Continental J. Education Research 4 (1): 18 - 27, 2011 ISSN: 2141 - 4181 http://www.wiloludjournal.

com © Wilolud Journals, 2011 ` Printed in Nigeria ANALYSIS OF ADMINISTRATIVE ROLES OF PRINCIPALS IN PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ABA EDUCATION ZONE OF ABIA STATE. Nkwoh Kelechukwu Department of Educational Administrtation and planning, Faculty of Education, Abia State University, Uturu. ABSTRACT The study investigated the administrative roles of private secondary school Principals in Aba education zone of Abia State. It is a survey research and it adopted seven research questions that guided the study. Sample of six hundred and sixteen (616) respondents’ was chosen from group of teachers of schools. The six hundred and sixteen respondents were selected by stratified, random proportionate techniques across Aba education zone of Abia State. A 35 – item questionnaire on principal administrative tasks performance evaluation question (PATPEQ) which was based on Likert’s 4 – point scale - Highly Effective, Effective, Moderately Effective and Not Effective - was used to collect data. The result was analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The result revealed that principals were moderately effective in financial and school business administration, students’ personnel administration, staff personnel administration, instruction and curriculum development and in general tasks. The principals were effective in school-community relation and they were not effective in school plants. Based on the discussions and conclusions, the researcher made some of the following recommendations on the way forward. The selection of principal should be done based on certain criteria which are logical laid down by the state education board and made available to prospective principals. There is need for regular seminars and workshops for private secondary school principals on principals administrative roles, the principals should also be sensitized on how to show concern to staff and build cohesive work groups for the delivery achievement of educational goals. KEYWORDS: PRINICPALS AND ADMINISTRATIVE ROLES: INTRODUCTION: Secondary education occupies a strategic position in the national education system. It bridges the gap between the primary and tertiary levels of education in Nigeria. It absorbs the primary level and prepares them for the tertiary which is the manpower based of the nation. The secondary school is an institution or a human industry established for refining human beings in terms of skills, behavior and all round excellence. To achieve objectives, an efficient and effective administrator must head such an institution. In secondary schools, be it public or private the manager is generally regarded as the principal and in Nigeria he heads the institution. Such a personnel is supposed to have a proven quality and the knowledge to achieve his administrative roles. The private secondary schools in this regard are owned by private individuals and organizations headed by principals. The principals are the custodians and accounting officers of their various schools. Tabotrdip (2005) stated that they undertake all routine activities to accomplish numerous administrative tasks as leaders towards achieving educational objectives for posterity. Igwe (1990) pointed out that principals are the uncompromising leaders of their schools as well as administrators in whose hands lie the future of these institutions. According National Policy of Education; the secondary school system in Nigeria has the following objectives of Education in Nigeria as stipulated in the National Policy on Education, (FRN, 2004) are to: (a) Provide an increasing number of school pupils with opportunity for education of a quality, irrespective of sex, or social, religious and ethnic background. (b) Diversify its curriculum to cater for the differences in talents, opportunities and roles possessed by open to students after their secondary school course.


Nkwoh Kelechukwu: Continental J. Education Research 4 (1): 18 - 27, 2011

(c) (d)

Equip students to live effectively in our modern age of science and technology. Develop and project Nigeria culture, art and languages as well as the world’s cultural heritage. Raise a generation of people who can think more themselves, respect the views and feelings of others, respect the dignity of labour, and appreciate those values specified under our broad national aims, and live as good citizens; foster Nigerian unity with an emphasis on the common ties that unite us in our diversity. Inspire its students with a desire for achievement and self-improvement both at and her later life. In this regard the secondary education occupies a strategic position in the national educational system. This implies that the secondary sector is the bridge between the primary and tertiary sectors. It absorbs the products of primary education and also produces candidates for higher education.



