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UbtafV

093

Cornell University Library

The

original of this

book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

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the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924085321093

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.

THE CONSTRUCTION OF LOGARITHMS CATALOGUE OF NAPIER'S WORKS a 2 .

.

A. BY WILLIAM RAE MACDONALD.THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE WONDERFUL CANON OF LOGARITHMS JOHN NAPIER BARON OF MERCHISTON TRANSLATED FROM LATIN INTO ENGLISH WITH NOTES AND A CATALOGUE OF THE VARIOUS EDITIONS OF NAPIER'S WORKS. WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS EDINBURGH AND LONDON MDCCCLXXXIX All Rights reserved . F.F.

/: ^:. ^.\ I /y.^ .^.

b 2 .To The Right Honourable FRANCIS BARON NAPIER AND ETTRICK. John Napier of Merchiston this Translation of the Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Constructio is dedicated with mtich respect. descendant of K.T.

.

48 5S REMARKS ON APPENDIX BY HENRY BRIGGS.... 109 148 APPENDIX TO CATALOGUE.... TRIGONOMETRICAL PROPOSITIONS... .. 166 b 3 .. INTRODUCTION.. .. SUMMARY OF CATALOGUE AND APPENDIX. . BY JOHN PREFACE BY ROBERT NAPIER.. NAPIER. THE CATALOGUE.. APPENDIX....CONTENTS. 3 7 THE CONSTRUCTION. 64 76 NOTES ON TRIGONOMETRICAL PROPOSITIONS BY HENRY BRIGGS. 83 lOX 103 A CATALOGUE OF THE WORKS OF JOHN NAPIER. PAGE xi THE CONSTRUCTION OF LOGARITHMS.. NOTES BY THE TRANSLATOR. .. . .. .. PRELIMINARY.

.

so that he See note. He was born at Merchiston. A plaine discovery of the whole Reve' mind was specially directed to the study lation of St John. in 1550.' Had he continued at St Andrews. While and searching out of the mysteries of the Apocalypse. 1566 and ever. believed to have name. his Salvator's College. 84. months previous to the death of his mother. which occurred on 20th December 1563. John Napier was the eldest son of Archibald Napier and Janet Bothwell. p. when his father could have been '^^ more than sixteen. of masters of arts for 1568. St Andrews. howleft found with the names of the students who entered is college along with him. he matriculated little Two as a student of St there. as to spelling of b 4 the . the result of which appeared thirty years later in his first published work. his name would list naturally have appeared in the of determinants for It is not.eJlCic^sdbsci^dlSjc^'b^ifesc:^ INTRODUCTION. near Edinburgh.

On 14th August 1 561. The marriage took place towards the close of 1572. the year following the Spanish last event Armada set sail. on 24th July 1567. The we need mention was the death of Queen Elizabeth . welcome on her tion. In 1560 a Presbyterian form of Church government was established by the Scottish Parliament. sailed from Calais. Robert. In 1579 his wife died. Archibald. the best known of whom the second son. Queen Mary. daughter of Sir James Chisholm of Cromlix.. moment the purely personal incidents of we may here note the dates of a few of the many exciting public events which occurred during the course of it. the University previous to 1566 in order to complete his studies on the Continent. the young widow of Francis II. which began on 24th August. his father's literary executor. exactly three months John Knox died. and also one daughter. On 8th February 1587 Mary was beheaded at Fotheringay. receiving an enthusiastic Edinburgh. survived him. daughter of Sir Stirling of Keir. in 1627. she was compelled to sign her abdica- The year 1572 was signalised by the Massacre of St Bartholomew. and in May of later. who. who son. Leaving Napier's for a life. The offspring of this marriage were is five sons and five daughters. leaving him one was raised to the peerage by the title of Lord Napier. Jane. He James was at home in 1571 when the preliminaries were arranged for his marriage with Elizabeth.xii Introduction. A few years after the death of his first wife he married Agnes. arrival in Within six years.

Not long after this. style. 'Secrett inuentionis. The threatened invasion of the Spanish Armada led Napier to take an active part in Church politics. 1594 new style.Introduction. in July 1594. Another interesting document written by Napier bears date 7th June 1596. The Merchiston system of by manuring the land with salt is described in a very rare tract by his eldest son. we find Napier enter- ing into that mysterious contract with Logan of Restalrig for the discovery of hidden treasure at Fast Castle. In 1588 he was chosen by the Presbytery of Edinburgh one of its commissioners to the General Assembly. among whom was his own On the 29th January following.* publi- the letter which forms the dedication to his cation.' The was in versatility and practical bent of Napier's mind are which further evidenced by his attention to agriculture. Under the old style the year commenced on c poly .' was written to the king. with the proffitable title. state. In six to interview the king regarding the October 1593 he was appointed one of a deputation of punishment of the " Popish rebels. ' A plaine discovery." prominent father-in-law. a very depressed owing to the unsettled contillage dition of the country. first 1594. & necessary in theis dayes for defence of this Hand and & withstanding of strangers enemies of Gods truth relegion. Elizabeth on 24th xiii March 1603. and the accession of King James to the throne of England. Archibald. to whom a mono* 1593 °W 2Sth March.

On the jury The Macwhich condemned him sat John Napier.xiv Introduction. The Latin. is we have already drew Napier ' due the appearance English of treatise A plaine discovery. and condemned to death. leaving the Latin to haste out in English the present work almost unripe. in 159^. Mathematics. As Archibald Napier was quite a young man most probable the system was the result of experiments made by his father and grandfather. he ' was.' It was published 1. known as The chief was entrapped by the raid of Glenfruin. still A revised edition appeared in 161 it wherein he expressed his intention of rewriting in Latin. tried. was intended to have been written in owing to the events above referred to. About 1603. What he had done in . as into public life. became broken men. their brother-german. To the critical seen. where Napier held large at the time. driven to desperation. Colin Campbell of Aberuchill. but this was never accomplished. and gregors. as we Argyll. Napier's lands no doubt suffered from their inroads. in events of 1588 which. must have occupied Napier's attention from an early age. possessions. and John Campbell.' already mentioned. as he says. the Lennox. as well as theology. but. find him on 24th December i6ii entering into a contract for mutual protection with James Campbell of Lawers. it is was devastated in the conflict between the chief of Macgregor and Colquhoun of Luss. poly of the system was granted under the privy seal on 22d June 1598. constrained of compassion.

Kepler tells us. however. probably some years before the publication of ' A plaine discovery.* Towards the end of the sixteenth century. been introduced into Europe complete the system. though cumbrous form.Introduction. The decimal system of numeration and notation had in the tenth century. In consequence of this. in the xv way of systematising and developing the sciences of arithmetic and algebra.' appears in the title ' manuscript published in 1839 under the Logistica. notation to fractions. Napier set seems to have before laid aside his its work on Arithmetic and and deliberately Algebra completion. a subject he refers to as a great algebraic secret. by Simon Stevin 1585.' De Arte work it appears that his investigations in equations had led him to a consideration of imaginary roots. but Napier was the first to use the present notation. as in that year. 88. it To in still remained to extend the a in This was proposed. He had also discovered a general method for the this From extraction of roots of all degrees. Tycho Brahe was led by a Scotch correspondent to entertain hopes of the publication of the Canon or Table of Logarithms. the further progress of science was greatly impeded by the continually increasing complexity and labour of numerical calculation. By 1594 he must have made considerable progress in his undertaking. p. c 2 generally . Tycho's informant is not named. but is * See note. himself to devise some means of lessening this labour.

He was buried near the parish church of St Cuthbert's. have of its occupied years. and must.' the most important of these aids being named Rabdologia. who thenceforth devoted to their computation and improvement. with the description made its appearance in 1614. Napier at the same time devised several mechanical aids to computation. though written several years before the Descriptio. outside the It West Port has been stated that Napier dissipated his means on . a description of in 1 The Canon.xvi Introduction. and was preparing again to visit him in 1. ' or calculation by Napier's bones. Dr it. however. of Edinburgh. been Napier's friend. completion. the preparation of the two works explanatory of the Constructio and Descriptio. when he was stopped by the death of the inventor. generally believed to have Craig. The computation of the Table or Canon. method of its construction. as giving once for the long- desired relief from the labour of calculation. ' for the sake of those who may work with the natural numbers. nature and use.' means of small rods. The strain involved in the computation and perfecting of the Canon had been too great. familiarly called The invention of logarithms was welcomed by the all greatest mathematicians.6 17. He twice visited Napier at Merchiston. in 161 5 and 1616. his and Napier did not long survive its death occurring on the 4th of April 161 7. was not published till 161 9. and by none more than by Henry his life Briggs. The which he published prefer to 6 1 7.

Introduction.

on

his mathematical pursuits.

xvii

The very

opposite,

left

howelse-

ever,

was the

case,

as at his death he

extensive

estates in the Lothians, the

Lennox, Menteith, and

where, besides personal property which amounted to a large sum.

For

reader

fuller

is

information

regarding John

Napier,

the

referred to the Memoirs, published

by Mark

Napier

in

1834, from which the above particulars are

mainly derived.

The

'

Mirifici

**Logarithmorum Canonis Constructio
**

all

'

is

it

the most important of

Napier's works, presenting as

**does in a most clear and simple way the original conception of logarithms.
**

It

is,

however, so rare as to be

known, many writers on the subject never having seen a copy, and describing its contents from hearsay, as appears to be the case with Baron Maseres

very

little

in his

well-known work,

'

Scriptores Logarithmici,' which

occupies six large quarto volumes.

**In view of such facts the present translation was
**

undertaken, which,

it

is

**hoped, will be found faithfully
**

In

its

to reproduce the original.

preparation valuable

assistance

was received from

Mr John

Holliday and

Mr

A. M. Laughton.

tion will allow,

facsimile.

The

printing and form of the

book

follow the original edition of 1619 as closely as a transla-

**and the head and
**

the

tail

pieces are in exact

^

To

work are added a few explanatory

notes.

The second

**part of the volume consists of a Catalogue
**

c

Z

of

xviii

Introduction,

title-

**of the various editions of Napier's works, giving
**

page,

full

collation,

and

notes, with the

names of the

principal public libraries in the country, as well as of

**some on the Continent, which possess
**

lar

copies.

No

simiit

**catalogue has been attempted hitherto, and
**

it

is

believed

will

prove of considerable

interest,

as showtime,

ing the diffusion of Napier's writings in his

own

Apand their location and comparative rarity now. pended are notes of a few works by other authors, which

are of interest in connection with Napier's writings.

It will

**be seen from the Catalogue that Napier's theoeditions in English,
**

its

logical

work went through numerous

**Dutch, French, and German, a proof of
**

popularity with the

try

widespread

in this coun-

Reformed Churches, both

**and on the Continent. also show that a statement Dutch
**

editions

The

in the

particulars

now given

Edinburgh edition of

Napier's reference to

his

1611 has been misunderstood.

was supposed by

translation of

biographers

to

apply to the

German

Wolffgang Mayer,

the Dutch translation by Michiel Panneel, being apparently

**His arithmetical work, Rabdologia, also seems to have been very popular. It was
**

to them.

unknown

**reprinted in Latin, and translated into Italian and Dutch,
**

abstracts also appearing in several languages.

Rather curiously,

neglected.

in

his

works

of

greatest

scientific

interest, the Descriptio

**and Constructio have been most
**

in

The

**former was reprinted
**

besides

1620,

and

also

Scriptores

Logarithmici,

being

translated

into

Introduction.

into

xix

latter was reprinted in 1620 only. no doubt largely accounted for by the advantage for practical purposes of tables computed to the base 10, an advantage which Napier seems to have been aware of even before he had made public his in-

English.

The

This neglect

is

vention in

1

6 14.

of the Catalogue

I

**For the completeness
**

largely

libraries

am

very

indebted to the

referred

to.

I

their kind assistance,

of the numerous most cordially thank them for and for the very great amount of

Librarians

**trouble they have taken to supply
**

tion

I

was

in

in search of.

me with the informaTo Mr Davidson Walker my

hearty thanks are also due for assistance in collating

works

I

London

libraries.

have only to add that any communications regarding

un-catalogued editions or works relating to Napier will

**be gladly received.
**

W. R.

I

MACDONALD.

**Forres Street, Edinburgh,
**

December'!';), 1888.

C

4

Translatedfrom Latin into English by William Rae Macdonald. &c. An Appendix as to the making of another and better kind of Logarithms. OF EDINBURGH.THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE WONDERFUL CANON OF LOGARITHMS. in Scotland. By the Author and Inventor.. THE Year of our Lord. . 1619. And their relations to their own natural numbers . Printed by IN Andrew Hart. Baron of Merchiston. TO WHICH ARE ADDED Propositions for the solution of Spherical Triangles by an easier method: with Notes on them and on the above-mentioned Appendix by the learned Henry Briggs. John Napier.

