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Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes or other fruits. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients. Yeast consumes the sugars in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different types of wine. The well-known variations result from the very complex interactions between the biochemical development of the fruit, reactions involved in fermentation, and human intervention in the overall process. The final product may contain tens of thousands of chemical compounds in amounts varying from a few percent to a few parts per billion. Wines made from fruits besides grapes are usually named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example, pomegranate wine, apple

wine and elderberry wine) and are generically called fruit wine. The term "wine" can also refer to starch-fermented or fortified beverages having higher alcohol content, such as barley wine or sake. Wine has a rich history dating back thousands of years, with the earliest known production occurring around 6000 BC in Georgia. It first appeared in

the Balkans about

4500 BC





in ancient

Greece, Thrace and Rome. Wine has also played an important role in religion throughout history. The Greek god Dionysus and

the Roman equivalent, Bacchus, represented wine. The drink is also used in Christian Eucharist ceremonies and the Jewish Kiddush. The English word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic *winam, an early borrowing from the Latin vinum, "wine" or "(grape) vine", itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o (cf. Hittite: wiyana; Lycian:oino; Ancient Greek: oinos; Aeolic Greek: woinos). The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo ( ), meaning "the month of new wine" or "festival of the new wine", and wo-no-wa-ti-si, meaning "wine garden", written in Linear

B inscriptions. Some scholars have noted the similarities between the words for wine in Kartvelian (e.g. Georgian ), IndoEuropeanlanguages (e.g. Russian [vi no]), and Semitic (*wayn), pointing to the possibility of a common origin of the word denoting "wine" in these language families. Some scholars have argued that Georgian was the origin of this word and that it entered into the IndoEuropean languages via Semitic. The proponents of this view have argued that in Kartvelian languages the semantic connection of the word "wine" ( ghvino, - ghvini, - ghvinal) is traced to the verb "ghvivili" (, to bloom, to arouse, to boil, to ferment) and the root of "ghv" (), which is a common semantic root for many common Kartvelian words (e.g. "gaghvidzeba", - to awaken, "ghvidzli" - - liver). Wines from other fruits, such as apples and berries, are usually named after the fruit from which they are produced combined with the word "wine" (for

example, apple wine and elderberry wine) and are generically called fruit wine or country wine (not to be confused with the French term vin de pays). Besides the grape varieties traditionally used for winemaking, most fruits naturally lack either a high amount of fermentable sugars, relatively low acidity, yeast nutrients needed to promote or maintain fermentation or a combination of these three characteristics. This is probably one of the main reasons why wine derived from grapes has historically been more prevalent by far than other types and why specific types of fruit wine have generally been confined to regions in which the fruits were native or introduced for other reasons. Other wines, such as barley wine and rice wine (e.g. sake), are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer more than wine, while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. In these latter cases, the term "wine" refers to the similarity in alcohol content rather than to the production process. The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions.

Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known production of wine, made by fermenting grapes, took place from the late Neolithic or

early Chalcolithic, possibly as early as the sixth millennium BC, between theCaucasus and the Middle East, with evidence of winemaking at different sites dated from 6000 BC in Georgia, 5000 BC in Iran, and 4100 BC

in Armenia.During an extensive gene-mapping project in 2006, archaeologists analyzed the heritage of more than 110 modern grape cultivars, narrowing their origin to a region in Georgia, where wine residues were also discovered on the inner surfaces of 8,000-year-old ceramic storage jars. Chemical analysis of 7,000-year-old pottery shards indicated early winemaking in the Neolithic village of Hajji Firuz Tepe in Iran's Zagros Mountains. Other notable areas of wine production have been discovered in Greece and date back to 4500 BC. The same sites also contain the world's earliest evidence of crushed

grapes. A winemaking press found in 2011 in the Areni-1 site of Armenia has been dated to around 4100 BC. However, the spread of wine culture westwards was most probably due to the Phoenicians who were centered on the coastal strip of todays Lebanon itself one of the worlds oldest sites of wine production.The wines of Byblos were exported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom (2686 BC2134 BC) and throughout the Mediterranean. Evidences include two Phoenician shipwrecks from 750 BC discovered by Robert Ballard, whose cargo of wine was still intact.As the first great traders of wine ('Cherem'), the Phoenicians seem to have protected it from oxidation with a layer of olive oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and resin this may well be the origin of the Greek retsina. Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer (8th century BC, but possibly composed even earlier), Alkman (7th century BC), and others.

In ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of KingTutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y", a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as originating from the king's personal estate, with the sixth from the estate of the royal house of Aten. Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian Xinjiang in modern-day China, dating from the second and first millennia BC.

Pressing wine after the harvest;Tacuinum Sanitatis, 14th century

The first known mention of grape-based wines in India is from the late 4thcentury BC writings of Chanakya, the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. In his writings, Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of wine known as madhu. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC. Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, Henan, contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine. However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out. If these beverages, which seem to be the precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather than other fruits, they would have been any of the several dozen indigenous wild species in China, rather than Vitis vinifera, which was introduced there some 6,000 years later.








ancient Roman

Empire was

the viticultural foundation laid by the Romans in the areas that today are worldrenowned wine regions. In places with garrison towns (e.g. Bordeaux, Trier, andColchester), the Romans planted vineyards to supply local needs and limit the cost of long-distance trading.In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church supported wine because the clergy required it for

the Mass.Monks in France made wine for years, aging it in caves. An old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining white wine from bastardbad or tainted bastardo wine.

In the past decade, the archeological proof of winemaking, even wine technology, has been unearthed in several Neolithic sites in the Zagros Mountains of North-Eastern Iran[1,2]. The oldest site to date is called Hajji Firuz Tepe and is dated 5,400-5,000BC. Tepe (or rather tappe, in Farsi) refers to a small hill or mound, something an archeologist would dig up when looking for an ancient site. Six wine jars (each about 10 inches tall, with a capacity of about 2.5 gallons) were found. The proof that they did contain wine comes from the chemical analysis of the residue in the jars. The infra-red absorption spectra show the presence of tartaric acid and its salt, calcium tartrate. Tartaric acid is the main acid of grapes and occurs naturally only in wine. One often sees the tiny crystals in the deposit at the bottom of a glass of (a few years old) wine. They look like tiny grains of salt. The German name is Weinstein, literally wine-stone.


Grape vineyard

Vitis vinifera sylvestris

Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera,such as Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay,p and Merlot. When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as minimums of 75% to 85%), the result is a "varietal" as opposed to a "blended" wine. Blended wines are not considered inferior to varietal wines, rather they are a different style of winemaking; some of the world's most highly regarded wines, from regions like Bordeaux and the Rhone Valley, are blended from different grape varieties. Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from hybrids, created by the genetic crossing of two species. V. labrusca (of which the Concord grape is a cultivar), V. aestivalis, V. ruprestris, V. rotundifolia andV. riparia are

native North American grapes usually grown to eat fresh or for grape juice, jam, or jelly, and only occasionally made into wine. Hybridization is different from grafting. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European V. vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species' rootstock, a common practice due to their resistance to phylloxera, a root louse that eventually kills the vine. In the late 19th century, most of Europe's vineyards (excluding some of the driest in the south) were

devastated by the infestation, leading to widespread vine deaths and eventual replanting. Grafting is done in every wine-producing region in the world except in Argentina, the Canary Islands and Chilethe only places not yet exposed to the insect. In the context of wine production, terroir is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used, elevation and shape of the vineyard, type and chemistry of soil, climate and seasonal conditions, and the local yeast cultures. The range of possible combinations of these factors can result in great differences among wines, influencing the fermentation, finishing, and aging processes as well. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir.[33] However, flavor differences are less desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines, where consistency takes precedence. Such producers try to minimize differences in sources of grapes through production techniques such as micro-oxygenation, tannin filtration, cross-flow filtration, thin-film

evaporation, and spinning cones. Viticulture The harvesting of healthy, ripe grapes is the end of a successful annual vineyard cycle and the beginning of the work in the winery. The grower and winemaker are both aware that any deficiencies in the quality of fruit will affect not only quality but also profitability. Although the juice of the grape is seen as the essential ingredient in the winemaking process, other constituents also have roles of varying importance. 1.1 The structure of the grape berry 1.Pulp 2.Pip Bloom 3.Skin


1.1.1 Stalks Stalks contain tannins that may give a bitter taste to the wine. The winemaker may choose to destem the grapes completely before they are crushed. Alternatively, the stalks, or a small proportion of them, may be left on to increase the tannin in red wine to give extra structure. However, if the stalks are not removed, they perform a useful task in the pressing operation by acting as drainage channels.

