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What is a Preposition?

A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples: The book is on the table. The book is beneath the table. The book is leaning against the table. The book is beside the table. She held the book over the table. She read the book during class. In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in time. A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The most common prepositions are "about," "above," "across," "after," "against," "along," "among," "around," "at," "before," "behind," "below," "beneath," "beside," "between," "beyond," "but," "by," "despite," "down," "during," "except," "for," "from," "in," "inside," "into," "like," "near," "of," "off," "on," "onto," "out," "outside," "over," "past," "since," "through," "throughout," "till," "to," "toward," "under," "underneath," "until," "up," "upon," "with," "within," and "without." Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a preposition: The children climbed the mountain without fear. In this sentence, the preposition "without" introduces the noun "fear." The prepositional phrase "without fear" functions as an adverb describing how the children climbed. There was rejoicing throughout the land when the government was defeated. Here, the preposition "throughout" introduces the noun phrase "the land." The prepositional phrase acts as an adverb describing the location of the rejoicing. The spider crawled slowly along the banister. The preposition "along" introduces the noun phrase "the banister" and the prepositional phrase "along the banister" acts as an adverb, describing where the spider crawled. The dog is hiding under the porch because it knows it will be punished for chewing up a new pair of shoes. Here the preposition "under" introduces the prepositional phrase "under the porch," which acts as an adverb modifying the compound verb "is hiding." The screenwriter searched for the manuscript he was certain was somewhere in his office. Similarly in this sentence, the preposition "in" introduces a prepositional phrase "in his office," which acts as an adverb describing the location of the missing papers.

A phrase is a group of two or more grammatically linked words without a subject and predicate -- a group of grammatically-linked words with a subject and predicate is called a clause. The group "teacher both students and" is not a phrase because the words have no grammatical relationship to one another. Similarly, the group "bay the across" is not a phrase. In both cases, the words need to be rearranged in order to create phrases. The group "both teachers and students" and the group "across the bay" are both phrases. You use a phrase to add information to a sentence and it can perform the functions of a subject, an object, a subject complement or object complement, a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. The highlighted words in each of the following sentences make up a phrase: She bought some spinach when she went to the corner store. Lightning flashed brightly in the night sky.

They heard high pitched cries in the middle of the night. In early October, Giselle planted twenty tulip bulbs; unfortunately, squirrels ate the bulbs and none bloomed. Small children often insist that they can do it by themselves.

What is a sentence?
Definition A sentence is a grammatical unit that is composed of one or more clauses. Discussion The meaning of the term sentence may be expanded to include elliptical material and nonproductive items. Examples:

After lunch. (in reply to When do you start?) Yes. Hello.

Example (English) I am reading a book. Kinds Here are some kinds of sentences: What is a complex sentence? Definition A complex sentence is a sentence which includes

at least one main clause, and at least one subordinate clause. The man whom you see is my brother.

Example (English)

What is a compound sentence? Definition A compound sentence is a sentence composed of two or more coordinate clauses.

What is a matrix sentence?

Definition A matrix sentence is a sentence in which a clause has been embedded as a constituent. The clause may or may not be an immediate constituent, but it must be embedded by means other than coordination. Example (English) In the following sentences, the dog died is the matrix sentence: After eating the raw fish, the dog died. The dog that ate the raw fish died.

What is a simple sentence?

The Parts of the Sentence


The parts of the sentence are a set of terms for describing how people construct sentences from smaller pieces. There is not a direct correspondence between the parts of the sentence and the parts of speech -- thesubject of a sentence, for example, could be a noun, a pronoun, or even an entire phrase or clause. Like the parts of speech, however, the parts of the sentence form part of the basic vocabulary of grammar, and it is important that you take some time to learn and understand them.

Writing a Friendly or Personal Letter


A friendly or personal letter has 5 main parts.
HEADING: Includes the address and the date. In some cases, it is OK to just write the date. GREETING: The greeting usually starts with 'Dear' and is followed the person's name and then a comma. BODY: After skipping a line, you begin the body of your letter which is the main text of your letter. Indent for each new paragraph. CLOSING: The closing includes a short capitalized expression such as 'Sincerely' or 'Love' and is followed by a comma. Skip a line after the body before writing your closing. SIGNATURE: You sign your name beginning directly below the closing. Sometimes you may add aPOSTSCRIPT at the end of your letter. You write P.S., add a note and then end it with your initials.