.

and that nothing more agreeable to them could happen. until he had ascertained the opinion and criticism on the Canon of those who are I versed in this kind of learning. it has been m.TO THE READER STUDIOUS OF THE MATHEMATICS. that the most skilled in the mathematical sciences consider this new invention of very great importance. but. since his departure from. this life. than if the construction of this Wonderful Canon.ight suffice to explain it. of memory always to be revered. and to afford some assistance to those especially who are weaker in such studies and are apt to stick on the very threshold.e that the Author had not put the finishing touch to this little treatise. or at least so m. although it is very manifest to m. Lover of the Mathematics) my Father. yet I have done what in me lay to satisfy their most honourable request. go forth into the light for the public benefit. EvERAL years ago {Reader. made public the use of the Wonderful Canon of Logarithms . Therefore.ethod of its creation. GREETING.ade plain to me by unmistakable proofs. he was decidedly against committing to types the theory and m. But.uch as m. A 2 Nor . as he himself m-entioned on the seventh and on the last pages of the Logarithms.

puting this new Canon. had he not been snatched away from us by a too hasty death. who for the singular friendship which subsisted between him.. Nor do I doubt.To THE Reader. he had determined to reduce into order and successively to prove. {here called by him artificial numbers. We have also taken care to have printed some Studies on the above-mentioned Propositions. without dividing them. which are absolutely general. for he had this treatise written out beside him. the very heavy labour of com. in whom. if God had granted a longer enjoyment of life to the Author. public Professor at London. characteristics. by that most excellent Mathematician Henry Briggs.ost amply unfolded the theory of the construction of logarithms. my most dearly loved father. and various relations to their natural numbers. several years before the word Logarithm was invented^ in which their nature. These propositions. took upon himself in the most willing spirit. and my father of illustrious mem. as well as in the fewest words. by the opinion of the wisest men. that the most difficult matters were unravelled by a sure and easy method. are clearly demonstrated. but that this posthumous work would have seen tJie light in a much more perfect and finished state. into quadrantal or rectangular triangles. It seemed desirable also to add to the theory an Appendix as to the construction of another and better kind of logarithms {mentioned by the Author in the preface to his Rabdologiae) in which the logarithm of unity is o. among other illustrious gifts this showed itselfpre-eminent. and on the new kind of Logarithms. the method of its creation and the explanation of its use being .ory. namely certain very remarkable propositions for the resolution of spherical triangles not quadrantal. You have then {kind Reader) in this little book m. pointing to the ultimate perfecting of his Logarithmic Trigonometry. After this follows the last fruit of his labours.

. too.To THE Reader. would appear by some chance to have fallen the task of adorning this Sparta. being left to the Inventor. ^Meanwhile {Reader) enjoy the fruits of these labours such as they are. k«**n A 3 . in good part according to your culture. however. on whom. Robert Napier. Son. Farewell. and receive them. as he has been called away from this life. the burden of the whole business would appear to rest on the shoulders of the most learned Briggs. Now.

.

THE CONSTRUCTION OF

**THE JVOU^ET(FUL
**

OF LOGARITHMS;

and

(

CJU^U^.

**HEREIN CALLED BY THE AUTHOR
**

THE ARTIFICIAL TABLE

their relations to

their natural

numbers.

)

Logarithmic Table is a small table by the use of which we can obtain a knowledge of all geometrical dimensions and motions in space, by a

very easy calculation.

is deservedly called very small, because it does not exceed in size a table of sines very easy, because by it all multiplications, divisions, and the more difificult extractions of roots are avoided for by only a very few most easy additions, subtractions, and divisions by two, it measures quite generally all figures and motions.

T

I

;

;

// is picked out from numbers progressing in continuous proportion.

A

4

2.

Of

1

8

2.

Construction of the Canon.

arithmetical is one which proceeds by equal intervals; a geometrical, one which advances by unequal and proportionally increasing or decreasing intervals.

Of continuous progressions, an

**Arithmetical progressions i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, &c. or 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, &c. Geometrical progressions: i, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, &c. or 243,
**

:

;

;

81, 27, 9, 3,

3.

I.

/;« these progressions we require accuracy and ease in Accuracy is obtained by taking large numbers working. for a basis ; but large numbers are most easily made from small by adding cyphers.

Thus instead of 1 00000, which the less experienced make the greatest sine, the more learned put 1 0000000, whereby the difference of all sines is better expressed. Wherefore also we use the same for radius and for the greatest of our geometrical proportionals.

4.

In computing tables, these large numbers may again be made still larger by placing a period after the number and

adding cyphers.

Thus in commencing to compute, instead of looooooo we put 1 0000000. 0000000, lest the most minute error should become very large by frequent multiplication.

5.

In numbers distinguished thus by a period in their midst, whatever is written after the period is a fraction, the denominator of which is unity with as many cyphers

after

it

as there are figures after the period.

also 25.803

**Thus 10000000.04 is the same as 1 0000000^;^ is the same as 25x§^; also 9999998.
**

000502

;

**Construction of the Canon.
**

000502 1

of others.

6.

is

9

the same as 9999998xxr<jwwi> ^^'^ so

When the tables are computed, the fractions follotvmg the period may then be rejected without any sensible error.

For

in our large numbers, an error which does not exceed unity is insensible and as if it were none.

completed table, instead 9987643-8213051, which is 9987643 18000000 may put 9987643 without sensible error.

in

Thus

the

of

.

we

is is

7.

Besides

to say,

this, there is another rule for accuracy ; that when an unknown or incommensurable quantity

**included between numerical limits not differing by
**

units.

many

the diameter of a circle contain 497 it is not possible to ascertain precisely of how many parts the circumference consists, the more experienced, in accordance with the views of Archimedes, have enclosed it within limits, namely 1562 and 1561. Again, if the side of a square contain 1000 parts, the diagonal will be the square Since this is an inroot of the number 2000000. commensurable number, we seek for its limits by extraction of the square root, namely 141 5 the greater limit and 1414 the less limit, or more accurately I4i4^|ff the greater, and 1414^!^ the less; for as we reduce the difference of the limits we increase the accuracy.

if

Thus

parts, since

In place of the unknown quantities themselves, their limits are to be added, subtracted, multiplied, or divided, according as there may be need.

8.

limits

The two limits of one quantity are added to the two of another, when the less of the one is added to the

B

less

lo

less

**Construction of the Canon.
**

of the

other,

**and the greater of the one
**

let

to the

greater

of the other.

Thus

line

the

\>&

j,

b c divided into

parts,

a

Let a b lie between the limits Also let b c 123.5 the greater and 123.2 the less. lie between the limits 43.2 the greater and 43.1 Then the greater being added to the the less. greater and the less to the less, the whole line a c will lie between the limits 166.7 ^^^ 166,3,

two a b and b c.

a-

The two limits of one quantity are multiplied into the two limits of another, when the less of the one is multiplied into the less of the other, and the greater of the one into the greater of the other. Thus let one of the quantities a b lie ^ ^ between the limits 10.502 the greater

and 10.500 the less. And let the other a c lie between the limits 3.216 the greater and 3.215 the less. Then 10.502 being multiplied into 3.216 and 10.500

into

3.215,

the

limits

will

become

**33.774432 and 33.757500, between which the area oi a b c d will lie.
**

10.

Subtraction of limits is performed by taking the greater limit of the less quantity from the less of the greater, and the less limit of the less quantity from the greater of the greater.

Thus, in the first figure, if from the limits of a c, which are 166.7 and 166.3, you subtract the limits oi b c, which are 43.2 and 43.1, the limits of « ^ become 123.6 and 123.1, and not 123.5 ^"^^ 123,2,

For although the addition of the

latter to 43.2

and

Those geometrical progressions alone are carried on B 2 easily . 1 3- The construction of every arithmetical progression is easy . Thus. divisions.2 and 43. as an arithmetical progression very easily formed by addition or subtraction but a geometrical progression is continued by very difficult multiplications. yet the converse does not follow. instead of the preceding limits of a b. The vulgar fractions of the limits may be removed by adding unity to the greater limit. which are 3. This is evident. the rectangle lying between the limits 33.2.7 and 166. or extracis tions of roots.6 and 123. Thus far concerning accuracy . we may put 10-506 and 10-496.774432 and 33. abed 1 2.1. limit in the preceding figure. the remainder may not lie between 123. .3 frorn which if you subtract some other which is between 43. namely. when there will come out 10.500. and not 10.496§|g| for the limits of a b. however.1 produced 166.1. Construction of the Canon. for the same reason that we stated in the case of subtraction. of every geometrical progression. Thus. and the less of the dividend by the greater of the divisor..215. not so. ii and 43.505^4^1 and io. io-505^|ff and io-496|ff|.3 (as in 8).502 and 10.757500 may be divided by the limits of a c.216 and 3. 1 1 Division of limits is performed by dividing the greater of the dividend by the less of the divisor. what follows concerns ease in working.7 and 166.5 and 123. for there may be some quantity between 166. but it is impossible for it not to lie between the limits 123.

loooo*. and from the number thence arising its 1 0000000* part. 9999999 First . and other parts denoted by the number two and cyphers. its hundredth part is 993. Thus . thousandth. We call easy parts of a number. a hundred numbers may very easily be continued geometrically in the proportion subsisting between radius and the sine less than it by unity. the hundredth its last two. because the tenth part of any number is got by deleting its last figure. by rejecting as many of the figures at the end of the principal number as there are cyphers in the denominator. the 20000* part is 498660. Thus the tenth part of 99321 is 9932. Tlie 15. are also tolerably easily obtained . 16. &c. the thousandth its last three figures. 1 0000000* parts are easily 1 00000* 1 000000* obtained. its thousandth 99. two hundredth. Hence it follows that iffrom radius with seven cyphers added you subtract its 1 0000000* part. number from 14. half twentieth. such parts being obtained by rejecting as many of the figures at the end of the principal number as there are cyphers in the denominator. by always deleting as many of the figures at the end as there are cyphers in the denominator of the part. and so with the others. Thus the tenth. any parts the denominators of which are made up of unity and a number of cyphers. which arise by subtraction of an easy part of the the whole number. and so on. and dividing the remainder by two. Thus the 2000* part of the number 9973218045 is 4986609. hundredth.12 easily Construction of the Canon. and this series namely between 1 0000000 and of proportionals we name the table.

which may be continued with sufficient exactness by adding six cyphers to radius and continually subtracting from each number its own 1 00000* part in the manner shown at the side.000000 99. have computed rightly.0004950 17- The Second table proceeds from radius with six cyphers added. First table. subtract i. Thus the first and last numbers of the First table are 1 0000000. A near and at the same time an easy proportion is looooo to 99999.000000 9999900.. Second I table. you get 9999998. with seven cyphers added for greater accuracy. 000000 1 and proceed in this way.006000 which proportion it is difficult to form fifty proportional numbers. if you . namely.0004950. as shown at the side. 1 0000000.0000000 -9999999 9999998.0000000 0000000 9999999.001000 99. you get 9999999. will be 9999900.9999999. 0000000.Construction of the Canon.998000 9999700. the last of which.oooooo 100.0000006 n o •73 « o 3 Thus from radius. and this table B 3 contains . 00049 50. and as near as possible to that subsisting between the first and last numbers of th£ First table. until you create a hundred proportionals.003000 99.999000 9999800. . 0000000 and 9999900. 99 99900.0000000 from this subtract .0000001 -9999998 9999997. 0000000. 13 loooqooo. in oooopoo.997000 9999600. through fifty other numbers decreasing proportionally in the proportion which is easiest.0000003 -99999 97 9999996.

00125 9985007. if you have not erred. The first numbers of all the columns must proceedfrom radius . is troublesome.00000 5000.50000 4995. TAe Third table consists of sixty-nine columns.222927 9995001. [This should be 9995CX31.57808 1 In forming this progression. the last of the same. and as near as possible to that subsisting between the first and last numbers of the Second table. will be 9900473. Whence its first column is very easily obtained from. the last figure of each may be rejected without sensible error. .c>inA 99 ^^ §' *^ '\ 4-995 g o 9900473.00000 9995000. the first of the Second table. the first.222927.49875 ^002 <.14 9p Construction of the Canon. 000000.00000 4997. and so from the other numbers as they arise. 224804— see note.] 1 8. by subtracting its 2000* part.50000 9990002. and in each column are placed twenty-one numbers. which is sufficiently near to it the ^^^^ ^^ these. From these numbers. as the proportion between 1 0000000. if you have not erred. and 9995001. you will find to be contains. 1 0000000. 5 7808. o ^ 9995001.222927. radius with five cyphers added. therefore comP^^^ ^^ twenty-one numbers in the easy proportion of 10000 to 9995. so that others may hereafter be more easily computed from them. P besides radius which is fifty other proportional numbers. 9. the last of which. proceeding in the proportion which is easiest. when computed. First column of Third table.

15 radius with four cyphers added. the easiest proportion very near to this is 100 to 99. Accordingly sixty-eight numbers are to be continued from radius in the ratio of 100 to 99 by subtracting from each one of them its hundredth part. and from the fourth through the fourth. by sub- the number of the same rank in the following column is made.5780. Thus from any number tracting its in one column. 20.0000 and 9900473.— Construction of the Canon. lows : Proportionals of the Third Table. As the first and the last numbers of the first column are 10000000. the second number of the first column through the second numbers in all the columns. and from the others respectively through the others. First Column. and from the third through the third. In the same proportion a progression is to be m^de from. in the proportion easiest and nearest to that subsisting between the first and the last numbers of the first column. and the numbers should be placed in order as fol- hundredth part. .

finally to 4998609. namely between 1 0000000 and 9995000. &C... between the latter.3879 5038768. will suffice for computing a Logarithmic table. to 9801000. there is no need to divide it more minutely by interpolating means.. up 69//^ Column.i6 Construction of the Canon. and since the difference of these is never more than unity. 22. in the proportion of 100 to 99.4605 504381 1. ^th. in the Second table. in the First table.2932 5041289. and between each two of these you have twenty numbers interpolated in the proportion of 1 0000 to 9995 and again. in the Third table. you have sixty-eight numbers interpolated. in the the sines Third table at least. &•€. 6967 &C.7435 3^ a en O (D O D o rt- 5' OfQ 9703454. up to up to up to up to up to 5048858. 8495 9781412. &c. 4503 9786305. after they have been completed. Thence ^th. and finally. between radius and half radius. &C.. between the first two of these. 0000 9796099. to place beside or natural numbers decreasing geometrically their ..1539 21. you have fifty numbers interpolated in the proportion of 1 00000 to 99999. &Ci. It remains. Hitherto we have explained how we may most easily place in tables sines or natural numbers progressing in geometrical proportion. whence these three tables.8900 5046334.4034 Thus. Third Column. you have a hundred numbers interpolated in the proportion of radius or 1 0000000 to 9999999 . . 5000 9791201.

