You are on page 1of 14


WATERJET RANGE With this guide it is possible to make a first jet size selection and to check weights & dimensions of jets and possible subsystems. There are two main waterjet executions available. The pre-assembled waterjet range and the large jet range have identical performance properties, as indicated on page 5. A pre-assembled and pre-aligned jet delivered with waterjet inlet duct and skid for direct installation in the ships hull. For the pre-assembled execution all auxiliary systems, such as hydraulic systems and coolers, are mounted on the assembly and piping connections are made. These units are available up to approx. 4500 kW and fit in a standard 20 or 40 foot sea container. For large jets the inlet duct is designed by Wrtsil and built by the shipyard as part of the ship construction. Auxiliary systems for the large jet range can be selected with this guide, based on the vessel design details. The largest waterjet in our order book is a 26,000 kW LJX2180 unit. Our design capability goes up to 50 MW.

WRTSIL AXIAL JET TECHNOLOGY Wrtsil axial waterjets are a line of single stage, compact high performance waterjets combining mixed flow properties with an axial build. The result is a much reduced vessel transom occupation with highly increased waterjet cavitation margins for optimum vessel operating flexibility. The reduced transom occupation is achieved without reduction of the inlet duct diameter or reduction of the waterjet pump size in order to maintain maximum efficiency for lowest fuel burn. AVERAGE 25% REDUCED TRANSOM OCCUPATION Jet sizes are indicated by the front side diameter of the impeller seat ring. Unlike a non-axial design, the Wrtsil axial design waterjet does not expand in radial direction downstream. The flow through

the jets is directed through the pump over the most efficient path, while at the same time the transom mounting flange diameter is reduced. This will allow much easier fitting of the jet in the available space either in width or height. For naval architects it will deliver the possibility to apply a larger power density onto narrower hulls for achieving top vessel performance. AVERAGE 10% HIGHER SHAFT SPEED = 10% LESS TORQUE Compared with non-axial designs, the shaft speed of the impeller is on average 10% higher whilst the impeller tip speed is still lower. This is achieved by the impeller shape creating a large amount of blade surface area within small radial dimensions. The low impeller tip speeds avoid sand erosion, making the axial jet ideal for shallow water operations, such as landing craft. At full manoeuvring power

Diameter used for type designation

Diameter used for type designation

INLS system for the US Navy equipped with custom designed jets for thrust in all directions (360 revolving jet nozzle tted)

the impeller tip speed is maximum 30 m/s. The lower torque a direct result of the higher shaft speeds with low tip speeds can yield both weight and cost savings for couplings in intermediate shaft lines, for shafts in general and gearboxes. UP TO 10% LOWER WEIGHT The reduced transom size not only results in reduced dimensions, but also gives the installation a substantially lower weight. Combined with our welded jet construction this permits further weight optimizations and savings that can be as high as 15% compared to non-axial jet designs. Since (waterjet) weight at the very end of the vessel is usually difficult to compensate elsewhere in the ship, jet weight savings can result in improved trim of the vessel. Weight savings also increase the payload within the same vessel design.

LARGE MARGINS FOR OPERATING FLEXIBILITY AND MANOEUVRING The pump cavitation margins are increased by at least 35%. Thanks to this larger cavitation margin and the lower impeller tip speed, more power can be allowed onto the pump during manoeuvring, resulting in a 15% higher manoeuvring thrust and faster response to acceleration. Also more power will be available to overcome changing operating conditions, such as increased vessel resistance due to shallow water effects. Furthermore, with the additional cavitation margin, operation with a reduced number of shaft lines is possible at higher loads of the remaining engines, improving operating flexibility. BLACK SMOKE REDUCTION MARGINAL INCREASE IN POWER ABSORPTION AT MANOEUVRING During manoeuvring the diesel engine operates in its critical zone while in this area waterjets

tend to absorb increased power for lower impeller speeds. The result can be a high load for the engine, causing smoke and an increased thermal load. Thanks to Wrtsil axial jet series this unwanted increase in power absorption is up to 70% lower than that of competing non-axial designs. DESIGN LAYOUTS All jet designs are available in a steering/ reversing (SR), reversing only (R), steering only (S) and booster execution (B). For jet sizes in between approx. 10004500 kW, pre-assembled easy to install packages (SRF executions) are available. On request we offer solutions for special applications e.g. thrust in all 360 directions. The key benefits of the axial technology are valid for all executions.

