layer can keep track of the segments and retransmit those that fail. It manages the connectionless transfer of data one hop at a time. Layer 4: transport layer The transport layer provides transparent transfer of data between end users. and error control. but only for the detection of erroneous packets so they may be discarded. from end system to ingress router. such as X.Layer 3: network layer The network layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source host on one network to a destination host on a different network (in contrast to the data link layer which connects hosts within the same network). The transport layer controls the reliability of a given link through flow control. An example of this latter case is CLNP.and connection-oriented. or IPv6 ISO 8473. The transport layer also provides the acknowledgement of the successful data transmission and sends the next data if no errors occurred. while maintaining the quality of service requested by the transport layer. Subnetwork-dependent convergence – when it is necessary to bring the level of a transit network up to the level of networks on either side Subnetwork-independent convergence – handles transfer across multiple networks. segmentation/desegmentation. router to router. and from egress router to destination end system. .
It provides for full-duplex. in which the higher-layer entities may use different syntax and semantics if the presentation service provides a mapping between them. and also for session checkpointing and recovery. half-duplex. which is not usually used in the Internet Protocol Suite. adjournment. The presentation layer . manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application. This layer provides independence from data representation (e. termination. presentation service data units are encapsulated into session protocol data units. If a mapping is available. It establishes. Layer 6: presentation layer The presentation layer establishes context between application-layer entities. and passed down the stack. which is a property of the Transmission Control Protocol. or simplex operation. encryption) by translating between application and network formats. and restart procedures. The OSI model made this layer responsible for graceful close of sessions..g.Detailed characteristics of TP0-4 classes are shown in the following table Feature Name Connection oriented network Connectionless network Concatenation and separation Segmentation and reassembly Error Recovery Reinitiate connection (if an excessive number of PDUs are unacknowledged) Multiplexing and demultiplexing over a single virtual circuit Explicit flow control Retransmission on timeout Reliable Transport Service TP0 Yes No No Yes No No No No No No TP1 Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes TP2 Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No TP3 Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes TP4 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Layer 5: session layer The session layer controls the dialogues (connections) between computers. and establishes checkpointing.
It is sometimes called the syntax layer Layer 7: application layer The application layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user.Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP) 2.Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).400 Mail c. This layer interacts with software applications that implement a communicating component. determining resource availability. which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application. When identifying communication partners. b. the application layer determines the identity and availability of communication partners for an application with data to transmit. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) d. . Application-layer functions typically include identifying communication partners.FTAM File Transfer and Access Management Protocol b. and synchronizing communication. c.On TCP/IP stack: a.X. File Transfer Protocol (FTP). This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network.On OSI stack: a. Such application programs fall outside the scope of the OSI model. Some examples of application-layer implementations also include: 1.transforms data into the form that the application accepts.
Capture live packet data from a network interface. .1. of course). Import and Export packet data from and to a lot of other capture programs. A network packet analyzer will try to capture network packets and tries to display that packet data as detailed as possible. Filter packets on many criteria. Search for packets on many criteria.About wireshark software:1. 2. You could think of a network packet analyzer as a measuring device used to examine what's going on inside a network cable. just like a voltmeter is used by an electrician to examine what's going on inside an electric cable (but at a higher level. Display packets with very detailed protocol information. Features The following are some of the many features Wireshark provides: Available for UNIX and Windows. Open and Save packet data captured. What is Wireshark? Wireshark is a network packet analyzer.
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