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Infrastructure project security and safety management John Constance MSc in Project Management, University of Liverpool Introduction Security

and safety management are the two most important aspects of infrastructure project implementation as without security infrastructure management information systems or infrastructure construction cannot be assured invulnerability and smooth operations respectively; and without safety risks to the environment and work safety cannot be managed effectively. This paper discusses three safety or security fundamentals that is generally applicable when planning a diversity of infrastructure projects, and explains the utmost key lessons learned from these general applications that could reduce insecurity and unsafe conditions on future projects. Element #1 Decision Support Tool (DST) This element, according to Sorvari & Seppala (2010) is a multi-criteria decision approach that practically drives the time and money elements in making risk management decisions of contaminated sites which can also be applied to a variety of other sites by providing a tool that considers contamination of any type, magnitude, and scale, the use of the land, site and surrounding environmental conditions, and the aspects of sociocultural issues. This element is also useful in that every infrastructure project must predetermine before, during and after construction operations all the risks factors that could jeopardize infrastructure project operations and also lead the way to applying systematic safety risk management that is involved in wide-ranging construction activities as indicated by Sun et al. (2008). Element #2 Safety Risk Assessment Model This element developed by Sun et al (2008) for the Beijing Olympics can also be applied to a variety of other infrastructure projects. The model is a site safety risk assessment tool applied in the management of workers safety risk factors inherently common in construction site operations. The model based on critical safety risk factors creates a project risk register using Saaty (2000) AHP or analytic hierarchy process that establishes an evaluation hierarchy, questionnaire for attributes measuring, and weight calculation associated with each attributes. The model is very useful and defines and criteria safe construction and safety objective and identify and prioritize safety risks through a matrix on qualitative risk analysis and risk register, and develops a safety risk assessment model that evaluates construction site risks framework and systematic management tool for common safety risks before, during and after construction site operations. Element #3 Complementary GIS Enterprise framework This element, suggested by Pradhan, Laefer & Rasdorf (2007) provides an effective means to systematic management afore, throughout, and following a disaster. The

authors recommended tool, which can be applied to every community asset, consider managing disaster through the phases of identification, prediction, preparation, mitigation, response, and recovery by adapting the distribution of computing resources, data sharing, and upgrading. This model architecture shows the constructability of such a system, which according to the authors enables governments to be prepared for disasters even before it occurs, when it occurs and after it occurs by integrating the application of a vigorous, well-organized, and safe program information system architecture. Lessons Learned The lessons learned from the three elements selected above are that they provide a robust approach to risk management before construction (environmental and sociocultural issues), during construction (workers safety) and after construction (disaster management). The application of the three elements in infrastructure project management provides a before, during and after risk management scenario that can definitely minimize environmental and workers and community security and safety on future infrastructure projects. Conclusion Infrastructure project is critical to the environment and community therefore requiring a robust and efficient security and safety management system that not only assures safe construction and environment by provides a systematic response to disaster before it occurs, during it occurrence and after the disaster have occurred. One strategic way project managers can manage infrastructure project security and safety is by applying the right planning models that can identify security threats, identify safety threats and overall manage security and safety before, during and after construction operations and minimise the impact on projects.

Pradhan A., Laefer D. and Rasdorf W. (2007) Infrastructure management information system framework requirements for disasters, Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering 21 (2) pp. 90101 Saaty, T. L. (2000) Fundamentals of decision making and priority theory with the analytic hierarchy process, RWS Publications, Pittsburgh Sorvari, J. and Seppala, J. (2010) A decision support tool to prioritize risk management options for contaminated sites, Science of the Total Environment, 408 (8) March, pp. 1786-1799 Sun, Y., Fang, D., Wang, S., Dai, M., and Lv, X. (2008) Safety risk identification and assessment for Beijing Olympic venues construction, Journal of Management in Engineering, 24 (1), pp.40 47