KINDS OF SENTENCES

1. Declarative: makes a statement, and ends with a period. I sing a lovely song. 2. Interrogative: asks a question, and ends with a question mark. Did I sing a lovely song? 3. Imperative: gives a command or makes a request, and ends with a period or an exclamation point. (an exclamation point shows a strong emotion of some kind, i.e., pleasure, anger, fear, etc.) Sing a song for us now. 4. Exclamatory: expresses strong feeling or emotion. He sang a lovely song ! (he = the subject; sang = past tense of the verb "sing"; sang a lovely song = the predicate) Using what you have just learned, look at these examples and decide if they're complete sentences, or fragments (parts, or pieces) of a sentence. Remember: a complete sentence must have a subject and a verb:

Parts of a Sentence
1. Subject
The subject of a sentence is the noun---or word group acting as a noun---that performs the action expressed in the predicate of a sentence or clause. The subject may be one word: Sally loves chocolate. The subject may be in a noun phrase: Seeing the parade was exciting. The black and white dog was barking fiercely at the stranger.

2. Predicate
The predicate is the part of the clause or sentence that says something about the subject. In other words, the part of the sentences that is not the subject and its modifiers is the predicate. A predicate can be one word or several words, not all of which are verbs.

The principal part of the predicate is the verb. The dog sniffed. The dog has been sniffing. The dog sniffed, looked around, and growled. Compound verbs are two or more verbs joined by a conjunction, (in this sentence, the word and) and relating to the same subject. The subject of the following sentences is cobra: The cobra saw the dog coming closer and raised itself into striking position. The cobra hissed, opened its hood, and prepared to strike. Complete predicates are all the words in a clause or sentence except the subject and its modifiers: The cobra saw the dog coming closer and raised itself into striking position. The agile dog moved from side to side rapidly, trying to corner the cobra.

The object of a sentence can be a noun, pronoun, or word group that acts as a noun, and receives the action of a verb or is influenced by a transitive verb, verbal (a word derived from a verb, i.e., gerund, infinitive, and participle), or a preposition. (More on Objects) 1. Direct object: Receives the action of a verb or verbal and frequently follows it in a sentence. Direct objects are often needed to complete the thought of a sentence. "Rueben reads the newspaper." "Reuben reads" is a complete sentence, but it doesn't express the complete thought. Reuben reads what? He reads the newspaper. 2. Indirect object: Tells for whom, to whom, or to what something is done. "Reuben reads his grandmother the newspaper." Reuben reads the newspaper to whom? to his grandmother. Grandmother is the indirect object. Pronouns are also used as indirect objects: "Reuben reads her the newspaper." Indirect objects often come between the verb and the direct object. The sentence could also be: "Reuben reads the newspaper to his grandmother." The prepositional phrase to his grandmother is the indirect object of the sentence. 3. Object of Preposition: Objects follow prepositions and are linked by them to the rest of the sentence. (See Prepositional Phrase) Complements (See also Complements page) A word or word group that completes the meaning of a subject, an object, or a verb.

3. Objects

1. Subject complement: Follows a linking verb and modifies or refers to the subject. It may be a noun (also known as a predicate noun or nominative) or an adjective (also known as a predicate adjective).

Olivia is pretty. (The adjective pretty is a subject complement; it describes the subject, Olivia.) Annie is an English teacher. (The noun phrase English teacher is also a subject complement; it describes Annie.) Blake considers American television silly. (television is the direct object. silly describes television; it is the object complement.) The judges elected her Miss Brazil, 2002. (Miss Brazil is the object complement, describing the direct object her.)

2. Object complement: Follows and modifies or refers to a direct object.


3. Verb complement: This is a direct or indirect object of a verb. It may be a noun, pronoun, or word or word group acting as a noun.

Aunt Gertie gave Patty my dessert. (Patty is the indirect object, my dessert is the direct object of the verb gave. Both are considered verb complements.)

Phrases
A group of related words that lacks a subject, or a predicate, or both---and that acts as a single part of speech. See also Phrases & Clauses.
1. Prepositional phrase: Consists of a preposition and its objects and modifiers. The object of the preposition is a noun or

something acting as a noun (for instance, a gerund). The repairman is at the door. (at is a preposition; door is a noun, and is the object of the preposition.) Prepositional phrases are almost always used as adjectives or adverbs. If the phrase is being used as an adjective, it comes after the noun or pronoun it is describing. Discretion is the better part of valor. (of is the preposition; valor is a noun and is the object of the preposition. The phrase describes the word part.)

Remember that when using a pronoun in a prepositional phrase, you must use the objective case (me, her, him, us, them, whom.) you is the same in the subjective and objective case. 2. Noun phrase: Noun phrases are composed of a noun (or pronoun) and its modifiers. They are used as subjects, objects, or complements. The strange, eerie moaning made the dog's hackles raise. (noun phrase as subject) Zeke likes a large serving of spicy food for lunch. (noun phrase as object) The beach is a great spot for vacations. (noun phrase as complement) 3. Verb phrase: A group of words that include a verb and any auxiliary verbs that serve as the predicate of a sentence or clause. Gary has a toothache. Gary was having a toothache. Gary has already had a toothache. Gary must have been having a toothache.
The pattern for a verb phrase can be as long as this : auxiliary/modal verb + auxiliary verb + auxiliary verb + main verb

4. Verbal phrase: Consists of a verbal (a word derived from a verb) and any modifiers. Verbal phrases are not the main verb or predicate in a sentence. The three types of verbals used in these phrases are present participles (ing form of a verb), past participles (ed or en form of a verb), and infinitives (to + the base form of a verb). a. Infinitive phrase: Consists of an infinitive and its object, plus any modifiers. Infinitive phrases are used as adjectives, adverbs,
or nouns. To ignore good manners is the sign of a boorish person. (to ignore good manners is acting as a noun and is the subject of the sentence.) b. Participial phrase: Consists of a participle and its object, plus any modifiers. Participial phrases are used as adjectives.