The task to implement in secondary education curriculum which is tailored towards relevant needs of students and the aspirations of the nation rests squarely on the chief executive of the secondary school, who in the Nigerian context is known as the principal. Ozigi (1977), Adesina and Ogundaju (1984) see him as the central figure in the school and the pivot on which all the educational activities in the school revolve. The dilemma faced by the present day Nigeria secondary school principals’ educational accountability leaves a lot of mystery to unravel. With the growth of the secondary schools both in number and an proportion with the population it serves, there has been a parallel increase in growth in the authority and responsibility of the principal. Hence, the principal as the chief executive of schools has multifarious tasks to accomplish for successful administration of the school system. He needs to play an effective and efficient leadership role in order to enable him influence the individual and groups in the organizational goals. The principal manages the human and non – human resources, presides over a complex network of interpersonal relationships to keep and maintain high quality of committed personnel through a complete network of interpersonal relationships. Furthermore, he may flare up the interest and concern of the subordinates to raise their productivity and participation. This will lead to peace and unity affecting a conducive atmosphere of industrial harmony and industrial success. Peretomode (1995) posits that it is a critical responsibility of the principal to direct and control the activities of the human and non- human resources in order to achieve educational goals and objectives. The present system of secondary education in Nigeria poses a lot of new and additional challenges to the secondary school principal. To meet these challenges, the school administrator will have to equip himself with the knowledge, skills and attitude which will make him proficient in his administrative and professional duties and help him achieve the goals of the institutions. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This discusses review of related literature organized under the following sub-headings which include; i. Theoretical framework ii. Prinicpalship iii. Concept of evaluation and administrative roles of principals iv. Professional Training in Educational Administration and Principals administrative roles v. Job Experience and Principals Administrative roles vi. Empirical studies on principal’s performance. vii. Summary of literature review.


Nkwoh Kelechukwu: Continental J. Education Research 4 (1): 18 - 27, 2011

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This section is concerned with conceptualizing the theoretical context in which the investigation is rooted. The system theory is therefore considered most relevant to this study. This systems theory was formulated in 1920 by Bertalanffy in Nwankwo (1982) and Okunamiri (1998). The system was seen as a series of interrelated and interdependent parts in such a way that the interaction of any part of the system affects the whole system. That is, one part of the system must interact and depend on the other parts around it to function effectively. The system theory is relevant to education system because education system (school) is a system and the concept of interaction and interdependence of parts with the education system like all other social systems has identical properties with the other system. The schools are looked at in terms of social system as complex interactive examined structurally and operationally (Getzels, Lipham and Campbel; 1968:52). It is of immense help to this project work as the principal reflects in the objectives and functions, the ultimate goal of the educational system in which they operate. The principal as the administrator represents a crucial component of the social system. This implies that the principal as the chief executive of the school deals with people at all times and is bound to get along with them. For the principal perform his administrative role very well, he is expected to ensure that he exhibits the qualities required of him so as to achieve secondary school objectives and goals as stipulated in the National Policy (FRN, 2004). This brings to the limelight the ideas of principal’s administrative performance. It contends that when special attention is given, the principals do their works very well and productivity is likely to be high. PRINCIPALSHIP Administration in education implies the arrangement of human and material resources available in education and using them systematically for the achievement of educational objectives. Encyclopedia of Education (1992) posits that the title of principal is an appropriate designation for the chief administration of a school. Udoh and Akpa (2001) refer to the principal as the executive head of a secondary school. The early school principalship was given to any teacher found to possess some sign of demonstrable administrative ability. A teacher with academic qualifications and the right type of personality could be appointed the administrative head in addition to full – time teaching duty. Many of such principals were preoccupied with such takes as scheduling, attendance taking; reporting etc. the idea of a principal serving as a teacher as well as an administrator continues today in small urban communities and most rural areas. Ukeje (1992). As school became more complex, the principal was relieved at least some part of the teaching duties. Aderounmu and Ehiametalor (1985:94) maintained that in Nigeria schools the principalship has evolved from the position and performance of teachers. Hence, the title of principal usually refers to the head of a secondary school or a post-primary institution. The secondary school principal’s office had now been transformed into a sort of a midway station between the educational policy makers and the staff and students. The principal as the administrator guides controls and provides leadership in a way that supports the aims and objectives of secondary school education as stated in the National Policy on Education. (FRN, 2004). The secondary education needs a lot of changes and the school principal is likely to be the key agent that such changes are introduced and sustained. He is responsible for the smooth running of the school. His challenge therefore, is to ensure that all children reach the levels of academic achievements. This he achieves by setting instructional methods for the attainment of school goals. The principal must possess certain qualities to reach the acme of success. An effective and efficient principal must be a learning officer, a coach, an architect and ideal person, a leader of leaders and a teacher. Principal as Chief Learning Officer of School. Business organizations have a chief executive officer (CEO), a chief financial officer (CFO), and a chief learning officer (CLO) among other titles.