Machinery controls box with factory settings made ahead of sea-trials Cylinders and thrust bearing inboard resulting in full absence of oil lubricated or oil containing parts outboard of the vessel All piping connected, just one cooling water connection to be made by the shipyard

Unique compact high performance steering & reversing assembly Hull customised inlet duct in Wrtsil supply for top performance and shipyard risk reduction

Weld-in skid manufactured in the same material as the hull


THE WATERJET PUMP For all Wrtsil waterjets large units or pre-assembled units exactly the same pump is used and the same hydrodynamic design process is applied. Pump impeller, stator section and shaft are all manufactured of the same high quality materials for continued top performance long after Newbuild trials. STANDARDISED BUT NOT COMPROMISED HIGH PERFORMANCE WITHIN EASY REACH Every Wrtsil pre-assembled waterjet package delivers the customised performance of large jets into the market of pre-assembled jet packages up to 4500 kW. The inlet duct of the pre-assembled waterjet package is optimized for hull shape & operational profile. Modern and cost efficient manufacturing techniques accurately transfer the Computational Fluid Dynamics designed shape from the screen to the shop floor. After construction the inlet duct is seamlessly integrated in the waterjet assembly that is

shipped as one plug-and-play unit for instant installation by the ship yard. STEERING AND REVERSING COMPACT AND FAST In the market of pre-assembled waterjet packages, the steering and reversing assembly is unique in its shape and dimensions. Deviating from the market standard, our assembly fits well within the waterjet stator transom mounting flange, providing optimum positioning of multiple jets in the available transom width. Also the clearance required above the jet is small and a (swimming) platform is easy positioned above the jets. MAINTENANCE OPTIMIZED All cylinders are positioned inboard as well as the waterjet thrust bearing. Apart from the operating reliability delivered it also provides easy access for maintenance without the need for dry-docking. There are no oil lubricated or oil containing parts outboard the transom.

QUALITY MATERIALS FOR CONTINUED HIGH PERFORMANCE High performance is one of the key features of the Wrtsil axial jet series. However, an incorrect material selection can slowly degrade the performance of a waterjet in the years after sea trials. For that reason Wrtsil avoided aluminium as construction material for the waterjet stator bowl. The stator bowl plays a very critical role in the jet efficiency and the stator blade profile must remain in top condition as originally designed. It blocks a slow efficiency decrease over time as result of stator blade flow sheering or unwanted rotation of the flow. The Wrtsil stator bowl is therefore constructed of a high grade stainless steel as common for our large jet series. In addition to better performance, the maintenance requirement of the high grade stainless steel stator is minimal.

WRTSIL 450810 SIZES 4500 4000 3500 720 size 640 size 570 size 2000 1500
510 size

810 size


Waterjet size 510 A B C D E F mm mm mm mm mm mm kg kg l 570 640 720 810 1400 1550 1750 1950 2200 (1500*) (1700*) (1900*) (2100*) (2400*) 1000 2300 3000 1100 510 1450 1050 400 1100 2600 3400 1200 570 1800 1300 600 1200 2800 3800 1400 640 2450 1800 800 1350 3100 4200 1500 720 3000 2250 1150 1550 3600 4800 1700 810 4000 3000 1650

Engine power (BkW)

3000 2500

510 size 450 size

450 size

1000 500 15



30 35 Vessel speed (knots)



Weight steering** Weight booster

WRTSIL 9101400 SIZES 14 000 13 000 12 000 11 000 1300 size 1200 size 1100 size 1000 size 910 size
910 size

1400 size

Entrained water

* When in reverse. ** Without oil and entrained water.


Engine power (BkW)

10 000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 15 20 25 30 35 Vessel speed (knots) 40


WRTSIL 15002180 SIZES 32 000 30 000 28 000 26 000 24 000 22 000 20 000 18 000 16 000 14 000 12 000 10 000 8000 6000 15 20 25 30 35 Vessel speed (knots) 40 2180 size
2020 size

AXIAL SERIES WATERJETS Weight & dimensions of pre-assembled SRF waterjet packages
Waterjet Outboard size length mm 910 1000 1100 2300 2500 2800 3000 3250 3500 3750 4050 4350 4650 5000 Inboard length mm 1) 4050 4400 4750 5300 5650 6050 6550 7000 7500 8050 8550 Transom flange diameter mm 1165 1280 1405 1535 1665 1790 1920 2075 2240 2405 2585 Weight Weight steering kg Booster kg 3200 4200 5300 7350 8950 11 100 14 250 17 250 21 200 28 950 34 350 2250 2900 3700 5300 6250 7700 10 050 12 000 15 050 20 600 24 150

