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Skin Creams

Skin Creams In cosmetics, creams signify a solid or semisolid emulsion. If an emulsion has a viscosity which allows for pouring, due to gravity, then it is not a cream. However, creams and lotions will be dealt with together as skin creams. Ingredients and types of creams are numerous that no comprehensive books can contain all details. In addition, new products and ingredients are being introduced on daily basis. Classification of Skin Creams Traditionally, creams are classified according to their function, some cream types are listed below: 1. Cleansing creams: they are oily in nature due to medium to high oil content 2. Cold creams: can be either o/w or w/o emulsions which are difficult to rub-in. Both cleansing and cold creams contain surfactants to improve penetration and suspension properties. 3. Moisturizing creams: These are characterized by low oil content and ease of spreading and rub-in. Usually contain emollients and moisturizing ingredients. 4. Vanishing creams: These are composed of a low slip-point oil phase and are neutral or slightly acidic and may contain emollients and special moisturizing agents. 5. Protective creams: Usually of low to medium oil content and are easily spreadable. They may have a slightly alkaline or acidic properties and contain protective oils like silicones and lanolin. 6. All-purpose cream: Medium oil content which can be an o/w or a w/o emulsion but very often slightly oily. They are easily spreadable. The cosmetic chemist should observe the following in any cream formulation: 1. Volume ratio of oil to water. 2. The nature of the continuous phase. 3. The pH of the emulsion. 4. The type of the emollients used. 5. The slip-point of the oil phase. Cleansing Creams To ensure a healthy and good looking skin, one should remove: 1. Grime 2. Sebum and other secretions 3. Dead cells 4. Crusts 5. Applied makeup Water is an excellent and cheap cleansing agent but unfortunately very weak on oils. Therefore, soaps and detergents are added to water to improve its cleansing properties. However, the use of such cleanser is convenient in bath rooms or similar places. In addition, too much oil can be removed from the skin surface leaving it dry and rough and when alkaline soaps are used outermost cells may separate from their neighbors. Properties of a good cleansing cream

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net/Industrial/Skin Creams. borax was found to have a positive effect on the characteristics of creams as borax reacts with the free fatty acids from wax forms soaps in situ.2 Qs 3 12 0. it has two disadvantages: 1.1/23/13 Skin Creams 1. Therefore. Its price and quality are variable throughout the year and location Borax is usually mixed with the molten wax where the sodium salts of the free fatty acids will be formed at the oil/water interface. Borax is dissolved in water and heated to 75 o C 3. waxy substance found in the head of the Sperm Whale.2 7 10 32. In addition. Both have characteristic odor which should be masked. this ratio was found to result in better cream formulations. 6.5 12. preservative 1 5 45 0. It has a characteristic odor which should be masked 2.5 40 35 Qs *Spermaceti is the semiliquid. The amount of borax added is about 5-6% of the mass of the wax. Although beeswax is still used in many preparations. 2. mineral oil substituted olive oil. The aqueous phase is slowly added to the oil phase with continued stirring until the temperature reaches 45 o C where the perfume is added. Water and oil based with medium to high oil content Unable to completely degrease the skin Leave a thin film of emollient oil Easily spreadable Should not rub-in Should not irritate the skin Traditionally. However. having the ability to absorb large quantities of water and to expand to several times its normal volume) are used as alternatives to waxes as thickeners for oil phase.htm 2/11 . 4. 5. This means that only part of the free fatth acids will be converted to soaps. www. in the twentieth century.8 33.monzir-pal. Examples of cleansing cream formulations Ingredient Beeswax Mineral oil Borax (Na2B4O7) Monocrystalline wax Spermaceti* Sesame oil Paraffin wax Water Perfume. Preparation of Creams 1. The oil phase is heated to 75 o C until melting occurs 2. cleansing creams were composed of beeswax and olive oil.8 Qs 2 16 50 0. this is extracted from whale oil by crystallisation at 6 °C Bentones (A clay formed by the decomposition of volcanic ash. 3.