&c. 40. the tenth part of i S . &c. ^ 3 by 30. T C 3S. and so on. b 5. 30.. always by a like proportional part. . arithmetical. Along movequal moments decrease geometrically is this. that in of time it is borne over the equal spaces <5 i. increase arithmetically. indefinitely in the direction of d. this let the point a travel from b towards ing according to this law.I I Construction of the Canon. (5 2 by 20. Then the sines of 3 S. 2 S. &c. and from 2 to 3. which for in equal times it is borne from S and from example may be the tenth part of I to 2. Along this travel in the direction of S. the tenth part of 2 S and from 3 to 4. 50. 2 3. i 2. b\ by 40. 4 5. that in equal times. Thus T let G T T . 20. 2 T 3 4 5 6 c G G G let the line S be radius. <5i23456789io 1— — — — -I 1-1 d -^ 1- 1^ 1 a a a Thus from duced the fixed point b let a line be prod. 3 4. b 2. To increase arithmetically mented by a gttantity always I is. so that the point to i. Again. b 5 by 50. in equal times^ to be aug- the same. i S. Then we call this increase by b \. tkeir logarithms or artificial numbers increasing arithmetically^ 23. let (5 I be represented in numbers by 10. b ^. because we see diey are always increased by an equal number in equal times. 24. the tenth part S. b s^.. then 10. the whole quantity then each of its successive remainfirst To ders is I diminished. . r.

and when at 2 its Hence. 3 4. T.. &c. i. 4. 3. 3 S by 7290000. 4 S.8 1 Construction of the Canon. 3 S. will be the same. I 2. I S. T T i. that of the velocities of at the points T. are said to decrease geometrically. For we observe that a moving point is declared more or less swift. [*] It is evident that the ratio of the spaces traversed T I. is the same as that of the velocities of G at the points S. whatever be the proportion of the distances S. Hence the ratio of the spaces traversed is necessarily the same as that of the velocities. 4 S.. to each other.. But the is at I its T G ratio of the spaces traversed in equal times. 3. is that of the distances I S. 25. its velocity is as the distance T S. &c[*] Hence it follows that the ratio to one another of the distances of from 2. 3 S. being diminished in equal times by a like proportion. 4 5. i S. 3 4. iS. and so of the others. 2 S. and when G G velocity is as i S.. I S by 9000000.&c. velocity is as 2 S. respectively. is that of the distances T S. &c.. &c. 3 S. . . then these numbers are said to decrease geometrically. I say is at that when the geometrically moving point T. 2 3. 2 3. Thus. &c. 4. 4 S. I. Whence a geometrically moving point approaching a fixed one has its velocities proportionate to its distances from the fixed one. Let the sine T S be represented in numbers by looooooo. &c. 2 S.. 4 5. because in equal times they are diminished by unequal spaces similarly proportioned. 2 S by 8100000. 4 S by 6561000. according as it is seen to be borne over a greater or less space in equal times. 4 S. I S. 2. 3 S. 2. referring to the preceding figure. &c. G namely T S. 2 S.. to one another.

distances hypothesis continued proportionally. sine 27. &c. The number measuring the line b c is called the logarithm of the given wards ically T . 2 S. The logarithm of a given sine is that number which has increased arithmetically with the same velocity throughout as that with which radius began to decrease geometrically and in the same time as radius has decreased to the given sine. T g b a d 1 S g c 1 i a Let the sine in the from to time. referring to the figure. Whence by the definition of distance nothing will be the logarithm of radius. T C 2 28. let a move arithmetwith the same velocity as g had at first when and from the fixed point b in the direction at of i let a advance in just the same moments of time up to the point c. when g is at making its distance from S: radius. d S. along which. S. Whence . infinite toline . and d S a given same line let g move geometrically T d in certain determinate moments of Again. from b. T S be radius. Whence nothing is the logarithm of radius.. their differences are also conin the same proportion. Now the. and the traversed are their differences. for when quantities are conproportionally. For. the arithmetical point d beginning at b has never proceeded thence. i. I 19 4 S. Construction of the Canon. let b i be another line. tinued tinued are by spaces 26.. 3 S. wherefore it is proved that the spaces traversed are continued in the same ratio as the distances.

Whence also it follows that the logarithm of any given sine is greater than the difference between radius and the given sine. T T T But since g when moving between and o is swifter than at T. in just the same moments of time the latter is. so that o T. and T being produced beyond T to o. than b c the distance traversed by the point a with its medium motion. is greater than T d and less S than o T. Td and . consequently. a certain meaa betweea the two . former. so that o S is to T S as T S to d S. and b c are distances traversed in equal times. the preceding figure being repeated. Therefore o T is called the grKiter limit. o T 1 d ^1 S g g g c -I- Thus.20 28. I say that b c. it follows that o the distance traversed by g moving swiftly is greater. d. Construction of the Canon. g is borne from to d. and less than the difference between radius and the quantity which exceeds it in the ratio of radius to the given sine. but at is equally swift with a (by 26) . and in the same time (by the definition of a logarithm) is a borne from b to c . And these differences are therefore called the limits of the logarithm. the logarithm of the sine d S. and d the distance traversed T T T T T by g moving slowly is less. For in the same time that g is borne from o to T. and between and d slower. because (by 24) o T is such a part of o S as d is of T S.

0000000 I. has its logarithm between the limits i.ooooooi and 1. of one of which the logarithm or its limits is given. Whence the first proportional of the First tab14. which is 9999999. . d the less limit of the logarithm which b c represents. and by a much more insensible error. C 3 This . 3 1 • The thing between them limits themselves differing insensibly. > 32 . they or anymay be taken as the true logarithm.OOOOOOI. Therefore to find the limits of the logarithm of a given ' the preceding it is proved that the given sine being subtracted from radius the less limit remains. 0000000 or i. or if you require greater accuracy 1.ooooooio. 21 T 29.00000005.Construction of the Canon. to find those of the others. Thus in the above example. sine. the logarithm of the sine 9999999 was found to be either i. divide by 9999999 and there will result 1.0000001 for the greater limit. _^ By 30. 0000000. differ from each other by an insensible fraction like iooooooo therefore they and whatever is between them will differ still less from the true logarithm lying between these limits. or best of all 1. as in the following example. There being any number of sines decreasing from radius in geometrical proportion. For (by 29) subtract 9999999 from radius with cyphers added. there will remain unity with its own cyphers for the less limit this unity with cyphers being multiplied into radius. the greater limit is produced. i.0000001 000000 1. and that radius being multiplied into the less limit and the product divided by the given sine. For and since the limits themselves.

the second sine after radius. namely the first to the first.0000002 and 2. 33- Hence the logarithms of all the proportional sines of the First table may be included between near limits. So that. the first sine after radius in the First table.0000000. the third triple.0000003. as the following example will gression. will be contained between the double of these limits. 000000 1 and 1 0000000. Thus since (by 27) the logarithm of radius is o. the third will be between the triple of the same. so at the same time their logarithms increase by equal additions in continuous arithmetical pro- Wherefore to any sine in the decreasing geometrical progression there corresponds a logarithm in the increasing arithmetical progression. sines decrease continually Jn geometrical proportion. And so with the others. . and For by these definitions. namely between 3. necessarily the logarithm of 9999998. show. namely between 2. always by equally incfeasing the limits by the limits of the first. lies between the limits 1. of geometrical decrease. and (by 30) the logarithm of 9999999. the second logarithm will be double of it. and the second to the second. and consequently given with sufficient exactness.0000003 and 3. as the of a logarithm.0000001.0000000 and the logarithm of 9999997. You may in this .22 Construction of the Canon. until you have completed the limits of the logarithms of all the proportionals of the First table. if the first logarithm corresponding to the first sine after radius be given. and so on. way . This necessarily follows from the definitions of arithmetical increase. and so of the others until the logarithms of all the sines be known.

and so of the rest.00000015. continue the logarithms themselves in an exactly similar progression -with little and insensible error in which case the logarithm of radius will be o. since the logarithms increase as the sines decrease. and subtracted from.00000005. For since by these C 4 . of the less. Necessarily this is so. of the second 2. the logarithm of the first sine after radius (by 31) will be 1. for (by 27) the logarithm of radius is nothing. that you may have the greater logarithm though. and the And therefore greater logarithm of the less sine. equi- This necessarily follows from the definitions of a logarithm and of the two motions. sine. . 35- The difference of the logarithms of two sines must be added to the logarithm of the greater that you may have the logarithm. the logarithm of the given sine necessarily remains entire. the logarithm of the less that you may have the logarithm of the greater. 36. and on the other hand to subtract the difference from the greater logarithm that you may have the less logarithm though corresponding to the greater . of the third 3.00000010. 23 way. right to add the difference to the less logait is rithni. rithm is the logarithm of the greater sine. and when nothing is subtracted from the logarithm of a given sine. The difference of the logarithms of radius sine is the logarithm of the given sine itself and a given This is evident. if you please. corresponding to the less sine. and the less loga-. 34.Construction of the Canon. The logarithms of similarly proportioned sines are different.

of their logarithms. the second by the line b d. differs from 6.00000015 the logarithm of the third.— 24 Construction of the Canon. of the extremes.0000000 the first proportional after radius. thus first Of and the second : and . all placed in the one line b c d e. since there is a like proportion between 9999999. the third becomes known. 37- Of three sines continued in geometrical proportion.0000003 the third. the difference between the first and the second is that between the second and the third. therefore (by 36). by the same difference that 4.0000015 the sixth therefore 1.00000030 the logarithm of the sixth proportional.0000006 the fourth and 9999994. As in the above example from the First table. as the square of the mean equals the product of the extremes. Whence any two of these logarithms being given. of which logarithms the sines are similarly proportioned.00000020 the logarithm of the fourth. For example. these definitions arithmetical increase always the same corresponds to geometrical decrease similarlyproportioned. so also of the greater among themselves. namely as the differences of the less among themselves. let the first logarithm be represented by the line b c. Also there is the same ratio of equality between the differences of the respective limits of the logarithms. and 9999997.00000005 the logarithm of the first differs from 3. the three sines. so of their logarithms the double of the msan equals the sum. of necessity we conclude that equidifferent logarithms and their limits correspond to similarly proportioned sines. . since the ratio between the is that between the second and the third. the third by the line b e. to that which is between 9999996.

Offour geometrical proportionals. the fourth becomes known. Let b d. of the means is equal to the sum of the Whence any three of these logarithms being extremes. the mean of them. line b f as that b a such quantities be taken in the . since the ratio between the first and second is that between the third and fourth therefore of their logarithms (by 36). namely c d from b d and d e from d f. so of their logarithms. if of three logarithms you double the given mean.I I Construction of the Canon. the four proportionals. the remaining extreme sought for becomes known. the mean becomes known. the difference between the first and second is Hence let that between the third and fourth. Whence follows the rule. therefore also it will be equal to both b e and b c. given. as the product of the means is equal to the product of the extremes . and if you add the given extremes and divide the sum by two. and from this subtract a given extreme. Of b I a c 1 — d 1 e 1 —g f • may represent the third. fourth. be doubled by producing the line from b beyond e to f. which was to be proved. so that b f is double b d. the sum. making the differences D . first logarithm. for from the equals b d and d f take away the equals c d and d e. 38. Thus since the whole b f is equal to both b e and e f. Then b f is equal to both the lines b c of the first logarithm and b e of the third. b e the and b g the b c the second. and there will remain b c and e f necessarily equal. 25 and let the differences c d and d e be equal.

so that d placed in the middle of c e is of necessity also placed in the middle of a g. The difference of the logarithms of two sines lies between two limits . and if you subtract a known extreme from the sum of the known means. Whence if follows the rule. namely c d and d e. namely a d and d g. Then the sum of b c the second and b e the third is equal to the sum of b a the first and b g the fourth. Again. which is b f. towards S. Since. T c d e S T S be radius. of these four logarithms you subtract a known mean from the sum of the known extremes. ferences a c and e g equal. therefore also they are equal to each other. there is left the mean sought for. tjie difference of the sines . are equal for the same reason the same b f . so that T S is to T c as d S. let the distance T c be marked off by the point c. and the less limit being to radius as the difference of the sines to the greater sine. therefore. the difference of the sines. also equal to b a and b g together. is to d e. both the sum of b a and b g and the sum of b c and b e are equal to the double of b d. which was to be proved. the greater limit being to radius as the difference of the sines to the less sine. on the other side "of T. the greater sine. so that S T is to T V as e S. because their differences from b d. there is left the extreme sought 39. For (by 37) the double of b d. for.26 Construction of the Canon. which is b f. is equal to b c and b e together. d S the greater of two given and e S the less. is to d e. Beyond S T let the distance T V be marked off by the point V. V Let sines. because their differences from b d. are also is equal. the less sine.

two conclusions follow Firstly. sines. Since (by 39) the less sine is to the difference of the sines as radius to the greater limit of the difference of the logarithms and the greater sine is to the difference of the sines as radius to the less limit of the difference of the logarithms it follows. from the nature of proportionals. the less limit will be produced. that V S is to T S as T S to c S. because by the first conclusion above stated. the greater limit will be produced and the product being divided by the greater sine. e S is to d e as S to V. T T T V VT 40. Whence. . Secondly. necessarily. D 2 Example. To find the limits of the difference of the logarithms of two given sines. from the nature of propor: tionals. . 27 Then the difference of the logarithms of the sines d S' and e S lies between the limits the greater and c the less. that the ratio of S to c S is the same as that of d S to e S. S greater than radius is to T S radius as T S is to c S. For by hypothesis. . which was to be proved.— Construction of the Canon. . the difference of the logarithms of the sines d S and e S lies between the limits the greater and T c the less. But (by 34) this difference is the logarithm of the sine c S itself. and d S is to d e as T T VT T T S to T c . And therefore (by 36) the difference of the logarithms of the sines d S and e S is equal to the difference of the logarithms of the radius S and the sine c S. that radius being multiplied by the difference of the given sines and the product being divided by the less sine. and (by 28) this logarithm is included between the limits V the greater and T c the less. therefore.

namely 9999975.4999700 being multiplied into radius (cyphers to the eighth place after the point being first added to both for the purpose of demonstration. 41. Example. the difference of the logarithms of the given sines lies between But since the extension of these fractions these. the difference of these . to find limits to them separated by an insensible difference. Then seek out the limits to the given sine. and the less 99999750000300. to the eighth figure beyond the point is greater accuracy than is required. To find the logarithms of sines or natural numbers not proportionals in the First table. and when found note them down. although otherwise seven are sufficient). THUS. if you divide the product by the less sine. as already proved. of the difference of the logarithms of the given sine . and. 28 Construction of the Canon. especially as only seven figures are placed after the point in the sines therefore. with eight figures after the point again.49997122. that eighth or last figure of both being deleted..5000000. or at least. but near or between them. then the two limits and also the difference itself of the logarithms will be denoted by the fraction . let . Write down the sine in the First table nearest whether less or greater. 0000300. if you divide the product by the greater sine.5000000. there will come out for the less limit . namely 9999975. there will come out for the greater limit . the greater of the given sines be 9999975. Seek out the limits of the table sine (by 33).49997124.4999712 without even the smallest particle of sensible error.