Engine power (BkW)

1880 size 1750 size 1620 size 1500 size


1200 1300 1400

WATERJET SIZE SELECTION The graphs above indicate the jet size required based on the relation between the engine power and the design speed of the vessel. For instance a ship with four 1250 kW engines and a corresponding vessel speed of 33 knots will need four 510 size waterjets. A ship with a design speed of 40 knots at 1250 kW power can use 450 size waterjets. The correct jet size is thus indicated by the line above the intersection of the power and the corresponding vessel speed (see examples in graphs above). Please contact us for an optimized jet selection based on specific vessel design parameters and operating profile, or for details on waterjets above 50 knots or 30 000 kW. DXF/DWG format general arrangement drawings of the most often used sizes are available.

1500 1620 1750 1880 2020


1) Inboard length may vary depending on the optimized shape of the inlet duct.
Outboard length Inboard length

LARGE MARGINS FOR OPERATING FLEXIBILITY Our large axial jets have set a standard in the past years. Introduced in 2006 and selected for many leading large vessel applications, such as the US Navy JHSV and LCS programs, Incat catamarans, and leading superyacht applications. In addition to our axial design a non-axial design is also available for vessels requiring extremely high speeds above 55 knots up to speeds above 70 knots. The information on the following pages is for the large jet range only. Wrtsil preassembled packages come fully assembled as one package for direct installation in the ship (see page 5). JET HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS Each steering and reversing waterjet requires a hydraulic power pack (HPP) for steering control and reversing actions. Two stainless steel hydraulic cylinders are used to pivot the steering bucket port and starboard, and one central hydraulic cylinder to activate the reversing plate up and down. Hydraulic cylinders are fitted with integrated feedback sensors linked to the electronic jet control system for feedback and indication. The control of each steering and reversing waterjet installed is independent and failure in one hydraulic system will not affect the other jets. STANDARD HYDRAULIC POWER PACK (HPP) AND LUBRICATION OIL PACK (LOP) The hydraulic power pack for control of jet steering and jet reversing movements, and the lubrication unit for the waterjet thrust bearing, are combined in a single tank with two compartments for efficient installation at the yard site. The hydraulic and lubrication loops

SR-series. The most compact waterjet available for large fast vessels

are fully separated to avoid any contamination between hydraulic and lubrication oil. The main hydraulic pump of the standard HPP is driven by a Power Take Off (PTO) from the gearbox or from the engine. In addition, an electric driven pump is installed on the oil tank. The electric pump is used to control the jet movements with a reduced capacity when the main PTO pump is not available. The hydraulic power pack is standard equipped with: z 1 x steel tank with two separated compartments, hydraulic and lubrication z 1 x startup backup, cooling pump, vertically mounted z Double gear pump PGP511 series z E-motor z Bell-housing and flexible coupling between E-motor and gear pump z 1 x steel manifold with valves/functions according to hydraulic diagram (next page) z Load sense circuit for PTO pump and startup flow control z Filter by-pass alarm z Steering function:  1 x proportional directional control valve  1 x flow/pressure compensator  2 x load holding valve z Reverse function:  1 x proportional directional control valve  1 x flow/pressure compensator  1 x load holding valve z Flushing function for PTO pump  1 x flushing connection with flow control valve z 1 x oilsea water cooler with Thermo valve z 1 x return filter mounted on the tank-cover z 1 x temperature gauge z 1 x dip-stick

z z z z z z

1 x Thermo switch 2 x level switch; low and too low 1 x air breather with steel cap 1 x gate valve 1 x drain valve 1 x junction box and wiring to all components

The lubrication section is standard equipped with: z 1 x line mounted medium pressure filter with clogged filter alarm z 1 x filter by-pass function 2-way ballvalve with non-return valves for filter exchange z 1 x oilsea water cooler z 1 x temperature gauge z 1 x dip-stick z 1 x pressure switch z 1 x pressure gauge z 1 x level switch z 1 x air breather with steel cap z 1 x drain valve z 2 x differential pressure switch NOTE: INSTALLATION DISTANCES Long distances between HPP and waterjet and between HPP and the PTO connection for the hydraulic pump should be avoided. Pressure losses will occur in the piping if connections are too far apart and the jet steering/reversing performance could deteriorate. Oil filled piping running through the vessel over long distances also increases installation weight. If such distances cannot be avoided, we can supply full electric driven power packs with the pump directly mounted on the HPP tank, eliminating all pressure and suction piping between pump and HPP. Please contact us for more information.