1.1.2 Skins Skins contain colouring matters, aroma compounds, flavour constituents and tannins. The outside waxy layer with its whitish hue is called bloom. This contains yeasts and bacteria. Below this we find further layers containing complex substances called polyphenols, which can be divided into two groups:

(1) Anthocyanins (black grapes) and flavones (white grapes) give grapes their colour and as phenolic biflavanoid compounds they form antioxidants and thus give health-giving properties to wine.

(2) Tannins are bitter compounds that are also found in stalks and pips. They can, if unripe or not handled correctly, give dried mouth feel on the palate. Tannin levels are higher in red wines where more use is made of the skins and stalks in the winemaking and with greater extraction than in white and ros wines. Some varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Nebbiolo contain high levels of tannins, others such as Gamay have much lower levels.

1.1.3 Yeasts

Yeasts are naturally occurring micro-organisms which are essential in the fermentation process. Yeasts attach themselves to the bloom on the grape skins. There are two basic groups of yeast present on the skins: wild yeasts and wine yeasts. Wild yeasts (mostly of the genus Klckera and Hanseniaspora), need air in which to operate. Once in contact with the grape sugars, they can convert these sugars to alcohol, but only up to about 4% alcohol by volume (ABV), at which point they die. Wine yeasts, of the genus Saccharomyces, then take over and continue to work until either there is no more sugar left or an alcoholic strength of approximately 15% has been reached, at which point they die naturally.

1.1.4 Pulp The pulp or flesh contains juice. If you peel the skin of either a green or black skinned grape, the colour of the flesh is generally the same. The actual juice of the grape is almost colourless, with the very rare exception of a couple of varieties that have tinted flesh. The pulp/ flesh contains water, sugars, fruit acids, proteins and minerals. Sugars: when unripe, all fruits contain a high concentration of acids and low levels of sugar. As the fruit ripens and reaches maturity, so the balance changes, with sugar levels rising and acidity falling. Photosynthesis is the means by which a greater part of this change occurs. Grape sugars are mainly represented by fructose and glucose. Sucrose, although present in the leaves and phloem tubes of the vine, has no significant presence in the grape berry. As harvest nears, the producer can measure the rise in sugar levels by using a refractometer. Acids: by far the most important acids found in grapes are tartaric acid and malic acid, the latter being of a higher proportion in unripe grapes. During the ripening process, tartaric acid then becomes the principal acid. Tartaric acid is in important role in wine giving a refreshing, mouth- watering taste and also not

commonly in plants other than vines. Acids have an give stability and perhaps longevity to the finished wine. There are tiny amounts of other acids present in grapes, including acetic and citric. Minerals: potassium is the main mineral present in the grape pulp, with a concentration of up to 2500mg/l. Of the other minerals present, none has a concentration of more than 200mg/l, but the most significant are calcium and magnesium.

1.1.5 Pips Pips or seeds vary in size and shape according to grape variety. Unlike with stalks, there is no means of separating them on reception at the winery. If crushed, they can impart astringency to the wine due to their bitter oils and hard tannins. As we shall see later, todays modern presses take account of this.


Wine grapes on a vine Regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world. European wines tend to be classified by region

(e.g. Bordeaux, Rioja and Chianti), while non-European wines are most often classified by grape (e.g. Pinot Noir and Merlot). Market recognition of particular regions has recently been leading to their increased prominence on non-European wine labels. Examples of recognized non-European locales include NapaValley and SonomaValley in California; Willamette Valley in South

Valley in Oregon; Columbia

Valley in Washington; Barossa

Australia and Hunter Valley in New South Wales; Lujn de Cuyo in Argentina; Central Valley in Chile; Vale Zealand; dos Vinhedos in Brazil; Hawke's Valley and Niagara

Bay and Marlborough in New Peninsula in Canada.

and Okanagan

Some blended wine names are marketing terms whose use is governed by trademark law rather than by specific wine laws. For

example, Meritage (sounds like "heritage") is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, but may also include Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, and Malbec. Commercial use of the term Meritage is allowed only via licensing agreements with the Meritage Association.

European classifications

Moscato d'Asti, a DOCGwine

France has various appellation systems based on the concept of terroir, with classifications ranging from Vin de Table ("table wine") at the bottom, through Vin de Pays and Appellation d'Origine Vin Dlimit de Qualit Suprieure (AOVDQS), up to Appellation d'Origine Contrle (AOC) or similar, depending on the region. Portugal has developed a system resembling that of France and, in fact, pioneered this concept in 1756 with a royal charter creating the Demarcated Douro Region and regulating the production and trade of wine. Germany created a similar scheme in 2002, although it has not yet achieved the authority of the other countries' classification

systems. Spain, Greece and Italy have classifications based on a dual system of region of origin and product quality.
Beyond Europe

New World winesthose made outside the traditional wine regions of Europeare usually classified by grape rather than by terroir or region of origin, although there have been unofficial attempts to classify them by quality.

Vintages A "vintage wine" is made from grapes that were all or mostly grown in a particular year, and labeled as such. Some countries allow a vintage wine to include a small portion that is not from the labeled vintage. Variations in a wine's character from year to year can include subtle differences in color, palate, nose, body and development. High-quality wines can improve in flavor with age if properly stored. Consequently, it is not uncommon for wine enthusiasts and traders to save bottles of an especially good vintage wine for future consumption. In the United States, for a wine to be vintage-dated and labeled with a country of origin or American Viticultural Area (AVA) (e.g. Sonoma Valley), 95% of its volume must be from grapes harvested in that year. If a wine is not labeled with a country of origin or AVA the percentage requirement is lowered to 85%. Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. Climate's impact on the character of a wine can be significant enough to cause different vintages from the same vineyard to vary dramatically in flavor and quality. Thus, vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the particular vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer. Superior vintages from reputable producers and regions will often command much higher prices than their average ones. Some vintage wines (e.g. Brunello), are only made in better-than-average years. For consistency, non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage, which helps winemakers sustain a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years. One recent study suggests that for the average wine drinker, the vintage year may not be as significant for perceived quality as had been thought, although wine connoisseurs continue to place great importance on it.


Ancient religions The use of wine in religious ceremonies is common to many cultures and regions. Libations often included wine, and the religious mysteries of Dionysus used wine as a sacramental entheogen to induce a mind-altering state. Judaism Wine is an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions. The Kiddush is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat. On Pesach (Passover) during the Seder, it is a Rabbinic obligation of adults to drink four cups of wine. In the Tabernacle and in the Temple in Jerusalem, the libation of wine was part of the sacrificial service. Note that this does not mean that wine is a symbol of blood, a common misconception that contributes to the myth of the blood libel. The blessing over wine said before consuming the drink is: "Baruch atah Hashem (Adonai) Eloheinu melech ha-olam, boray pree hagafen""Praised be the Lord, our God, King of the universe, Creator of the fruit of the vine." Christianity All alcohol is prohibited under Islamic law, although there has been a long tradition of drinking wine in some Islamic areas, especially in Persia. In Christianity, wine is used in a sacred rite called the Eucharist, which originates in the Gospel account of the Last Supper (Gospel of Luke 22:19) describing Jesus sharing bread and wine with his disciples and commanding

them to "do this in remembrance of me." Beliefs about the nature of the Eucharist vary among denominations (see Eucharistic theologies contrasted). While some Christians consider the use of wine from the grape as essential for the validity of the sacrament, many Protestants also allow (or

require) pasteurized grape juice as a substitute. Wine was used in Eucharistic rites by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in the late 19th century. Methodist dentist and prohibitionist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of grape juice. Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance

movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice, and the substitution spread quickly over much of the United States, as well as to other countries to a lesser degree. There remains an ongoing debate between some

American Protestant denominations as to whether wine can and should be used for the Eucharist or allowed as an ordinary beverage. Islam Alcoholic beverages, including wine, are forbidden under most interpretations of Islamic law. Iran had previously had a thriving wine industry that

disappeared after the Islamic Revolution in 1979. In Greater Persia,mey (Persian wine) was a central theme of poetry for more than a thousand years, long before the advent of Islam. Some Alevi sects use wine in their religious services. Certain exceptions to the ban on alcohol apply. Alcohol derived from a source other than the grape (or its byproducts) and the date is allowed in "very small quantities" (loosely defined as a quantity that does not cause intoxication) under the Sunni Hanafi madhab, for specific purposes (such as medicines), where the goal is not intoxication. However, modern Hanafi scholars regard alcohol consumption as totally forbidden


Crushing: The grapes are hand picked and transferred to the crusher. The crusher punchers the grapes and transfers it to a de-juicer which separates the pulp from the juice. While the skin, the stems and other remains from the crushing are used as manure, the juice is sent for fermentation. Grapes can (and might still) be crushed by stomping on them with your feet in a big vat. But a more practical way is to use a machine which does the job (and at the same time, removes the stems). Separation may not immediately occur (especially for red wines), since skins and stems are an important source of "tannins" which affect wine's taste and maturity through aging. The skins also determine the color of the wine. Maceration (the time spent while skins and seeds are left with the juice) will go on for a few hours or a few weeks. Pressing will then occur. One way to press the grapes is to use a "bladder press," a large cylindrical container that contains bags that are inflated and deflated several times, each time gently squeezing the grapes until all the juice has run free, leaving behind the rest of the grapes. You can also separate solids from juice through the use of a centrifuge.

