by Marc Reisner New York Penguin Books
Book Report Environmentalist and author Marc Reisner's book Cadillac Desert, originally published in 1986 spurred nationwide awareness of water conservation issues. His book is on the Modern Library list of the 100 most important non-fiction books of the twentieth century. Cadillac Desert is a social history of the politics of water in the United States and the environmental destruction wreaked by dams. It is a brilliant exposition of how water was delivered to the deserts of the West through political chicanery, especially pork belly legislation and wars between the Bureau of Reclamation and the Corp of Engineers. The warnings of John Wesley Powell and the disappearance of the Hohokam civilization were all ignored by those engaged in rampant irrigation and dam building. Reisner's story of delivery of water to Los Angeles through the sheer force of William Mulholland, the chief of the Los Angeles Water Department, is a fascinating piece of history. Bribery, subterfuge and spies are all part of the account not only in the delivery of water to southern California from the Colorado River over 600 miles away, but the ensuing explosion of population it brought to that area. In 1993 a revised edition was published including an afterword by Reisner. He was reassured to find that the era of massive dam building was at an end and foresaw the future struggle to be between the urban water and agricultural lobbyists. 'Forty years ago, only a handful of heretics, howling at the wilderness, challenged the notion that the west needed hundreds of new dams. Today they are almost vindicated. There is more talk of deconstruction than of construction of minor dams demolished, of big dams made environmentally sound, of marginal acreage retired and water returned to its source of flows bypassing turbines to flush salmon and steelhead to sea. ...The region's population is growing and, in places, exploding. (California has added seven million people since Melones Dam.) More people need more water and power and food. Asia sends its surplus population to California and the Northwest; the Mexican border is porous as a sieve.'
Reisner appears to be connecting water issues with those of population. It is too bad he did not articulate the dangers of over population as he so skillfully delineated the waste of water through highly subsidized agricultural irrigation. Reisner was interviewed by the National Resources Defense Council in 1997, three years before his death, and was asked, “What was the most worrisome environmental problem?" He replied, 'Over population. There isn't any other problem that approaches it in seriousness. We have far too many people already. We can't possibly sustain the number of people we have on the planet today without completely gobbling up the whole resource base on which all of us depend. My wife and I have just replaced ourselves and we did it pretty late in life, so we have got a leg up there. But the idea of India surpassing a population of one billion is frightening. And the idea of the United States becoming a country of a half a billion people - that's foreseeable given rising birth rates and heavy immigrant pressure - is even worse Americans use resources at a much greater rate than elsewhere in the world.' If only he could have lived to produce a classic like Cadillac Desert on the population crisis.
Reviews Fly over the prairie states of America and you will see clusters of dark circles like tiny coins on the ground far below. Each circle is a field of crops, half a mile in diameter, irrigated by a rotating arm from a single well. In the past the land's thin grass fed wandering herds of buffalo. Now the grain exports from this area are vital for financing America's imports and are a major contributor to feeding the growing world population. The transformation is a miracle of modern agriculture. Underneath seven states lies the biggest aquifer in the world. It was created when water from melting glaciers seeped into gravel at the end of the last ice age and has been there ever since. It was found in the 1920s but water extraction only really got under way in the 1960s. Four to six feet are now pumped out each year and nature puts back just half an inch. For how long can this go on? It could last five years, it could last thirty, no one knows. The farmers of the area once believed that the breadbasket they had developed was too valuable for the country to lose and the government would come to their aid when the waters dried up – the government had, after all, provided many massive water projects elsewhere. So they did nothing to economise when 'putting water to good use'. But their hopes are fading. The dust bowl that devastated the area in the 1930s is likely to return. While Mark Reisner’s authoritative book deals with exploitation of the aquifer, it is largely a detailed history of water projects in the American West. River water that was once lost to the ocean now provides electricity, municipal water for cities and irrigation for agriculture. Desert states like California are habitable only because of these projects. He points out, however, that all but one of the great civilisations of the past which depended on irrigation was ultimately destroyed by salivation. Egypt was the sole exception because the Nile's annual flood washed surface salts out to sea – but the Aswan dam has changed that.
Marc Reisner’s Cadillac Desert is such a revisionist history.S. to show how the American need to control the environment has affected (and still does affect) the ecological welfare of national resources. Such events included the Lewis and Clark Expedition. dependence on dams and aqueducts. but of the construction of a heavily subsidized and tremendously expensive ‘‘hydraulic society. Army Corps of Engineers. and ultimately harmful. Cadillac Desert was placed sixty-first on the Modern Library list of the most notable nonfiction English books of the twentieth century. In 1999. New historians of the American West have been employing a political environmentalism to develop an environmental history. His focus on the creation of infrastructure to support Western settlement exposes a history.