0000025 and 25. Add this (by 35) to the above limits and they become 100. and 35).5000288.0000 1 00 and 100.0005050 for the greater D 3 limit. which are the limits of the less sine. the required limits of the logarithm of the given Accordingly the actual sine 9999975. subtract this from the above limits. 10.5000313 and 24.Construction of the Canon. less than the given sine. LET the given sine table sine nearest be 9999900. and there will come out 24. since they are almost equal.0004950. Another Example. By 33 the 0000300.5000000. The numbers thence produced will be near limits between which is included the logarithm of the given sine. the it 9999900. the difference of the logarithms of the given sine and the table sine is . either both Hmits or one or other of them. according as the given sine is less or greater than the table sine.0004950. sine 29 and the table sine (by 40). being found. By 33 the limits of the logarithm of the latter are Then (by 40) the 1 00. or best of all (by 31) in 24. Now these.0000000. logarithm of the sine may be placed without Let sensible error in either of the limits.5000300.0000000. the given sine be 9999975. difference of the logarithms of the sines will be . Again (by 40).5000000. or either of them. limits of the logarithm of the latter are 25. add to them the limits above noted down. Example. By 35. or else subtract (by 8. as is evident from the above example.4999712.0000000. . to which the nearest sine in the table is 9999975.

0004950.0014850. whether greater or less. Thus since the logarithm of the sine 9999900. the first proportional of the Second table. actual logarithms. &c. Hence it follows that the logarithms of all the propor- tionals in the exactness. namely 9995001. the logarithm of the last sine of the Second table. 42. which shall be to radius as the less of the given and table sines is to the greater.0015150 and 300. Now. Or. Write down the sine in the Second table nearest the given sine. 43. And finally. To find the logarithms of sines or natural numbers not proportionals in the Second table. having all 0252500 and 5000. multiplying .0247500. between which the required logarithm of the given sine is limit.0009900 and the logarithm of the third proportional between the limits 300. was shown in the preceding example to lie between the limits 100. Then by the rule of proportion seek for a fourth proportional. or Second table may be found with be included between sufficient may known limits differ- ing by an insensible fraction.0010100 and 200.0004950 for the less limit. necessarily (by 32) the logarithm of the second proportional will lie between the limits 200.30 Construction of the Canon. 222927. This may be done in one way by multiplying the less sine into radius and dividing the product by the greater.0005050 and 100. you will be able (by 31) to find the . or to include them between known limits differing by an insensible fraction. By 42 find the limits of the logarithm of the table sine. these limits. is included between the limits 5000. in an easier way. and 100. included. by . but near or between them .

2485387. 44.222927. and the limits of its logarithm found (by 41) from the First table will be 1.2487888 and 5001. Now seek for the fourth proportional by either of the methods above described it will be 9999998.2235387 and Add these limits to the former (by 8 1.2482886 as the limits of the logarithm of the given sine. therefore (by 41) seek for the limits of the logarithm of the fourth proportional by aid of the First table when found add them to the limits of the logarithm of the table sine. suitably. and subtracting the quotient from radius. is (by 31) taken most error. . To this the . Whence the number 5001. Example.0247500. and there will come out 5001. or else subtract them (by 8. Hence it follows that the logarithms of all the propor- D 4 tionals . 7764614. the given sine be 9995000.2235386. let THUS. midway between them. according as the table sine is greater or less and there will be brought than the given sine out the limits of the logarithm of the given sine. 3 multiplying the difference of the sines into radius.000000. dividing this product by the greater sine. Now since (by 36) the logarithm of the fourth proportional differs from the logarithm of radius by as much as the logarithms of the given and table sines differ from each other also.1 CONSTRIJCTION OF THE CaNON. . nearest sine in the Second table is 9995001. since (by 34) the former difference is the same as the logarithm of the fourth proportional itself. and (by 42) the limits of its logarithm are 5000. for the actual and with no sensible logarithm of the given sine 9995000. and 35).0252500 and 5000. and 35). 10. .

4970774. is 5001. THUS. which shall be to radius as the less of the given and table sines is to the greater. For. for a like be 100024. When these are found. To find the logarithms of natural numbers or sines not proportionals in the first column of the Third table. Write down the sine in the first column of the Third table nearest the given sine. whether greater or less. the first proportional after radius in the first column of the Third table. namely . and the limits of the logarithm of the given sine will be brought out. by one of the methods described in 43. the logarithm of which.2485387 with no sensible error therefore! (by 32) the logarithm of the second proportional.9707740. add them to the limits of the logarithm of the table sine found above. let the given sine be 9900000. will 45. and so of the others. By 44 seek for the limits of the logarithm of the table sine. Then. or else subtract them (by 8.9757760.9657720 and 100024. will be 10002. seek for a fourth proportional. 10. column of the Third table iionals in the first may be found with sufficient exactness^ or may be included between known limits difiering by an insensible fraction.32 Construction of the Canon. or to include them. Having found the fourth proportional.5000. between known limits differing by an insensible fraction. 9900473.57808. and 35). proceeding up to the last in the column. but near or between them . seek (by 43) for the limits of its logarithm from the Second table. Example. namely 9990002. since (by 43) the logarithm of 9995000. proportional sine nearest it in the The first column . reason. and its limits will be 100024.

may be put without sensible error for the true logarithm of the given sine 9900000. and all the logarithms of the first column being obtained by 44. that the next lower logarithm in the same column be made or whether you prefer to compute E .3502290 and z| 78. the first logarithms of all the columns being obtained in this way. . 35028 1 2. between which necessarily falls the logarithm sought for. the difference of the logarithms. which is 100503. deduced from the Second table (by 43). choose whether you prefer to build up. tionals of the Third table may be given with sufficient this exactness.3210291. which is added to the logarithm last found. namely 9900000 and since the other first sines of the remaining columns progress in the same proportion. 3260572 and 100503. Therefore. Then the Of fourth proportional will be 9999521. at one time.2485387.Construction of the Canon. are 478.9757760.3210291 is the logarithm of the first sine in the second column. as (by 45) 100503. all the logarithms in the same column. Hence it follows that the logarithms of all the propor46. to the last found logarithm in the column. this the limits of the logarithm.32 10291.661 1850. column of the Third table 33 is 9900473. that the following may be made. necessarily (by 32 and 36) the logarithms of these increase always by the same difference 100503. by continuously adding 5001. there will come out the limits 100503.9657720 and 100024. For. These limits (by 8 and 35) being added to the above limits of the logarithm of the table sine. Whence the number midway between them. 3 1 60010. you may .57808. Of (by 44) the limits of the logarithm are 100024.

. the second their logarithms progressing arithmetically by equal intervals. Table.4034. and by dividing each into two sections. beside the natural numbers.8007528. 3210291 to the logarithm in one column.34 Construction of the Canon. pute. For by either method may be had the logarithms of all the proportionals in this table. corresponding to the sine 4998609. so that the Third table. the first of which should contain the geometrical proportionals we call sines and natural numbers. at one time. 47. that the logarithm of the same rank in the next column be brought out. This writing up of the table is to be done by arranging the columns in the number and order described (in 20 and 21). are to be written their logarithms. by continuously adding 100503. The Radical First column. all the logarithms of the same rank. then all the third. which after this we shall always call the Radical table. In the Third table. namely all the second logarithms in each of the columns. and so the others. Second column. may be made complete and perfect. the last of which is 6934250. then the fourth.

Construction of the Canon. 35 .

subtract the result from the logarithm of the table sine. no one of which will differ by a sensible error from the true difference of the logarithms on account of the nearness of the numbers in the table. by an error greater than unity. however placed. add the result. Multiply the difference of the given sine and Divide the protable sine nearest it by radius. table serves for the construction of the principal Logarithmic table. which may be either the given sine or the table sine nearest it. . or a between both. 3300. or else something intermediate. rithm of the sine 9996700 lies between the limits 3300 and 3301 and these limits. is necessarily the same for all sines this. Example. To find the logarithms of all sines embraced within limits the of the Radical table. . and there will be produced the required logarithm of the given sine. the less limit. since they differ from each other by unity only. cannot differ from their true logarithm by any sensible error. Wherefore (by 35). may be taken for the true logarithm. if the given sine be less than the table sine if not. whatever it may be. 49. The method greater than 50. which we obtain simply by subtraction. to the logarithm of the table sine. that is Whence to say. easily the logarithms of sines greater than This is done simply by the subtraction of the For (by 29) the logagiven sine from radius. By 39 there will be produced either the greater or less limit of the difference of the logarithms. To find most 9996700. duct by the easiest divisor. sine .36 Construction of the Canon. with great ease and no sensible error.

0000.4434. which equals 289075 if. and there comes out 1390. which may be either 74895 5 7. which lies between the given and table sines. let this be subtracted from the logarithm of the table LET the namely from 3467125.9.7. i. The difference of these is 983. From this subtract Another Example.0000. Since the given sine exceeds the table sine.Construction of the Canon. or still better by something between them.61 19. Wherefore 3465735 is assigned for the required sine. This being multiplied by radius.61 19. sine be 7489557. This being multiplied by radius. All . which is given in and there will remain 3465734. and there will But result 2890751.4. and by a most easy division there will be produced 1640. The table sine nearest it will be 7070084. and therfe remains 1229. the given THUS logarithm the let is nearest it is the former with cyphers added thus. you most fitly divide the product by 7071000. 7489557. since the principal table admits neither fractions nor anything beyond the point. divide by the easiest number. E 3 51. add this to the logarithm of the table sine.5. which is the required logarithm. of which required.0000 or 7490786. table. liberty of choosing a divisor produces wonderful facility.61 19. The table sine 7490786. such as 7490000.5566. Thus the logarithm of the given sine 7071068. we put for it 2890752. 37 Example. the given sine be 7071068. Since the given sine is less than the table sine.8. namely to 28891 1 1.

34. And since radius is ten times this. 2 2 the difference of their logarithms. also. will be the difference of all logarithms whose sines are in the ratio of four to one and the triple of it. will be 20794407. for For since the ratio of every sine to its half is the same as that of radius to 5000000. all sines in the ratio of ten to one will have the same difference. to .34 for the logarithm of the sine 1 000000. as regards the difference of the logarithms. will be the difference of all logarithms whose sines are in the ratio of eight to one. and (by 51) the difference between the logarithms of the sine 8000000 and of its eighth part 1 000000. therefore (by 36) the difference of the logarithms of any sine and of its half is the same as the difference of the logarithms of radius and of its half 5000000. 6931469. namely 20794407. namely 13862938. Consequently the double of it. All sines in the proportion of two to one have 6931 469. All sines in the proportion often for the difference to one have 23025842. and this logarithm (by 50) will be 6931469.44. 38 51. Construction of the Canon. And consequently the double of this logarithm. for the reason and cause already stated (in 51) in reference to the proportion of two to one. Therefore.66 whence by addition will be produced 23025842.22 will be the difference of all logarithms whose sines are in the proportion of two to one. namely 46051684.22. correspond . of For (by 50) the sine 8000000 will have for its logarithm 2231434.66.68. will. between their logarithms.. 23025842. 52.34 their logarithms.68. But (by 34) the difference of the logarithms of radius and of the sine 5000000 is the same as the logarithm itself of the sine 5000000.