Forward thrust

Reverse thrust

Zero thrust


Standard power pack arrangement. 7


Settling time steer2 sec Settling time rev3 sec Max. flow total1 l/min Max. steer flow l/min

E-motor power kW

Cool cap. hydr kW 5.12 6.19 7.83 8.62 10.23 12.80 14.86 17.06 20.78 Flange

910 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1620 1750 1880

21.17 18.91 40.08 23.30 25.16 48.46 25.60 35.71 61.31 28.32 39.16 67.48 37.70 42.39 80.09 40.57 59.59 100.16 52.39 63.94 116.32 60.70 72.78 133.48 65.58 97.08 162.55 88.06 104.30 192.36

8 8 8 10 10 10 10 12 12 12

8 8 8 10 10 10 10 12 12 12

3 3 4 4 5.5 5.5 7.5 7.5 11 11

24.58 14.03

1) Max flow total represents the flow required for a combined steering and reversing demand that results in the settling times as given in the table. For a 1400 size jet the flow of 100.16 dm3/min will thus move the jet over the full steering range and the full reverse range in 10 seconds. 2) Settling time steering time required for a full 60 degree steering movement. 3) Settling time reversing time required for a full movement from either full ahead to full astern or v.v.

Pump Displ. type cc/rev 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 16.2 25.2 40.5 54 67.5 94.5 130.5 162 243

Max. rpm 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 2300 2200 2200 1800

Max. press. bar 280 280 280 280 280 320 320 350 350



Weight kg 14 18 18
30 63

82-2 (A) 101-2 (B) 101-2 (B) 127-2 (C) 127-2 (C) 127-2 (C) 127-2 (C) SAE 4 hole SAE 4 hole

Cool cap. lubr. kW 5.35 5.27 5.27 6.95 6.94 6.99 9.08 9.25 9.51

Max. rev flow l/min

Jet size

US NAVY, LITTORAL COMBAT SHIP LCS-2 USS INDEPENDENCE 2 x LJ150E waterjets for the wing propulsion lines 2 x LJ160E waterjets for the centre propulsion lines

LOAD SENSE VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT PUMP FOR DIRECT MOUNTING ON THE GEARBOX PTO The selection of a suitable gearbox PTO can be made with the tables above. For instance the jet size that you have selected for your vessel with the jet selection graphs on page 5 is a 1400 size jet. The first table above indicates that the flow for a combined steering and reversing movement is 100.16 dm3/min in order to achieve settling times of 10 seconds. If the engine runs at 600 rpm at idle, and the step up ratio of the PTO on the primary side of the gearbox is 1, then the pump capacity according to the second table above has to be 100,160/600 = 166.9 cc/rev (size9). If the step up ratio of the PTO at the primary side of the gearbox is 2, then a pump capacity of 83.47 cc/rev (size 6) is sufficient. TYPICAL REFERENCES/APPLICATIONS Waterjets propulsion is the most successful and efficient method of propulsion for highspeed applications. The advantages are

not only higher efficiency, but also lower vessel resistance due to the absence of underwater appendages like shafts, rudders and shaft struts. The absence of parts below the waterline also makes waterjets an ideal solution for shallow water operation. With excellent manoeuvrability at all vessel speeds, waterjets deliver fast turn-around times for all applications. With catamarans it is usually possible to achieve pure sideways movement and 360 degree turning without a bow thruster. FAST FERRY Waterjets developed fast together with the rise of the fast ferry industry. With jets delivered to all the main builders of car/pax ferries, there is a broad experience for these systems. FAST NAVAL CRASH STOP SYSTEM Waterjets do not require reversal of the rotation direction to generate astern thrust. A bucket redirects the flow from the nozzle, generating full astern thrust generally within 810