. in their attempts to transform the nature of the American West. Reisner also describes the rivalry between two governmental powers. the Bureau of Reclamation and the U. as well as the corruption behind these developments. Reisner’s book has inspired an entire generation of historians and historically aware environmental activists. not of rugged individualism and romantic cowboys. The year it was published. as Americans pursue the ideal of taming the Great American Desert. and the Homestead Act of 1862.’’ founded on and maintained by the greed and competitiveness that is behind the American Dream. which has led to a number of revisionist approaches to American West narratives.Synopsis Historians of the West have typically focused on events that opened the great landscape of the American Desert to settlers. The author focuses on the relentless building of dams and irrigation systems. Reisner examines the West’s ecologically dangerous. wars with the Indians of the Great Plains. Reisner’s book became a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award.
dealer of drugs. who encourage him to be a member of a brotherhood with the lead of Professor Hortenso. is graduated and ready to study college in Manila. In spite of the money shortage Pepe spend his money for watching and eating on his first week in Manila instead of saving it and find a good university with cheap tuition fee so in the end he landed at Diploma Mill University in Recto where he met his first friend and classmate Toto. After Pepe quit the job of being a drug pusher he also then ends his relationship with Lucy and lives in Tondo with Toto. who since child didn't know the existence and name of his father.Mass
F. Augusto Salcedo. While staying in Antipolo. In Tondo. and got his first relationship with her without the knowledge of their companions the and only who one knows it is their neighborhood Mila who has a relationship with Nick. he discovers form his aunt and uncle that his true father is his uncle. Here Pepe also met Lucy the housemaid of his aunt and uncle. Jose Samson. Sionil Jose
Book Report Pepe. was raised alone by her mother together with his Aunt Bettina in Cabugawan experience a poorly living in their barrio and since child dreamed of having a good life and live in the city now has a reason and takes a step in achieving his dream for after spending nine years in elementary and six years in high school now Pepe. he met many faces like Father Jesus. also known as Father Jess who is the one in charge in Tondo and the one who support the
. The brotherhood aims for freedom and good living for the masses and with some well said initiatives to Pepe he joins the group. which later on influence Pepe to be a drug pusher for it can bring him so much money but it didn't last for one week because Pepe's so afraid to its possible consequences. When Pepe arrive in Manila he go to Antipolo and stay with his Aunt Betty and Uncle Bert as what his Aunt Bettina reminds him to save money for they were only poor and save little money for his study. Antonio Samson the famous writer but he also knows that his father didn't know that he was his son. which is a known history professor.
and without the knowledge of them Pepe were listening on the other line and understood their conversation. he reminiscence his childhood life with his mother and the barrio then they go back quickly to the city after the burial. Not so long while Pepe's on the way home to Tondo. After that first demo. But in the end they released him and get him in jailed for days. In Tondo.study of Toto. Then the brotherhood made their first demo. In the brotherhood. Professor Hortenso and Toto influence Pepe to run as President of their class and be a Student Government and again with flowery words of benefits to Pepe he agrees to run on the election and he won effortless. And on Pepe's anger while they were shooting. one's he knows as Doris as being one of his customer when he's a drug pusher. and on the middle of it they suddenly encountered one of the worst experiences they have. Pepe also become a sacristan in the church like Toto. whom also a member of the brotherhood and also present in the rally. Toto's crush and whom Pepe's new love interest. firing of gun begun and chaos exist and on that time Toto's been shot and was death-on-arrival in the hospital. On that seminar they got time to know each other well and develop their relationship deep and where she invited Pepe to come in the celebration of her birthday. he aimed the gun to Puneta and shoot it then leave the gun to Puneta's hand and go back to Tondo
. the helper of Father Jess. who volunteered to come. and Lily. And in the burial he met one of the brotherhood's members. Roger. On the party he met Betsy's friends. And while Pepe's situation in Manila's not so good his Auntie Bettina came in Tondo to tell him that his mother already passed away and he must came back to Cabugawan for the burial. and parents whom obviously dislike him. Pepe attend one seminar at Tagaytay where he met Betsy de Jesus. When he's back in Tondo he must now say goodbye to Betsy for she will now live in America but she promised to Pepe that she will come back for him.Tayo gang. the leader of Tayo. Ka Lucio. the rally. Only Pepe and Juan are on the house and while Puneta is teaching Pepe to shoot someone called in the telephone. Going back to his hometown along with father Jess. the killings of Ka Lucio and that they are planning more evil works on the brotherhood. he was been kidnapped and experienced hardship to the doings that he didn't done and known in the brotherhood. an ex-HUK commander. they also influence the barrio to join in their brotherhood as well as the member of the Tayo-Tayo gang. He heard that Puneta is behind the chaos in the first demo. When Betsy's gone Pepe was bugging by Juan Puneta and was invited one time to go to his house and practice shooting. Tia Nena. The call seems so important that Puneta ask the caller to call again where Puneta will answer it on the extension line on his room. the well-known Juan Puneta whom Lily suspected as gay.
At the time the novel was written (1982). not only in the their Barrio Cabugawan but also in Manila where he had entered a number of demeaning jobs such as "torero" (male prostitute).
In Mass. yet their "false consciousness" has always been strong. no one dares to speak. Also. we see a different F. Even the writer of
. so to speak. They have been living in their decayed life with their substandard lifestyle. As a politician himself. there existed a kind of oppression.where he confessed it all to Father Jess and then told them that he will go back to his village. Unlike his father before him. The only thing he has learned as a politician is to do the things the politicians have done--to lie. there are a number of characters that have been eaten alive by the quicksand. However. by a fellow Filipino no less. the Philippines have never seen before. If the mass will only unite in their goals. he has found the answer to the question of their family--how to fight this oppression that they have suffered from. Pepe has never believed nor was convinced by the politicians he has encountered. Cabugawan. Even Pepe himself never knew what he wanted before his epiphany. he does not know how to achieve it. He became a politician (a student leader) not because he wants the responsibilities but because he does not have anything else to do. Even in studying or extra-curricular activities. He just "wants to be happy." However. He has been properly motivated to do what he is about to do. and drug pusher. he is so apathetic. and no one dares to fight. F. Sionil Jose through Jose "Pepe" Samson. This new character is the most credible of all the characters in the Rosales saga. However. The mass (the poor people) is the key to the success of the revolution. He basically focuses on the benefits he can get from these activities. in other meetings of the Brotherhood. the illegitimate son of Antonio Samson. he has always told himself that he already knew what the leaders are saying. In the novel. Yet. before he realized what is happening around him. he has never done anything to change what he has known all along. that there is nothing new in their talks. Sionil Jose has created a metaphor for the entire Filipino race in the character of Pepe. there will be a common ground for their battle. He had experienced a number of difficulties. most common people would rather live the life they have learned to live before than fight the status quo.