Nkwoh Kelechukwu: Continental J. Education Research 4 (1): 18 - 27, 2011

In the school, the principal serves as the chief learning officer (CLO), he is the instructional leader, open to new learning even when that learning challenges his strong held beliefs. He must model the behaviours he wants to see in others talking about teaching and learning, attending seminars, reading constantly and encouraging the school to do so. As the primary function of a school is teaching, the most important duty of a school principal as the chief learning officer (CLO) is to plan and coordinate teaching and learning activities. Austin (1979) sees principal as those who discharge this function very well and are often found to be characterized by strong participation in the planning, monitoring and evaluation of the instructional programme. Being the chief learning officer requires building a culture of motivation where every one is involved in action and constantly collecting, analyzing and interpreting data for continues improvement. According to Valentine (1987), the function of instructional programme provides insight into the ability of principals to serve as educational leaders of schools through active involvement, instructional leadership and curriculum development. A proper curriculum development can be achieved if the chief learning officer helps the school and staff overcome their fears of failure and grapple with the difficult problems rather than easy problems. The researcher in the process of this work discovers that it is in school we first learn to avoid difficult tasks; Ogunsaju (1982) advised that Nigerian principals should learn to use their position to create an atmosphere to the release of human potentials. CONCEPT OF EVALUATION AND ADMINISTRATIVE ROLES OF PRINCIPALS. Evaluation is an appraisal or assessment of behavior or action with a view to determine worth or value. Ozigi (1977:84) sees evaluation as meaning appraising or determine the extent of success or failure in respect to the achievement of set objectives. Evaluation is taken to refer to judgment. Evaluation as here understood, is important in human activity as it helps to determine strengths and weaknesses. Hitherto, the view is that the role of the principal is vital to the achievement of objectives of the secondary school. Olivia (1976) states that feedback from the ‘troops’ is the best way to find out whether or not the practitioner is actually accomplishing the mission. The teachers are in a real sense the consumers of the administrative product, which the principal bring on the school. They are in the best position to judge whether that product is effective. In the view of Goldhammer (1980:176), the most telling mark of any practitioner’s commitment and fitness to perform professional work is the readiness to have such work examined and critiqued by other competent workers. The usefulness of such examination of the principalship role cannot be doubted. Ukeje (1992:130) describes roles as the image held for an individual’s relational behaviours when that individual is operating in a particular position. Role describes a set of expectations that people in the organization have of an individual in his or her job. The organizational set up of a secondary school has the principal at the top of the organigram. He is the leader and the administrator of the school and as such performs different function at different times at all of which are aimed at the development of the students. Nosiri (1997:41) posited the activities of principal as decision making, planning, organizing, coordinating, communicating and evaluating. The principal as an administrative leader is responsible for the general management of the school and coordination of all activities in the school. FUNCTIONS AND ROLES OF THE SCHOOL PRINCIPAL The principal as the chief executive of schools has multifarious tasks to accomplish for successful administration of the school system. Several authors describe the functions and roles of the school principal. Ozigi (1997:11-12) describes the functions and roles of the school principal as ‘head teacher, principal, leader of the school, school father adviser, chief administrative executive, public relation officer, curriculum director, innovator, policy maker, organizer, communicator, school authority educator, perfectionist and philosopher. In the same vein, Ezeocha (1992) sees the functions of the principal as supervision of instructions, curriculum development, aid