Construction of the Canon. 53- Whence two to all sines in a ratio compounded of the ratios one and ten to one. 39 hundred to one and the the same. to the proportion of a triple of . namely 69077527. will be the difference of all logarithms whose sines are in the ratio of a thousand to one and so of the ratio ten thousand to one.22 and 23025842. and of the others as below.02. . have the difference of their logarithms formed from the differences 6931469.34 in the way shown in the following .

as by 20. to which add 29957311. so is of the complement of the half arc to the sine of the whole arc. As this now falls within the Radical table. Wherefore 32752756 is the required logarithm of the given sine 378064. when it will become 7561280. of half the given arc. i the remaining quadrant made up of the arcs a d and h c. on which as diameter is described a semicircle. and then add to it the logarithmic difference which the short table indicates as required by the preceding multiplication. let it be multiplied by some proportional number in the foregoing short table. the difference in the short table corresponding to the proportion of twenty to one.40 Construction of the Canon. As the sine half radius is to the sine of half a given arc.9. and you have 32752756.4. IT 55.56. find the logarithm of this sine now contained in the table. seek for its logarithm (by 50) and you will obtain 2795444. Example. Let a b be radius. bisect it in d. Draw e i perpendicular to a i c. then e i is . and from e in the direction of c lay off e h. since the quadrant d e h must equal the complement d e. Then h c is necessarily equal to e h. On this lay off the given arc a e. is required to find the logarithm of the sine 378064. and a b c its double. Since this sine is outside the limits of the Radical table.

as e c. e g. the whole. is to a e. Then as a k is to e f. half of e c. also a sine of F 45 . make a k half the radius a b. the hypotenuse of the triangle c e a. Referring to the preceding figure. Hence a c. the former by hypothesis. Draw a e its half. Finally. is to e i. is . is to f e. 56. is to e i its less side. as e g is to e i. since a b. as e g is to e i. so is e g to e i. is to e i. the whole. Double the logarithm of an arc of /^^ degrees is the logarithm of half radius. is to a e. the whole. * degrees. the latter because it is in the circumference and occupies a semicircle. its less side. half of a c. let the case be such that a e e and e c are equal. is likewise the ratio of e g. a sine of 45 55) degrees. we necessarily conclude that a k. the hypotenuse of the triangle c i e. And now. is to a e as e c. finally. and e i be radius also e f and e g will be equal. the half of the arc a d e. half of a e. In that case i will fall on b. Construction of the Canon. For the two triangles c e a and c i e are equiangular. each of them being the sine of 45 will . to e f. Draw e c its half. and is therefore the sine of the complement of the arc d e. 41 the sine of the arc a d e. half of a b. is to a e as e g. is . Now (by the ratio of a k. is the sine of the arc e h. the sine of the arc d e. it follows that a b.. since i c e or a c e is common to both and c i e and c e a are each a right angle. f e. the whole. And since a c. half radius.

namely half radius and the whole arc. Example. now radius. Since (by 55) half radius is to the sine of half the given arc as the sine of the complement of that half arc is to the sine of the whole arc. there will remain the required logarithm of the half arc. 5 7. whose logarithm be LET there(by radius . But the sum of the logarithms of both these is the logarithm of half radius only. Necessarily. Whence the logarithm of the half arc may be found if the logarithms of arc the other three be given. given the logarithm of half 51) 6931469. The sum of the logarithms of half radius and any given is equal to the sum. found by 51 or 56. Consequently (by 37) double the logarithm of the sine of 45 degrees equal to the logarithms of the extremes. of the logarithms of half the arc and the complement of the half arc. namely radius and its half. and its logarithm 665143. and subtract the given logarithm of the complement of the half arc. to the given logarithm of the whole arc. therefore (by 38) the sum of the logarithms of the two extremes. also the arc 69 degrees 20 minutes. also (by 38). Whence. The half arc is 34 degrees 40 minutes. will be equal to the sum of the logarithms of the means. 45 degrees. if you add the logarithm of half radius. the double of the logarithm of an arc of 45 degrees is the logarithm of half is radius. namely the half arc and the complement of the half arc. therefore. to e i.42 Construction of the Canon. because (by 27) the logarithm of radius is nothing.

again. double lines being ruled between the second and third columns and between the fifth and sixth. Wherefore add 6931469 to 665143. making 7596612. at the bottom to the right. And from these the logarithms of arcs down to And so on. 5 degrees 38 minutes. somewhat long in shape. The complement of the 55 degrees 20 minutes. From the logarithms of all arcs not less than 45 degrees. "o degrees". and there remains 5642242. When the logarithms of all arcs not less than 45 degrees are given. the logarithms of all less arcs are very easily obtained. they may hold sixty lines of figures. and write on the first page. you can obtain (by 57) the logarithms of all the remaining arcs decreasing down to 22 degrees 30 minutes. given by hypothesis. logarithm half arc is 43 required. down to I minute. under the last three F 2 over the . To form a logarithmic table. seven columns by vertical lines. is 58. subtract 1954370. so that each space may hold three Then divide each page into lines of figures. Divide each page into twenty equal spaces by horizontal lines. Prepare forty-five pages. but a single line only between the others. so that besides margins at the top and bottom. Next left. successively. at the top to the first three columns. the required logarithm of an arc of 34 degrees 40 minutes. may be had in like manner the logarithms of arcs down to 11 degrees 15 minutes. and its logarithm 1954370 is given.Construction of the Canon. From these. 59.

placing three numbers in each of the twenty intervals between the horizontal lines. also in the sixth column enter the values of the sines corresponding to the site to 60. page. Then. In the second column enter the values of the sines corresponding to the degree at the top and the minutes in the same line to the left. so that the number written above. On the third page. "Logarithms of the arcs to the right ". at the foot of the sixth column. and in the seventh column the number of minutes in descending order from 60 to o so that any pair of minutes placed opposite. added to that written below. 44 Construction of the Canon. "Sines of the arcs to the left ". to the left. Then enter in the first column the numbers of minutes in ascending order from o to 60. above. I to 59. 2 to 58. On the second three columns. " Minutes of the degree written beneath". and 3 to 57. "87 degrees". ''Logarithms of the arcs to the left". Proceed thus with the other pages. " 1 degree" . and at the foot of the seventh column. less i degree or 89 degrees. at both the head and the foot of the third column.. to the right. may always make up a quadrant. at the head of the first column. degree . above. may make up a whole degree or 60 minutes for example. in the first and seventh columns in the same line. . on each page write. "Sines of the arcs to the right". "88 degrees". and below. "2 degrees". "89 degrees". "Difference between the logarithms of the complementary arcs ". and below. at the head of the third column. enter o oppo. at the foot of the fifth column. "Minutes of the degree written above" at the head of the second column.

you very readily obtain the logarithms of all remaining arcs less than 45 degrees. you may. until the whole is . 45 degrees. and we leave the more exact elaboration of it. 45 degree at the bottom and the minutes in the same line to the right. and enter the difference in the same line. will supply you with these values. or Reinhold's common table of any other more exact. completed. to form the middle column. Construction of the Canon. with both greater accuracy and facility. subtract each logarithm on the right from the logarithm on the left in the same line. by 58. to the learned to whom more leisure We may be given. and from these. the logarithms of the other sines however. the logarithms of all sines between radius and its half. sines. F 3 Outline . enter in the third column the logarithms corresponding to the degree at the top and the minutes to the left. by 49 and 50. as well as the emendation of the table of sines. the logarithms of all sines between radius and the sine of . compute.. by the same 49 and 50. have computed this Table to each minute of the quadrant. Finally. between both. and to their sines in the same line at left side similarly enter in the fifth column the logarithm corresponding to the degree at the bottom and the minutes to the right and to their sines in the same line at right side. and by 54. Having done this. compute. Having computed these by either method.

progress among themselves in the proportion of 100 to 99. or occupying the second. who perchance may have plenty ofpupils and computers. contain thirty-five columns with a hundred numbers in each column. In continuing these proportionals andfinding their logarithms. Let the Second table also contain a hundred numbers in the proportion of this new radius to the number less than it by a hundred. namely of 1 00000000 to 99999999. 60. that the table of Wherefore I advise the sines is in some places faulty.bers. in which radius is made 1 00000000. let the other rules we have laid down be observed.ore reliable and with larger num. of a Logarithmic Table. like ours. to publish a table of sines m. Let the Third table. or of the new radius 1 00000000 to 99000000. namely of 100000000 to 99999900. and let the hundred numbers in each column progress in the proportion of ten thousand to the number less than it by unity. From . Outline of the Construction. that is with eight cyphers after the unit instead of seven only. Let the thirty-five proportionals standing first in all the columns. the logarithms found by 54 sometimes differ those found 4y 58 {for example. third. namely of 1 00000000 to 99990000. in another form.46 Construction of the Canon. while by the latter it is 32752741). the logarithm of the sine 378064 is 32752756 by the former. Then. ^ OINCE from learned. it would seem. let the First table. contain a hundred numbers progressing in the proportion of the new radius to the sine less than it by unity. or other rank. cilso called the Radical table.

F 4 Appendix. you will find the other logarithms by 58. and pre- paredfor the most important uses. End of the Construction of the Logarithmic Table. you will find (by 56) the logarithm. having obtained all these. and you will produce a Table. 47 the Radical table completed in this way. you will find with great exactness (by 49 and 50) the logarithms of all sines between radius and the sine of 45 degrees . of half radius . .Construction of the Canon. certainly the most excellent of all Mathe- FroM matical tables. from the arc of 45 degrees doubled. Arrange all these results as described in 59.

On the Construction of another and defter one kind of Logarithms. and there will be produced ^12. the LogaBut the rithms of all other numbers necessarily follow. 'MoNG methods offinding them are various. 32. namely 10. the various improvements ^Logarithms. Also divide the last of these by 2. — 256. 5120. 3200000. I. these being once fixed. 128000. 16. 64. 25600. 16000000. 8.000.000 as the Logarithm of either one tenth of unity or ten times unity.000. Moreover all these num- Thereupon let us seek for the common numbers which correspond . ten times successively. or of ten.: Page 48 (^c^sS^^c3!ii(^'S^Sa:^J(:sc:kr^ APPENDIX.000. 2. 128. 400000000. by 5 ten times successively. 2000000000.000. 640000. Then. and thereby the following numbers will be produced. the more important is that which adopts a cypher as the Logarithm of unity. bers are logarithms. namely in which the Logarithm of unity is o. and 10. of which the first is as follows Divide the given Logarithm of a tenth. 80000000. 1024.000. 4.

Appendix.

49

correspond to each of them in order. Accordingly, between a tenth and unity, or between ten and unity {adding for the purpose of calculation as many cyphers as you wish, say twelve), find four mean proportionals, or rather the least of them,, by extracting the fifth root, which for ease in demonstration call A. Similarly, between and unity,

A

find of four mean proportionals, which call B. Between B and unity find four means, or the least of them,

the least

fifth root,

And thus proceed, by the extraction of the dividing the interval between that last found and unity into five proportional intervals, or into four means, of all which let the fourth or least be always noted down, until you com,e to the tenth least mean; and let them, be denoted by the letters D, E, F, G, H, I, K. When these proportionals have been accurately computed, and proceed also to find the m,ean proportional between unity, which call L. Then find the mean proportional between L and unity, which call M. Then in like manner and unity, which call N. In the same a mean between way, by extraction of the square root, may be formed between each last found number and unity, the rest of the intermediate proportionals, to be denoted by the letters O, P, Q, R,S, T. V. To each of these proportionals tn order corresponds its Logarithm in the first series. Whence i will be the Logarithm of the number V, whatever it may turn out to be, and 2 will be the Logarithm of the number T, and 4 of the number S, and 8 of the number K, 16 of the number Q, 32 of the number P, 64 of the number O, 128 of the number N, 256 of the number M, 512 of the number L, all of which is manifest from the 1024 of the number above construction. From these, once computed, there may then be formed both the proportionals of other Logarithms and the Logarithms of other proportionals.

which call C.

K

M

K

;

G

For

50

Appendix.

For as in statics, from weights of \, of 2, of \, of %, and of other like numbers of pounds in the same proportion, every number ofpounds weight, which to us now are Logarithms, may be formed by addition ; so, from the

proportionals V, T, S, R, &c., which correspond to them,, and from, others also to be formed in duplicate ratio, the proportionals corresponding to every proposed Logarithm may be formed by corresponding multiplication of them. am,ong themselves, as experience will show. The special difficulty of this method, however, is in finding the ten proportionals to twelve places by extraction of the fifth root from sixty places, but though this method is considerably more difficult, it is correspondingly more exact for finding both the Logarithms of proportionals and the proportionals of Logarithms.

Another method

the

for the easy construction

of the Logarithms of composite numbers,

when

Logarithms

of their primes are known.

two numbers with IF together, forming a known third

;

Logarithms be multiplied the sum of their Loga-

rithms will be the Logarithm of the third. Also if one number be divided by another number, producing a third; the Logarithm of the second subtracted from, the Logarithm of the first, leaves the Logarithm of

the third.

If from a number raised to the second power, to the third power, to the fifth power, &c., certain other numbers be produced ; from the Logarithm of the first multiplied by two, three, five, &c., the Logarithms of the others are produced.

Also

Appendix.

51

Also if front a given number there be extracted the second, third, fifth, &c., roots; and the Logarithm of the given number be divided by two, three, five, &c., there will be produced the Logarithms of these roots.

Finally any common num^ber being formed from other common numbers by multiplication, division, [raising to a

power'] or extraction [of a root] its Logarithm is correspondingly formed from, their Logarithms by addition, subtraction, multiplication, by 2, 3, <2fc. [or division by 2, whence the only difficulty is in finding the Loga3, <Sfc.] rithms of the prime numbers ; and these may be found by the following general method. For finding all Logarithms, it is necessary as the basis of the work that the Logarithms of some two common numbers be given or at least assumed; thus in the fore;

:

going first method of construction, o or a cypher was assumed as the Logarithm of the common number one, and 10,000,000,000 as the Logarithm of one-tenth or of ten. These therefore being given, the Logarithm of the number 5 {which is a prime number) may be sought by the following method. Find the mean proportional between 10 and I, namely looooooooo^O ^^-^^ ^^ arithmetical mean between 10,000,000,000 and o, namely 5,000,000,000 then find the geometrical mean between to and f ooooooooooo namely iSSooooooooo ^^^^ ^^ arithmetical mean between 10,000,000,000 and 5,000,000,000, namely 7,500,000,000;

'

;

'

'

In

the

all

continuous proportionals.

the

sum AS tremes of

the extremes to nearest mean.

to the

means and one or other of the exsame extreme ; so is the difference of the difference of the same extreme and the

G

2

A

saving

52

Appendix.

,

A

saving of half the Table of

Loga-

RITHMS.

OF

two arcs making up u quadrant, as the sine of the greater is to the sine of double its arc, so is the sine

Whence the Logaof 30 degrees to the sine of the less. rithm of the double arc being added to the Logarithm of 2,0 degrees, and the Logarithm of the greater being subtracted front the sum, there remains the Logarithm of the less.

The

relations of

their

Logarithms

numbers

&

If as

natural

to each other.

[A]

I.