Fermentation: The grape juice is first chilled in a combination of stainless steel tanks and oak barrels and then fermented by adding yeast. This process is called the first fermentation of wine and it takes about 8 weeks.

Maturation: The first fermentation wine is further stored in tanks and/or oak barrels for 68 months for maturation.

Bottling: Once the mature wine is ready, it is stabilized through cold treatment. After testing the stability of the wine, it then is filtered to screen the balance fine particles. The filtered wine is then packed in bottles, which are washed internally and externally with double filtered water to remove bacteria and germs.

Figure 1 Operations in a winery

Figure 2: Flow diagram of Red Grape Wine

Selection of grapes ------- Mature and undamaged grapes Crushing ------------Traditionally manually, but now by crushers Pre- fermentation--------- 24 hours to three weeks depending on colour required Removal of skin----------- Can add sulphur dioxide to inhibit wild yeasts Fermentation --------------- Ageing to develop aromas and flavours Maturation

Figure 3: Flow diagram of White Grape Wine

Selection of grapes ------- Mature and undamaged grapes Crushing ------------------- Traditionally manually, but now by crushers Removal of skin----------- By standing, filtration or centrifugation Clarification Fermentation Ageing

Fermentation Yeast also gives flavor to the wine. But the yeast that is on the grape skin when it is harvested may not have the desired flavor. Other things on the outside of a grape are not good for wine (for example, acetic bacteria on the grapes can cause the wine to turn to vinegar). The winemaker can eliminate unwanted yeast's, molds and bacteria, most commonly by using the "universal disinfectant," sulfur dioxide. Unfortunately, the sulfites which remain in the wine may cause a lot of discomfort to some wine drinkers. Some winemakers prefer NOT to do this, and purposely create wines that are subject to the vagaries (and different flavors) of the yeast that pre-exist on the grapes ("wild yeast fermentation"). The winemaker has many different yeast strains to choose

from (and can use different strains at different times during the process for better control fermentation). The most common wine yeast is Saccharomyces. A less modern, but still widely used way to ferment wine is to place it in small oak barrels. "Barrel fermentation" is usually done at a lower temperature in temperature controlled rooms and takes longer, perhaps around 6 weeks. The longer fermentation and use of wood contributes to the flavor (and usually expense) of the wine. The skins and pulp which remain in a red wine vat will rise to and float on top of the juice. This causes problems (if it dries out, it's a perfect breeding ground for injurious bacteria), so the winemaker will push this "cap" back down into the juice, usually at least twice a day. In large vats, this is accomplished by pumping juice from the bottom of the vat over the top of the cap. Eventually the yeast is no longer changing sugar to alcohol (though different strains of yeast, which can survive in higher and higher levels of alcohol, can take over and contribute their own flavor to the wine-as well as converting a bit more sugar to alcohol. After all this is completed what you have left is the wine, "dead" yeast cells, known as "lees and various other substances.

Malo-lactic fermentation The winemaker may choose to allow a white wine to undergo a second fermentation which occurs due to malic acid in the grape juice. When malic acid is allowed to break down into carbon dioxide and lactic acid (thanks to bacteria in the wine), it is known as "malo-lactic fermentation," which imparts additional flavor to the wine. A "buttery" flavor in some whites is due to this process. This process is used for sparkling wines.

First racking After fermentation completed naturally or stopped by addition of distilled spirit, first racking is carried out. This involves the wine to stand still until most yeast cells and fine suspended material settle out. The wine is then filtered without disturbing the sediment or the yeast.

Winery aging The winery may then keep the wine so that there can be additional clarification and, in some wines, to give it a more complex flavors. Flavor can come from wood (or more correctly from the chemicals that make up the wood and are taken up into the wine). The wine may be barrel aged for several months to several years. No air is allowed to enter the barrels during this period. Ignoring any additional processing that might be used, you could empty the barrels into bottles and sell your wine. However, during the winery aging, the smaller containers may develop differences. So the winemaker will probably "blend" wine from different barrels, to achieve a uniform result. Also, the winemaker may blend together different grape varieties to achieve desired characteristics.

Stabilization, filtration Stabilization is carried out to remove traces of tartaric acid. These tartarates present in the grape juice tend to crystallize in wine and if not removed completely can slowly reappear as glass like crystals in final bottles on storage . Stabilization with respect to tartarates may involve chilling of wine that can crystallize tartarates and these crystals can be removed by filtration.

Pasteurization If the wine has an alcohol content less than 14% it may be heat pasteurized or cold pasteurized through microporous filters just before bottling.

Bottling wine Producers often use different shaped bottles to denote different types of wine. Colored bottles help to reduce damage by light. (Light assists in oxidation and breakdown of the wine into chemicals, such as mercaptan, which are undesirable). Bottle sizes can also vary.

Storing wine For wines that should be aged, a cellar should have proper :Temperature which does not have rapid fluctuation. 55 degrees Fahrenheit is a good, but you can live with 50 to 57 degrees Fahrenheit (10 to 14 degrees Centigrade). Wide swings in temperature will harm the wine. Having too high a temperature will age the wine faster so it won't get as complex as it might have. Having too low a temperature will slow the wine's maturation.Humidity. About 60 percent is right. This helps keep the cork moist. The wine will oxidize if the air (and its oxygen) gets to it. If the cork dries out, it can shrink and let air in. This is another reason to keep the bottles on their sides. The wine itself will help keep the cork moist.

Whatever it is that is causing the odor stands a good chance of getting through the cork and into the wine.

7. Tasting and collecting

Judging color is the first step in tasting a wine.

Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. Wines contain many chemical compounds similar or identical to those in fruits, vegetables, and spices. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation, relative to the acidity present in the wine. Dry wine, for example, has only a small amount of residual sugar. Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple of hours before serving, while others recommend drinking it immediately. Decanting (the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing) is a controversial subject among wine enthusiasts. In addition to aeration, decanting with a filter allows the removal of bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine. Sediment is more common in older bottles, but aeration may benefit younger wines. During aeration, a younger wine's exposure to air often "relaxes" the drink, making it smoother and better integrated in aroma, texture, and flavor. Older wines generally "fade" (lose their character and flavor intensity) with extended aeration. Despite these general rules, breathing does not necessarily benefit all wines. Wine may be tasted as soon as the bottle is opened to determine how long it should be aerated, if at all When tasting wine, individual flavors may also be detected, due to the complex mix of organic molecules

(e.g. esters and terpenes) that grape juice and wine can contain. Experienced tasters can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape and flavors that result from other factors in winemaking. Typical intentional flavor elements in winechocolate, vanilla, or coffeeare those imparted by aging in oak casks rather than the grape itself. Banana flavors (isoamyl acetate) are the product of yeast metabolism, as are spoilage aromas such as sweaty, barnyard, band-aid (4-ethylphenol and 4ethylguaiacol), and rotten egg (hydrogen sulfide). Some varietals can also exhibit a mineral flavor due to the presence of water-soluble salts as a result of limestone's presence in the vineyard's soil. Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds released into the air. Vaporization of these compounds can be accelerated by twirling the wine glass or serving at room temperature. Many drinkers prefer to chill red wines that are already highly aromatic, like Chinon and Beaujolais. The ideal temperature for serving a particular wine is a matter of debate, but some broad guidelines have emerged that will generally enhance the experience of tasting certain common wines. A white wine should foster a sense of coolness, achieved by serving at "cellar temperature" (55F/13C). Light red wines drunk young should also be brought to the table at this temperature, where they will quickly rise a few degrees. Red wines are generally perceived best when served chambr ("at room temperature"). However, this does not mean the temperature of the dining roomoften around 70F/21Cbut rather the coolest room in the house and, therefore, always slightly cooler than the dining room itself. Pinot Noir should be brought to the table for serving at 60F/16C and will reach its full bouquet at 65F/18C. Cabernet Sauvignon

, zinfandel, and Rhone varieties should be served at 65F/18C and allowed to warm on the table to 70F/21C for best aroma.