htm 3/11 .2 33.0 2. Sorbitan monostearate Examples of formulations that use nonionic surfactants: Ingredient Beeswax Mineral oil Lanolin Borax Hydrogenated vegetable oil Antioxidant Sorbitan sesquioleate Sorbitan stearate (an emulsifier. The most widely used nonionic surfactant is the sorbitan fatty acid esters.0 1.2 Qs Qs 2 10 20 3.7 1 35. a thickener and a stabilizer of essential oils in lotion products) *Polysorbate 60 (Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Monostearate) Water Perfume Preservative 1 10 50 3. oily.1/23/13 Skin Creams Improving the Efficiency of Cleansing Creams Nonionic surfactants can be used to increase the efficiency of the beeswax/borax emulsions and usually results in more stable preparations.0 49 7. Used to stabilize cream preparations and act as a modifier and stabilizer of shampoos.4 0.monzir-pal. Cellulose derivatives are sometimes used in order to thicken oil in water emulsions as in the following formulation: Ingredient Beeswax Mineral oil Paraffin wax Cetyl alcohol PEG 15 cocamine Borax Cellulose derivative (thickener) water % 8.4 Beeswax derivatives have also been used as o/w emulsions.0 1.0 0. The following two formulations are commercially www.7 25 0. water-soluble emulsifier enabling water & oil to mix.1 0.0 33.8 Qs Qs *A viscous.0 0.net/Industrial/Skin Creams.5 5.

The structure of squalene is shown below: Acidity of the Skin Since the discovery of the acidic nature of the skin. The following 5 formulations are examples of such creams (formulations 1 & 2 are good wash creams): Ingredients Mineral oil Stearic acid Triethanolamine Glyceryl stearate Carboxymethyl cellulose Water Glycerin Sodium alginate Cety lalcohol Spermaceti *Squalene Perfume preservative 1 30 10 2 0.8 52 2 1.5 Qs Qs 5 4 1 66 1 28 Qs Qs 1 50 12 3 Qs 35 2 50 7 8 2 Qs 33 *Squalene (an oil free moisturizer) is a natural organic compound originally obtained for commercial purposes primarily from shark liver oil.monzir-pal. though there are botanic sources as well. preservatives water Cold Creams Lighter creams of the o/w type are also available.5 57 Qs Qs 2 29 13.net/Industrial/Skin Creams.htm 4/11 . creams were made buffered slightly acidic. The cetyl derivative was found to be www.8 Qs Qs 3 18 15 55 5 2 5 Qs Qs 4 10 3 1. including humans. and olives.8 85 0. including rice bran. wheat germ.5 1. washability was observed to improve when the sodium salt of cetylsulfate was used. It is a hydrocarbon and a triterpene. All higher organisms produce squalene.1/23/13 Skin Creams available: Ingredients Mineral oil Beeswax PEG-8 sorbitan beeswax PEG-20 sorbitan beeswax Polysorbate 40 Perfume. Also.