T Et

J

—'

two sines and their Logarithms be given.

many numbers equal

to the less sine be multiplied

together as there are units in the Logarithm of the greater; the other hand, as many numbers equal to the greater sine be multiplied together as there are units in

and on

2.

the Logarithm of the less ; two equal numbers will be produced, and the Logarithm of the sine so produced will be the product of the two Logarithms. As the greater sine is to the less, so is the velocity of increase or decrease of the Logarithms at the less, to the

velocity

of increase or decrease of the Logarithms at the

greater.

3.

4.

Two sines in duplicate, triplicate, quadruplicate, or other ratio, have their Logarithms in double, triple, quadruple, or other ratio. And two sines in the ratio of one order to another order, as for instance the triplicate to the quintuplicate, or the

cube

the number of places. . just so many equals to the Logarithm of the first added together produce the Logarithm of the second. that is of 2.000"' power. the Logarithms A . less one. Suppose it is asked what number is the LogaI reply. will be the Logarithm of the root. leaves the Logarithm of the And if any number of equals to a first sine be multiplied together producing a second. Also if the index of the power be the Logarithm of \o. .[C] ber is the number ofplaces or figures which are contained in the result obtained by raising the given number to the 10.000. 10. to 5. Any its desired geometrical mean between two sines has for Logarithm the corresponding arithmetical mean between 8. and as that of the Logarithm of the second to the Logarithm of the first. If a first sine be multiplied into a second producing a third.Appendix. in the power or multiple. .000. the number of places in rithm of 2. of the sines. 53 5. : G 3 But.000. a first sine divide a third as many times successively [B] If as there are units in and if a second sine divides the same third as many times successively as there are units in B also if the same first divide a fourth as many times successively as there are units in C and if the same second divide the same fourth as many times successively as there are units in D I say that the ratio of A. 7. the result obtained by multiplying together 10. 6. So in division. to ^ is the same as that of Q to D. have their Logarithms in the ratio of the indices of their orders. cube to the fifth. Hence it follows that the Logarithm of any given num. the Logarithm of the divisor subtracted from the Logarithm of the dividend quotient. 9.000 of the number 2.000. the Logarithm of the first added to the Logarithm of the second produces the Logarithm of the third.

Therefore. and 10. you will say.000.000 as the index.000. I reply. is numerable.000.ooo of the number 2 is innumerable. seek for the number of places in the multiple. the number obtained by multiplying together 1 0. ocxD. But. with 2 as the given root. and the Logarithm of the number 2. which I seek. to FINIS. itself. still the number of places it.54 Appendix. and not for the multiple in and by our rule you will find 301029995 &c. SOME . be the number of places sought.

by unity only. ^Wo numbers with /^^i'r Logarithms being given. of unity when the Logarithm made o. number of multiplications Logarithms. and if each of the given numbers be multiplied by itself continuously. [A] if both Logarithms be divided by some co7nm. by the quotient of the Logarithm of the other number.Page 55 SOME REMARKS BY THE LEARNED HENRY On The relations of BRIGGS their natural the foregoing Appendix. Let the given numbers be 12 5118865 \39810718 4 6 G 4 Let .on divisor. two equal numbers will be produced. And the Logarithm of the number produced will be the continued product of the quotients of the Logarithms and their common divisor. Logarithms and is numbers to each other. until the is exceeded.

56 Remarks on Appendix.uiiu. Let the common divisor be X lie acv. „ .

Remarks on Appendix. 57 I I 316227766 000000000 .

must be placed in thus ^^^^ \%%%%%%% 3. divisor. the remaining digits expressing a fraction added to the integer. their product 84509804 the common the the quotients of the given Logarithms are is 2 1 which. {the Then let the first larger the better') divide each by it. besides the figures following. &c. is alone integral. the first digit to the left. but of which 5.74705884 Logarithm of the number produced.74705884.58 Remarks on Appendix. which is sought. 3. has for front of the Logaits Logarithm Hencefrom two given Logarithms and the sine of the first we shall be able to find the sine of the second. multiplied by . contain eighteen figures. Take some common divisor of the Logarithms. Again. were to multiply itself until it became . its equal the seventh power of the first (which some call secundus solidus). by unity only. makes 17. by the quotient of the second Logarithm or until the power is produced of like name with the quotient of the second Logarithm. iffour places remain rithm. as evident name with from the quotient of the first the preceding proposition. Therefore . thus 5 ioooooooooo '^^• has for its Logarithm 74705884. the power of like is Logarithm. . As 3 and 7. The same number would be produced if the second sine. in front. sine multiply itself and its products continuously until the number of these products is exceeded. The latter represent the Logarithm of the number denoted by the same digits. and It should be observed that the cube of the second number. integral. wherefore its Logarithm has 17.

Thus let the given Logarithms be 8 and 14. quotients 4 and 7 is 28. will occupy the seventh place. If 3 multiply itself six times. I Logarithms. . in a series of continued proportionals from unity. The product of the is the required second sine. and hence it may. o) I) O 8 16 (O) (X) 3 6 838521 14 9 27 81 243 729 ^) (3) (4) (5) 24 32 (6) (7) 2187 40 48 56 46765372 319 80598 2187 (2) (3) 28 42 56 (4) // will be observed that these Logarithms differ from those employed in illustration of the previous Proposition . but 2 H . makes 56. 59 Therefore take the above power and seek for the root of it which corresponds to the quotient of the first Logarithm. thereby you will find the required second sine. in which the first power. the Logarithm of the power 2187. Continued Proportionals. and the sine corresponding to the first Logarithm be 3. which. be called the seventh power. The same number.Remarks on Appendix. is the fourth power from unity in another series of continued proportionals. multiplied by the common divisor 2. Also the Logarithm of the power itself will be the continued product of the quotients and the common divisor. I Logarithms. 6 ]^gg§§§ ^. without inconvenience. you will have 2187 for the power which. 2187. Continued Proportionals. A common divisor of the Logarithms is 2 this gives the quotients 4 and 7.

and the quotients are 32. 2. is to B.anner the first. and the quotients are 4. divides the . i. i Therewill be 4. 64. and B will be 2. as in these four cases. If in these divisions the last and smallest quotient be everywhere unity. 4. 4. 64. unless perhaps the least. as A. Then let the num. that in both. Hence I say that. 4. 4. and so is the Logarithm of the second to the Logarithm of A D the first. 4. two times . In the same m. first sine divide and each a third. 1 The second. but not the value of any quotient. divides the fourth. to D. six times . but they agree in this. quotients are third. 6. and the quotient of the quotient of a quotient successively as many times as possible. . divides the third. [B] If a third. so also let the fourth be divided by each. the numbers of the .6o Remarks on Appendix.ber of these divisions be noted. i. to which we shall refer presently. the Logarithm of unity is o and consequently the Logarithms of the same numbers are either equal or at least proportional to each other. 8. and the same fore 6. In the same manner let the second divide the same third. ) divide the third. 8. 2. The first must And i first sine be " „ 2 Thus let the i !^"°r^ \ " „ third J 16 64 (fourth „ „ The first. 4. 16. Therefore C will be 6. The second. 3. until the last quotient becomes less than the divisor. and will be 3. 2. 2. four times. 2. i. divides the fourth. so is C. 16. three times . and the quotients are 16.

27.ple. 10. 9. the number 3 H . if 2) be multiplied by itself four times it makes 243. let the second. multiply itself continuously until the number of the products is exceeded. and again in like m-anner by the second number. or any others you Let the Logarithm of the first. it follows that the logarithm ) [C] Let two numbers be taken. In the first place. or not even scarcely. be given . the number of quotients by the rocally proportional. and the dividends sufficiently large. the defect from. 2. Therefore (by the preceding proposition) since the same product is divided by two given numbers as often as possible.proportionality will scarcely. namely 100. lo and 2. ^for the product is its hundredth power . In the former case. by unity Then let the last only. the numbers of the quotients and the Logarithms of the divisors will be recipBut. then it will divide the product as m. second being equal to the Logarithm of the first. 3. i. so that the quotients are very m. be perceived.any. if the divisors be very small. 2. Hence please. The number of quotients in the latter case will be 100. by the given Logarithm of the first. and if a number be multiplied by itself a given number of times forming a certain product. it is manifest that the number of quotients falls short of the number of places in the dividend by one only.) where the product is continually divided by 10. it is required to find the Logarithm of the second. for exam. the quotients being Bi.Remarks on Appendix. nevertheless. product be divided as often as possible by the first number. and the same 3 divides 243 five times. the quoiients 6i be and the Logarithms of the divisors will reciprocally proportional. Otherwise the ratio will not be exactly the same on both sides .any times and once more .

Number of Places. will be equal to the Logarithm of the second. ber of qiiotienis by the first.62 Remarks on Appendix. I o I I I 2 4 i6 2 2 4 8 10 3 4 7 256 1024 13 25 31 . that is the number of places in the product less one.

000. will give the Logarithm of 2 with sufficient accuracy. by one only. because in large numbers the small fraction adhering to the last quotient will have no effect in disturbing the proportion. and if 2 be multiplied by itself continuously until the number of products is exceeded. by the given Logarithm then the number of places.Remarks on Appendix.000. H 4 SOME .000. 63 the last quotient disturbs the ratio a little. THE END. in the last product. but if we assume the Logarithm of 10 to be 10. . less one.

9. This is best done by the three methods explained in my work on Logarithms. Given three angles. A 4. And conversely. to find the side A B. & & Multiply the sine of by the sine of divide the product by the sine of B. Given the side h. To solve a spherical triangle without dividing into it two quadrantal or rectangular triangles.Page 64 SOME VERY REMARKABLE PROPOSITIONS FOR THE solution of spherical triangles with wonderfod ease. the angles T) ^. and you will have the sine of B. VI sects. chap.T>. AD D . Given . 10. to find any side. 8. Book II. to find any angle. IvEN three sides.

T>. to find the side A B. Given A . & the angles T> & V>. find the Multiply radius by the sine of the complement of divide by the tangent of the complement of D.. Multiply radius by the sine of the complement of divide the product by the tangent of the comD. be produced . . whence we have itself. D. : C D. D : D D . and the tangent of C D will be plement of D A I produced . Similarly multiply the sine of the complement of B by the sine of C A D divide by the sine of the complement of D. the side B D. D . and the sine of B A C will be produced which being added to or subtracted from CAD. Multiply radius by the sine of the complement of divide by the tangent of the complement of will be produced its D. D A . and you will obtain the tangent of the arc C then multiply the sine of C D by the tangent of divide the product by the tangent of B. and the sine of B C will result add or subtract B C and D A . 4. h. to find the angle B. and the tangent of the complement of C D . Given KTi. and the tangent of C or add to. arc C by you have B C then multiply the sine of C divide the product by the sine of the tangent of B C. A D. df the angles D cSf B. and you have the tangent of the angle B. cSj' the angle D with the side B D. D. /c find the AD will Multiply radius by the sine of the complement of divide by the tangent of' the complement of D. 6. CAD A . you will obtain the required angle BAD. and you have B 5. D D : . & the angle D with the side B D. Trigonometrical Propositions. and subtract from. 7. Given the side angle A. 65 to Given the side side B D.

the and you have B C. and the sine of the the product by the sine of angle B will be produced. and the sine of the complement of A B will be produced. & the angle D with the side A B. Whence the sum or the difference of the arcs will be the required side B D. to find the produced . to find the side B D. Then multiply given side B D. & the angle D with the side B D. divide the product by the tangent of the complement of A D. Given K Vi. the sine of the complement of A D by the sine of the complement of B C divide the product by the sine of the complement of C D. C D subtract from. but the problem would require the " Rule of Three " to be applied Therefore substitute A for B and B for A. or add to. Given A D. hence you have A B itself. is exactly the same as the sixth problem. and the tangent of the arc C D will be Then multiply the sine of the compleproduced. A D A AD A D . thrice. divide the product by the sine of the complement of D. with the side A D. and solved by the " Rule of Three " being applied twice only. 9. : angle B. cSr" the angle angle B. This follows from the above. Given tlie B. and you have the sine of the complement of B C.— 66 Trigonometrical Propositions. Multiply radius by the sine of the complement of D. and the problem will be as follows Given B D c2f D. to find the angle A. to find with the side D. This is 8. by the sine of divide Multiply the sine of B. its arc . B C and C ment of D A A D 10. C by the sine of the complement of B. Given .

& to find the side B I 2 three . This follows from the above. and you have the tangent of the complement of C D being thus known. but in this form the problem would require the " Rule of Three" to be Given A D. giving B C. multiply the tangent of by the sine of the complement of C D. divide the product by the tangent of the complement of D. to find the third angle B. Multiply radius by the sine of the complement of D. the difference or sum of the same and the whole angle is the angle B Multiply the tangent of C. A Given A D. A A . divide the product by the tangent of B. A A CAD 1 1. 67 B. giving us C D. Trigonometrical Propositions. 1 2. cS^ the angle A. to Given A the angle D. Given KY). and the sine of the complement of B C will be produced. divide the product by the tangent of the complement of D. CAD A A D A A D A dr" the angle with the angle A. to find the B. A Multiply radius by the sine of the complement of D. and the tangent of the complement of will be produced. by the sine of the complement of C divide the product by the sine of the complement of B C. and the sine of the complement of B will be produced. and you will have the tangent of B. the angle D with the angle A. 10. from which we have the angle D required.. Again. divide the product by the tangent of the complement of D. D. Then the sum or difference of the arcs B C and will be the required angle A CAD A A A AD A BAD. D with the side A find Multiply radius by the sine of the complement of D. side A & the angle D with the angle A.

verti- Conversely. The use and importance of half-versed sines. to find any angle. and the halfversed sine of the vertical angle will be produced. Given the base and the adjacent angles.— . to the angle Given A D D : K D & A find the side B A. and for A. 1. for Therefore substitute three times applied. 68 Trigonometrical Propositions. Given the three angles. VJJ" r~^ IvEN two sides third side.versed sine of their difference multiply the remainder by the half-versed sine of the contained angle divide the product by radius to this add the half-versed sine of the difference of the sides. and is solved by applying the " Rule of Three " twice only. given the three sides. sides will be found by 3. to find the From the half-versed sine of the sum of the sides subtract the half . and you have the half-versed sine of the required base. versed sine of the sum of the sides diminished by the half-versed sine of their difference. the similar reasoning. & the contained angle. cal 2. and the problem will be as follows with the angle D. From the half-versed sine of the base subtract the half-versed sine of the difference of the sides multiplied by radius divide the remainder by the half. This is the same throughout as problem 1 1. the angle will be found by similar reasoning. Let . whose sine shall be equal to the difference of the sines of the given arcs. . to find a third. Given two arcs.