Nkwoh Kelechukwu: Continental J. Education Research 4 (1): 18 - 27, 2011

evaluation, school community relations, and management of school finance, staff and student personnel administration. Rollins et al (1954) posits that the principal is standard setter, one who leads in the development of an aspiration and expectation on the part of both teachers and pupils to do good work. He assists the teachers with their problems of improving methods, materials and evaluation and thus provides a good measure of quality control. Principals can help teachers improve their testing techniques and develop their ability to analyze and interpret data. The principal as an administrator needs to posses certain administrative skills to effectively perform his duty. Several studies have discussed the administrative roles of principals. (Iheukwumere 2006:2) stated that within the secondary school system, the principal stands out as the chief executive of the school, he is also the school administrator, the instructional leader, the personnel manager for both the pupils (students) and staff personnel. The principal is also the finance and physical facility manager. The principal is expected to maintain a good relationship with the immediate community and also ensure a continuous contact with the ministry of education in the area in which the school is situated. There are several categories of administrative task areas in school system. There are pupil personnel, staff personnel, instruction and curriculum development, school finance and business management, school plant and other general tasks. (Gorton 1983) Several other people made their contributions which are outlined below: Lipham and Hoeh (1990:20) outlined five functions of school administration; thus i. Staff personnel administration ii. Student personnel administration iii. Finance and physical resources and iv. School community relationship management Nwagwu, Aderonme and Ehiametalor (1985:15) explained that educational administrators concern themselves with four issues and functions which include the following i. The procurement, training, maintenance, development evaluation and remuneration of personnel. ii. The determination and implementation of the instructional programme. iii. The operation of educational business in all its ramification (Resources, Finance etc) and iv. The establishment and maintenance of good public relations. Ezeocha (1990) viewed the roles of principals as: i. Supervision of instruction ii. Curriculum development aid evaluation iii. School community relations. iv. Staff personnel administration v. student personnel administration vi. Management of school finances and vii. Management of school physical facilities. In this study, the researcher will limit the administrative roles performance of the principal as relates in: i. student personnel administration ii. Staff personnel administration iii. School – community relation iv finance v. school business administration vi. School plants and vii. General tasks PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND PRINCIPALS ADMINISTRATIVE ROLES. Educational administrators who manage secondary schools are called principals. Ezeocha (1991:5) sees him as the first citizen of the institution, the head of school family, the custodian of the school culture, the mirror of the school motto, the architect of the school psyche, and the first among equals in the tutorial team.


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Principals supervise, support staff, teachers, counselors, librarians and other employees. They handle relations with parents, prospective and current students, employers and the community. Some studies have been carried out on the professional training and the principal’ administrative roles. JOB EXPERIENCE AND PRINCIPALS ADMINISTRATIVE ROLES Most principals usually have held teaching positions before moving into administration. Others first become assistant principals, central office administration, and academic deans or gains experience in other administrative jobs either at school or district level in positions such as department head, curriculum specialist or subject matter advisors. Those new-to-posts according to bullock, James and Jamieson (1995) often face the difficult challenge of being expected to display their administrative roles without adequate situation situational knowledge or specific knowledge of the people with whom they have to work. Despite the potentials of experience in effective administration of secondary schools, it needs to be pointed out that experience sometimes has adverse effect resulting in lack of initiative. EMPIRICAL STUDIES OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE ROLE OF THE PRINCIPAL The school can regarded as a social society consisting of inputs process and outputs. The school process variables include all variable that come into constant flux and change as the inputs being processed. The need then arose for someone to coordinate the activities of the school by supervising the other teachers in an effort to improve educational instruction. According to Nwagwu (1978:91), this person often the oldest but usually the most experienced teacher on the staff often got appointed as the principal. SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW Literature was reviewed by first presenting a theoretical framework on which the study is rooted. In this regards, the system’s theory is presented as the bedrock upon which the upon which the present rock is rooted. System’s theory viewed the school system as a social organization made up of sub-systems or components that are inter-related in operation, to bring about the achievement of the system’s objectives and goals. The concept of evaluation and role of principals was highlighted; qualities of effective principals were discussed. The concept of the administrative roles of a principal was also highlighted. The various categories of administration task areas in school system were also pointed out. They were identified as pupils personnel, staff personnel, school finance and business management, school plants and other general tasks. Specifically, empirical studies on principal’s performance in relation to their roles were reviewed. Professional training in educational administration and job experience in relation to principal’s roles were also discussed. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter describes the procedures used in this study. It discusses the research methodology, and is organized under the sub headings which include the research design, the area of the study, and the population of the study, sample and sampling techniques. It also discusses the instrument for data collection, its development, and administration of instrument, method of data collection and method and technique of data analysis. RESEARCH DESIGN This study employed as a survey research to analyze “the Administrative Roles of Government Approved Private Secondary School Principals in Aba Education Zone in Abia State. The study was a survey being an investigation into the status quo. Mouly (1979) posits that surveys are inquires into the status quo. AREA OF THE STUDY The study is carried out in Aba Education Zone of Abia State. Aba Education Zone is made up of nine Local Government Areas namely Aba North, Aba South, Isiala Ngwa North, Isiala Ngwa South, Obi Ngwa, Osisioma, Ukwa East, Ukwa West and Ugwunabo.