The Various Faces of Jose "Pepe" Samson The character of Pepe is somewhat autobiographical. He knows that Betsy will not live long in eating the infernal stewed vegetable with fish sauce (bagoong) every day for she has lived the good life. Sionil Jose but not part of the Rosales saga. one would see not only the workings of a Marxist theory but also the feminist theory. She is rich and part of an elite family. thus. Both have read a lot and have a very supportive mother in their studies. In the end. With this epiphany of Pepe. there is no doubt that F. With Betsy. Marxistfeminist exists in the analysis of the character of Betsy. They even have the same dilemma with the old land tilled by their grandfathers. Indeed. What is interesting in this murder is Pepe's apathy as he shoots Puneta. has been killed by Pepe. as deduced by Pepe by the end of the novel. Rosales. One might
. Indeed. But. Pepe knows better. and Pangasinan. and he can be seen later in Viajero (1993). in Philippine society come from the rich and elite. She wants to be with Pepe. His apathy for everyone but himself. Knowing that Juan Puneta was the one behind the murders of the members of the Brotherhood. a metaphor for the abusive member of the elite in the Philippine society. From these reasons. what did he do in the novel? Juan Puneta. However. She does not care for her riches and her name anymore. Sionil Jose has created a character based on his own sufferings and ideas. Pepe becomes a full pledge rebel. there is one redeeming grace for the elite in the novel in the character of Betsy. the evils. she was not able to be with Pepe because he would not allow her. and even his fate with the police (the police tortured him). These rich people who have lived the good life must face their worst nightmare as the poor people who have known nothing but abuse and oppression march towards the gate of their celestial mansions. no matter what. his desires to be happy but not know how.the novel is probably scared at the time to write a novel such as "Mass" for it was first published first in the Netherlands--a gesture which could mean that he would like to avoid issues about his novel. and his confused state of who he really is are the same with the common traits of the Filipinos of today. another novel by F. She said that she will not mind living in a depressed area as long as she is with Pepe. the only way for women to be liberated is their denouncement of their property. Both Jose and Samson lived in Cabugawan. Indeed. this critic deduces that Pepe is the metaphor for the entire Filipino race and the world he lives in is a microcosm of the Philippines. he feels that it was the right thing to do.
It is indeed depressing to think that nothing has changed in Philippine society since 1982 when the novel was first published. These issues cannot be seen in the four novels but in the fifth and it is also part of the contemporary Philippine society. Sionil Jose. yet. Incest may be prevalent too in the Rosales saga. and utilitarianism.conclude therefore that Pepe's joining the rebels is a wish-fulfilment in the part of F. while the other Pepe does not know what he wants in life. prostitution. Both are well-read. It is already given that most of the poor people would commit crimes to survive. but no more in "Mass. he realizes that he wants to help the people by opening their eyes from their "false consciousness. Jose Samson can also be the reverse of Jose Rizal." The main issues presented in the fifth novel are homosexuality. incest sounds like a name for a forbidden love and no longer a sin. the other one who was rich was able to study in universities both in the Philippines and abroad while the other one was barely able to enroll in an unknown college in Recto. The two Pepe's may accidentally have the exact opposite characteristics of each other but the probability that these were meant to be is plausible. Nowadays. it was a secret show. Only the people who have a lot of money can afford this kind of show. The writer did not only write a novel but also documented the problems of the society in the 1980's. Not only in the novel we have seen these kinds of moral decadence but also in
. "live show" may be heard along the sidewalks being shouted by promoters. Although in the end of the novel. Even "lives show" (a sexual intercourse watched by live audience) has been mentioned. Back in 1982. The love for a cousin was an issue from "Poon" to "The Pretenders". nothing seems to be moral. the negative side of Manila has been prevalent.
The Moral Decadence of Philippine Society Throughout the novel. There is nothing to gain in living in Manila except degradation of morals as shown by the other characters. The other Pepe knows what to do with his life--promoting equality among the Filipinos and Spaniards. the striking issue is the moral decadence of the elite in the society. Pepe has been an actor in this kind of show too. However." Hence. yet due to the other issues presented in Mass. here lies the big difference--the other fought for equality while the other fought for total freedom. From the house of Pepe's Uncle Bert to the mansion of Juan Puneta. murder. poverty.
other venue for artists such as drama. This ideology is plausible. most common people would rather live the life they have learned to live before than fight the status quo. implied declaration that the elite should be the ones to lead the revolution if the Filipino wants a successful change. However. through Antonio Samson. he has found the answer to the question of their family--how to fight this oppression that they have suffered from. He has been properly motivated to do what he is about to do. poetry and other modern medium. and that is one of Tony's frustrations. This new character is the most credible of all the characters in the Rosales saga. They have been living in their decayed life with their substandard lifestyle. TV series. so to speak. Yet. Unlike his father before him. the rich in the Rosales saga has never been the good guy. If they indeed want true change. they will never lead the revolution. Why would the elite challenge the status quo? This would mean that they have to share. the elite would rather enjoy their position in the society than help the poor Filipinos to have a real sense of freedom-. In sum. the illegitimate son of Antonio Samson. The elites are the ones in control of all the resources and machineries in society. like in the play "Three Rats" by Wilfredo Ma.from the capitalist society.