Chteau Margaux, a First Growth from the Bordeaux region of France, is highly collectible.

Outstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of dollars per bottle, though the broader term "fine wine" covers those typically retailing in excess of US$3050. "Investment wines" are considered by some to be Veblen goods: those for which demand increases rather than decreases as their prices rise. The most common wines purchased for investment include those from Bordeaux and Burgundy; cult wines from Europeand elsewhere; and vintage port. Characteristics of highly collectible wines include: 1. A proven track record of holding well over time 2. A drinking-window plateau (i.e., the period for maturity and approachability) that is many years long 3. A consensus among experts as to the quality of the wines 4. Rigorous production methods at every stage, including grape selection and appropriate barrel aging

Investment in fine wine has attracted those who take advantage of their victims' relative ignorance of this wine market sector. Such wine fraudsters often profit by charging excessively high prices for off-vintage or lower-status wines from well-known wine regions, while claiming that they are offering a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles. As with any investment, thorough research is essential to making an informed decision.



French wine is produced all throughout France, in quantities between 50 and 60 million hectolitres per year, or 78 billion bottles. France is the world's second largest wine producer behind Italy. French wine traces its history to the 6th century BC, with many of France's regions dating their wine-making history to Roman times. The wines produced range from expensive high-end wines sold internationally to more modest wines usually only seen within France. Two concepts central to higher end French wines are the notion of "terroir", which links the style of the wines to the specific locations where the grapes are grown and the wine is made, and the Appellation d'Origine Contrle (AOC) system. Appellation rules closely define which grape varieties and winemaking practices are approved for classification in each of France's several hundred geographically defined appellations, which can cover entire regions, individual villages or even specific vineyards. France is the source of many grape varieties (Cabernet

Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc, Syrah) that are now planted throughout the world, as well as wine-making practices and styles of wine that have been adopted in other producing countries. Although some

producers have benefited in recent years from rising prices and increased demand for some of the prestige wines from Burgundy and Bordeaux, the French wine industry as a whole has been influenced by a slight decline in domestic consumption, as well as growing competition from both the New World and other European countries. Quality levels and appellation system In 1935 numerous laws were passed to control the quality of French wine. They established the Appellation d'Origine Contrle system, which is governed by a powerful oversight board (Institut National des Appellations d'Origine, INAO). Consequently, France has one of the oldest systems for protected designation of origin for wine in the world, and strict laws concerning winemaking and production. Many other European systems are modelled after it. The word "appellation" has been put to use by other countries, sometimes in a much looser meaning. As European Union wine laws have been modelled after those of the French, this trend is likely to continue with further EU expansion. French law divides wine into four categories, two falling under the European Union's Table Wine category and two falling under the EU's Quality Wine Produced in a Specific Region (QWPSR) designation. The categories and their shares of the total French production for the 2005 vintage, excluding wine destined for Cognac, Armagnac and other brandies, were: Table wine:

Vin de Table (11.7%) Carries with it only the producer and the designation that it is from France. Vin de Pays (33.9%) Carries with it a specific region within France (for example Vin de Pays d'Oc from Languedoc-Roussillon or Vin de Pays de Ctes de Gascogne from Gascony), and subject to less restrictive

regulations than AOC wines. For instance, it allows producers to distinguish wines that are made using grape varieties or procedures other than those required by the AOC rules, without having to use the simple and commercially non-viable table wine classification. In order to maintain a distinction from Vin de Table, the producers have to submit the wine for analysis and tasting, and the wines have to be made from certain varieties or blends. QWPSR:

Vin Dlimit de Qualit Suprieure (VDQS, 0.9%) Less strict than AOC, usually used for smaller areas or as a "waiting room" for potential AOCs. This category was abolished at the end of 2011. Appellation d'Origine Contrle (AOC, 53.4%) Wine from a particular area with many other restrictions, including grape varieties and winemaking methods.

The total French production for the 2005 vintage was 43.9 million hl (plus an additional 9.4 million hl destined for various brandies), of which 28.3% was white and 71.7% was red or ros. The proportion of white wine is slightly higher for the higher categories, with 34.3% of the AOC wine being white. In years with less favourable vintage conditions than 2005, the proportion of AOC wine tends to be a little lower. The proportion of Vin de table has decreased considerably over the last decades, while the proportion of AOC has increased somewhat and Vin de Pays has increased considerably. In 2005 there were 472 different wine AOCs in France. Reforms

The wine classification system of France has been under overhaul since 2006, with a new system to be fully introduced by 2012. The new system consists of three categories rather than four, since there will be no category corresponding to VDQS from 2012. The new categories are:

Vin de France, a table wine category basically replacing Vin de Table, but allowing grape variety and vintage to be indicated on the label.

Indication Gographique Protge (IGP), an intermediate category basically replacing Vin de Pays.

Appellation d'Origine Protge (AOP), the highest category basically replacing AOC wines.

The largest changes will be in the Vin de France category, and to VDQS wines, which either need to qualify as AOP wines or be downgraded to an IGP category. For the former AOC wines, the move to AOP will only mean minor changes to the terminology of the label, while the actual names of the appellations themselves will remain unchanged. While no new wines will be marketed under the old designations from 2012, bottles already in the distribution chain will not be relabelled Wine styles, grape varieties All common styles of wine red, ros, white (dry, semi-sweet

and sweet), sparkling and fortified are produced in France. In most of these styles, the French production ranges from cheap and simple versions to some of the world's most famous and expensive examples. An exception is French fortified wines, which tend to be relatively unknown outside France. In many respects, French wines have more of a regional than a national identity, as evidenced by different grape varieties, production methods and different

classification systems in the various regions. Quality levels and prices vary enormously, and some wines are made for immediate consumption while other are meant for long-time cellaring. If there is one thing that most French wines have in common, it is that most styles have developed as wines meant to accompany food, be it a quick baguette, a simple bistro meal, or a full-fledged multi-course menu. Since the French tradition is to serve wine with food, wines have seldom been developed or styled as "bar wines" for drinking on their own, or to impress in tastings when young.[13] Grape varieties Numerous grape varieties are cultivated in France, including both

internationally well-known and obscure local varieties. In fact, most of the socalled "international varieties" are of French origin, or became known and spread because of their cultivation in France.[14] Since French appellation rules generally restrict wines from each region, district or appellation to a small number of allowed grape varieties, there are in principle no varieties that are commonly planted throughout all of France. Most varieties of grape are primarily associated with a certain region, such as Cabernet Sauvignon in Bordeaux and Syrah in Rhne, although there are some varieties that are found in two or more regions, such as Chardonnay in Bourgogne (including Chablis) and Champagne, and Sauvignon Blanc in Loire and Bordeaux. As an example of the rules, although climatic conditions would appear to be favourable, no Cabernet Sauvignon wines are produced in Rhne, Riesling wines in Loire, or Chardonnay wines in Bordeaux. (If such wines were produced, they would have to be declassified to Vin de Pays or French table

wine. They would not be allowed to display any appellation name or even region of origin.) Traditionally, many French wines have been blended from several grape varieties. Varietal white wines have been, and are still, more common than varietal red wines.

