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# PAB 4323 WELL STIMULATION TECHNIQUES

SEMESTER 7

By
Dr. Aliyu Adebayo Sulaimon (aliyu.adebayor@petronas.com) (Direct Line: 05-3687051)

Learning Outcomes
At the end of this lecture, students should be able to:
Describe factors that must be considered in the design of matrix stimulation Identify and mention at least five formation minerals Mention and explain the three basic mechanisms of acid-mineral interactions Calculate the amount and volume of acid required to dissolve a given amount and volume of a formation mineral Mention the typical acid types and describe how they are used in sandstone reservoir or carbonate formation Calculate both the acid injection rate and surface injection pressure

## Design of Matrix Acidizing

Design Considerations
Type and concentration of acid required Amount of acid needed to dissolve sufficient mineral around the wellbore Optimal injection rate Placement of the acid solution

## Design of Matrix Acidizing

Common Formation Minerals
Calcite Dolomite Siderite

Quartz
Albite (i.e. sodium feldspar) Orthoclase (potassium feldspar) Kaolinite

Montmorillonite

## Design of Matrix Acidizing

Mechanisms of Interaction
There are three basic mechanisms: Stoichiometry
Determines the amount of acid needed to dissolve a given amount of mineral, e.g. + + + That is, 2 moles of are required to dissolve 1 mole of The numbers 2 and 1 are the stoichiometric coefficients; &

Reaction kinetics
This deals with the rates at which acids react with various minerals

Diffusion rates
These control how rapidly acid is transported to the rock surfaces

## Design of Matrix Acidizing

Stoichiometry
Acids dissolving power is a more convenient means (apart from the no. of moles) of expressing reaction stoichiometry. There are two types: Gravimetric dissolving power
This is the mass of mineral consumed by a given mass of acid

## Volumetric dissolving power

This is the volume of mineral dissolved by a given volume of acid

## Design of Matrix Acidizing

Gravimetric dissolving power
% =

where n and M represent the number of moles and molecular mass; x % is the weight fraction of acid in the acid solution

% = %

## where is the density in /

Example Calculation
Calculate the gravimetric and volumetric dissolving powers of 15wt% HCl reacting with Dolomite Siderite

Solution
Dolomite:
+

+ + +

= . ; = . ; = . + . + + = . ; = + . = .

% =

. . = . / . .

= . ; = .

% = %

. . = . = . . . %

Solution (Contd)
Siderite:
+ + +
= . ; = . ; = . + + = . ; = + . = . % = = . . = . / . .

= . ; = .

% = %

. . = . = . . . %

## Design of Matrix Acidizing

Selection of Acids
Sandstone Formation

The purpose of sandstone acidizing is to remove the damage near the wellbore Typical treatments usually consist of a mixture of 3.0wt%HF and 12.0wt%HCl, preceded by a 15.0wt%HCl preflush

Carbonate Formation
HCl is the most widely used acid for carbonate matrix acidizing

Weak acids are recommended for perforating fluid and perforation cleanup
Strong acids are recommended for other treatments Concentrated (high strength) acids provide deeper penetration

## Design of Matrix Acidizing

Acid Volume Requirement
Sandstone Formation
= +
where = preflush volume or the required acid volume, cu ft =volume of minerals to be removed, cu ft = = initial pore volume, cu ft = = radius of acid treatment, ft = wellbore radius, ft = mineral content, volume fraction

## Design of Matrix Acidizing

Acid Volume Requirement
Carbonate Formation
=
where

= required acid volume per unit thickness of formation, cuft/ft = desired radius of wormhole penetration, ft = wellbore radius, ft = no. of pore volumes of acid injected at the time of wormhole breakthrough at the end of the core

## Design of Matrix Acidizing

Acid Injection Rate
Assuming pseudo-steady state flow, the maximum injection rate limited by the fracture pressure is expressed as , =
where ,
. ln 4+
3

= maximum injection rate, bbl/min = permeability of undamaged formation, mD = pay zone thickness, ft = formation fracture pressure, psia = reservoir pressure, psia = safety margin, (200 to 500psi) = viscosity of acid solution, cp = drainage radius, ft = wellbore radius, ft = skin factor