The Ideology of a Filipino Revolution In The Pretenders. In Mass. If the mass will only unite in their goals. and powerful. we see a different F. Makati City is a symbol of virtue is attacked head on. They are the epitome of oppression and cruelty among the working class. there are a number of characters that have been eaten alive by the quicksand. Even Pepe himself never knew what he wanted before his epiphany. He just "wants to be happy. In the novel. the prerogative should start within their circles. The rich usually nowadays is the evildoer. Guerrero. This is why we see Tony eating his pride so to speak just to be a part of the elite. all their property. the rich. he
. Sionil Jose through Jose "Pepe" Samson. we see F. if not totally denounce. there will be a common ground for their battle. yet their "false consciousness" has always been strong. The notion that a well-dressed individual who lives in Forbes Park. The mass (the poor people) is the key to the success of the revolution. He is no longer regarded as the person who might be the hero who can lend a helping hand. Sionil Jose's." However. Why should they sacrifice their way of living just for the people they do not even know? No.
and drug pusher. before he realized what is happening around him. it is a way of asking the real thought of the Filipino Marxist: are the Filipino Marxists willing to fight the bourgeois? Or. He basically focuses on the benefits he can get from these activities. Yet. He had experienced a number of difficulties.
. the study of the transference of power present in the novel may also be approached. he has also developed a sense of responsibility in changing the world. he is so apathetic. there is a new "false consciousness" within Filipinos of today. People Power Revolution took place--epiphany happened then. twice. the five novels of the Rosales saga may be a good specimen in studying Marxism in Philippine literature. will bring forth a sense of responsibility. in other meetings of the Brotherhood. Pepe has never believed nor was convinced by the politicians he has encountered. that there is nothing new in their talks. Even in studying or extra-curricular activities. as he grows to be an active member of the society. Not only that they show the quest for a national identity. "Mass" is a must read for every Filipino. Noteworthy to say. Reading it once may bring depression. With the changes in Philippine history. he has always told himself that he already knew what the leaders are saying. live in. Also. and thrice. will bring epiphany--to change the kind of society that we. The only thing he has learned as a politician is to do the things the politicians have done--to lie. With this. On the other hand. the character of Pepe indeed is plausible. It is also interesting to note that four years after the publication of the novel in the Netherlands. Filipinos. In conclusion. each Filipino reader will feel that alongside Pepe. With the novel's dynamic character. he has never done anything to change what he has known all along. Sadly. especially in choosing his fate later on. not only in the their Barrio Cabugawan but also in Manila where he had entered a number of demeaning jobs such as "torero" (male prostitute). Pepe is not a frustrated bourgeois. but also they show the various phases in our history. are they only frustrated bourgeois? Honestly.does not know how to achieve it. As a politician himself. He became a politician (a student leader) not because he wants the responsibilities but because he does not have anything else to do. He had tasted the "good life" yet he rejected it.
An exciting new novel is published today. somewhat irresolute and confused in its approach to vital problems and not always convincing. It isn't a great novel or a completely finished work of art. Nevertheless. Robert Penn Warren's "All the King's Men" is
. It is as bumpy and uneven as a corduroy road.All the King’s Men
Robert Penn Warren
Book Report The summer fiction doldrums are over.
"At least the Boss does something.magnificently vital reading. Kentucky born and Tennessee educated poet. Warren's characters. How significant and how representative was he? How serious is the threat of his kind? Mr. his contemptuous destruction of freedom and decency. In the end." he wrote a terrible and engrossing story of moral decadence. for it is still another novel about Huey Long and the looting of Louisiana. but does not answer it.
. while riding elevators or elephants. Through the eyes of his narrator. schools. But he magnifies the roads. professor. In an earlier novel. Although learned in history. is an inadequate medium for their consideration. after all. Huey Enigmatic but Fascinating John Dos Passos. which somehow lost effectiveness because it seemed grossly exaggerated. Here. which fascinates the literary as well as the political mind. business fraud and social degeneration." says one of Mr. Robert Penn Warren. "At Heaven's Gate. is a Southerner who hates the shortcomings of the South. as do so many Southern writers. his combination of magnificent abilities and a genuine if primitive idealism with bottomless corruption and lust for power. my lords and ladies. but a book to read until 3 o'clock in the morning. introduced in Huey's regime. Hamilton Basso and Adria Locke Langley have already written novels about the cracker dictator. his "tomcatting all over the State. after contemplating the superior behavior of several others." his use of bribery. income taxes. a book so charged with dramatic tension it almost crackles with blue sparks. etc. But he writes about such shortcomings with eloquence and elemental rage worlds apart from the sordid bitterness of some of his literary colleagues. "The trains run on time. blackmail and force. Warren has not chosen to recognize Huey as the personification of an American variety of fascism. There is something about Huey. He might have said. narrative pace and poetic imagery that its stature as a "reading' book. is no book to curl up with in a hammock. Here was a man who destroyed the democratic structure of an American State while shouting his championship of the common man. But Jack Burden. critic and novelist. But the reform comes too late and is not persuasive. Jack concludes that loyalty and courage really are virtues." Mr. while waiting for street cars and appointments. a book so drenched with fierce emotion. a book to read on trains and subways. dwarfs that of most current publications. But "All the King's Men." although it may stumble occasionally because of unconvincing motivation or characterization. cannot seem exaggerated. he sees Huey's career without illusions as to his personal faults. This does not mean that "All the King's Men" does not consider issues.." as some of its characters would call it. Warren toys with the questions. a corrupt and cynical newspaper man enrolled in the dictator's service. the reporter turned official blackmailer for the Boss. Jack is so cheaply cynical that he is entirely bogged down in a morass of relativity where ends justify means and good and bad are meaningless words.