German wine is primarily produced in the west of Germany, along the river Rhine and its tributaries, with the oldest plantations going back to the Roman era. Approximately 60 percent of the German wine production is situated in the federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate, where 6 of the 13 regions (Anbaugebiete) for quality wine are situated. Germany has about

102,000 hectares (252,000 acres or 1,020 square kilometers) of vineyard, which is around one tenth of the vineyard surface in Spain, France or Italy. The total wine production is usually around 9 million hectoliters annually, corresponding to 1.2 billion bottles, which places Germany as the eighth largest wineproducing country in the world. White wine accounts for almost two thirds of the total production. As a wine country, Germany has a mixed reputation internationally, with some consumers on the export markets associating Germany with the world's most elegant and aromatically pure white wines while other see the country mainly as the source of cheap, mass-market semi-sweet wines such as Liebfraumilch. Among enthusiasts, Germany's reputation is primarily based on wines made from the Riesling grape variety, which at its best is used for aromatic, fruity and elegant white wines that range from very crisp and dry to wellbalanced, sweet and of enormous aromatic concentration. While primarily a

white wine country, red wine production surged in the 1990s and early 2000s, primarily fuelled by domestic demand, and the proportion of the German vineyards devoted to the cultivation of dark-skinned grape varieties has now stabilized at slightly more than a third of the total surface. For the red wines, Sptburgunder, the domestic name for Pinot Noir, is in the lead. Wine styles Germany produces wines in many styles: dry, semi-sweet and sweet white wines, ros wines, red wines and sparkling wines, called Sekt. (The only wine style not commonly produced is fortified wine.) Due to the northerly location of the German vineyards, the country has produced wines quite unlike any others in Europe, many of outstanding quality. Despite this it is still better known abroad for cheap, sweet or semi-sweet, low-quality mass-produced wines such as Liebfraumilch. The wines have historically been predominantly white, and the finest made from Riesling. Many wines have been sweet and low in alcohol, light and unoaked. Historically many of the wines (other than late harvest wines) were probably dry (trocken), as techniques to stop fermentation did not exist. Recently much more German white wine is being made in the dry style again. Much of the wine sold in Germany is dry, especially in restaurants. However most exports are still of sweet wines, particularly to the traditional export markets such as Great Britain, which is the leading export market both in terms of volume and value. The United States (second in value, third in volume) and the Netherlands (second in volume, third in value) are two other important export markets for German wine. Red wine has always been hard to produce in the German climate, and in the past was usually light coloured, closer to ros or the red wines of Alsace.

However recently there has been greatly increased demand and darker, richer red wines (often barrique aged) are produced from grapes such

as Dornfelder and Sptburgunder, the German name for Pinot Noir. Perhaps the most distinctive characteristic of German wines is the high level of acidity in them, caused both by the lesser ripeness in a northerly climate and by the selection of grapes such as Riesling which retain acidity even at high ripeness levels. German wine regions 1. Ahr 2. Baden 3. Franconia 4. Hessische Bergstrae 5. Mittelrhein 6. Mosel 7. Nahe 8. Palatinate 9. Rheingau 10.Rheinhessen 11.Saale-Unstrut 12.Saxony 13.Wrttemberg

The wine regions in Germany usually referred to are the 13 defined regions for quality wine. The German wine industry has organised itself around these regions and their division into districts. However, there are also a number of regions for the seldom-exported table wine (Tafelwein) and country wine

(Landwein) categories. Those regions with a few exceptions overlap with the quality wine regions. In order to make a clear distinction between the quality levels, the regions and subregions for different quality level have different names on purpose, even when they are allowed to be produced in the same geographical area. Common white wine grapes White grape varieties account for 63% of the area planted in Germany. Principal varieties are listed below; there are larger numbers of less important varieties too.

Riesling is the benchmark grape in Germany and cover the most area in the German vineyard. It is an aromatic variety with a high level of acidity that can be used for dry, semi-sweet, sweet and sparkling wines. The drawback to Riesling is that it takes 130 days to ripen and, in marginal years, the Riesling crop tends to be poor.

Mller-Thurgau is an alternative grape to Riesling that growers have been using, and which is one of the so-called "new crossings". Unlike the long ripening time of Riesling, this grape variety only requires 100 days to ripen, can be planted on more sites, and is higher yielding. However, this grape has a more neutral flavour than Riesling, and as the main ingredient of Liebfraumilch its reputation has taken a beating together with that wine variety. Germany's most planted variety from the 1970s to the mid1990s, it has been losing ground for a number of years. Dry MllerThurgau is usually labeled Rivaner.

Silvaner is another fairly neutral, but quite old grape variety that was Germany's most planted until the 1960s and after that has continued to lose ground. It has however remained popular in Franconia and

Rheinhessen, where it is grown on chalky soils to produce powerful dry wines with a slightly earthy and rustic but also food-friendly character.

Kerner Bacchus Scheurebe Gewrztraminer Grauer Burgunder or Rulnder (Pinot Gris) Weisser Burgunder (Pinot Blanc)

Common red wine grapes Red wine varieties account for 37% of the plantations in Germany but has increased in recent years.

Sptburgunder (Pinot Noir) - a much-appreciated grape variety that demands good sites to produce good wines and therefore competes with Riesling. It is considered to give the most elegant red wines of Germany.

Dornfelder - a "new crossing" that has become much appreciated in Germany since it is easy to grow and gives dark-coloured, full-bodied, fruity and tannic wines of a style which used to be hard to produce in Germany.

Portugieser Trollinger Schwarzriesling (Pinot Meunier) Lemberger

Italy is home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world and has overtaken France as the world's largest wine producer. Italian wine is exported

around the world and is also extremely popular in Italy: Italians rank fifth on the world wine consumption list by volume with 42 litres per capita consumption. Grapes are grown in almost every region of the country and there are more than one million vineyards under cultivation. Etruscans and Greek settlers produced wine in Italy before the Romans started their own vineyards in the 2nd century BC. Roman grape-

growing and winemaking was prolific and well-organized, pioneering largescale production and storage techniques like barrel-making and bottling Italian appellation system Italy's classification system has four classes of wine, with two falling under the EU category Quality Wine Produced in a Specific Region (QWPSR) and two falling under the category of 'table wine'. The four classes are: Table Wine:

Vino da Tavola (VDT) - Denotes simply that the wine is made in Italy. The label usually indicates a basic wine, made for local consumption.

Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) - Denotes wine from a more specific region within Italy. This appellation was created in 1992 for wines that were considered to be of higher quality than simple table wines, but which did not conform to the strict wine laws for their region. Before the IGT was created, "Super Tuscan" wines such

as Tignanello were labeled Vino da Tavola. QWPSR:

Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG)

Both DOC and DOCG wines refer to zones which are more specific than an IGT, and the permitted grapes are also more specifically defined. The DOC system began in 1963, seeking to establish a method of both recognizing quality product and maintaining the international and national reputation of that product. The main difference between a DOC and a DOCG is that the latter must pass a blind taste test for quality in addition to conforming to the strict legal requirements to be designated as a wine from the area in question. After the sweeping wine laws of 1992, transparent rules were made regarding requirements for DOCG entry, imposing new limits regarding the production of grapes per hectare and minimum natural alcohol levels, among others. The overall goal of the system is to encourage producers to focus on quality wine making. Presently, there are 120 IGT zones. In February 2006, there were 311 DOC plus 32 DOCG appellations, according to the PDF document V.Q.P.R.D. Vini (DOCG DOC): Elenco e Riferimenti Normativi al 07.02.2006, published by the Italian Ministry of Agriculture. Italian wine regions Italy's twenty wine regions correspond to the twenty administrative regions. Understanding of Italian wine becomes clearer with an understanding of the differences between each region; their cuisines reflect their indigenous wines, and vice-versa. The 36 DOCG wines are located in 13 different regions but most of them are concentrated in Piedmont and Tuscany. Among these are appellations appreciated and sought after by wine lovers around the world: Barolo, Barbaresco, and Brunello di Montalcino(colloquially known as the "Killer B's").

Italian regions

Aosta Valley Piedmont Liguria Lombardy Trentino-Alto Adige/Sdtirol Friuli-Venezia Giulia Veneto Emilia-Romagna Tuscany Marche Umbria Lazio Abruzzo Molise Campania Basilicata Apulia Calabria Sicily Sardinia

Italian grape varieties Italy's Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MIRAF), has documented over 350 grapes and granted them "authorized" status. There are more than 500 other documented varieties in circulation as well. The following is a list of the most common and important of Italy's many grape varieties.

Bianco (White)

Arneis - A crisp and floral variety from Piedmont, which has been grown there since the 15th century.

Catarratto - Common in Sicily - this is the most widely planted white variety in Salaparuta.

Fiano - Grown on the southwest coast of Italy, the wines from this grape can be described as dewy and herbal, often with notes of pinenut and pesto.

Garganega - The main grape variety for wines labeled Soave, this is a crisp, dry white wine from the Veneto wine region of Italy. It's a very popular wine that hails from northeast Italy around the city of Verona. Currently, there are over 3,500 distinct producers of Soave.

Malvasia Bianca - Another white variety that peeks up in all corners of Italy with a wide variety of clones and mutations. Can range from easy quaffers to funky, musty whites.

Moscato - Grown mainly in Piedmont, it is mainly used in the slightlysparkling (frizzante), semi-sweet Moscato d'Asti. Not to be confused with moscato giallo and moscato rosa, two Germanic varietals that are grown in Trentino Alto-Adige.