Yelling and screaming, Clarise ran from the mouse. (yelling and screaming describes Clarise.) The old teacher, exhausted and annoyed from too many years in the classroom, retired to a deserted island. (exhausted and annoyed from too many years in the classroom describes the teacher. Notice that participial phrases can use either the present (ing) or the past (ed/en) form of a verb.)

5. Gerund phrase: Consists of a gerund (the -ing form of a verb used as a noun) and its objects, plus any modifiers. A gerund phrase is used as a noun; subject, complement, direct object, indirect object, or object of a preposition. Falling asleep while your mother-in-law is showing vacation photos can get you in trouble. (The gerund
is falling, and the gerund phrase acts as the subject of the sentence.)

Samantha's favorite activity is swimming with her friends. (The gerund is swimming, and the phrase acts as a complement.)

Clauses
A group of related words containing a subject and a predicate. See Phrases and Clauses.

1. Main (independent) clause: An independent clause can stand by itself as a complete sentence.

Amos left work early because his mother was ill. (Amos left work early is a complete sentence.) Maggie loves pizza when it has extra cheese. (Maggie loves pizza is a complete thought.) Charlie has had a backache because he tried to lift the cow. (Charlie has had a backache is a complete thought.)

2. Subordinate (dependent) clause: A subordinate clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence.

Amos left work early because his mother was ill. (because his mother was ill is not a complete thought, so it cannot stand alone as a sentence.) Maggie loves pizza when it has extra cheese. (when it has extra cheese is not a complete thought.) Since he tried to lift the cow, Charlie has had a backache. (Since he tried to lift the cow is not a complete thought.)

Subordinate, or dependent clauses are introduced by using a subordinating conjunction. A subordinating conjunction is a word which joins a dependent clause and an independent clause together. Here are some subordinating conjunctions:**
Indicates Time after before since when whenever while until as once as long as Indicates Place Indicates Manner as if as though how Indicates Reason because since so that why in order that now that as so Indicates Condition if unless until in case (that) provided that assuming that even if only if; if only whether or not that Indicates Concession although though even though while whereas rather than

where wherever

**Some subordinating conjunctions (like after, before, since) are also prepositions, but when they are used to introduce a clause, they are making that clause subordinate to the independent clause in the sentence.

What are the parts of the book?


Answer: Cover- To put something over or upon, as to proted conceal or enclose. Spine-The back part of the book and it faces outward when you shelf the book right. Title Page- The page at the beginning of the book, usually containing the title of the book and the names of the author and publisher. Copyright Page-Where the copyright date is found. Dedication Page-The place where the author dedicates the book to someone. Table of Contents-A list of the books contents, arranged by chapter, section, subsection, Etc... Foreword- Come before the Introduction. Can be written by the author or someone else. Text (or Body)-The actual words of the book

Glossary-A list of hard words with their meanings often printed in the back of the book. Bibliography-A list of books, articles ect. used or refereed by the author at the end of the book. Index-A list of names and subjects in alphabetical order at the end of the book's page Blurb-The piece of information which gives a small introduction to a book. It is at the spine of the book.

COVER = is where you can find the title of the book and the authors name. COPYRIGHT = the date publish and the name of the manufacturer or the publisher. PREFACE = the letter of the author to the readers. TABLE OF CONTENTS = the list of the unit and the title of the topics. BODY = is the exact pages you study and their actual pages. INDEX = the list of the name or topics arrage alphabetically. GLOSSARY = where you can find the meaning of the hard word arrage alphabetically.

Dictionary
Reference source of words in a language or discipline, arranged alphabetically. In addition to defining the words, larger dictionaries also provide information on the spellings, pronunciation, word origins (etymology), functions, and different forms of the word.

What are the uses of a dictionary?


1. To look up the spelling and meaning of words, pronunciation/audio, inflected forms of words, capitalization, etymology, word division, contextual usages and much more, depending upon the dictionary. Considering the wide range of dictionaries by content, what makes someone choose a certain dictionary is its content. 2. it can be used in finding meanings. 3. Used in framing sentences. 4. increasing your vocabulary power. 5. Used in writing essays. 6. In speaking English more fluently. 7. to know many more words. 8. In learning many new words 9. In increasing your efficiency of writing essays 10. Use in creative essays