Warren has endowed him with his own exuberant skill with words. Warren about the meaning of his book and to hold reservations about several of his characters (Anne Stanton. with flashbacks in time. Diamondsharp political insights sink into pseudo-Faulkner Ian hoodoo. And Anne was the third. and that of three aristocrats drawn into Willie's orbit. Reviews
Robert Penn Warren’s Pulitzer Prize-winning 1946 novel about the rise and fall of a demagogic Southern governor may be a classic. the hick from the red-neck country who rose to power through eloquence. leadership and ruthless mastery of dirty politics. philosophizes at one point. Mr. the noisome aggregate of crawling. but it is far from perfect. rushing highways at night. was another. a distinguished surgeon whose conception of honor and whose desire to good could not be adjusted to the filthy world where men like Willie got results. and some of the keenest American prose ever written keeps close company with some of the gustiest. with episodes of thundering melodrama. and the meaning of moments passes like the breeze that scarcely ruffles the leaf of the willow. old towns on the Gulf. and he betrayed everything he should have stood for. and records. Jack was one of them. Anne's brother. "All the King's Men" is really a double story. is hard to imagine and harder to understand).” Warren’s narrator.An Exuberant Skill with Words Thus it is quite possible to argue with Mr. plots and subplots entangle like kudzu on a riverbank. that of Willie. Warren has obviously studied Thomas Wolfe. and. in poetic passages of pure atmosphere. but he knows how to keep a story moving and independent of himself as Wolfe never did. with interpolated stories almost completely independent in themselves. Warren's story telling. Jack may be morally as blind as Willie Stark. a well-intentioned wavered between opposing systems. “How life is strange and changeful. The two themes are woven together adroitly so that they cross. Willie Stark as a man and a politician is superbly well realized. Jack Burden. “and the crystal is in the steel at the point of fracture. Jack tells his story with a cynical humor. Adam. but Mr. is a richly rewarding reading experience. But such matters in no way impair the superb effectiveness of Mr. and subhuman life around the great man. “Doesn’t it though? The frequency of passages like this make the prospect of another
. "All the King's Men. the Boss. and the toad bears a jewel in his forehead. He is equally skillful in suggesting the futility of the old tradition when confronted with men like Willie." in spite of the faults which will make it bitterly discussed. a raw vitality and an awed wonder that are immense. the aristocrat whom Jack loves in his fashion and who becomes the Boss' mistress.
What is missing. It is rare to see a movie so prodigiously stuffed with fine actors. serve up a platter heaped with starchy. nearly every one of them grievously miscast. whose writing credits include “Schindler’s List” and “Gangs of New York” and who directed “Searching for Bobby Fischer” and Action. Penn is. Penn. but Willie is the kind of populist leader who grows larger in public. stepping into one of Broderick Crawford’s great blowhard roles. melodramatic prestige picture. indigestible lumps. seems to provide the recipe for a grand. Expansiveness does not come easily to him. an anti-theatrical. Ruffalo. seems closed in on itself. emphasizing the character’s diffidence and low cunning as well as his strutting arrogance. Clarkson. It is not hard to see why Steve Zaillian. dark sedans and crumbling plantation houses. power. family secrets. manages to acquit them credibly. naturalistic actor. Mr. tries to reconnect Willie Stark. since a screenwriter is free to omit them and concentrate on a sweaty. having labored mightily to strain and reduce Warren’s messy gumbo. who really is from Louisiana. Whatever its flaws. directed by Robert Rossen. Lust.
. long flashbacks and endless expository conversations between people speaking radically incompatible accents. a tremor of illicit sex and a glimmer of political relevance: “All the King’s Men” has it all. is the full. strut. sinewy tale of corrupted idealism and moral decay. where he feeds on the anger and adoration of the people.” with his rustic origins. a meaty stew of lurid Southern-gothic pulp and highminded literariness. Zaillian and his editor. Ms. betrayal. won three Oscars. Mr. Only Ms. its complicated narrative bogging down in lyrical voiceover. The problem may be that it has too much. in 1950 — a welcome one. Shakespearean measure of Willie’s charisma. and Jackie Earle Haley. a self-described “hick. Nothing in the picture works. Winslet bathed in light or veiled in gauze. fundamentally. His narrow face. whose great gift is his ability to convey inwardness. with its close-set eyes and thin mouth. though. Warren’s book. It is both overwrought and tedious. Mr.screen adaptation of the novel — the first. greed. pine and wail. looks nearly as dazed as Mr. who utters few words. “was drawn to the material. Wayne Wahrman. including best picture. the kind that can both flatter and titillate the audience (and the Academy) while providing at least a half-dozen actors the opportunity to thunder.
