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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT is a subsystem of an organization and core function of human resource management. It ensures continuous skill development of employees working in organisation and habituates process of learning for developing knowledge to work. Training and Development is the foundation for obtaining quality output from employees. Training and Development is a structured program with different methods will be designed by professionals in particular job. It has become most common and continuous task in any organisation for updating skills and knowledge of employees in accordance with changing environment. Optimisation of cost with available resources has become pressing need for every organisation which will be possible only by way of improving efficiency and productivity of employees, possible only by way of providing proper employee training and development conditioned to that it should be provided by professionals.
Approaches of training and development
Traditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing. Modern Approach- Modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results.
OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
To impart to new entrants the basic knowledge and skill they need for an intelligent performance of definite tasks. To ensure that each employee is equipped with capabilities to perform various tasks associated with his role. To assist employees to function more effectively in their present positions by exposing them to the latest concepts, information and techniques and developing the skills they will need in their particular fields. To help the employee develop as an individual so that the organization can recognize and use the maximum possible potential of its employees. To help employees work as team members since no individual can accomplish the goals of the organization single handed.
. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life. and peers. relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal. It helps to build good employee. and inter-team collaborations. Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees. Training and Development aids in organizational development i. better attitudes. Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work. team spirit. Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal. and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display. Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence.Importance of Training and Development Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources‟ technical and behavioural skills in an organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders. Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force. Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization.e. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization. motivation. It helps in understanding and carrying out organisational policies Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills. loyalty. subordinates. Healthy work environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment.
Training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behaviour. Training Development Training means learning skills and Development means the growth knowledge for doing a particular job. No. skills & attitudes of employees. It helps in bringing about positive change in the knowledge. Training Training is required at every stage of work and for every person at work. concepts. Development is career cantered in nature. development”. It shapes attitudes. Training is job cantered in nature. Since training involves time. It is also required when a person is moved from one assignment to another of a different nature. values and environment. effort & money by an organization.Difference between training and development Sr. 1. also areas of evaluation of training. it has a short-term perspective. The objectives & need for training should . this unit aims at providing insight into the concept. employees. 4. 3. training plays a vital role. need and methods of training. 2. so an organization should to be very careful while designing a training program. Training is investment in getting more and better quality work from your talent. 5. Taking into account this context. It increases job skill. It is the application of knowledge & gives people an awareness of rules & procedures to guide their behaviour. Thus. Thus. Executive development seeks to develop competencies and skills for future performances. The role of trainer or supervisor is All development is “selfvery important in training. Training is concerned with maintaining and improving current job performances. The executive has to be internally motivated for self-development. The term “Training” is generally used The term “development” is to denote imparting specific skills associated with the overall among operative workers and growth of the executives. To keep one-self updated with the fast changing technologies. retraining and dimensions of organisational learning. it has long-term perspectives. Training programmes are also necessary in any organisation for improving the quality of work of the employees at all levels. of an employee in all respects.
"Training is the organised procedure by which people learn knowledge and Improve skill for a definite purpose." In the words of Michael J. Beach. Training has been defined by different scholars of management. Training is a specialised knowledge which is required to perform a specific job." At all levels of organisation training and development programmes are needed in order to make qualitative improvement in the work of the employees. Some important definitions of training are as under: In the words of Dale S. an organization should take a feedback on the training program from the trainees in the form of a structured questionnaire so as to know whether the amount & time invested on training has turned into an investment or it was a total expenditure for an organization. Jucius. capable and loyal employees at all levels and thereby to make arrangement to meet the future needs of an organisation. To improve the quality of production and thereby to create market demand and reputation in the business world. skills and abilities of employees to perform specific jobs are increased. . Definition of training Training is that process by which the efficiency of the employees increases and develops.be clearly identified & the method or type of training should be chosen according to the needs & objectives established." According to Edwin B. To provide opportunities of growth and self-development to employees and thereby to motivate them for promotion and other monetary benefits. To develop cordial labour management relations and thereby to improve the organisational environment." In the words of Dale Yoder. To avoid accidents and wastages of all kinds. Objectives of Training To raise efficiency and productivity of employees and the Organisation as a whole. Flippo. Once this is done accurately. "Training is the process by which manpower is filled for the particular job it has to perform. to develop balanced health and safety attitudes among the employees. "Training is a process by which the aptitudes. To create a pool of well-trained. In addition. To meet the challenges posed by new developments in science and technology. to give safety and security to the life and health of employees. In addition. "Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.