Nuragus - An ancient Phoenician variety found in southern Sardegna. Light and tart wines that are drunk as an apertif in their homeland.

Pigato - A heavily acidic variety from Liguria, the wines are vinified to pair with a cuisine rich in seafood.

Pinot Grigio - A hugely successful commercial grape (known as Pinot Gris in France), its wines are characterized by crispness and cleanness. As a hugely mass-produced wine, it is usually delicate and mild, but in a good producers' hands, the wine can grow more full-bodied and complex. The main problem with the grape is that to satisfy the commercial demand, the grapes are harvested too early every year, leading to wines without character.

Ribolla Gialla - A Greek variety introduced by the Venetians that now makes its home in Friuli, these wines are decidedly old-world, with aromas of pineapple and mustiness.

Friulano - A variety also known as Sauvignon Vert or Sauvignonasse, it yields one of the most typical wines of Friuli, full of peachiness and minerality with a pleasant bitter almond finish. The wine was previously known as Tocai but the name was changed by the EC to avoid confusion with the Tokay dessert wine from Hungary.

Trebbiano - This is the most widely planted white varietal in Italy. It is grown throughout the country, with a special focus on the wines from Abruzzo and from Lazio, including Frascati. Mostly, they are pale, easy drinking wines, but trebbiano from producers such as Valentini have been known to age for 15+ years. It is known as Ugni Blanc in France.

Verdicchio - This is grown in the areas of Castelli di Jesi and Matelica in the Marche region and gives its name to the varietal white wine made from it. The name comes from "verde" (green). The white wines are noted for their high acidity and a characteristic nutty flavour with a hint of honey.

Vermentino - This is widely planted in northern Sardinia and also found in Tuscan and Ligurian coastal districts. Wines are particularly popular to accompany fish and seafood.

Passerina - mainly derives from Passerina grapes (it may even be produced purely with these), plus a minimum percentage of other white grapes and may be still, sparkling or passito. In its still version, one appreciates the acidic profile, which is typical of these grapes, as well as the delicate aromas.

Pecorino (grape) - Native to Marche and Abruzzo, it is used in the Falerio dei Colli Ascolani and Offida DOC wines. It is low-yielding, but will ripen early and at high altitudes. Pecorino wines have a deep, rich, aromatic and nutty character.




include Grillo,





Cortese, Falanghina, Grechetto, and Vernaccia. Non-native varieties

Inzolia, Picolit, Traminer, Verduzzo,





include Chardonnay, Gewrztraminer (sometimes aromatico), Petite Arvine, Riesling, and many others. Rosso (Red)

called traminer

Aglianico - Considered the "noble varietal of the south," it is primarily grown in Basilicata and Campania. The name is derived from Hellenic, so it is considered a Greek transplant. Thick skinned and spicy, the wines are often both rustic and powerful.

Barbera - The most widely grown red wine grape of Piedmont and Southern Lombardy, most famously around the towns of Asti and Alba,

and Pavia. The wines of Barbera were once simply "what you drank while waiting for the Barolo to be ready." With a new generation of wine makers, this is no longer the case. The wines are now meticulously vinified, aged Barbera gets the name "Barbera Superiore" (Superior Barbera), sometimes aged in French barrique becoming "Barbera Barricato", and intended for the international market. The wine has bright cherry fruit, a very dark color, and a food-friendly acidity.

Corvina - Along with the varietals rondinella and molinara, this is the principal grape which makes the famous wines of the

Veneto: Valpolicella and Amarone. Valpolicella wine has dark cherry fruit and spice. After the grapes undergo passito (a drying process), the wine is now called Amarone, and is extremely high in alcohol (16% and up) and full of raisin, prune, and syrupy fruits. Some Amarones can age for 40+ years and command spectacular prices. In December 2009, there was celebration when the acclaimed Amarone di Valpolicella was finally awarded its long-sought DOCG status.

Dolcetto - A grape that grows alongside Barbera and Nebbiolo in Piedmont, its name means "little sweet one"", referring not to the taste of the wine, but the ease in which it grows and makes great wines, suitable for everyday drinking. Flavors of concord grape, wild blackberries and herbs permeate the wine.

Malvasia Nera - Red Malvasia varietal from Piedmont. A sweet and perfumed wine, sometimes elaborated in the passito style.

Montepulciano - The grape of this name is not to be confused with the Tuscan town of Montepulciano; it is most widely planted on the opposite coast in Abruzzo. Its wines develop silky plum-like fruit, friendly acidity,

and light tannin. More recently, producers have been creating a rich, inky, extracted version of this wine, a sharp contrast to the many inferior bottles produced in the past.

Nebbiolo - The most noble of Italy's varieties. The name (meaning "little fog") refers to the autumn fog that blankets most of Piedmont where Nebbiolo is chiefly grown, and where it achieves the most successful results. A difficult grape variety to cultivate, it produces the most renowned Barolo and Barbaresco, made in province of Cuneo, along with the lesser-known Sforzato, Inferno and Sassella made

in Valtellina,Ghemme and Gattinara, made in Vercelli's province. The wines are known for their elegance and power with a bouquet of wild mushroom, truffle, roses, and tar. Traditionally produced Barolo can age for fifty years-plus, and is regarded by many wine enthusiasts as the greatest wine of Italy.

Negroamaro - The name literally means "black and bitter". A widely planted grape with its concentration in the region of Puglia, it is the backbone of the Salice Salentino: spicy, toasty, and full of dark red fruits.

Nero d'Avola - Nearly unheard of in the international market until recent years, this native varietal of Sicily is gaining attention for its plummy fruit and sweet tannins. The quality of nero d'avola has surged in recent years.

Primitivo - A red grape planted found in southern Italy, most notably in Puglia. Primitivo is robust and rustic, with spicy black fruit notes, and thrives in very warm climates, where it can achieve very high alcohol levels.

Sagrantino - A native to Umbria, it is only planted on 250 hectares, but the wines produced from it (either blended with Sangiovese as Rosso di Montefalco or as a pure Sagrantino) are world-renowned. Inky purple, with rustic brooding fruit and heavy tannins, these wines can age for many years.

Sangiovese - Italy's claim to fame, the pride of Tuscany. Traditionally made, the wines are full of cherry fruit, earth, and cedar. It produces Chianti (Classico), Rosso di Montalcino, Brunello di Montalcino, Rosso di Montepulciano, Montefalco Rosso, and many others. Sangiovese is also the backbone in many of the acclaimed, modern-styled "SuperTuscans", where it is blended with Bordeaux varietals (Cabernet Sauvignon,Merlot, and Cabernet Franc) and typically aged in French oak barrels, resulting a wine primed for the international market in the style of a typical California cabernet: oaky, high-alcohol, and a ripe, jammy, fruitforward profile.

"International" varieties such as Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Syrah are also widely grown.

Spanish wines (Spanish: vino espaol) are wines produced in the southwestern European country of Spain. Located on the Iberian Peninsula, Spain has over 2.9 million acres (over 1.17 million hectares) plantedmaking it the most widely planted wine producing nation but it is the third largest producer of wine in the world, the largest being France followed by Italy. This is due, in part, to the very low yields and wide spacing of the old vines planted on the dry, infertile soil found in many Spanish wine regions. The country is ninth in worldwide consumptions with Spaniards drinking, on average, 10.06 gallons

(38 liters) a year. The country has an abundance of native grape varieties, with over 400 varieties planted throughout Spain though 80 percent of the country's wine production is from only 20 grapes

including Tempranillo, Albario, Garnacha, Palomino, Airen, Macabeo,Parellad a, Xarello, Cariena and Monastrell. Major Spanish wine regions include the Rioja and Ribera del Duero which is known for their Tempranillo production; Valdepeas, drunk

by Unamuno and Hemingway, known for high quality tempranillo at low prices;Jerez, the home of the fortified wine Sherry; Ras Baixas in the northwest region of Galicia that is known for its white wines made from Albario and Catalonia which includes the Cava and still wine producing regions of thePeneds as well the Priorat region. Classification Spanish wine laws created the Denominacin de Origen (DO) system in 1932 and were later revised in 1970. The system shares many similarities with the hierarchical Appellation Portugal's Denominao d'origine de contrle (AOC) Origem system of France, and

Controlada (DOC)