petroleum. B. and frequently appears green owing to dichroism. Its melting point from 58 to 100 °C. Vanishing creams are characterized by their ease of spreading and rapid disappearance. and F.htm 5/11 . turpentine. An example of such a formulation is listed below: Ingredient Sorbitan sesquioleate Ozokerite wax* Petrolatum** Mineral oil Lanolin Water Lemon juice Perfume. www. used as a lubricant. containing 85-7% by weight of carbon and 14-3% of hydrogen. semisolid blend of mineral oil with waxes crystallized from the residual type of petroleum lubricating oil. It is soluble in ether. the wax molecules contain 30-70 carbon atoms and are straight chains with a few branches or naphthalene rings. as well as lower irritation. Moisturizing and Vanishing Creams Moisturizing creams are most widely used in order to attain a soft and smooth skin. ozokerite consists of a mixture of various hydrocarbons. preservative % 8 30 4 10 12 30 6 Qs *is a waxy mineral that is a mixture of hydrocarbons and occurs in association with petroleum or coal.4 Qs Some other formulations may contain vitamins especially A. preservative 1 40 3 2 1 54 Qs 2 52 3 3 23 5. &c. ** A smooth. Good washability creams also find good markets. Galician ozokerite varies in color from light yellow to dark brown. less foam.6 5 8. benzene. It usually melts at 62 °C.monzir-pal. D.1/23/13 Skin Creams better than lauryl due to its higher emulsification ability. chloroform. carbon disulfide. Chemically. Vitamin C is usually added as an antioxidant. and as a rust preventive. Example formulations are listed below: Ingredient Mineral oil Ozokerite wax Cetyl alcohol Sodium cetyl sulfate Water Beeswax Paraffin wax Petrolatum Perfume. as a carrier in polishes and cosmetics.net/Industrial/Skin Creams.

monzir-pal. quaternium substances of cellulose and gluconic acid (quaternary ammonium complexes) have been found to act as skin barrier materials that not only behave as moisturizers but also as skin conditioners. which is primarily due to UV exposure. Examples of formulations using quaternium substances are listed below: Ingredient Isopropyl linoleate* Glyceryl stearate* Diisopropyladipate* Myristyl myristate* PEG-40 stearate* Cetyl alcohol Quaternium 22 Hydroxyethyl cellulose (2%) Propylene glycol Water Perfume. Occlusive approaches (like gloves. mineral or vegetable oil) 3. Dryness can be caused through physical or chemical factors leading to continual degreasing. Dryness is due to prolonged exposure to low humidity which modify the normal hydration gradient of the skin. lanolin. Use of artificial skin lipid mixtures Most recently. three types of dry skin can be identified: 1. preservative * alkyl esters are used as emollients A formulation of a simple vanishing cream is shown below: Ingredient Stearic acid KOH Glycerin Water Perfume. preservative % 15 0.5 2 25 3 59 Qs Hand Creams www.7 8 76 Qs % 2 3 2 1 1 1. 2. Use of humectants 2.1/23/13 Skin Creams Types of Dry Skin Normally. Strategies to restoring water to dry skin: 1. 3. Dryness of skin due to aging.htm 6/11 .net/Industrial/Skin Creams.

Hands will become dry and flaky which is referred to as dishpan hands. 2. These materials solubilize lipids and damage cell walls. this decreases water exposure. You should stop using all commercial hand lotions and moisturizing creams and use only the products your doctor recommends. such as mineral oil or Vaseline. Lubricating the skin is important to replace natural skin oils leached out by wetting. not an allergy. and gloves trap sweat and make the hand completely wet after a few minutes of wearing.htm 7/11 . soap. Treatment of the inflamed skin itself is by cortisone creams. among many others. and cleansers are the most common reasons in triggering this problem. If you can use tongs and long-handled brushes when practical. Prevention of Further Irritation 1. Decrease exposure to water and cleansers as much as possible. detergents. Frequency of wetting and drying is more important than the duration of wetting. The rash caused by these exposures is a mild to severe irritation. Unfortunately. After the rash has improved. 3. nurses. Water. They may look like dishpan hands. and are irritated and worsened by water and cleanser exposure.monzir-pal. Hand Dermatitis The hands of some people are sensitive to normal daily activities and easily become dry. Blistering rashes may occur on the hands. Avoiding wetting is much more effective than trying to protect against wetting. After wearing the gloves overnight. beauticians. especially under plastic gloves. for a few hours. and softens and humidifies dry skin. especially after water exposure. may cause thinning of the skin. then the glove fingers can be cut off to make wearing the glove more comfortable. a mild cortisone cream is used instead of the potent one. These should be rubbed in thinly very often: after every water exposure. and whenever the skin feels dry. Lubricants alone will suffice if the rash has resolved. Hand creams are supposed to remedy this problem and mosturize the skin as well. and cortisone creams can be used again if a relapse occurs. especially at the beginning. This ‘occlusion' greatly increases penetration of the medication. or being temporarily transferred to another sort of job at work. because many of the commercial products contain fragrances and other chemicals which are irritants. rubber or plastic household gloves are not of great benefit in protecting you from common household exposures because it is the wetting which is most damaging. Plain greases. and underlubrication is harmful. The cortisone cream or ointment is applied thinly two or three times a day. but overlubrication is impossible. This might mean asking another household member to do some of these chores. or as long as possible. cooks. cracked. are the safest. lotions are preferred over solid creams. the hands should be rinsed and a cortisone cream or lubricant applied to prevent drying. so washing one large load of dishes a day is better than doing several small ones during the day. This may require applications as often as 10 times a day. which occurs in housewives. and hot detergents. and scaly. then a much greater effect can be obtained by covering the cream with a disposable plastic glove. In this respects. The treatment of these ‘hand eczemas' of whatever cause is the same. Potent ones are usually necessary because penetration through thick skin is poor. www.net/Industrial/Skin Creams. If only the palms of the hand have a rash. Prolonged use of potent cortisone creams. waiters and others whose hands are repeatedly wetted. If the cream alone does not suppress redness and itching.1/23/13 Skin Creams Hands are usually subjected to severe environmental conditions like soaps. or is under control.