but work effectively with the minimum of supervision. Increasing use of fast changing techniques in production and other operations requires training into newer methods for the operatives. giving rise to the need for training. Employment of inexperienced and new labour requires detailed instructions for effective performance on the job. . should be monitored so as to be purposeful. Systems and practices get out dated soon due to new discoveries in technology. To develop certain personal qualities among employees which can serve as personal assets on long term basis. Training improves the quality of production. including technical. However. They are ADVANTAGES TO THE COMPANY: Training raises the efficiency and productivity of managers. There are some other reasons also for which this training becomes necessary. once their skills are developed. It also improves the performance of workers due to their motivation. To develop positive attitude and behaviour pattern required by an employee to perform a job efficiently. minimum of cost. Old employees need refresher training to enable them to keep abreast of changing techniques and the use of sophisticated tools and equipment. This reduces cost of production and improves quality. and to produce quality goods and services. To prevent manpower obsolescence in an organisation. Without proper monitoring. development is likely to increase the frustration of employees if when. Such development. to improve the culture of the Organisation. and expectations raised. Explained below are various factors. In other words. waste and spoilage. they are not given opportunities for the application of such skills. A good training system also ensures that employees develop in directions congruent with their career plans. People have not to work. A good training sub-system would help greatly in monitoring the directions in which employees should develop in the best interest of the organisation. promotion or demotion. Need of Training Training is essential because technology is developing continuously and at a fast rate. managerial and behavioural aspects. Training is necessary when a person has to move from one job to another because of transfer. It also reduces the volume of spoiled work and wastages of all kinds. Organisations that do not develop mechanisms to catch up with and use the growing technology soon become stale. however. developing individuals in the organisation can contribute to its effectiveness of the organisation. Advantages of Training Programme A training programme has the following advantages.
or profitability. ADVANTAGES TO THE EMPLOYEE: Training creates a feeling of confidence among the employees. In this lesson. Training moulds attitudes of employees and develops cordial industrial relations. Training raises the morale of employees. Training creates a pool of trained and capable personnel from which replacements can be drawn to fill up the loss of key personnel due to retirement. It gives personal safety and security to them at the work place. including: Literacy training Interpersonal skills training Technical training Problem-solving training . we will take a look at how the implementation of several types of employee training programs is used as well as those programs' benefits aboard the Breezy Ocean cruise ship. of the business. It reduces accidents as trained employees work systematically and avoid mistakes in the work assigned. Training develops positive attitude towards work assigned and thereby creates interest and attraction for the job and the work place. Managers know that the investment in employee training programs in a wide variety of areas is important to the bottom line. Training reduces expenditure on supervision as trained employees take interest in the work and need limited supervision and control. Training provides proper guidance and instructions to newly appointed executives and assists them to adjust properly with the job and the organisation. Training provides attractive remuneration and other monetary benefits to employees. It actually refreshes the mental outlook of employees. It updates their knowledge and skills and keeps them fresh. Training creates skilled and efficient manpower which is an asset of an industrial unit. Training provides opportunity for quick promotion and self-development to managers. Training develops skills which act as valuable personal assets of employees. Training develops adaptability among employees. Training creates an attitude of mutual co-operation and understanding among the managers. Training brings stability to labour force by reducing turnover of managerial personnel. Such attitude is useful not only at the work place but also in the social life. Types of Training Programs Most businesses offer their employees some type of training. Training facilitates the introduction of new management techniques and also new production techniques including automation and computer technology. Training reduces absenteeism as trained managers find their job interesting and prefer to remain present on all working days. etc.