and occasionally purple up the soundtrack with sighing narration. The camera likes to dwell on the skull-like face and half-concealed sidearm of Sugar Boy (Mr.Mr. in Warren’s florid but nonetheless powerful telling. a blandly dissolute former newspaperman with deep family connections to the old aristocracy. Adam (Mr. The entwinement of Jack’s life with Willie’s is meant. Zaillian’s velvet-wallpaper version. Johnson to Hugo Chávez. and never grasp the full dimensions of his personality. looked on — and also into conflict with the elderly judge (Mr. belong to the people. And poor Mr. Mr. is once again asked to mope and maunder. In the film (one of whose executive producers is James Carville). Penn is in some ways too fine an actor to play a country ham like Willie Stark. blighting the machinery of government with graft and vanity and turning public works into self-aggrandizing monuments. bridges. Haley). Zaillian does not seem quite sure what to make of the character. In Mr. in which a crusader on behalf of the poor and marginal becomes a monster. or the ebullient showboating that is its authentic form of expression. but these gestures of menace and foreboding seem as overdone as the leering glimpses of the showgirls with whom Willie sometimes consorts. Winslet) while her moody brother. shows a passing resemblance to more recent political figures. on whose behalf he builds highways. in triumph or in disgrace. Penn rants and shouts and waves his fist in the air — “Your need is my justice. the governor’s muscle. to be a Greek tragedy of modern Democratic politics. With him the era of big government is just beginning. Long. Jack’s involvement with the governor leads him back into his own past — in particular to a moonlit night when he went swimming in the Gulf of Mexico with the luminous Anne Stanton (Ms. Law. Willie. from Bill Clinton to Lyndon B. Ruffalo). he declares. neither the politics nor the family intrigue makes much sense. Law). His rise is narrated — and to some extent propelled — by Jack Burden (Mr. At its root Willie’s story has the simplicity of a parable. He is a creature of high political intelligence.
. unbridled appetite and a vengeful eagerness to humiliate his state’s traditional rulers. We hear much more than we see about both Willie’s grandeur and his ultimate monstrosity.” he bellows — but you never feel the galvanizing force of that essential connection. schools and hospitals. Louisiana’s oil and gas. an actor of lively wit. And Mr. Hopkins) who was like a father to young Jack. originally modelled on the Louisiana governor and United States senator Huey P.
. and never managed to marry his first love.
All the King's Men is the story of the rise and fall of a political titan in the Deep South during the 1930s. Cynical and lacking in ambition. He discovers that Judge Irwin accepted a bribe. and his sense of history is ultimately that of a decorator. it is — “All the King’s Men” makes a lot of promises but fails to deliver the goods. a defeated former governor who constantly searches for ways to undermine Willie's power--and surrounded by a rough mix of political allies and hired thugs. obsequious Tiny Duffy. Impassioned oratory is a fine thing. given the incipient Oscar race. Jack marries Anne Stanton and begins working on a book about Cass Mastern. the man whose papers he had once tried to use as the source for his failed dissertation in American History. and that Governor Stanton covered it up. from the bodyguard Sugar-Boy O'Sheean to the fat. Jack uses his considerable talents as a historical researcher to dig up the unpleasant secrets of Willie's enemies. and motivation. which are then used for purposes of blackmail. not only because current sensibilities are unlikely to be shocked by misbehavior in high office (or out of it) but more seriously because Mr. responsibility. Jack is forced to confront his ideas concerning consequence. When Willie asks Jack to look for skeletons in the closet of Judge Irwin. the scion of one of the state's aristocratic dynasties.The picture’s moralism is unconvincing. a father figure from Jack's childhood. When Adam learns of the affair. Like an electioneering candidate — which. and Jack leaves politics forever. the resulting blackmail attempt leads to Judge Irwin's suicide. Zaillian’s conception of politics is sentimental and unreal. He is beset with enemies--most notably Sam MacMurfee. the daughter of a former governor of the state. Willie Stark rises from hardscrabble poverty to become governor of his state and its most powerful political figure. not a storyteller. Jack has walked away from many of his past interests--he left his dissertation in American History unfinished. Willie's death and the circumstances in which it occurs force Jack to rethink his desperate belief that no individual can ever be responsible for the consequences of any action within the chaos and tumult of history and time. but Willie Stark knew that you had to get those roads and bridges built as well. he murders Willie in a rage. who turns his back on his genteel upbringing and becomes Willie Stark's right-hand man. and leads Anne to begin an affair with Willie. and institutes a radical series of liberal reforms designed to tax the rich and ease the burden of the state's poor farmers. All the King's Menis also the story of Jack Burden. Anne Stanton. It also leads to Adam Stanton's decision to accept the position of director of the new hospital Willie is building. he blackmails and bullies his enemies into submission.
and has become a classic of modern American
. It was immediately successful. winning the Pulitzer Prize.To Kill A Mockingbird
Book Report To Kill a Mockingbird is a novel by Harper Lee published in 1960.
it becomes clear that Mayella’s father. and gender roles in the American Deep South. who collected individual impressions of the book by several authors and public figures. To Kill a Mockingbird is probably the most widely read book dealing with race in America. Bob Ewell. The novel is renowned for its warmth and humor. courage. Bob seeks revenge towards Atticus for bringing to light the truths about his violence against Mayella. It becomes obvious during Tom’s trial that he was physically unable to commit this crime due to an injury to one of his arms.  In 2006. Atticus Finch. Atticus Finch. the primary themes of To Kill a Mockingbird involve racial injustice and the destruction of innocence. white girl Mayella. One critic explains the novel's impact by writing. although he denies the truth of it. Literary analysis of it is sparse. it is Lee's only published novel. was the actual perpetrator of beating up Mayella after her sexual advances towards Tom. In addition. To date. Scholars have noted that Lee also addresses issues of class. The book is widely taught in schools in English-speaking countries with lessons that emphasize tolerance and decry prejudice. Despite its themes. Atticus is a lawyer who has been appointed by the courts to defend Tom Robinson. Despite Atticus’ convincing Defense of Tom. "In the twentieth century. Bob’s revenge is eventually enacted upon Scout and Jem one night on their way home from a school pageant." As a Southern Gothic novel and a Bildungsroman. and its protagonist.