Let the arc be 13°. from this subtract the logarithm of the half difference. to find sum of the sines equal. to the sum of the sines of 38° respectively. Whence the sine of 21°.* . 69 Let the arcs be 38° i' and ^f. Adding these. 4. The arc corresponding to this is 1° 28'. namely 11 60 177. and the number put for the sine is 25595 but this is also the versed sine of 13°. 974370 and [a] Given an arc. and the logarithms are 621656 and 1098014 respectively. Given two the a third whose sine shall be equal to of the given arcs. or thereabout. namely 358368. you have 17 19670. Given an arc whose versed sine shall arc. Their complements are 51° 59' and 13°. the logarithm of 21°. 1° 28'. 5 183 13. arcs. also the half sum is 19° 44' and the half difference 18° 16'. the logarithm of half radius. or nearly so. Wherefore half sum. to i' and 6. the half difference 19° 29'. their sum is 39° 29' and their difference 36° 33'.Trigonometrical Propositions. Let the arcs be 38° i' and 1° 28'. viz. is equal to the difference of the sines of the arcs ']f and 38° i'. which sines are 6 1 589 1. The half sum of the complements is 32° 29'. 1085655. to find the Logarithm of its versed sine. and there will remain 3663993. From double this. to which correspond But this sine is the arc 39° 56' and sine 641896. to add the logarithm of the the logarithm of the difference. viz. & namely 615661 and 25595 the Logarithm of its sine. of which the logarithm is 2178570. subtracting 693147. be equal to the sine find the arc of the given I 3 Let . 5. its half is 6° 30'. from which. there will remain 1026523. more or less. *^5. and there will remain the logarithm 443791. namely 4357140. and you have 1603968. subtract 693147.

1218382 and 1 9002 2 1 respectively." The sum of the two arcs is 1 8° 40'. be 34° the LEtangle sides24' 49". the logarithm of which is 2178570. add the logarithms of the sides. the half sum 9° 20'. Double the latter and you have 4357140 for the logarithm of the half-versed sine of 13°. which arc we call the " first found. the logarithm of half radius. the sine being unknown. and its logarithm 141 766. to find the base. namely 581260 and 312858. the half difference 8° 36'. To the double of the latter. between the versed sine of the base and difference the versed sine of the difference of the sides it is also the logarithm of the sine of the arc 17° 56'.70 Trigonometrical Propositions. logarithm 443791 add 693147. to which corresponds the To the logarithm 443791. Now . and their logarithms 1139241 and 1819061 respectively. and the contained Half the contained angle is 60^12' 24. and you have 1 136938. namely 13°. Halve this logarithm and you have 568469. and their logarithms . 20° 1 A Ti. given the sides & the and 47°. namely 283533. To this corresponds the arc 34° 30'. Also the difference of the two arcs is 17° 12'. and you have 6° 30'. which being doubled gives 69° for the arc which was sought. or nearly so. This is the case since the sine of 39° 56' and the versed sine of 69° are each equal. it is also the logarithm of the sine of the arc 0° 44'. Let the arc be 39° 56'." for that which follows is first found. Halve the difference of the sides. and the sum This sum is the logarithm of half the is II 7765 1.^4". [b] Of the spherical triangle B contained angle. to 641800. which arc we call the "second found.

their half sum is 80° 17'. given the three sides. and the sum will be 3037443 from this subtract the logarithm 1 90022 and there will remain . will remain 1137221. namely 69°. or the logarithm of the complement of the half to difference. to find the vertical angle. It is to be problems there observed that in the preceding and following is no need to discriminate between the dif- ferent cases. but partly by logarithms and partly by prosthaphcsresis of arcs. . chap. since the form and magnitude of the several parts appear in the course of the calculation. and the sum will be 1830368. which note as the second found.1 Trigonometrical Propositions. Halve the latter and you have the logarithm 56861 1. [Given the sides and the base. 8. namely 69°. Book II. 71 Now add the logarithm of the half sum. The solution of this problem is given in my work on Logarithms. Double the latter and you have 11 37222 corresponding to this is the arc 18° 42'. 34° 30'. take for the first found the arc 0° 44'. either to the logarithm 12 18382. As before. the logarithm of . HALVE the given base. vi. to find any angle. 1 namely 11 307. to which corresponds the arc 34° 30'. Another direct converse of the preceding problem follows. corresponding to the logarithm 4357140. The complements of the two arcs are 89° 16' and 71° 18'. Conversely. and its logarithm I 4 14449. from this subtract 693147 and there 137222. namely 1819061. and double this arc is the base required.] — and you have which is 568611. sect.

take for the first found the halfversed sine of the difference of the sides. Add the first and second found. Conversely — \given the sides and the base. Multiply the latter by the square of radius divide . the half-versed sine of the difference of the sides. and its logarithm 1856956. subtract 693 1 47 and there remains 11 78258. subtract the logarithms of the given sides.\ — N' of the sum and difference of the Ote the half difference between the versed sines sides. Add these logarithms and you have 1 87 1 405. From the logarithm of the third found. by .72 Trigonometrical Propositions. Another rule for finding the base by prosthaphceresis. as before. and also Look the half-versed sine of the vertical angle. From the half-versed sine of the base subtract the first found and you will have the second found. The arc corresponding to this logarithm is 17° 56'. and there remains 283533. namely 581260 and 312858. as before. which arc we call the third found. 14449. and you will obtain the half-versed sine of the base sought for. among the common sines for the values noted. to find the base.'] The first found will be. to find the vertical angle. Also. and find the arcs corresponding to them in the table. The whole vertical angle sought is therefore 120° 24' 49". Then write for the second found the half difference of the versed sines of the sum and difference of these arcs. halve this and you have 141 766 for the logarithm of the half vertical angle 60° 12' 24-^'''. \Given the sides and vertical angle. their half difference is 8° 59'.

[c] mediate. along ^^ sum. and you will have the second found. Or otherwise. you will have the first found. Y^^ half angles at the base. Then to the logarithm of the half difference . and the logarithm of the tangent of half the base subtract the logarithm of the sum and the logarithm of the half difference. to find the two extremes by a single operation. given the base and adjacent angles. and . to find the two sides. difference and half with their logarithms. arid you will have the first found. Again. . add the logarithm of the tangent of half the base subtract the logarithm of the half sum. A' Dd . since they are such. Another way offinding the sides. together the logarithm of the half sum of the angles at the base. K . (*) ^^ down the sum.versed sine of the vertical angle sought for. Offive parts of a spherical triangle.Trigonometrical Propositions. then add their arcs and you will have the greater side again subtract the less arc from the greater and you will have the less side. write difference. and the logarithm of the tangent of half the base subtract the logarithm of the sum and the logarithm of half radius. . the logarithm of the difference. Look for the first and second found among the logarithms of tangents. the logarithm of the complement of the half difference. by the 73 half difference between the versed sines of the sum and difference of the sides. and you have as quotient the half. given the three inter. Add together the logarithm of the half sum.

and the logarithm of the tangent of half the base. and you will have the second found. and you will have the second found. Whence add the arcs corresponding to these two tangents. (*) '^^ angles f^^ difference ^-^ is at the base. Also subtract the less from the greater and you will have the tangent of half the difference of the sides. and the greater side will be obtained subtract the less arc from the greater and you have the . and you will obtain the sides. less side.74 Trigonometrical Propositions. and you will have the first found. as the is sine of the difference of the sines. the sine of the half to the sine of the half sum. Of the five consecutive parts of a spherical triangle. Multiply sum the secant of the complement of the of the angles at the base by the tangent [d] of half the base. Then divide the sum of the first and second found by the square of radius. to find both extremes by one oper^ ation and without the need of discriminating between the several cases. Proceed as above with the first and second found. to a fourth which is the sum And . the logarithm of the complement of the half sum. Multiply the same product by the sine of the less angle. s^ven the three intermediate. Again. subtract the logarithm of the sum and the logarithm of half radius. Another way of the same. Multiply the product by the sine of the greater angle at the base. add together the logarithm of the half difference. and you wiU have the tangent of half the sum of the sides.

75 And the sine of the sum is to the sum of the sines as the tangent of half the base is to the tangent of half the sum of the sides.1 N I. and you will have in like manner subtract the less the greater side from the greater and the less side will be obtained. K 2 SOME . Add the arcs of these known tangents. Whence the sine of the half sum is to the sine of the half difference of the angles as the tangent of half the base is to the tangent of half the difference of the sides.Trigonometrical Propositions. . taking them from the table of tangents. F . S.

Add the known logarithm of the required versed sine to the logarithm of 2. be the known logarithm of the required versed sine. To this Thus let sine. to find its arc. is the logarithm of 43° 59' 12)' The arc of the given logarithm is therefore 87° 59' 6". [a] ^. • logarithm . viz.: Page 76 SOME NOTES BV THE LEARNED HENRY BRIGGS ON THE FOREGOING PROPOSITIONS.0°.. To this logarithm add 693147. to find the logarithm of its versed to the end of this proposition the following — \* / should like add Conversely. 364469. and half the sum will be the logarithm of half the arc sought for. arc. half of which. 6gsi47. say —54321. let a negative logarithm. versed 35791 be the given logarithm of an unknown whose arc is also unknown. given the logarithm of a versed sine.^^ Iven To an sine. and the sum will be 728938. Again.. and its versed sine is 9648389.

sine of ^ arc c d c b. half of which. the versed sine of which is 105582 16. Notes on Trigonometrical Propositions. let the sides be . add to it the versed sine of the difference of the sidesy and the sum. > ) > ) pro^ port. 319413.. that is the number remaining since the sines are contrary. The arc of the given logarithm is therefore 93° 1 2' o".Letter on I observed that the sixth proposition might be proved in an exactly similar way. and since this is greater than radius it has a negative logarithm. namely —54321. double of line c h proport. j- versed sine of arc] .34° and 3 47°. and the sum will be the logarithm of the difference between the versed sine of the difference of the sides and the versed sine of th£ base required. . Of the - spherical triangle the base A B D ] In finding namely: — we may pursue another method^ Add the logarithm of the versed sine of the given angle to the logarithms of the given sides. 693147. will be the versed sine of the base required. sine of 30° o' \ cont. their loga- K rithms . will be 638826. and the sum. as before. c g. Demonstration. 77 logarithm add. is the logarithm of 46° 36' o". This difference being consequently known. c h X a a e a f "j cont. . For example. ix c. X c c ") cont. g > ) proport.

and the logarithm of the versed sine of the given angle —409615. Conversely. Thus :— Let . let the logarithms of the be 581 261 and 312858. in As sides [c] Offive parts of a spherical triangle ] This proposition appears to be identical with the one which is inserted at the end. that is 256300. the remainder will be the logarithm of t/te versed sine of the angle sought for. and the remainder will be the negative logarithm— 409615. as they are better combined. 8941 19. is 6160057. There are. whether a versed sine or a common sine. The latter proposition I consider much the superior. Consequently the base required is 69°. If to this you add the versed sine of the difference of the sides. namely 6416357. three operations in it. to find any angle. and consequently this is the difference between the versed sine of the base and the versed sine of the difference of the sides. given three sides. from the logarithm 484504. the base Iffrom the logarithm and the the previous example. and distinguished like the former by (*). the sum will be the versed sine of the base required. which gives the versed sine of the required angle 1 20° 24' 49". namely 3583643. however. Now the line corresponding to this logarithm. the first two of which I throw into one. The sum of these three logarithms is 484504. Subtract their sum. which is the logarithm of the difference between the versed sine of the base and the versed sine of the difference of the sides. rithms 581 261 and 312858. and this subtracted from radius leaves the sine of the complement of the base. of the difference between the versed sine of versed sine of the difference of the sides you subtract the logarithms of the sides. which is the sine of 21°.78 Notes on Trigonometrical Propositions.

the angles at the base 79 -jo ?/ " 73° 36' 36° 48' 53° 1 1 1' 4" sum.J Sine half sum tion i. 58" complement of -^ sum. 84° 18' /"Sine half difference Propor. Logarithms. 2" half sum. 3" compl. Let there be given the base 69°. 1° 23' 54" difference. of I diff.Notes on Trigonometrical Propositions. 5° 41' 57" half difference.\ Sine difference \ Sum of sines 5° 41' 57" 36° 48' 2" 11° 23' 54" — 23095560 5124410 16213641 1757509 .

. compl. Another Example. -^diff. ^ vert. Logarithms. of angles 84° 18' 3" 34° 30' o" 3750122 tion. at base .8o Notes on Trigonometrical Propositions. of half sum. of sides 75°45'27" tion I. compl. 45° 20' 38" half sum. 45° 20' 38" 14° 14' 33" 66° 30' o" 38° 30' 3406418 14023154 -8328403 2288333 o" 72° 30' 38° 30' o / j- angles at the base.atbase 72° 30' o"— 1 1452329 — / Sine \ sum of sides Propor. angle 66° 30' o" 8328403 I \ Tan. the sides containing it ] ^^° 5/ c" 90° 41' 16" sum. \ Tan. 35261 18 312J92 Tan. Logarithms. /Sine comply sum of angles 53°ii'58" 2222368 49553 Proper. 28° 29' 6" difference. Let there be given the angle 47°. . ^ Tangent ^ base 40° 30' o" 1 5773^7 ( Tangent ^ sum of sides .J Sine compl. of sides tion 2.J Sine \ diff. 27'' 75° 45' I Sine compl.idiff. angle \ Tan. are And these relations all uniformly maintained. 14° 14' 33" half difference. 44^ 39' 22" compl. comply sum of sides 44° 39' 22" Propor. of angs. \ vert.^sum of angs. . whether . of half diff.J Sine comply diff.