Italy's Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC) system. As of 2009, there were 77 Quality Wine areas across Spain. In addition there isDenominacin de Origen Calificada (DOCa or DOQ in Catalan) status for DOs that have a consistent track record for quality. There are currently two DOCa/DOQ regions: Rioja and Priorat. Each DO has aConsejo Regulador, which acts as a governing control body that enforces the DO regulations These and standards govern

involving viticultural and winemaking practices.


everything from the types of grapes that are permitted to be planted, the maximum yields that can be harvested, the minimum length of time that the wine must be aged and what type of information is required to appear on

the wine label. Wineries that are seeking to have their wine sold under DO or DOC status must submit their wines to the Consejo Regulador laboratory and tasting panel for testing and evaluation. Wines that have been granted DO/DOC status will feature the regional stamp of the Consejo Regulador on the label. Following Spain's acceptance into the European Union, Spanish wine laws were brought in line to be more consistent with other European systems. One development was a five-tier classification system that is administered by each autonomous region. Non-autonomous areas or wine regions whose boundaries overlap with other autonomous communities (such as Cava, Rioja and Jumilla) are administered by the Instituto Nacional de Denominaciones de Origen (INDO) based in Madrid. The five-tier classifications, starting from the bottom, include:

Vino de Mesa (VdM) - These are wines that are the equivalent of most country's table wines and are made from unclassified vineyards or grapes that have been declassified through "illegal" blending. Similar to the Italian Super Tuscans from the late 20th century, some Spanish winemakers will intentionally declassify their wines so that they have greater flexibility in blending and winemaking methods.

Vinos de la Tierra (VdlT) - This level is similar to France's vin de pays system, normally corresponding to the larger comunidad

autonma geographical regions and will appear on the label with these broader geographical designations like Andalucia, Castilla La

Mancha and Levante.

Vino de Calidad Producido en Regin Determinada (VCPRD) - This level is similar to France's Vin Dlimit de Qualit Suprieure (VDQS) system and is considered a stepping stone towards DO status.

Denominacin de Origen (Denominaci d'Origen in Catalan - DO)- This level is for the mainstream quality-wine regions which are regulated by

the Consejo Regulador who is also responsible for marketing the wines of that DO. In 2005, nearly two thirds of the total vineyard area in Spain was within the boundaries a DO region.

Denominacin de Origen Calificada (DOCa/DOQ - Denominaci d'Origen Qualificada in Catalan)- This designation, which is similar to Italy's Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) designation, is for regions with a track record of consistent quality and is meant to be a step above DO level. Rioja was the first region afforded this designation in 1991 and was followed by Priorat in 2003, and Ribera del Duero in 2008.

Additionally there is the Denominacin de Pago (DO de Pago) designation for individual single-estates with an international reputation. As of 2009, there were 9 estates with this status. Spanish labeling laws Spanish wines are often labeled according to the amount of aging the wine has received. When the label says vino joven ("young wine") or sin crianza, the wines will have undergone very little, if any, wood aging. Depending on the producer, some of these wines will be meant to be consumed very young - often within a year of their release. Others will benefit from some time aging in the bottle. For the vintage year (vendimia orcosecha) to appear on the label, a minimum of 85% of the grapes must be from that year's harvest. The three most common aging designations on Spanish wine labels are Crianza,

Reserva and Gran Reserva.

Crianza red wines are aged for 2 years with at least 6 months in oak. Crianza whites and ross must be aged for at least 1 year with at least 6 months in oak.

Reserva red wines are aged for at least 3 years with at least 1 year in oak. Reserva whites and ross must be aged for at least 2 years with at least 6 months in oak.

Gran Reserva wines typically appear in above average vintages with the red wines requiring at least 5 years aging, 18 months of which in oak and a minimum of 36 months in the bottle. Gran Reserva whites and ross must be aged for at least 4 years with at least 6 months in oak.

Wine regions Spain has a relatively large number of distinct wine-producing regions, more than half having the classification Denominacin de Origen (DO) with the majority of the remainder classified as Vinos de la Tierra (VdlT). There are two regions nominated as Denominacin de Origen Calificada (DOCa) -

Rioja and Priorat - the flagship regions of Spanish winemaking. While most make both red and white wine, some wine regions are more dominated by one style than the other. Grape varieties Some records estimate that over 600 grape varieties are planted throughout Spain but 80% of the country's wine production is focused on only 20 grape varieties. The most widely planted grape is the white wine grapeAirn, prized for its hardiness and resistance to drop. It is found throughout central Spain and for many years served as the base for Spanish brandy. Wines made from this grape can be very alcoholic and prone tooxidation. The red wine

grape Tempranillo is the second most widely planted grape variety, recently eclipsing Garnacha in plantings in 2004. It is known throughout Spain under a variety of synonyms that may appear on Spanish wine labels-including Cencibel, Tinto Fino and Ull de Llebre. Both Tempranillo and Garnacha are

used to make the full-bodied red wines associated with the Rioja, Ribera del Duero and Peneds with Garnacha being the main grape of the Priorat region. In the Levante region, Monastrell and Bobal have significant plantings, being used for both dark red wines and dry ros. In the northwest, the white wine varieties of Albario and Verdejo are popular plantings in the Ras Baixas and Rueda respectively. In the Cava producing regions
of Catalonia and elsewhere in Spain, the principal grapes

ofMacabeo, Parellada and Xarello are used for sparkling wine production as well as still white wines. In the southern Sherry and Malaga producing regions of Andalucia, the principal grapes are Palomino and Pedro Ximnez. As the Spanish wine industry becomes more modern, there has been a larger presence of international grape varieties appearing in both blends and varietal forms-most notably Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay,Syrah, Merlot and Sauvignon blanc. Other Spanish grape varieties that have significant plantings

include Cariena, Godello, Graciano, Mencia, Loureira, and Treixadura.

Portuguese wine is the result of traditions introduced to the region by ancient civilizations, such as the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Greeks, and mostly the Romans. Portugal started to export its wines to Rome during theRoman Empire. Modern exports developed with trade to England after the Methuen Treaty in 1703. From this commerce a wide variety of wines started to be grown in Portugal. And, in 1758, one of the first wine-producing region of the world, the Regio Demarcada do Douro was created under the orientation of Marquis of Pombal, in the Douro Valley. Portugal has two wine producing regions protected by UNESCO as World Heritage: the Douro Valley Wine Region (Douro Vinhateiro) and Pico Island Wine Region (Ilha do

Pico Vinhateira). Portugal has a large variety of native breeds, producing a very wide variety of different wines with distinctive personality. Grapes Portugal possesses a large array of native varietals, producing an abundant variety of different wines. The wide array of Portuguese grape varietals contributes as significantly as the soil and climate to wine differentiation, producing distinctive wines from the Northern regions to Madeira Islands, and from Algarve to the Azores. In Portugal only some grape varietals or castas are authorized or endorsed in the Demarcated regions, such as:


Verdes -


castas Alvarinho, Arinto red

(Pedern), Avesso, Azal, Batoca, Loureiro, Trajadura;

castas Amaral, Borraal, Alvarelho, Espadeiro, Padeiro, Pedral, Rabo de Anho, Vinho.

Porto/Douro -


castas Touriga

Nacional, Tinta

Amarela, Aragonez, Bastardo, Castelo, Cornifesto, Donzelinho Tinto, Malvasia Francisca, Tinto Preta, Marufo, Rufete, Tinta Co, Touriga Franca; Barroca, Tinta white

castas Arinto, Cercial, Donzelinho Branco, Folgazo, Gouveio, Malvasia Fina, Moscatel Galego

Branco, Rabigato, Samarrinho, Semillon, Sercial, Roupeiro, Verdelho, Vi osinho, Vital.

Do - Red castas Touriga Nacional, Alfrocheiro, Aragonez, Jaen e Rufete; White castas Encruzado, Bical, Cercial, Malvasia Fina, Verdelho.

Bairrada - Red casts Baga, Alfrocheiro, Camarate, Castelo, Jaen, Touriga Nacional, Aragonez; white castas Maria Gomes, Arinto, Bical, Cercial, Rabo de Ovelha, Verdelho.

Bucelas - White castas Arinto, Sercial e Rabo de Ovelha.

Colares - Red casta Ramisco; White casta Malvasia Carcavelos Red castas Castelo and Preto Martinho; White

castas Galego Dourado, Ratinho, Arinto.

Setbal - Red casta Moscatel Roxo; white casta Moscatel de Setbal. Alentejo - Red castas Alfrocheiro, Aragonez, Periquita1, Tinta Caiada, Trincadeira, Alicante Bouschet, Moreto; White castas Anto Vaz, Arinto, Ferno Pires, Rabo de Ovelha, Roupeiro

Algarve - Red castas Negra Mole, Trincadeira, Alicante Bouschet, Aragonez, Periquita; White castas Arinto, Roupeiro, Mantedo, Moscatel Grado, Perrum, Rabo de Ovelha.