. a play based on the novel has been performed annually in Harper Lee's hometown of Monroeville. Scout and Jem are saved from this attack by their neighbor with a mysterious past. calls To Kill a Mockingbird "an astonishing phenomenon". and although she continues to respond to the book's impact. during this trial. Author Mary McDonough Murphy. when she was 10 years old. the most enduring fictional image of racial heroism. To Kill a Mockingbird has been subject to campaigns for removal from public classrooms. Reviews In this small town. often challenged for its use of racial epithets. as well as on an event that occurred near her hometown in 1936.literature. compassion. considering the number of copies sold and its widespread use in education. she has refused any personal publicity for herself or the novel since 1964. a black man accused of raping a poor. It was adapted into an Oscar-winning film in 1962 by director Robert Mulligan. Alabama. with a screenplay by Horton Foote. despite dealing with the serious issues of rape and racial inequality. Reception to the novel varied widely upon publication. has served as a moral hero for many readers and as a model of integrity for lawyers. British librarians ranked the book ahead of the Bible as one "every adult should read before they die". Boo Radley. Since 1990. The narrator's father. The plot and characters are loosely based on the author's observations of her family and neighbors. a jury of twelve cannot acquit him simply based on the color of his skin.
as well as Jem’s at times. including leaving items for him in a tree. no man or group of people should be locked up and judged based on their religious beliefs (as identified by Scout’s observations of Hilter’s actions against the Jews). Throughout the story. who attended law school. Let me give an example. However. in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou. They are the voice of reason in this town’s ever-present injustice.Boo has lived inside his home since an incident with the law as a young man/teen. After reading upon Harper Lee’s history. or creed. For the time that this book was written. exemplify the true moral compasses to Scout and the reader. both Atticus and his black cook. On Sher’s “Out of Ten Scale”: This is the part of my review that I regret. herself. I was deeply connected to the narrator and the story and I loved that book. This book is written with southern dialects and maintains much in it about what the life was like in its time period. Calpurnia just enveloped me with warmth and integrity. This Pulitzer Prize winning book (1961). the message of the book and couldn’t agree more wholeheartedly. Scout raises the question as to why she can’t play with a little boy just based upon who his family is. read this key passage: “… As you grow older. This book has so many other characters and nuisances than as described in the story line above. Scout and Jem’s fascination with Boo have them attempting to draw him out of his seclusion. however. Scout’s childhood sweetheart. Dill. The bring light to the importance of equality for all men regardless of race. represents how we should look at others and what true justice should look like. Rumors have surfaced about Boo’s craziness leading Scout and Jem to fear the worst about him looming within his home. has received numerous other awards over the years. to me represented the innocence of love and joy and the naivety of the human’s mind. I find this book to be loosely based on her life growing up in rural Alabama. The characters of this book are all key to the overall message of the story. nor any woman. It is very well written and loved by. I’m sure. she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom for the truth in the content of this book. Atticus is the most patient and loving father that any girl could ever want. This is obviously a national literary treasure to our country. In the earlier points of the story. Calpurnia. For example. However. I just didn’t PERSONALLY find a connection to the book as I had hoped. most or all. color. Lee and the daughter of a lawyer. She is a descendant of Robert E. I find it brave of Harper Lee to speak such truths in a nation still filled with so much prejudice against the African-American population of our country. I did appreciate. In 2007. The truth I am speaking of is that no man. I didn’t feel that same connection. you’ll see white men cheat black men every day of your life. The content is important and I believe this to be a very good choice for American Literature studies in school. There are many sub-stories about the internal prejudices of this town based on the breeding and wealth of its members. In addition. For example. It maintains a high level of symbolism and leads way to study on meanings laid within the text of the book. with Scout and Mockingbird. but let me tell you something and don’t you forget it – whenever a white man does that to a
. should be sentenced to a crime that he/she did not commit solely based on the color of his/her skin. Scout’s viewpoint.
or how fine a family he comes from. but also the kind of man he will become.black man. Readers. no matter who he is.” This book is filled with truths like this one that are relevant and timeless. If you haven’t read it and you are interested in reading this content. following in his father's footsteps. Much of Harper Lee is in the character of Scout. but I didn’t love it. I appreciate it. I suppose. the epigraph makes sense. strictly from my PERSONAL viewpoint." That she chose this epigraph is interesting on several levels. are likely to be forgiving of a child's perception. that white man is trash. intelligent and well-read person. I just didn’t really connect to this book emotionally. Lee's father was an attorney. I am awarding this book for the genre Fiction: American History an 8 out of 10. Lee is able to present the story objectively. I must add. Lee provides an objective view of the situation. however. whereas they would find an adult who makes these remarks offensive. as is Scout's. For that. Scout can make observations that an adult would avoid or sugarcoat. By having an innocent little girl make racial remarks and regard people of color in a way consistent with the community. I appreciate this literature and respect it greatly. Therefore. Lee herself studied law. A good part of this story's brilliance lies in the fact that it's told from a child's point of view. However. Summary Lee begins To Kill a Mockingbird with an epigraph (a brief quotation placed at the beginning of a book or chapter) by Charles Lamb: "Lawyers. Importantly. Readers see this future lawyer as a child first. As a child. Because Scout's personality is loosely autobiographical. Jem expresses his desire to become a lawyer. The lessons he learns during the course of the story will ultimately shape not only the kind of lawyer he will be. were children once. (Now comes the big “However”).'" At various points in the story. Also significant in understanding the epigraph is Atticus' answer to Jem's question of how a jury could convict Tom Robinson when he's obviously innocent: "'They've done it before and they did it tonight and they'll do it again and when they do it — it seems that only children weep. Lee proves through the telling of the story that she was also once a child. that this is a classic. Through Scout's eyes.
