You are on page 1of 36

Chapter 2

Locomotion and Support

2.1 SUPPORT AND LOCOMOTION IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals

Importance of support and locomotion


Search for food Provide protection by escaping from enemies or avoiding danger Search for more conducive living environment Find mates for reproduction Avoid overcrowding which enables the offspring to move to another place

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Human skeletal system


Consist of two main part; axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton

Human skeleton
Axial skeleton

Parts
1. Skull 2. Vertebral column (the backbone) 3. Ribcage 1. Pectoral girdle 2. Arm (forelimbs) 3. Pelvic girdle 4. Leg (hind limbs) Cranium, bones of the face, jaw Cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx Sternum and ribs Scapula and clavicle Humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges Ischium, pubis, ischium Femur, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals. phalanges

Appendicular skeleton

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Skull
Cranium enclose and protect the brain Facial bones and jaw
Protect the eyes and ears Upper jaw is fixed

Skull is joined to the vertebral column at the base of cranium

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Rib
Twelve pairs of ribs
Articulate with thoracic cavity dorsally, and sternum ventrally

Sternum is the front part

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Vertebral column
Consists of 33 vertebrae, joined but separated by discs of cartilage Five types of vertebrae
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cervical vertebrae (7) Thoracic vertebrae (12) Lumbar vertebrae (5) Sacral vertebrae (5) Coccyx

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)


Neural arch Forms neural canal Neural spine Muscle attachment Centrum Gives support Neural canal Protects spinal cord

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Support head and neck Sentrum is short and thick

Large and thick sentrum

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Appendicular skeleton
Consists of
1. Pectoral girdles and forelimbs (arms) 2. Pelvic girdle and hind limbs (legs)

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Arms

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Legs

Pelvic girdle

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Joints
Place where two bones meet Bones are held together by ligaments Sinovial joints joints that contains a cavity filled with fluid End of bones are covered with cartilage.

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Joints

Various types of joints 1. Hinge joint


Allow movement in one plane

2. Ball-and-socket joint
Allow movement in all directions

Movement in a limb

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by tendons. Movements of cause by antagonistic movement of muscles:
One muscles is contracted, another is relaxed

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Structure of a muscle
Muscle fibre single, long cylindrical cell that contains many nuclei Myofibrils smaller units that made up muscle fiber Interaction of actin and myosin will cause muscle contraction

Locomotion of earthworm

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Earthworms have a hydrostatic skeleton (the force of contraction is applied to a coelum(fluid filled chamber). Coelom is surrounded by two antagonistic muscle
Thinner and longer: When circular muscle contract and the longitudinal muscle relax. (and vice verca) The muscles contract rhythmically to produce peristaltic waves which begins at the front and move towards the end of the body. Earthworm has chaetae (bristles) which anchor parts of the body to the ground so that other parts can be pulled towards it.
circular muscles surround the chamber longitudinal muscles extend from one end to the other.

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Locomotion of grasshopper
The flexor and extensor (antagonistic) muscles are attached to the internal surface of the exoskeleton. Flexor muscles bend a joint. Extensor muscles straighten it. The rear legs of a grasshopper are long and muscular and is adapted for hopping. Sitting position: When the flexor muscle contracts, the lower leg is pulled towards the body. The hind leg is folded in a Z shape and ready for a jump. Jump: When the extensor muscle contracts, the leg jerks backwards, propelling the grasshopper forward and upward into the air.

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Locomotion of grasshopper

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Locomotion of grasshopper
The flexor and extensor (antagonistic) muscles are attached to the internal surface of the exoskeleton. Flexor muscles bend a joint. Extensor muscles straighten it. The rear legs of a grasshopper are long and muscular and is adapted for hopping. Sitting position: When the flexor muscle contracts, the lower leg is pulled towards the body. The hind leg is folded in a Z shape and ready for a jump. Jump: When the extensor muscle contracts, the leg jerks backwards, propelling the grasshopper forward and upward into the air.

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Locomotion of fish
Fish has streamlined body shape Scales that overlap one another, with free ends pointing backwards to reduce friction Fish have W-shaped muscles called myotome

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Locomotion of fish
Fish move forward from the contraction and relaxation (antagonistic) of myotome on either side of the body

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Locomotion of fish
Function of fins in fish balance the body Pectoral fins for steering Pelvic fins for balance, to prevent diving and rolling

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Locomotion of bird
Bird can fly either by flapping their wings or gliding

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Locomotion of bird
When wings move down
Pectoralis major contracts Wings are pulled down

When wings move up


Pectoralis minor contracts

2.1 Support and Locomotion in Humans and Animals (contd)

Locomotion of bird
During gliding, wings are spread act as aerofoil Bernoulli principle provide upward thrust

2.3 SUPPORT SYSTEM IN PLANTS

2.3 Support Systems in Plants

Support in plants is necessary to:


Stay upright Obtain sufficient sunlight Bear the weight the plant Provide strength to withstand wind ressistance

2.3 Support Systems in Plants (contd)

Plants
Aquatic
Submerged Floating

Terrestrial
Herbaceous Woody

2.3 Support Systems in Plants (contd)

Submerged plants
Hydrilla sp. Have thin, narrow and flexible leaves provide little ressistance Air sacs inside the leaves and stems - keep the plant floating close to the surface to obtain maximum sunlight.

2.3 Support Systems in Plants (contd)

Floating plants
Lotus plant Have broad leaves that are firm but flexible enough to resist tearing by wave action. Aerenchyma tissues (spongy tissues with large air spaces between the cells) in the stems and leaves provide buoyancy so that the plants can float on the surface of the water

2.3 Support Systems in Plants (contd)

Herbaceous plant
Support provided by the turgidity of the parenchyma and collenchyma cells. Turgor pressure of the fluid content in the central vacuole pushes the cell membrane and the cell contents against the cell wall, creating support for the stem, root and leaves. The thickening of the cell walls with cellulose and pectin in collenchyma cells provide additional mechanical strength

2.3 Support Systems in Plants (contd)

Woody plants
Support provided through tissue modification Xylem tissues
Strenghtened by lignin Lignin tough, not elastic and nor permeable to water

Parenchyma tissues
Store starch, sugars and water It become turgid give support

2.3 Support Systems in Plants (contd)

Woody plants
Collenchyma tissues
Thickened with cellulose and pectin

Sclerechyma tissues
Thickened with lignin