Nkwoh Kelechukwu: Continental J. Education Research 4 (1): 18 - 27, 2011

POPULATION OF THE STUDY The target population is 1309 respondents from seventy seven (77) schools out of the 254 government approved private secondary schools in Aba Education Zone of Abia State. The Population was made up of seventy seven (77) principals that have served for three consecutive academic sessions and one thousand two hundred and thirty two (1232) teachers serving under the principals from those seventy seven (77) schools from the local government areas in Aba Education Zone of Abia State. Table 1shows the distribution of the population according to the education zones. Table 1: DISTRIBUTION OF THE PRICNIPALS AND TEACHERS POPULATION. Local Government No. of Secondary No. of duty No. of Area. schools Principals teachers 1. Aba North 14 14 190 2. Aba South 14 14 180 3. Osisioma Ngwa 14 14 172 4. Isiala Ngwa South 8 8 150 5. Obi Ngwa 6 6 140 6. Isiala Ngwa North 4 4 120 7. Ukwa East 5 5 110 8. Ukwa West 9 9 90 9. Ugwunabo 3 3 80 Total 77 77 1232 Source: Planning, research and statistics department, Aba Education zones S/N

Total 204 194 186 158 146 124 115 99 83 1309

SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES A random sample technique was used to select respondents from the zone to obtain 50% of the population and it came up to a total of 655 respondents, 39 principals and 616 teachers from the target population (Table 2. Tabble 2: DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE Local Government No. of No. of Area. Principal Sample 1. Aba North 14 7 2. Aba South 14 7 3. Osisioma Ngwa 14 7 4. Isiala Ngwa South 8 4 5. Obi Ngwa 6 3 6. Isiala Ngwa North 4 2 7. Ukwa East 5 2.5 8. Ukwa West 9 5 9. Ugwunabo 3 1.5 Total 77 39 S/N

No. of teachers 190 180 172 150 140 120 110 90 80 1232

No. of Sample 95 90 93 79 73 62 57.5 50 40 616

Total 102 97 93 79 73 62 57.5 50 41.5 655

METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS The questionnaire was divided into seven sections reflecting the seven research requisitions. All the responses made to the items in each section were tallied according to their values. For the research questions, the responses were grouped according to each group of respondents. The responses for all the members in a group were tallied and weighted. Then, the frequencies, the mean and the standard deviation were obtained and used to answer the research question. It was Highly Effective, if it had a mean score of 4.0 and above on the four point rating scale. Effective, if it had a score is 2 points is Not Effective.


Nkwoh Kelechukwu: Continental J. Education Research 4 (1): 18 - 27, 2011

CONCLUSION Based on the result of the study, it is established that i. The level of administrative role displayed by private secondary school principals in Aba Education zone of Abia State were moderately effective in students personnel administration, staff personnel administration, instruction and curriculum development, school business administration and general task. ii. The principals are effective in school – community relation in Aba education zone of Abia state. iii. The students have been seen as a central focus whereby activity in the school is geared towards improving them in character and in learning. The principal being a central figure in the school pivots the school activities and makes progress in attaining educational goals. Thus principalship should be seen as the best profession. IMPLICATION TO THE RESESARCH The result of the study discussed and interpreted above have far-reaching implications for educational practices in private secondary schools as summed below i. The results of the study have shown that private secondary school principals are highly effective in school community relation. ii. The finding shows that private secondary school principals are moderately effective in staff personnel administration and student personnel administration and there is need for principals to employ staff and able bodied men to the school staff so that the school goals would be accomplished. The principals should also provide guidance and counseling services adequately to the students for proper attainment of school goals. iii. The findings in the administrative roles of private secondary school principals in instruction and curriculum development suggests the need for the principals to provide for the supervision of instruction and to stimulate curriculum development. iv. Another implication of the finding of the study is that the private secondary school principals need to acquire administrative skills necessary for their roles through experience and training. LIMITATION TO THE RESEARCH The study suffers limitations owing to the fact that it relied solely on the perception of teachers. The main data collecting techniques was questionnaire. Some of the questionnaire items were not completely filled. This resulted in the use of 574 questionnaires instead of 616 for data analysis in the appropriate areas of the study. There was problem of validity. In a survey questionnaire study of this nature, there is no way of determining whether or not the subjects are honestly expressing what they perceived in actual life situation. However, an appeal was made to the respondents to respond to the questions personally and objectively. SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER RESEARCH It is suggested that the study be replicated in other states of the federation to ascertain the status quo. Research should be conducted into the constraint or factors militating against supervision of instruction by the principals. Further research could be undertaken with increase sample size to generalize the findings of this study. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the findings of this study and its educational implications, the following recommendations are made: i. The selection of principal should be based on certain criteria or principals which are logically laid down by the state education board and made available to prospective principals.