. I would definitely recommend it! Reading this work only would make you a more diversified. how rich he is. too.
L. the college students walk down the sidewalk and give due respect to their professors as they pass. Stephen King called FEAR "A classic tale of creeping. Not all at once of course. but has no more idea about those missing four hours than Jim. This is the quiet. what Robert Heinlein called: ". The average white male comfortably living in his social niche.Book Report L.as perfect a piece of Science Fiction as has ever been written. each day just like the other. Mary. The next thing Jim Lowry knows is that his hat is missing and there is four hours out of his day for which he has no recollection and no way of accounting for: every avenue of investigation leads to a dead end. from one generation to the next. Consider the context in which Rob made that statement. She returns home to find a shaken Jim. The man wants to. “When Ron decided to write Fantasy he wrote SLAVES OF SLEEP. at the University of At worthy. Though written in a modern vein for its time. Everyone knows each other by name. When he finally made that decision to become a man of words. Jim's beloved wife. went out looking for him. It's the little things that start wrecking the scenery: a touch of non-deadly malaria at first grows into the bigger issue of a dressing down and losing his job. In this pre-World War II novel. this was the inspiration for Rod Serling's creepy brainchild. Ron Hubbard was a world traveler and many other things before he decided to be a writer. His lifelong friend Tommy Williams can't help him. Ray Bradbury. every novel he wrote in every genre he chose to write in was classed by the grand masters of the form of that period as the absolute best of its kind. How could the day just go from quarter after three to a quarter after seven?
. In fact. Ron Hubbard's "finest work"." To be brief. socially well placed family of stodgy old professors who have taught. he wrote FINAL BLACKOUT. James comes from a well-respected. then everything goes wrong." FEAR is the story of one James Lowry. reading FEAR makes me think that surely. During that period. surreal menace and horror. which Anne McCaffrey called "A master of adventure. No less than Robert Bloch called FEAR. wellmannered life at ease that Television episodes of The Twilight Zone used to paint. All the trappings of that show are here. terrified by the loss of time.. who in my humble opinion has bridged the gap of being the greatest Science Fiction and Horror writer ever called FEAR"A true scare". FEAR can be read as a period piece and not lose anything in the translation.
whereas they would find an adult who makes these remarks offensive.
. It wasn't just a period of time that was lost. too. Importantly. It's not long before Jim is haunted by the call of his wife shouting "Jim! Oh my God! Jim!" Yet when he finds his Mary. By having an innocent little girl make racial remarks and regard people of color in a way consistent with the community. at least the memory of. Time is a thing of relative substance. Just what do all those blurbs mean? Are they trying to buy your opinion with your need for conformity? L. When you read this story. If you are the kind of person I am. and a hat is a material thing. Through Scout's eyes. A good part of this story's brilliance lies in the fact that it's told from a child's point of view. Lee proves through the telling of the story that she was also once a child. from time to time. those missing hours. because they were inspired after reading this book. she tells him she said no such thing. Yet the hat becomes the catalyst. Lee's father was an attorney. and so gain back. novel after novel. and be reminded that this book is most likely the ancestor of those who came after. wrote after. are likely to be forgiving of a child's perception. Ron relied on no tropes for FEAR. Lee herself studied law. Remember where that familiar knowledge comes from. Scout can make observations that an adult would avoid or sugarcoat. But he lost his hat during that period as well. then books with tons of praise and accolades just make you that more suspicious about the story within.
Reviews Lee begins To Kill a Mockingbird with an epigraph (a brief quotation placed at the beginning of a book or chapter) by Charles Lamb: "Lawyers." That she chose this epigraph is interesting on several levels. you may find yourself. Because Scout's personality is loosely autobiographical. were children once. then maybe he can remember how he lost it. in familiar territory. the epigraph makes sense. If he can find his hat. Lee is able to present the story objectively. as is Scout's. As a child. Readers. No monsters of any kind for which we have grown accustomed. I suppose.And where is his hat? It seems such a stupid thing to worry about: a hat. Much of Harper Lee is in the character of Scout. Lee provides an objective view of the situation.
After returning from one of his many field trips from the Yucatán with a recurring case of malaria. who does not believe in anything supernatural.
Summary In Hubbard's Fear..Also significant in understanding the epigraph is Atticus' answer to Jem's question of how a jury could convict Tom Robinson when he's obviously innocent: "'They've done it before and they did it tonight and they'll do it again and when they do it — it seems that only children weep. to discover what happened during four hours for which he cannot account. following in his father's footsteps..
. Fear concerns the efforts of Professor James Lowry. an ethnologist at a small college. Now his quiet town is changing. The cause of his dismissal is a newspaper article in which he discounted the existence of devils and demons. Readers see this future lawyer as a child first. but also the kind of man he will become.and it has to do with him and his forgotten time. we meet Professor James Lowry.'" At various points in the story.until one evening when his hat disappears and he suddenly couldn't remember the last four hours of his life. The lessons he learns during the course of the story will ultimately shape not only the kind of lawyer he will be. Jem expresses his desire to become a lawyer.. Lowry learns that he is to be fired.. and thereby Christianity. calling them fabrications of witch doctors who wanted both to instill fear in their followers and to control them.