These usually improve the rash but may have internal side effects. preservative All Purpose Creams As mentioned earlier. these creams are characterized by medium oil content and can be formulated to be easily spreadable.5 Sorbitol* 10 Water To 100 Perfume. preservative Example 2: % Stearic acid 7 Lanolin 0.5 1.5 2 3 0. Examples are shown below: Example 1: Ingredient % www. C6H8(OH)6.htm 8/11 % 2.5 Sorbitan oleate 0. sweetish material. Examples of such lotions are listed below: Example 1: Ingredient Glyceryl stearate Cetyl alcohol Dimethicone Lanolin oil Squalene Sodium lauryl sulfate Water Perfume. found in various berries and fruits or prepared synthetically and used as a flavoring agent. and the rash may reappear when they are stopped.net/Industrial/Skin Creams. preservative Qs * A white. so they are used with caution for only short periods.monzir-pal.3 T0 100 Qs Ingredient % 1. a sugar substitute and a moisturizer in cosmetics and other products.1/23/13 Skin Creams If the hand inflammation does not respond to external therapy. Example 3: Ingredient CTAB Cetyl alcohol glycerin Lanolin oil Isopropyl myristate Water Perfume.5 8 2 3 T0 100 Qs .5 2.7 1. then your doctor may recommend cortisone pills or shots.

a dry or a sensitive skin. preservative See also the following information from the literature on facial creams: FORMULATIONS BASICS: FACIAL CREAM 3 18 5 4 2 0. Facial care creams formulations include many kinds of formulations. preservative Example 2 and 3: Ingredients Stearic acid Beeswax Lanolin Mineral oil Polysorbate 85 Sorbitol trioleate PEG-40 stearate Sorbitol Water Perfume. depending on the nature of the skin or on the desired effects. Technology has advanced to the point where w/o stable emulsions can be prepared at room temperature. The typical skin care emulsion is now more likely to be o/w than w/o. Either protection against pollution and oxidation is needed or anti-wrinkle activity.5 0.monzir-pal. pleasant feeling during application Easy penetration Non-oily/ non-greasy after application Non comedogenic Well tolerance/ non-allergenic www.5 5 T0 100 Qs 1 15 2 4 23 1 1 12 T0 100 Qs 2 15 2 2 34 5 10 T0 100 Qs Before starting.1/23/13 Skin Creams Trioleate phosphate Petrolatum Glyceryl stearate Isopropyl palmitate Cetyl alcohol Stearyl heptanoate Stearyl octanoate Sorbitol Water Perfume.. Required qualities : Neutral or pleasant odor and color Easy to spread.net/Industrial/Skin Creams...htm 9/11 . Actives may also be added in order to correct an oily/ greasy skin. Many formulations are basically Oil in Water emulsions or Water in Oil emulsions.