Nkwoh Kelechukwu: Continental J. Education Research 4 (1): 18 - 27, 2011

ii. The school should be provided with principals who possess the fundamental philosophy of human relationships which are obviously essential in supervisions of teachers with varying years of iii. experience and varying years of professional and also in attracting community agencies that will improve the school. iii. The principal should undergo training to improve their administrative skills; regular seminars and workshops should be organized for incumbent principals targeted at sensitizing them to their administrative skills on how they should create good school climate. iv. The principals should also be sensitized on how to show concern to staff and build cohesive work groups. They should carry their staff along and be in good rapport with them. This suggestion is necessary for the fact that conducive organizational climate is a sine qua non quality education. v. Instruction and curriculum should be reviewed periodically for good planning and obsolete instruction should be updated for administrative delivery of educational goals. vi. The principal should always account for school financial and business administration periodically and also implement plans for the orderly growth and improvement of school plants facilities. REFERENCES Adebayo, A. (1981). Principals and Practice of Public Administration in Nigeria. Ibadan: Spectrum Book Ltd. Adereoumuo, Ehiametalor and Nwagwu (1985). Introduction to Administration of Schools in Nigeria. Ibadan: Evans Brothers (Nigeria Publishers) Ltd. All Nigerian Conference of Principals of Secondary Schools (ANCOPSS). Suggested solutions to issues of cultism in Post – Primary institutions.. Journal of All Nigerian Conference of Principals of Secondary Schools. Lagos. 5(11),, 26 – 28. Anukam, I.L, Okunamiri P. O. and Ogbonna R.N.O (2008). Educational Management, Owerri Chinashop Publisher. Austin, G. (1979). Exemplary schools and the search for effectiveness. Journal of Educational Vol.37 (1), 10 – 14. Leadership.

Belloh, K., James, C., and Jamieson, J. (1995). “An exploratory Study of Novice and Experts in Educational Management”. Educational Management and Administration. Boston, Allyn and Bacon Inc. Cooker, A.C (1956). Statistics for Teachers. London, Butter and Tanner Ltd. Doma, D. (1999). A study of Administrative performance of primary School Headmasters in Three Critical Task Areas in Okene Local Government Area, Kogi State. Journal of Studies in General Education. 2(1) 26 – 33. Ezeocha, P. A. (1990). Educational Administration and Planning. Enugu: Optimal Computer Solution Ltd. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National Policy on Education. Lagos: Federal Government Press. Gold Hammer et al (1980:176). Clinical Supervision. Special Method for the Supervision of Teachers. New York: Holt, Rinchart and Winston. Igwe, S. O. (1990). Professional Handbook for Teachers. Owerri. New African Publishers. Lipham and Hoeh (1990:25), The Principalship and Functions. New York: Harper and Row Publishers.


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Ogbonna R. N. O. (2005). Analysis of Wastage Among first Year Students in Abia State University Uturu, Unpublished PhD Thesis. Abia State University Uturu. Olivia, P. (1976). Supervision for Today’s Schools. New York: Thomas Y Cromwell Co. Ozigi, A. O (1977:84). A Handbook on School Administration and Management. London: Macmillian Education Ltd. Received for Publication: 07/05/2011 Accepted for Publication: 10/06/2011


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