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NAME: GUPTESHWARI SAHU BRANCH/ SEM: COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING/ 8TH SEM A

SUBJECT: SOFTWARE PROJECT MANAGEMENT


ROLL NO. : 3032209029(21) COLLEGE: C.S.I.T. DURG.

ASSIGNMENT -1 Essential Elements for Software Project Management


Project Management is defined as the overall planning, co-ordination and control of a project from inception to completion aimed at meeting a clients requirements in order to produce a functionally and financially viable project that will be completed on time within authorized cost and to the required quality standards. The 12 essentials elements for effective project management are briefly described and discussed, as follows : 1. The Client and its Objectives and Priorities: The first essential element in effective project management is to have a good understanding of the client, its objectives and priorities for its organization and project, specifically. Whether the client is from private or public sector, each client has its own organization and project objectives. The former objectives can include profit margin, growth/expansion, strategic alliance, etc. it is important to know and understand clearly the clients requirements and priorities. Whilst some clients may place Priority on aesthetic or prestige, early or timely completion or price certainty, others may place emphasis on build ability or flexibility to accommodate changes during construction and/or operation of the eventual completed building or facility. 2. Project Nature and Characteristics: A detailed appraisal and understanding of the nature and characteristics of the project is crucial as every project exhibits different nature and characteristics. This is the second essential element in effective project management. For example, large and complex projects such as airports, involve various unique assemblies and complications due to the high level of services and specialist input, making co-ordination and knowledge of such works of paramount importance. Consequently, there should be emphasis on selection of a contractor or builder who has the knowledge and experience to provide the input and expertise by partaking in the pre-construction stage to ensure build ability and proper co-ordination of the works amongst the many parties involved rather than only during the construction stage. 3. Project Risks: The third essential element is to have a proper and structured appraisal and management of project risks. Risk as a combination of the probability, or frequency,of occurrence of a defined hazard and the magnitude of the consequences of the occurrence. Risks could stem from bad ground and weather conditions, inadequate design and construction documentation, lack of resources and/or skills/expertise, poor planning, monitoring and/or control and lack of teamwork and communication. The effects arising from these risks if not properly managed may include disruption and delays to the construction works, budget and costs exceeded, poor quality and standard of works, damage to plant/equipment and/or injury to construction personnel and contractual or technical disputes. Then, the management of the risks appraised, which involves: Planning and allocation of the risks appraised (the planning and control) i.e. to avoid, transfer, share, reduction and acceptance. Monitoring and feedback of the actual risks occurrences (the monitoring and feedback) i.e. recording, checking, verifying, comparing, and reporting.

4. Project Team: The fourth essential element is in the selection of a suitable project team, both for design and construction. The Project Manager plays the all-important role to lead and manage the project team towards successful project completion. His or her duties will vary depending upon the clients experience and requirements for the project. An effective Project Manager, usually a suitably qualified professional, must be competent enough to plan, organize, coordinate, monitor and control the project. His major task in project management is predominantly about leading, managing, delegating and motivating the project team and the workforce, in addition to advising his/her Client and liaison with other relevant parties in connection with the project. The Project Manager needs to select or give advice on the selection of a suitable project team for the project. In selecting the team for design and construction, several factors such as selection criteria and its process, scope of services/works, commitments, responsibilities, experience , teamwork, communication, action plan, etc need to be assessed and considered properly. The selection process will be very much governed by the type of building procurement system to be used for the project. 5. Building Procurement System: The fifth essential element to effective project management is to ensure the use of a suitable procurement system in managing the construction process. The building procurement systems include traditional/conventional, management contracting, design and build/ construct , project management, package deal or turnkey, etc. Each system exhibits its own characteristics and benefits/ disbenefits. 6. Contractual Arrangement: The use of a suitable contractual arrangement, which is the contractual and legal framework for the construction process is the sixth essential element to successful project management. The contractual arrangement leading to contract documentation establishes the contractual rights, obligations, responsibilities and liabilities of the contracting parties. Such arrangement or documentation includes contract based on bills of quantities, drawings and specification, schedule of rates, cost reimbursement, design and build, etc. In selecting a suitable contractual arrangement, various factor s such as the elements described previously, plus change in requirements, design completeness, cost fluctuations, etc., need to be considered accordingly, instead of merely using a standard forms of contract. 7. Organisation Structure: Organisation structure is about framework, hierarchy, authority, control, rules, procedures, formal relationships, for the people in the organisation and/or the project. This seventh essential element, which is a suitable organisation structure, allows effective and efficient communication channels to take place and be capable of adapting to the project environment and changes. Any structure adopted, be it functional, project or matrix organisation can affect the project teamwork, work efficiencies and the eventual project outcome. Each type of organisation structure has its own benefits/disbenefits. Criteria such as clear objectives and priorities, policies and procedures, roles and responsibilities, flexible work structure, people relations, motivational issues, leadership, teamwork, capacity to change, performance, etc need to be properly considered when choosing a suitable organisation structure for the construction project. 8. Planning: All successful projects do not happen without proper planning. Effective planning is an essential element in project management. In todays construction projects, too much emphasis has been placed on sophisticated planning tools and scheduling programmes rather than whether they are suitable and appropriate for the project concern. Indeed, the CIOB Code of Practice4 commented that There is a wide range of project