seconds after the command was given on the bridge. With special, fast crash stop jets the time to full crash stop thrust can be shortened to less than 3 seconds. The example to the right illustrates the crash stop action of such an installation, redirecting more than 40.000 litres of 120 km/h sea water in an instant, while the gas turbine driving the jet keeps turning at constant high load throughout the crash stop operation. HYBRID OR WARP SYSTEMS Unique to Wrtsil is the delivery of various hybrid or Waterjet And Refined Propeller (WARP) systems. These systems combine controllable pitch propellers with a waterjet. The benefit is that the largest parts of the total installed vessel power can be absorbed by the waterjet. Despite the high amount of power the dimensions of the jet remain relatively small due to the high allowed power density compared to a propeller. With the jet taking most of the total vessel power, the propellers can remain small in diameter as well limiting

Crash stop action of LJ210E jet in a 86 m corvette driven by one 20 MW gas turbine and approx. 11,000 kW Diesel power.

Copyright Austal Australia 2009

Incat 112 m fast ferry equipped with four 1500SRi jets each driven by 9000 kW Diesel engine (4 vessels delivered).

the draft of the vessel. The result is a very attractive operational profile. The propellers are fully optimized for lower cruising speeds delivering optimum efficiency with low noise and vibrations. At the same time the combination of the waterjet and the propellers still gives access to higher speeds when required. Hybrid systems were delivered for various yachts with total vessel power up to 32MW and for Navy vessels up to 28 MW. SHOCK REQUIREMENTS FOR JETS IN NAVAL USE Several waterjet installations have been supplied with shock requirements proven by calculations. The main changes required in case of shock are shock mounts for equipment such as the hydraulic power packs and oil lubrications sets, and strengthening of the thrust bearing. Due to the inboard position of the bearing that is relatively easy. The housing of the bearing standard of aluminium to minimize weight is replaced with a steel housing and if required the bearing can be somewhat oversized. Please contact us to learn the possibilities and required actions based on your project details.

Hybrid or WARP system. 9

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AN AXIAL AND NON-AXIAL WATERJET? The waterjet principle (see also under jet working principle) is based on a pump. Pump types can be grouped from pure axial to radial pumps. A pure axial pump will deliver a high flow at a low pressure. A pure radial pump will generate a low flow at a high pressure. For a high thrust output a waterjet needs to generate both a high flow through the jet system and a high pressure, requiring a jet pump with so called mixed flow properties. The unique feature of the Wrtsil axial flow waterjet is that it has the mixed flow properties required, but delivers it in a pure axial geometry. This results in a substantial advantage as the water follows the optimum flow path straight through the pump instead of partly travelling in radial direction before exiting at the nozzle. WHAT IS THE DISADVANTAGE/LIMITATION OF AN AXIAL JET? Axial jets are primarily focused on applications with maximum speeds up to 50 55 knots. Above that the axial jet should not be used and a more radial shaped, mixed flow pump will give better results (see also section above). For these extremely high speed applications, we offer our E-series waterjets. WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF AN AXIAL JET? Compact, high efficiency, low weight, more cavitation margin, higher shaft speed reducing torque, low forces transferred to the ship construction.

and minimizes pressure losses in suction and pressure lines. Further a full electrically driven powerpack is independent from the engine speed. At low speed and idle maneuvering conditions the available speed from the engine for driving the HPP PTO pump is low, while the request for hydraulic power during vessel maneuvering is high. An electrically driven pump is thus smaller in size than a PTO driven pump. DO PTO POWERPACKS HAVE A BACKUP FACILITY? Yes, on a HPP with a PTO (Power Take Off) driven pump a second electrically driven pump is mounted directly on the HPP oil tank. However, the backup has a limited capacity (see page 7). This means that response times will be lower in HPP backup mode. CAN THE POWERPACK BE PLACED IN ANY LOCATION? It is advised to place the powerpack as close as possible to the jet steering assembly, as that is the location where the hydraulic power has to be delivered. In case of a powerpack with a PTO driven pump the distance to the PTO also has to be taken into account, to avoid too high losses in piping to that end. CAN THE PTO BE PLACED IN ANY LOCATION? The PTO driving the hydraulic pump is normally placed on the primary side of the gearbox. In this case it is possible to put the jets into zero thrust position while the engine is running, before jet clutch in. Placement on the secondary side is possible, but electric power will have to be available to control the jet before clutch in with an electric backup motor. WILL THE POWERPACK STILL WORK IF THE ENGINE ROOM IS FLOODED? Standard powerpacks will malfunction due to water ingress through the breather and other parts. To avoid malfunction due to flooding of compartments it is advised to place the powerpack one deck above compartments that can possibly be flooded in emergency situations. Measures can be taken to avoid malfunction due to flooding, but the costs depending on the exact demands are high without exception. WHAT DETERMINES THE DIMENSIONS OF THE POWERPACK? Jet size, required settling times and maximum roll of the vessel.