agents Aesthetic 0.01-0. Usual Method Aqueous phase: Thickener is dispersed in cold or warm water at 75-80°C (depending on the recommandations of the producer) under intensive stirring.1-1 % like waxes). Keep stirring the mixture consistency 16. Continue stirring agent gently until the temperature is at 40°C.Changing the % of the oily phase allows variations in the final viscosity of your preparation. Then Emulsifier/ Add phase C. Mix under intensive stirring until emulsion is formed.00 *Ceteareth-n (where n is a number) refer to Emollient 3. Then mix gently while emulsion is being cooled.02 % aqueous phase the higher the viscosity.Vary the % of thickeners (gelling agents or consistency agents Fragrance 0.0 slowly while it is being cooled.S.5% . special additives and preservatives are added after the mixture has been cooled (40-30°C) to keep their properties intact. Then add more quickly Emulsifier/ the rest of the phase and keep stirring consistency 4.05% How to vary the consistency of your cream? UV filters 0. Colouring Q.00 molecular mass saturated fatty alcohols 10/11 Stearic acid Ceteareth-12* Octyldodecanol Paraffinum liquidum www.00 during a few minutes. For Oil in Water emulsion the Optional greater the oily phase the higher the viscosity. Agents .1-5% enhancers Sample Recipe : "Vanishing cream" Ingredients Composition Phase A Glyceryl stearate Method % Phase A and phase B have to be mixed Function (w/w) and heated separately to 80°C.1-2% without increasing the viscosity.1/23/13 Skin Creams Bring hydration Typical Ingredients Must Use Emulsifiers Emollients Thickener Deionized Water Usual 2-6% 10-35 % 0.1-1% Q. agent Emulsifier 3.net/Industrial/Skin Creams.00 polyoxyethylene ethers of a mixture of high Emollient 3. Preservatives 0. Inversely for Water in Oil or Water in Silicone emulsion : the greater the Chelating 0-0. However some stabilizers can prevent settling Active agents 0.01-0. Sensitive components like actives. This first phase is combined with the oily phase (Lipophilic components : emulsifiers + emollients + consistency factors) that has also been melted and heated to the same temperature.2-1 % Humectants 1-8 % Consistency 1-6% Tips factors Antioxidants 0.S. Add slowly B into A under intensive stirring until the emulsion is formed.monzir-pal.htm . until a homogeneous gel is formed.

aesthetic enhancers may be added: eg. www.1/23/13 Skin Creams Phase B Triethanolamine pH buffer 0. hyaluronic acid.5 (mainly cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol). fequently used as emulsifiers in cosmetics Dry skin formulation Enhance aesthetic Ingredients choice criteria: ..monzir-pal.) . silicones.3 Phase C Phenoxyethanol.Bring humectancy with hygroscopic components (urea. ethyl-. texturing agents. polyols. These compounds are non-ionic surfactants. butyl-. essential fatty acids. The number n indicates the average number of etyhlene oxide residues in the polyoxyethylene chain. allantoin. beeswax. triglycerides.50 Deionized Water 69.. propyl-.) As indicated above. sodium PCA) . soft-feeling agents like silicone elastomers. Preservative 0.net/Industrial/Skin Creams.htm 11/11 .Reenforce or reconstitute the NMF (Natural moisturizing factor) with adequate additives (sodium lactate.7 isopropyl paraben Fragrance 0.Slow down the TEWL (Transepidermal water loss) by using occlusive emollients in the oily phase (squalane.pearlescent pigments. methyl-.

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