management software packages available, however there is not a single package which is ideal for projects and budgets. Notwithstanding, the use of bar charts and critical path methods are still common in the construction industry. 9. Monitoring and Control Systems: The ninth essential element is to maintain effective monitoring and control systems, which are capable of identifying and responding to changes to ensure project objectives can be met. Proper monitoring and control systems enable timely provision of information/details, smooth progress of works, costs within the budget, identification of changes /variations , timely supervision, testing and inspection of works, etc. 10. Information Recording and Retrieval Systems: This is an essential element concerned with maintaining proper information recording and retrieval systems. Good records are like snapshots of the events or actions taken at the particular moment, often referred to as contemporaneous records. And, good retrieval systems are like going into a library to find the information required. Going back to basics, records such as tender/contract documents, drawings register, correspondence files, programmes, progress reports, site diaries, instructions, day works, claims, etc should always be up-to-date and maintained, properly. The use of ICT software in systematically organizing, recording and retrieval of the said documents have reduced the time taken to undertake such tasks, effectively and efficiently. 11. Managing Change: The eleventh essential element involves effective change management to ensure that changes are properly introduced/ordered and effectively monitored and controlled. Change occurs not only in organisations, but also in projects. According to the CIOB Code of Practice, change in a construction project is any incident, event, decision or anything else that affects any of the following: The scope, objectives, requirements or brief of the project. The value (including project cost and whole life cost) of the project. The time milestones (including design, construction, occupation). Risk allocation and mitigation. Working of the project team (internally or externally). Any project process at any project phases. All construction projects go through a progressive transformation from inception to the assembly of raw materials, components and elements under often different environment into its planned outcome. Indeed, projects are the engine of change. In undergoing such transformation, changes, both internal ly and externally, desirable or not, may be inevitable. Change therefore needs to be managed, effectively if the project is to be successful. The said Code lists the change management process as: Identification of requirement for change. Evaluation of change. Consideration of implications and impact including risks. Preparation of change order. Review of change order client decision stage. Implementation of change. Feedback including causes of change.

12. Commercial/Business and Human Relations: Emphasis on the importance of good commercial/business and human relations is the twelfth and final essential element, if not most important element, in effective project management to achieve excellence and success in managing construction projects. Commercial or business relations is about fostering business links/ relations and communication with other organisations. Human relations is about understanding and fostering of interpersonal relationships with another individual or group. For human relations to be effective and harmonious, criteria such as people selection, team commitments, meeting organisation and project objectives, sharing common objectives and values, motivational issues, improvements and skills development need to be taken into account seriously. Failure to manage the construction project effectively and amicably can lead to problems such as disputes or conflicts and the contracting parties may end up in arbitration or court proceedings to resolve their disputes. Not all contractually or legally correct action is commercially right. Neither is commercially sound decision contractually wrong. Whilst it is important to know and understand the contractual rights, responsibilities, powers and liabilities, it does not necessarily mean that every contract provision must be followed and enforced in the strictest sense. To go down the contractual route usually means having to rely on the provisions expressed/implied under the contract i.e. needing to work or resolve matters within the ambit of the contract. This is known . to be as the hard approach. To go down the commercial route virtually opens up a wider and borderless scope for negotiation and settlement of the disputes/ conflicts without/par tly relying on contractual/legal route. This is called the soft approach. Neither approach should be followed to the extreme. There is a need to strike a balance between contractual and commercial routes to ensure the successful outcome of a construction project, which essentially means to be able to achieve a win-win outcome for all the parties involved in the construction project. In this regard, Partnering, which promotes win-win solutions, has been adopted at the outset of construction projects in many countries.