## Design of Matrix Acidizing

Acid Injection Pressure
In most acid treatment operations, only the surface tubing (injection) pressure is monitored. It is important to predict the surface injection pressure at the design stage for pump selection. It is expressed as = +
where

= surface injection pressure, psia = flowing bottom-hole pressure, psia = hydrostatic pressure drop, psia = frictional pressure drop, psia

. . . = ; < / .

where = density (g/cc), q = injection rate (bb/min), = viscosity (cp), D = tubing diameter (inches), and L = tubing length (ft)

## Design of Matrix Acidizing - (Short Review)

Selection of Acids
In sandstone formations In carbonate formation

## Acid Volume Requirement

In sandstone formations In carbonate formation

## Acid Injection Rate Acid Injection Pressure

Example 1
A sandstone with a porosity of 0.2 containing 10% (volume) calcite ( ) is to be acidized with HF/HCl mixture solution. A preflush of 15wt% HCl solution is to be injected ahead of the mixture to dissolve the carbonate minerals and establish a low PH environment. If the HCl preflush is to remove all carbonates in a region within 1-ft beyond a 0.328-ft radius wellbore before the HF/HCL stage enters the formation, what minimum preflush volume is required in gal/ft of formation thickness?

Solution 1
Given: = . ; = . ; = ; = . ; = . ;

= +
=

= = . . . .
.

= = . . . = .

To calculate X, we need .

Solution 1
+ + +
= . ; = . ; = . + + = . ; = + . = . % = = . . = . / . .

= . ; = .

% = %

. . = . = . . . %

Therefore,
= + + = . + + . . = . %/

Example 2
A 28wt% HCl is required to propagate wormholes 3-ft from a 0.328-ft radius wellbore in a limestone formation ( = 2.71) with a porosity of 0.15. The design injection rate is 0.1 bbl/min-ft, the diffusion coefficient is / , and the density of the 28wt% HCl is 1.14g/cc. In linear core floods, 1.5PV (pore volume) is needed for wormhole breakthrough at the end of the core. Calculate the acid volume requirement.

Solution 2
Given: = . ; = . ; = . ; () = .

= . . . . = . = /

Example 3
A 60-ft thick, 50mD sandstone pay zone at a depth of 9,500-ft is to be acidized with an acid solution having a specific gravity of 1.07 and a viscosity of 1.5cp down a 2inch internal diameter coil tubing. The formation fracture gradient is 0.7psi/ft. The wellbore radius is 0.328ft. Assuming a reservoir pressure of 4,000psia, drainage area radius of 1,000ft, and a skin factor of 15, calculate a) The max. acid injection rate using safety margin 300psi b) The max. expected surface injection pressure at the max. injection rate.

Solution 3
Given:
= ; = ; = ; = . ; = . ; = ; . = ; = ; =

= .

## a) The max. acid injection rate is

, . = 3 ln + 4

. . = . + . = . /

Solution 3 (Contd)
a) The max. expected surface injection pressure is

= +
= = . = , = . = . . = ,
=
. . .

Therefore,
= + = , , +

= ,

Homework 1
1) Calculate the gravimetric dissolving power of
a) 15wt% HCl reacting with
i. ii. i. ii. Calcite Siderite Orthoclase feldspar Kaolinite

## b) 3wt% HF reacting with

iii. Montmorillonite

Homework 1 (Contd)
1) Calculate the volumetric dissolving power of
a) 15wt% HCl reacting with
i. ii. i. ii. Calcite Siderite Orthoclase feldspar Kaolinite

## b) 3wt% HF reacting with

iii. Montmorillonite

Homework 2
Solve questions 16.1, 16.3, 16.5 and 16.7 in Chapter 16 of
Guo, B.; Lyons, W.C.; and Ghalambor, A. (2007): Petroleum Production Engineering, Elseviers Gulf Professional Publishing, Oxford, U.K

Questions?

Thank you