There are several benefits to offering technological training to employees. like the ship's cruising system. Tight quarters often led to tensions on the high seas. they were better able to communicate with passengers. write and understand the written word to solve problems. There are several benefits to literacy training for employees. the official language of the ship. theatre lighting. Technology training is training on computer software and hardware offered to specific crew members depending on their position. Employees will be more likely to: Perform at higher standards Have more self-confidence Develop higher skill levels Perform many different tasks . There are several benefits to interpersonal skills training for employees. Basic literacy training is training for things like reading. Employees will be more likely to: Meet company goals Perform job tasks Understand work processes Work in teams Make decisions Learn technology Interpersonal Skills Training Breezy Ocean's crew lived in small cabins on the bottom deck of the ship. Crew members needed to be proficient in technology in order to operate on a day-to-day basis and in an emergency situation. needed safety instructions. most importantly. communicate better. Crew members fought over things like privacy and space for their personal belongings. like food and drink preferences. resolve conflicts and build trust. asked for lounge locations and. Problems arose when passengers had special requests. cash registers and lifeboats. writing and problem-solving skills. Once the crew learned how to read. Employees will be more likely to: Get along with each other Exchange positive communication Minimize conflict Influence others to be positive Technology Training Breezy Ocean is a high-tech ship with lots of different technologies on board. Interpersonal skills training is training on how to maintain positive relationships. the lounge. Diversity or sensitivity training Literacy Training Breezy Ocean's crew is hired from all over the world. This training was offered to every member of the crew. Many of the crew do not speak English.
genders. assess solutions. Crew members need to work together and quickly solve any problem that occurs. ethnic backgrounds. In order to maintain civility and avoid mutiny. If employees are not performing their jobs properly. Employees will be more likely to: Offer creative solutions to problems Collaborate on problem-solving Avert disasters Diversity or Sensitivity Training Breezy Ocean's crew is a mix of many different cultures. They know what they need/want to make them better at their jobs. . There are many benefits to offering problem-solving training to employees. Employees will be more likely to: Experience higher morale Avoid harassment Embrace new cultures Training Process Step 1: Decide If Training is needed The first step in the training process is a basic one: to determine whether a problem can be solved by training. Rough seas. Ideally. training should be provided before problems or accidents occur and should be maintained as part of quality control. Diversity or sensitivity training is training on how to deal with people of different races. analyse problems. sexual preferences or disabilities. This may not always be the case. This sometimes causes arguments amongst the crew. Training is conducted for one or more of these reasons: 1) Required legally or by order or regulation 2) to improve job skills or move into a different position 3) for an organization to remain competitive and profitable. it is often assumed that training will bring them up to standard. fire or even running out of margarita mix can cause a serious situation at sea. regulatory considerations may require certain training in certain industries and/or job classifications. implement solutions and monitor outcomes. power failures. it is important that employees are trained to make split-second decisions. Problem-solving training is training on how to analyse problems and make decisions and is mandatory for all crew members.Problem-Solving Training Because so much can happen aboard the Breezy Ocean. There are many benefits to diversity or sensitivity training. Step 2: Determine What Type of Training is needed The employees themselves can provide valuable information on the training they need. the crew members must find a way to get along. Sometimes crew members fight because of their differences. Just ask them! Also. Crew will learn how to identify problems.
The training should be presented so that its organization and meaning are clear to employees. asking questions. contributing their knowledge and expertise. learning through hands–on experiences. . period. it is equally important to determine what kind of training is not needed. Clearly stated training objectives will help employers communicate what they want their employees to do. Step 5: Evaluation Training Program One way to make sure that the training program is accomplishing its goals is by using an evaluation of the training by both the students and the instructors Training should have. Step 4: Implementing the Training Training should be conducted by professionals with knowledge and expertise in the given subject area. and even through role–playing exercises. Step 3: Identifying Goals and Objectives Once the employees' training needs have been identified. This avoids unnecessary time lost and focuses the training to meet the needs of the employees. as one of its critical components. employers can then prepare for the training. An effective training program allows employees to participate in the training process and to practice their skills and/or knowledge. or to stop doing! Learning objectives do not necessarily have to be written. they should be CLEAR and thought–out before the training begins.Once the kind of training that is needed has been determined. Evaluations will help employers or supervisors determine the amount of learning achieved and whether or not an employee's performance has improved on the job as a result. Employees should be encouraged to become involved in the training process by participating in discussions. experienced talent or an outside professional training source as the best option. to do better. Nothing is worse than being in a classroom with an instructor who has no knowledge of what they are supposed to be teaching! Use in-house. but in order for the training to be as successful as possible. a method of measuring the effectiveness of the training. Training should focus on those steps on which improved performance is needed.
