EUKARYOTE: organisms that have a well-defined nucleus to house and protect the DNA.

Eukaryotes divide by meiosis for sexual reproduction.

• • • • • •

all large organisms are eukaryotes, such as: animals, plants and fungi typically much larger than prokaryotes they have a variety of internal membrane and structures that are called - ORGANELLES cytoskeleton that plays an important role in defining the cell's organization and shape DNA is divided into several linear bundles called CHROMOSOMES the most important feature of the eukaryotic cell is the nucleus

ANIMAL CELL: • • • • distinct from other eukaryotes lack cell walls and chloroplasts smaller vacoules can adopt various shapes due to lack of cell wall

PLANT CELL: • • • • • different from other eukaryotic organisms a large central vacoule a primary cell wall contains cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin, deposited by the protoplast on the outside of the cell membrane the plasmodesmata, links pores in the cell wall that allow each plant cell to communicate with other cells plastids contain chlorophyll, the pigment that gives plants their green colour and allows them to perform photosynthesis

FUNGAL CELL: • 1. 2. similar to animal cells but with exceptions: a cell wall that contains chitin less definitions between cells;

OTHER EUKARYOTE CELLS: • eukaryotes are a very diverse group with diverse cell structures

• • • • • • ribosome - the site where proteins are made rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) - transports protein which have been made in robosomes smooth endoplasmic reticulum - transports lipids arounf the cell Golgi apparatus - it packages substances that are produced by the cell, mainly proteins and glycoproteins. It also makes rybosomes. mictrotubule - act as a gide for moving organelles in the cell mitochondrium - the site of respiration, where ATP is produced. They are found in large groups in cells that are very active and require a lot of energy. They are the powerhouses of the eukaryotic cell, mitochondria pump out energy by concerting glucose to ATP. ATP acts like a battery, storing energy untill it's needed for day-to-day living. Both animals and plants have mitochondria. chloroplast - the site where photosynthesis takes place. These organelles are unique to plants. They process the energy of sunlight into sugars that then are used by plant mitochondriato generate the energy that nourishes the living cells. centriole - involved with the separation of chromosomes during cell division cell wall - supports plants cells plasma membrane - regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell. It also has receptor molecules on it, which allow it to respond to chemicals like hormones nucleus - the chromatin contains DNA which controls the cells activities. Nucleolus makes RNA. the membranesurrounded compartment that houses the DNA that's divided into one or more chromosomes. The nucleus protects the DNA from damage during day-to-day living lysosome - contains digestive enzymes. These are kept separate from the cytoplasm by the surrounding membrane,

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but can be used to digest invalid cells or to destroy the cell when it needs to be replaced the cytoskeleton is a network of proteins: actin microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. Cytoskeletal proteins support the structure of the cell, help with cell division, and control cellular movements

MULTICELLULAR EUKARYOTES: SOMATIC CELLS produced by simple cell division called MITOSIS they are multicellular organisms various cells that make up the body have the same basic components but the arrangements of the elements change, so that they can carrry out various jobs MULTICELLULAR EUKARYOTES: SEX CELLS (GAMETES) used for reproduction only eukaryotic organisms engage in sexual reproduction sexual reproduction combines genetic material from two organisms and required special preparation in the form of a reduction in the amount of genetic material allocated to sex cells – MEIOSIS

the cell cycle consists of an ordered set of events, resulting in the production of two daughter cells. The eukaryotic cell cacle is composed of four steps:
• • • • Gap Phase 1