WHAT IS THE ADVANTAGE OF INBOARD HYDRAULICS? An inboard hydraulic system brings all hydraulic cylinders and hoses inboard of the vessel in the jet room. This reduces maintenance in general, especially when the risk for marine growth is high. Specific advantages are operation in ice conditions or waters with high debris content. Furthermore, vulnerable marine environments can benefit as there are no systems containing oil outboard the transom in combination with our inboard thrust bearing and outboard water lubricated bearing.


CAN YOU ADJUST THE WATERJET SHAFT SPEED TO SUIT A GEAR RATIO? Yes, by varying the jet size for a constant engine power. However, by purely selecting the jet size to suit a gear ratio, the jet will become larger than strictly required for your operation. The gearbox manufacturer should thus offer suitable gear ratios to ensure the best performance of the waterjet system. DOES WRTSIL DETERMINE THE GEAR RATIO? With the engine performance diagram, Wrtsil selects the best ratio out of the gear ratios offered by the gearbox manufacturer. In case a proper ratio is not available, a different gearbox has to be selected to avoid underperformance of the waterjet. WHAT HAPPENS IF THE JET AND ENGINE ARE NOT PROPERLY MATCHED? If the gear reduction ratio is too low the waterjet will rotate faster than optimal, delivering more thrust but possibly overloading the engine. If the reduction ratio is too high, the jet will not turn fast enough and underperform. IS SEA MARGIN REQUIRED FOR A JET? No, sea margin is not required. Compared to a fixed pitch propeller there are two main differences. Because of the jet inlet duct the jet impeller is not directly inside the hull wake flow and the jet impeller operates in a protected environment created by the Wrtsil designed inlet duct. Further, in deviation with an FPP, a jet is a pump, and thus a different type of machinery (turbo machinery) with a relatively flat power absorption curve is required. WHAT IS THE SHAFT SPEED OF A WATERJET? The shaft speed depends on the jet size and the power applied. A small jet at high power can run at 2000 rpm, a large one at 200 rpm.

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ELECTRIC AND PTO DRIVEN POWERPACKS? For an electrically driven powerpack all power for displacing the oil volume is delivered by an electric power source. The pump for a PTO driven powerpack is driven by a Power Take Off of the gearbox or engine. For such a powerpack normally an electric backup from an electrically driven pump with reduced capacity is installed (see page 6). The big advantage of an electrically driven powerpack is the absence of long suction and pressure lines between the pump and the oil tank, since the full electric driven pump is mounted directly on top of the tank. This decreases installation work

WHAT IS THE STANDARD DIRECTION OF ROTATION FOR A JET? Clockwise when facing forward from aft. A different direction is possible, but is considered a custom design with longer delivery time and higher initial costs.

vessel baseline in the transom, reducing vessel draft and avoiding damage from grounding. Good maneuverability can also be a reason to select jets as propulsion units. There is always a relatively high flow leaving the jet nozzle at both high and low vessel speeds. FOR WHICH APPLICATIONS HAS WRTSIL DELIVERED WATERJETS? For everything from slow 10 knot applications requiring high maneuverability to high speed and high powered 70 knot applications. Further several hybrid (see also next question) solutions, as well as various custom solutions for special vessels, have been delivered. CAN WATERJETS AND PROPELLERS BE COMBINED? is possible for some applications, Wrtsil calls that the Waterjet And Refined Propeller (WARP) systems. Usually these applications have top design speeds around 30 knots and an operating profile requiring frequent operation around 20 knots and occasional operation around 30 knots. These systems with two wing propellers and a central booster jet operate on propellers only for the speed around 20 knots, and on combined propellers and jet for reaching the top speed. The main advantage is smaller propellers than on an all propeller 30 knots ship, as the propellers are optimized for the power requirements around 20 knots. These hybrid systems can thus be very attractive as they combine the best of both worlds for ships around 30 knots.