Some trainers demonstrate the task before asking the trainee to repeat the process. and follow-up. Practice time is important for the trainee to master a particular set of skills. A simple four-step process that helps the trainer to prepare the worker. Finally. allow for practice time. the individual is placed on a regular job and taught the skill necessary to perform that job.Methods of Training On-the-job Training method: This type of training. Under this method. or other training or job aids that can be used as references. is the most commonly used method. hand outs. The trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker or instructor. Presenting the task should be carried out in such a way that the trainee understands and can replicate the task. Onthe-job training has the advantage of giving first-hand knowledge and experience under actual working conditions. the trainer needs to conduct a follow-up as a way of ensuring that the . The content of a JIT program is distinguished by its simplicity. It is a form of OJT. also known as job instruction training. Preparation may include providing employees with a training manual. Preparing the workers is important because they need to know what to expect. On-the-job training methods are as follows Job Instruction Training (JIT) JIT is defined as a sequence of instructional procedures used by the trainer to train employee while they work in their assigned job. present the task.
Merits Trainee learns fast through self-practice under close guidance of trainer. feedback is instantaneous. Merits It provided a well. trainee should have right KSA level. familiarising him with many phases of the company‟s operations. policies. the trainer should apply coaching techniques when appropriate. At the end of the cycle. including some key roles. involves a series of assignments to different positions or departments for a specified period of time. JOB ROTATION So far we have discussed techniques that are intended to develop job-related skills. the trainee is supervised by a department employee. affective locomotors inputs are available. The executive so trained considers his problems and . the OJT trainer should adjust the material or techniques to fit the needs of the trainee. Trainee should exhibit good behaviour. and evaluation the trainee. The role of the trainer in this approach is to guide the learners and help them to discover potential problems and find solutions on their own. training. When this technique is used. usually a supervisor. particularly if this person is the trainee„s coworker or supervisor. Since the work premises are well structured. Corrective action can be taken then and there. More suited for technical jobs and those requiring physical ability. Trainee learns fasters because all cognitive. Job rotation is similar in intent. Throughout the training cycle. and procedures. should have an opportunity to assess the trainee„s needs before beginning the training material is too difficult or too easy. Sometimes trainee‟s time may be wasted because the equipment may be busy. Job rotation is frequently used for first-level management training. Demerits For ensuring the transfer of knowledge. The instructor can then provide feedback and reinforce learning. the trainee is expected to learn about how each department functions. it is quick. If the trainee does not practice-he may not pick up rightly. who is responsible for orienting.rounded of experience for the individual. no setting up of training venue is required. it is generally assumed that new managers need to develop a working knowledge of the organization before they can be successful mangers. During this assignment. particularly for new employees. as the term implies. but with this approach the trainee is generally expected to learn more by observing and doing than by receiving instruction Rotation.trainee is making progress. learning can start immediately. The trainer. Trainee has to be punctual and disciplined. The success of JIT depends on the ability of the trainer to adapt his or her own style to the training process. At times the trainer may not be available. Observation & application in the job is possible. During this follow-up session. the accumulated evaluations will be used to determine the preparedness of the trainee and if and where the person will be permanently assigned.
while sound changes are good. Each manager‟s abilities and talents are best tested in a variety of jobs. so the enterprise can secure his best utilization in ultimate assignment‟ Demerits The most basic problem was reported to be that of finding suitable placement. Often the trainee shares some of the duties and responsibilities of the coach and relieves him of his burden. It stimulates the development of the individual because of the element of competition introduced. illconvinced and hasty innovations may lead to costly experimental. There is physical limit upon the extent to which development opportunities in an actual job situation can be created. It develops sharp cleavages. it cannot be reduced to a tailor-made operation. COACHING The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who functions as a coach in training the individual. flexible and closed. It eliminates the assumption by an individual of my vested right in a particular job. The new incumbent is likely to bring in a zeal for a change. jealousy and other non-co-operative and dysfunctional forms of human behaviour. which may or may not have been justified. eliminating practices or operations which may have been carried on unnecessarily over a period of years. It breaks down departmental provincialism for everyone is moved from one to another. Job rotation can de-motivate intelligent and aggressive trainees who seek specific responsibility in their chosen specialty. their supply. It streamlines the organisation through periodic introduction of new managerial view points. It upsets family life. Job rotation ensures the avoidance of the problem which arises when a newly promoted manager is required to supervise his former peers. because many a time transfers are affected to different geographical areas. The physical layout of an organisation in terms of its size. Merits . A limitation of this method of training is that the trainee may not have the freedom or opportunity to express his own ideas. makes his decisions more intelligently in the light of their effect on the operations of the organisation as whole. It rather develops inter-departmental co-operation. so the enterprise can secure his best utilization in the ultimate assignment. Each manager‟s abilities and talents are best tested in a variety of jobs. and after a point freezes. its structure. friction. and its practices and proceduresdetermines. highlights an inherent limitation of on job training as a development tool. It explodes men out of jobs inherited through favour. unlike the formal training. the nature and magnitude of its operation. It prevents over manning and „dry rot‟ in the organisation. because many a time transfers are affected to different geographical areas. It upsets family life. The supervisor provides feedback to the trainee on his performance and offers him some suggestions for improvement. This incidentally. Job rotation system may easily become over centralised.