S-Phase Gap Phase 2 M-Phase

G1: necessary proteins for DNA are synthesized. During this period the cell must monitor both the internal and external environments to ensure that all the preparations for DNA synthesis have been completed and that overall conditions for cell division are favorable. There is a major check-point in a normal cell cycle that is critical for ensuring that all is well for the cell to enter S-phase. S-Phase: the duplication of the cellular content of DNA. The longest phase of the cell cycle, takes 10-12 hours of a typical 24hr eukaryotic cell cycle. G2: the cell undertakes the synthesis of the proteins required to assemble the machinery required for separation of the duplicated chromosomes (mitosis) and ultimately dicision of the parental cell into two daughter cells (cytokinesis). There is also a major check-point at the end of the G2 phase that controls the entry into M-phase. M-Phase: an ordered series of events that leads to the alignment and separation of the duplicated chromosomes (called sister chromatids). The steps of mitosis: 1. prophase - the chromosomes condence and become more tightly coiled and folded, seemingly becoming shorter and fatter as the process progresses. The DNA becomes inactive when the chromosomes start condensating. At the later stages the sister chromatid pairs are visible, attached to the centromere. The nucleoli disappear, the nuclear membrake breaks down and a spindle apparatus appears. metaphase - the centrometes of all the chromosomes line up on the equator and divide. The spindle apparatus forms fully. One of the sister chromatids of each chromosome is attached to one pole, the other attaches itself to the opposite pole. anaphase - first, the centromeres separate. The sister chromatids are drawn apart the opposite poles of the cell and after that are reffere to as daughter chromosomes. As the poles move further aparat, they lengthen the cell. telophase - the two sets of daughter chromosomes reach the poles of the cell. The nuclear membrane and nucleoli reform, and the chromosomes become less visible. The spindle apparatus disappears at the end of telophase. cytokinesis - cytoplasm devides. Parent cells become two daughter cells with identical genetic information. Mitosis is finished.


3. 4.

PROKARYOTE: single-celled organisms that are the earliest and most primitive forms of life on earth. They include bacteria and archaeans. They are able to live and thrive in various types of environments including extreme habitats such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, swamps, wetlands, and the guts of animals.
• • • • not as complicated as eukaryotes they have no tru nucleus as the DNA is not contained within a membrane or seprarated from the rest of the cell DNA is coiled up in a region of the cytoplasm called - NUCLEOID two major kinds of prokaryotes: bacteria and archaea (sigle-celled organisms)

BACTERIA (<---example): • capsule - protects the cell when it is enqulfed by other organisms, assists in retaining moisture ad helps the cell adhere to surfaces and nutreients • cell wall - outer covering of most cells that protects the bacterial cell and gives it shape

• cytoplasm - a gel-like substance composed mainly of water that also contains ensymes, salts, cell components, andvarious organic molecules • cell membrane or plasma membrane - surrounds the cell's cytoplasm and regulates the flow of substances in and out of the cell • pili - hair-like structures on the surface of the cell that attach to other bacterial cells. Shorter pili help bacteria attach to surfaces • • • • flagella - long, whip-like protrusion that aids in cellular locomotion ribosomes - cell structures responsible for protein production plasmids - gene carrying, circular DNA structures that are not involved in reproduction nucleoid region - area of the cytoplasm that contains the single bacterial DNA molecule

PROKARYOTE CYCLE: much simplier than eukaryotic cell cycle. The usual method of prokaryote cell division is termed binary fission. 1. 2. 3. 4. the prokaryotic chromosome is a single DNA molecule that first replicates each copy attached to a different part of the cell membrane when the cell begins to pull apart, the replicate and original chromosomes are separated following cell splitting - cytokinesis - there are then two cells of identical genetic composition


Eukaryotic Cell

Prokaryotic Cell

Nucleus: Number of chromosomes: Cell Type: True Membrane bound Nucleus: Example: Telomeres: Genetic Recombination: Lysosomes and peroxisomes: Microtubules: Endoplasmic reticulum: Mitochondria: Cytoskeleton: DNA wrapping on proteins.: Ribosomes: Vesicles: Golgi apparatus: Mitosis: Chloroplasts: Flagella: Permeability of Nuclear Membrane: Plasma membrane with steriod: Cell wall: Vacuoles: Cell size:

Present More than one Multicellular Present Animals and Plants Present (Linear DNA) Mitosis and fusion of gametes Present Present Present Present Present Yes larger Present Present Yes Present (in plants) Microscopic in size; membrane bound; usually arranged as nine doublets surrounding two singlets Selective Yes Only in plant cells (chemically simpler) Present 10-100um

Absent One--but not true chromosome:Plasmids Unicellular Absent Bacteria and Archaea Circular DNA doesn't need telemeres Partial, undirectional transfers DNA Absent Absent or rare Absent Absent May be absent No smaller Present Absent No---but has binary fission Absent; chlorophyll scattered in the cytoplasm Submicroscopic in size, composed of only one fiber not present Usually no Usually chemically complexed Present 1-10um

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