CAN YOU DESCRIBE THE MAINTENANCE REQUIRED FOR A WATERJET? We offer standard maintenance packages for every mechanical job on the waterjet. The standard packages contain all parts and consumables required for a particular job. Standard maintenance intervals are every 2.5 years and every 5 years. Five years is normally a class required docking interval. Maintenance strongly depends on the intensity of the service and local conditions.

WHAT INFORMATION DOES WRTSIL NEED FOR MAKING A WATERJET SELECTION AND OFFER? As a minimum the waterline length of the hull, the number of shaft lines and the relation between the ship design speed and the engine power; e.g. 40 knots at 4x7200kW with a waterline length of 75 meter. If the relation of speed and engine power is not known, we can make a rough estimate based on the displacement of the vessel. Additional information useful to further sharpen the jet selection is full resistance data of the hull including various displacements, the ship operating profile and any specific design requirements.



HOW DO I KNOW IF I SHOULD USE WATERJETS OR PROPELLERS? That should be investigated case by case. In general waterjets are not used for ships with design speeds below 30 knots, unless the vessel is in special service, such as shallow water operation. The advantage of jets over propellers is their ability to absorb high input powers on a small diameter, reducing the size of the installation. Further, the steering is integrated in the jets and rudders are thus not required. The absence of rudders and other appendages, such as shaft struts, will substantially reduce the resistance of the hull at high speed. Other reasons for using waterjets can be shallow water access, as the jet unit sits above the

WILL THE JET START ITSELF? This depends on shaft height and ship speed. At a ship speed of 0 knots and with the waterline not lower than on or just below the jet shaft centre line, the jet will always start (prime) at normal idle engine speed. If the water level drops far below the impeller shaft, priming will slowly become more difficult and higher starting shaft speeds will be required for priming the pump. When the ship makes speed, starting inactive jet propulsion line will become easier even if the waterline is far below the jet impeller shaft. Due to the ship speed water will be forced into the jet inlet duct.
High rpm 11 Above idle


Several customers have recognized us as their preferred service supplier to ensure the availability and cost-efficient operation of their installations. They benefit from having their entire power system fully serviced by one global supplier. Wrtsil Services provides full service throughout the product lifecycle for both marine and power plant customers, and is constantly developing its network worldwide. Additionally, we are continually broadening our range of services by adding valuable products and specialist services to our portfolio. In this way we also support equipment onboard your vessel or at your installation and in our numerous workshops around the globe and in key ports, regardless of your equipment make. We offer lifecycle efficiency solutions in the following services product lines: z Engine Services z Propulsion Services z Electrical & Automation Services z Boiler Services z Operations & Management Services z Training Services z Environmental Services

These services cover everything from basic support with parts, field service and technical support to service agreements and condition based maintenance; from installation and commissioning, performance optimization, including upgrades and conversions, to environmental solutions, technical information and online support. The choice available to you extends from parts and maintenance services to a variety of comprehensive, customized long-term service agreements, including performance and operations & management agreements. Our Services organization currently features more than 11,000 dedicated professionals in 70 countries. Wrtsil adds value to your business at every stage in the lifecycle of your installations. With us as your service partner, you receive many measurable benefits such as availability and performance, productivity gains and cost benefits. Above all, peace of mind in the knowledge that your installation is being serviced by the most experienced partner you could have Wrtsil.


For a final jet selection you are always welcome to consult a local Wrtsil office. In cooperation with the centre of excellence for jet propulsion they will optimize the selection and jet performance based on the requirements of your ship design, hull parameters and/or ship operating profile. The addresses of our local offices worldwide can be found on, or you can contact one of the below offices for specific applications. Wrtsil-Lips Inc. 3617 Koppens Way Chesapeake Virginia 23323, USA Tel. +1 757 558 3625 Wrtsil Defence 3 Boulevard de La Loire Nantes 44275, France Tel. +33 240411 602 Wrtsil Netherlands Lipsstraat 52 5151RP Drunen, The Netherlands Tel. +31 416388 208

Wrtsil is a global leader in complete lifecycle power solutions for the marine and energy markets. By emphasising technological innovation and total efficiency, Wrtsil maximises the environmental and economic performance of the vessels and power plants of its customers. Wrtsil is listed on the NASDAQ OMX Helsinki, Finland.

WRTSIL is a registered trademark. Copyright 2011 Wrtsil Corporation.

01.2010 / Bocks Office /