like management trainee programs. Conflicting goals. Coaches have to make a living. Cookie uses this method for high-level positions. Personal Matching. The trainee employee learns the job first hand and may consult the mentor or coach at any time for assistance. Some coaches may not necessarily get along with you. as well as having a proven track record. Personal Growth. It may teach you a practical method to approach problems and work your way through or around them. for instance wanting to run a marathon but at the same time looking to have more time to relax in. then the coaching will be difficult. Be very sure of what you are trying to achieve in employing a coach in the first place. Periodic feedback: Periodic feedback and evaluation are also a part of coaching. just like everyone else. Coaching may encourage you to achieve your goals. There is no point in employing a coach who has poor teaching methods or doesn't know his subject particularly well. If your goals do not match each other. to the coach and to the subordinate. This is more likely to regress you rather than progress you. This can be difficult if you are on a low or reduced income as such services are inevitably costly. The problems of personal contact in a pressurized environment with another human being can sometimes be awkward. using facilities to good advantage. Achievement of goals. which yield immediate benefits to an organisation. but is not performing the job with the employee as in on-the-job training. The coach needs to be accredited. and this will impact on the standard of coaching you receive. Constant guidance helps the trainee to be on track. Job Mentoring Job Mentoring involves providing an employee with an experienced coach to oversee his or her learning experience. Standard of teaching. This method works well for employees who have already acclimated to the company and have been moved up or promoted through the ranks. Training with coaches always involves a working relationship with them. All coaching proceeds at the rate you require. . they will charge you for their services. Demerits Coaching Costs. This can help you learn faster and essentially grow much more quickly than if you were left on your own to tutor or train yourself. Learning by doing There is an excellent opportunity to learn quickly through continuous interaction. As a result. The mentor or coach provides advice and instruction. if not impossible.
Merits One-on-one training is often personalized Mentor is available to offer advice Mentee experiences growth within the company Mentor-mentee pairing may not be a good fit Workflow may be disrupted due to one-on-one training Demerits Apprenticeship Apprenticeship is a formalized method of training curriculum program that combines classroom education with on-the-job work under close supervision. a pattern designer. a printer. . no debt. There are over 200 different types of apprenticeships. This meant that Ruth would shadow or watch Coco as she performed her job. sport. That‟s right! No student loans. They help you gain the skills and knowledge you need to succeed in your chosen industry. This method is appropriate for training in crafts. notified Cookie that she would be moving out of state in a month. no tuition fees. So whether you‟re hankering after a career in business. Merits Apprenticeships are structured training programmes which give you a chance to work (literally) towards a qualification.When Coco. You earn while you learn. Most trade apprenticeship programs have duration of three to four years before an apprentice is considered completely accomplished in that trade or profession. the marketing manager. Ruth would perform all tasks of the job. Choice. Eventually. e. a tool maker. Coco would be on hand to offer advice as needed. etc. for Coco's position.. Getting into employment earlier means there‟s lots of potential for you to progress in your career quickly. You can also begin to earn a good salary much earlier on in your life. a machinist. job of a craftsman. You‟ll be paid a salary by your employer. a mechanic. marketing or construction. Cookie assigned Coco to begin mentoring Ruth. The training curriculum is planned in advance and conducted in careful steps from day to day. and the government tends to cover the cost of the training for most young people. especially when proficiency in a job is the result of a relatively long training or apprenticeship period. the current marketing coordinator. Ruth would take on some of Coco's responsibilities during the transition. hopefully. there‟s something for everyone. Hands-on training gives you a real chance to put your skills into practice and helps you to gain more confidence in a working environment. trades and technical areas.g. Apprenticeships give you fantastic experience in the working world and show employers that you can „hit the ground running‟. and.