Madeira - Red castas Bastardo, Tinta, Malvasia Cndida Roxa, Verdelho Tinto e Tinta Negra; white castas Sercial, Malvasia Fina (Boal), Malvasia Cndida, Folgaso (Terrantez), Verdelho.

Tejo -


castas Baga, Camarate, Castelo, Trincadeira, Tinta-

Mida, Preto-Martinho, Aragonez, Touriga-Franca, TourigaNacional, Alfrocheiro, Caladoc, Esgana-Co-Tinto, Jaen, PetitVerdot, Tinta-Barroca,Tinta-Caiada, Tinto-Co, Merlot, CabernetSauvignon, Bastardo, Pinot-Noir, Alicante-Bouschet, GrandNoir, Moreto, Syrah; white castas Arinto, Ferno Pires, Rabo-de-

Ovelha, Tlia, Trincadeira-das-Pratas,Vital, Verdelho, Tamarez, CercealBranco, Alicante Branco, Chardonnay, Malvasia-Rei, Pinot-

Blanc, Sauvignon, Alvarinho, Moscatel-Grado, Sria, Viosinho. Appellation system The appellation system of the Douro region was created nearly two hundred years before that of France, in order to protect its superior wines from inferior ones. The quality and great variety of wines in Portugal are due to noble castas, microclimates, soils and proper technology.

Official designations:

Quality Wine Produced in a Specific Region (QWPSR) or VQPRD Vinho de Qualidade Produzido em Regio Demarcada

These are the most protected wine and indicates a specific vineyard, such as Port Wine, Vinhos Verdes, and Alentejo Wines. These wines are labeled D.O.C. (Denominao de Origem Controlada) which secures a superior quality.

Wines that have more regulations placed upon them but are not in a DOC region fall under the category of Indicao de Provenincia

Regulamentada (IPR, Indication of Regulated Provenance)

Regional Wine - Vinho Regional Carries with it a specific region within Portugal.

Table Wines - Vinho de Mesa carries with it only the producer and the designation that it's from Portugal.

Wine regions

Vinho Verde is produced from grapes which do not reach great doses of sugar. Therefore, Vinho Verde does not require an aging process. Vinho Verde wines are now largely exported, and are the most exported Portuguese wines after the Port Wine. The most popular variety in Portugal and abroad are the white wines, but there are also red and more rarely ros wines. A notable variety of Vinho Verde is Vinho Alvarinhowhich is a special variety of white Vinho Verde, the production of Alvarinho is restricted by EU law to a small sub-region of Mono, in the northern part of the Minho region in Portugal. It has more alcohol (11.5 to 13%) than the other varieties (8 to 11.5%).

Douro wine (Vinho do Douro) originates from the same region as port wines. In the past they were considered to be a bitter tasting wine. In order to prevent spoilage during the voyage from Portugal to England, the English decided to add a Portuguese wine brandy known as aguardente. The first documented commercial transactions appearing in registries of export date as far back as 1679. Today's Douro table wines are enjoying growing favor in the world, maintaining many traits that are reminiscent of a port wine.

Do wine is from the Regio Demarcada do Do, a region demarcated in 1908, but already in 1390 there were taken some measures to protect this wine. The Do Wine is produced in a mountainous region with temperate climate, in the area of the Mondego and Do Rivers in the north region of central Portugal. These mountains protect

the castas from maritime and continental influences.

Bairrada wine, is produced in the Regio Demarcada da Bairrada. The name "Bairrada" is from "barros" (clay) and due to the clayey soils of the region. Although the region was classified in 1979, it is an ancient vineyard region. The vines grow exposed to the sun, favouring the further maturity of the grapes. The Baga casta is intensely used in the wines of the region. The Bairrada region produces table, white and red wines. Yet, it is notable for its sparkling natural wine.

Alentejo wine is produced from grapes planted in vast vineyards extending over rolling plains under the sun which shines on the grapes and ripens them for the production.

Health effects

Red table wine Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy Carbohydrates - Sugars Fat Protein Alcohol 10.6 g alcohol 355 kJ (85 kcal) 2.6 g 0.6 g 0.0 g 0.1 g 10.6 g is 13%vol.

100 g wine is approximately 100 ml (3.4 fl oz.) Sugar and alcohol content can vary.

Source: USDA Nutrient Database








effects, epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that moderate consumption of alcohol and wine is statistically associated with a decrease incardiovascular illness such as heart failure. Additional news reports on the French paradox also back the relationship. This paradox concerns the comparatively low incidence of coronary heart disease in France despite relatively high levels of saturated fat in the traditional French diet. Some

epidemiologists suspect that this difference is due to the higher consumption of wines by the French, but the scientific evidence for this theory is limited. Because the average moderate wine drinker is likely to exercise more often, to be more health conscious, and to be from a higher educational and socioeconomic background, the association between moderate wine drinking and better health may be related to confounding factors or represent a correlation rather than cause and effect. Population studies have observed a J-curve association between wine

consumption and the risk of heart disease: heavy drinkers have an elevated risk, while moderate drinkers (up to 20g of alcohol per day, approximately 120 ml (4 imp fl oz; 4 US fl oz) of 13% ABV wine) have a lower risk than nondrinkers. Studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic beverages may be cardioprotective, although the association is considerably stronger for wine. Additionally, some studies have found greater health benefits for red than white wine, though other studies have found no difference. Red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine, and these are thought to be particularly protective against cardiovascular disease. A chemical in red wine called resveratrol has been shown to have both cardioprotective and chemoprotective effects in animal studies. Low doses of resveratrol in the diet of middle-aged mice has a widespread influence on the genetic factors related to aging and may confer special protection on the heart. Specifically, low doses of resveratrol mimic the effects of caloric restriction diets with 2030% fewer calories than a typical diet. Resveratrol is produced naturally by grape skins in response to fungal infection, including exposure to yeast during fermentation. As white wine has minimal contact with grape skins during this process, it generally contains in lower wine levels also of the

chemical. Beneficial



other polyphenols, antioxidants, and flavonoids.

To benefit fully from resveratrol in wine, it is recommended to sip slowly when drinking. Due to inactivation in the gut and liver, most of the resveratrol consumed while drinking red wine does not reach the blood circulation. However, when sipping slowly, absorption via the mucous membranes in the mouth can result in up to 100 times the blood levels of resveratrol. Red wines from the south of France and from Sardinia in Italy have been found to have the highest levels of procyanidins, compounds in grape seeds thought to be responsible for red wine's heart benefits. Red wines from these areas contain between two and four times as much procyanidins as other red wines tested. Procyanidins suppress the synthesis of a peptide called endothelin-1 that constricts blood vessels. A 2007 study found that both red and white wines are effective antibacterial agents against strains of Streptococcus. In addition, a report in the October 2008 issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention posits that moderate consumption of red wine may decrease the risk of lung cancer in men. While evidence from laboratory and epidemiological (observational) studies suggest a cardioprotective effect, no controlled studies have been completed on the effect of alcoholic beverages on the risk of developing heart disease or stroke. Excessive consumption of alcohol can cause cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism;[85] the American Heart Association cautions people to "consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation." Wine's effect on the brain is also under study. One study concluded that wine made from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape reduces the risk of Alzheimer's Disease. Another study found that among alcoholics, wine damages the hippocampus to a greater degree than other alcoholic beverages.

Sulfites in wine can cause some people, particularly those with asthma, to have adverse reactions. Sulfites are present in all wines and are formed as a natural product of the fermentation process; many winemakers addsulfur dioxide in order to help preserve wine. Sulfur dioxide is also added to foods such as dried apricots and orange juice. The level of added sulfites varies; some wines have been marketed with low sulfite content. A study of women in the United Kingdom, called The Million Women Study, concluded that moderate alcohol consumption can increase the risk of certain cancers, including breast, pharynx and liver cancer. Lead author of the study, Professor Valerie Beral, has asserted that there is scant evidence that any positive health effects of red wine outweigh the risk of cancer. She said, "It's an absolute myth that red wine is good for you." Professor Roger Corder, author of The Red Wine Diet, counters that two small glasses of a very tannic, procyanidin-rich wine would confer a benefit, although "most supermarket wines are low-procyanidin and high-alcohol."