Merits It is a practical method emphasising learning by doing. You might find that you‟ll miss out on the added benefits of staying in full-time education and the depth of learning that a degree offers. You won‟t have to spend all of your days studying. It relieves the superior from some of his duties and responsibilities. that is the rock bottom rate. foundation degrees or honours degrees. transfer or promotion. If you do want to gain a higher qualification through an apprenticeship. It avoids serious disadvantages to the organisation if the superior suddenly leaves the job. it will take much longer and the range of courses you‟ll be able to study might be more limited than if you applied with A-levels.60 an hour. However. The minimum wage for apprentices is only £2. many apprentices earn much more than this. Demerits The competition for promotion is over when the understudy is designated. You can even gain higher qualifications through apprenticeships. Apprenticeships offer a varied learning experience. A 2009 Labour Force Survey showed that. such as HNCs. so you need to think carefully about your options. and learning from others in your industry. The departmental manager guides his to learn his job and deal with problems that confront the manager daily. HNDs. those with a degree earn more money per hour than those with NVQlevel qualifications. As an alternative the HR department may make the selection of understudy. Having an undergraduate degree will be an essential requirement for certain careers. The understudy learns the job through observation and participation in decision making. Demerits Your starting salary might be much lower than that of a graduate. . It‟s all about learning while doing. Starting salaries for graduates tend to be higher. particularly in areas such as medicine and science. most of the time you‟ll be working at a company. Here the HEAD selects one of his suitable subordinates to become his understudy. on average. You can‟t gain access to certain careers through an apprenticeship route. Graduates are valued by most employers. when the latter leaves his post due to retirement. This method leads to jealousy and friction within the department. Understudy An understudy is a trainee manager who is to assume the full duties and responsibilities of the position currently help by his superior.
Merits First. delegation focuses attention and increases productivity. since it is always a good idea to prevent a job from becoming repetitive and boring . people with assigned tasks will learn new and valuable skills when working on delegated tasks that that they have never worked on before. delegation has the added benefit to give employees more time to work on new assignments and challenges. Eventually. Junior Boards A junior board of junior executives is constituted. allows delegators to better focus on more important and more difficult assignments. delegation helps manage the limited time of more skilled employees. which are necessary for a good manager. which leads to the second benefit of delegation. By assigning lower priority tasks that are typically easier to do than higher priority tasks. Eventually. this allows skilled people to concentrate working on more skilled tasks. Merits Junior board facilitates group decision-making It contributes to the productivity and human relations in the organisation It identifies executive talent It is an economical method Demerits It is not possible to give specific attention to the developmental needs of executives It follows theoretical approach to problem solving It is not suitable to lower level executives Delegation The performance of the subordinates may not improve unless additional responsibility and authority is delegated to them. The young executives learn decision making skills and Board receives the collective wisdom of the junior board. For instance. Keep in mind that training and supervision may be necessary when delegating new tasks. thus increasing the productivity of the delegator and the entire team. As a result. these newly delegated tasks will not require any training or supervision. when less skilled employees work on less skilled tasks. Third. Major problems are analysed in the junior board which makes recommendation to the Board of Directors. delegation helps manage time effectively. They will develop leadership qualities and decision-making skills. Second. The understudy may not take adequate interest in his self-development because of his prior selection. Making the subordinates achieve a particular target through delegation is one way by which subordinates will learn to grow and develop independently.
and that can cause trouble (honest mistakes.). ascertain alternative solutions and make recommendations for implementing solutions. Lose control of a project or business because it's grown in a way you can no longer handle.Demerits Tend to stop monitoring a person. When committees are of “Adhoc” or temporary nature they often take on task force activities designed to delve into a particular problem. etc. . Committee assignments Assignment to a committee can provide an opportunity for the employee to share in manager decision making to learn by watching others and to investigate specific organisational problems. embezzlement.