Another way of the same ] Then divide the sum of the first and second found by [d] the square of radius. for example — 8328403. and therefore in multiplication and division. and not in addition or is subtraction. the latter will not admit of the use of logarithms throughout. the logarithm is negative and has a dash preceding. operation the important point is what occupies the third In the former it is the tangent place in the proportion. and you will have the tangent. 8i whether there be given two angles with the interjacent In each two sides with the contained angle. L . in the latter the tangent of the complement of half the vertical angle. &c. and you will have ) To make follows — the sense clearer. as the quotients must be added and subtracted to find the tangents . T'hzs proposition is absolutely true. but while the former may most conveniently be solved by logarithm's. side or of half the base. I should prefer to write this as Then divide both the first and second found by the square of radius. THE END. if the tangent or the sum of the sines be greater than radius.: Notes on Trigonometrical Propositions. for the utility of Logarithms seen in proportionals. add the quotients. as well as the one preceding . In these examples.

.

Notes BY THE TRANSLATOli L 2 .

is In the works published in Latin the form Neperus invariably used. Naipper. Brigges. as well as in the French editions which were revised by him. ' ' work is a letter signed " John Napeir " dedicating the book to James VI. as very slight importance was attached to the spelling of names. a strong case might be made out for Napeir.Notes. The Neper.. Nepair. his name is spelt in three differis The form Nepair ent ways. for example.' the only book published by Napier in English. — Brigs. Several of these spellings are known to have been used by our author. thus although Briggs contributed a preface. is The spelling in ordinary use at the present time older spellings are various — Napier. Napeir. the claim of present usage be set aside. as mentioned above. In the 1645 edition. Napare. and the same spelling was retained in the subsequent editions during the author's lifetime. and also If. the modern spelling was introduced. in the 1645 edition of A Plaine Discovery. as this was the spelling adopted in A In Plaine Discovery. we may infer that the signature would be in the most approved form. Naper. The work was first issued in 1593. Nepper.' however. Spelling of the Author's Name. I adopt the modern spelling. On . which is that used by his biographers. and Briggs. and as this letter is a solemn address to the King. this published in 16 16. much stress must not be laid on this. but too used in Wright's translation of the Descriptio. Nepeir.

is however employed in the title-page and headings of the Constructio. Napier sometimes uses the expression logarithm of an arc for the logarithm of the sine of an arc. The method consists in the use of the formula sin a sin 6 = ^ tiplication of results {cos {a-b). in the Encyclopedia Britannica. was A assumed to have the value Artificialis.cos (a + b)}. and the scriptio. and It is also used throughout the in the Appendix and following papers. Logarithmus. and as the word was not invented till several years after the completion of the Constructio (see the second page of the Preface. which he calls Sinus Totus. Napier's Canon or Table of Logarithms does not contain the logarithms of equidifferent numbers. but as they have a different signification in modern mathematics. meaning log. Prosthapharesis was a term in seventeenth century. used in the body of the to the logarithm Constructio for Logarithm. the latter must have been written some years prior to 16 14. chap. the number corresponding being called NumefTis Naturalis. The Antilogarithm of an arc. log. specimen page of the Table is given in the Catalogue under the 1614 edition of the Descriptio. line 12). I. corresponding to which Numerus Vulgaris is used. The Mr Glaisher's article on Napier. Descriptio published in 1614. new invention in Denmark " to which Anthony Wood refers as hav- ing given the hint to Napier was probably the method of calculation called prosthaphaeresis (often written in Greek letters irpotrOaipaipetns). tangent of arc (see De- Bk. and is common use at the beginning of the twice employed by Napier in the Spherical following short extract from ' Trigonometry of the Constructio as well as in the Descriptio. and as such products occur in the solution .' indicates the nature of this method of The ' ' calculation.). sine complement of arc. 85 On some Terms made use of in the Original Work. which had its origin in the solution of spherical triangles. iii.. is Numerus simply Artifidalis. meaning Differential of an arc.Notes. For shortness. or 1 0000000. we do not use them in the translation. but of sines of equidifferent arcs for every minute in the quadrant. The sine of the Quadrant or Radius. are terms used in the original. by means of which the mul- two sines is reduced to the addition or subtraction of two tabular taken from a table of sines .

86

Notes.

of spherical triangles, the method affords the solution of spherical triangles in

certain cases

by addition and subtraction

only.

It

of Breslau,

who was

assistant for a short time to

Tycho Brahe

seems to be due to Wittich ; and it was used

by them

**in their calculations in 1582.
**

is

**In the spherical trigonometry the notation used in the original
**

:

**either of the form 34 gr 24 49 or 34 24 49, but in the translation the form of notation used is always 34° 24' 49".
**

:

References to delay

in

**publishing the Constructio,
**

lo.

**and to a new kind of Logarithms to Base
**

The

The

various passages from Napier's works bearing on these points

are given below.

the Preface, line

two are referred to by Robert Napier in the first page of They appeared in the Descriptio, published in 5. 1614, the first, entitled Admonitio, on p. 7 (Bk. I. chap, ii.), and the second, with the title Conclusio, on the 5 7th or last page of the work

first

—

(Bk. II. chap,

vi.)

The

last

is printed on the back of the page of the Table of Logarithms published along with the De-

third passage, entitled Admonitio,

scriptio,

but

is

omitted in

many

copies.

I.

fourth was inserted by Napier at p. 19 (Bk. Wright's translation, published in 161 6.

The

chap,

iv.)

of

The

last is

the passage referred to in the second page of the PreIt is the

face, line 18.

opening paragraph in the Dedication of 'Rab-

dologiae

'

to Sir

Alexander Seton.

/.

**From DESCRIPTIO, Book
**

Note.

I.

Chapter II.

Up to this point we have explained the genesis and properties of logarithms, and we should here show by what calculations or method of computing they are to be had. But as we are issuing the whole Table containing the logarithms with their sines to every minute of the quadrant, we leave the Theory of their Construction for a more fitting time and pass on to their use. So that their use and advantages being first understood, the rest may either please the

more

if

**published hereafter or at least displease the less by being buried in
**

silence.

Notes.

silence.

87

For I await the judgement and criticism of the learned on this before unadvisedly publishing the others and exposing them to the detraction of the

//.

**From DESCRIPTIO, Book
**

Conclusion.

11.

Chapter VI.

It has now, therefore, been sufficiently shown that there are Logarithms, what they are, and of what use they are for by their help without the trouble of multiplication, division, or extraction of roots we have both demonstrated clearly and shovra by examples in both kinds of Trigonometry that the arithmetical solution of every Geometrical question may be very readily obtained. Thus you have, as promised, the wonderful Canon of Logarithms with its very full application, and should I understand by your communications that this is likely to please the more learned of you, I may be encouraged also to publish the method of constructing the table. Meanwhile profit by this little work, and render all praise and glory to God the chief among workers and the helper of all good works.

:

///.

From

the

**End of the TABLE OF LOGARITHMS.
**

Note.

Since the calculation of this table, which ought to have been accomplished

by

the labour

and

assistance of

strength and industry of one alone,

many computers, has been completed by the it will not be surprising if many errors

have crept into it. These, therefore, whether arising from weariness on the part of the computor or carelessness on the part of the printer, let the reader kindly pardon, for at one time weak health, at another attention to more important affairs, hindered me from devoting to them the needful care. But if I perceive that this invention is likely to find favour with the learned, I will perhaps in a short time (with God's help) give the theory and method either of improving the canon as it stands, or of computing it anew in an improved form, so that by the assistance of a greater number of computers it may ultimately appear in a more polished and accurate shape than was possible by the work of a single individual. Nothing is perfect at birth.

THE END.

IV. From

**WRIGHT'S TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTIO,
**

Book

I.

Chapter IV.

An

Admonition.

Bvt because the addition and subtraction of these former numbers [logs, of xV and its powers] may seeme somewhat painfull, I intend (if it shall please God)

L

4

88

Notes.

God) in a second Edition, to set out such Logarithmes as shal make those numbers aboue written to fall upon decimal numbers, such as 100,000,000, 200,000,000, 300,000,000, &c., which are easie to bee added or abated to or from any other number.

V.

From

the

DEDICATION OF RABDOLOGIM.

Most Illustrious Sir, I have always endeavoured according to my strength and the measure of my ability to do away with the difficulty and tediousness of calculations, the irksomeness of which is wont to deter very many from the study of mathematics. With this aim before me, I undertook the publication of the Canon of Logarithms which I had worked at for a long time in former years this canon rejected the natural numbers and the more difficult operations performed by them, substituting others which bring out the same results by easy additions, subtractions, and divisions by two and by three. We have now also found out a better kind of logarithms, and have determined (if God grant a continuance of life and health) to make known their method of construction and use but, owing to our bodily weakness, we leave the actual computation of the new canon to others skilled in this kind of work, more particularly to that very learned scholar, my very dear friend, Henry Briggs, public Professor of Geometry in London.

; ;

**Notation of Decimal Fractions.
**

In the actual work of computing the Canon of Logarithms, Napier would continually make use of numbers extending to a great many places, and it was then no doubt that the simple device occurred to him of using a point to separate their integral and fractional parts. It would thus appear that in the working out of his great invention of Logarithms, he was led to devise the system of notation for decimal fractions which has never been improved upon, and which enables us to use fractions with the same facility as whole numbers, thereby immensely increasing the power of arithmetic. A full explanation of

the notation

is

given in sections

'

4, 5,

I.

and

**47, but the following extract,
**

iv., is interesting as being though the above sections

translated from

Rabdologiae,' Bk.

chap,

his first published reference to the subject,

from the Constructio must have been written long before that date, and the point had actually been made use of in the Canon of Logarithms printed at the end of Wright's translation of the Descriptio in 1616.

From

—

Notes.

From

89

I.

RABDOLOGIM,

Book

Chapter IV.

**Note on Decimal Arithmetic.
**

But

if

these fractions be unsatisfactory which have different denominators,

The preceding example :— division of 861094 432-

by

owing to the difficulty of working with them, and those give more satisfaction whose denominators are always tenths, hundredths, thousandths, &c., which fractions that learned

mathematician, "AVwow Sievin, in his

denotes thus

:

118 141

Decimal Arithmetic

402 429 86i094{i993iJI 432

naming them firsts, seconds, (2J, ^3), thirds since there is the same facility in working with these fractions as with whole numbers, you will be able after completing the ordinary division, and adding a period or comma,

as in the margin, to add to the dividend or to the remainder

— (7j,

64 I 36 31 6

118,000 141

one cypher to obtain tenths, two

**for hundredths, three for
**

:

402 429

861094,000(1993,273 432

and with these working as above. For instance, in the preceding example, here repeated, to which we have added three cyphers, the quotient will become 1993.273, which signifies 1993 units and 273 thousandth parts you

will be able to proceed with the

thousandths, or more afterwards as required

1296

864 3024

I

or iVtrti or, according to Stevzn, 1993,2 7 3 : further the last remainder, 64, is neglected in this decimal arithmetic because

it is

of small value, and similarly in like examples.

296

Simon

Stevin, to

whom

Napier here

refers,

was

bom

at

Bruges in

1548, and died at

matical works in

The Hague in 1620. He published various matheDutch. The Tract on Decimal Arithmetic, which

**introduced the idea of decimal fractions and a notation for them, was
**

published in 1585 in Dutch, under the title of 'De Thiende,' and in the same year in French, under the title of La Disme.'

'

**We find Briggs,
**

numerator

in his

'

**Remarks on the Appendix,' while sometimes
**

2 5118865 for

**employing the point, also using the notation
**

distinguishing the fractional part

2^^-^^^^^,

by

retaining the line separating the

The form and denominator, but omitting the latter. If we take any number such as 2|5ii886s has also been used.

will give

94TWTnT' *h^ following

**an idea of some of the
**

:

different

notations employed at various times

_ _ 940I030O050;

941305;

941305

94

©0000

I

305;

94- 1305Notwithstanding

94|£305

M

6.222927. as the logarithm of the first proportional in that table is deduced from the logarithm of the last proportional in the Second table by finding the limits of their difierence. to enquire whether in addition any error might have been introduced by the method of computation employed. It 10. since the last proportional therein is given (sec. whereas on trial it will be found to be 9995001. and by Mr Glaisher in the Report of the 1873 Meeting of the ' British Association. though the conception of a base was not formally known to him). as tionals was incorrect : But these limits are obtained from the shown above. 17) as 9995001.90 Notes. Transactions of the Sections. proportionals themselves. The subject is referred to by Mark Napier in the Memoirs. and mentioned in sec. We see the effect of this in the logarithm of the last proportional in the Radical table. Logarithms. it was that it in fact.000 . therefore. we should premise that in comparing Napier's logarithms with those to the base e~^ (which is the base required by his reasoning. p. as of the table of sines. it must be kept in view that in making radius also. 451455. long after Napier's time Notwithstanding the simplicity and elegance of the last of these. by the imperfection seems desirable. and. This mistake introduced an error into the logarithms of the Radical table. It is evident that a mistake must somewhere have occurred in the computation of the Second table. or rather more than a three millionth part. the given logarithm thus being less than the true logarithm by 2.' pp. whereas it should be 6934253.224804.4. On of a Mistake in the ComputaSecond Table with an Enquiry into tion of the the Accuracy of Napier's Method of Computing his the Occurrence . 47) as 6934250. which is given (sec. 16. one of these proporthe limits therefore are incorrect. Before entering on this enquiry. 60. The logarithms as published in the original Canon are affected by the above mistake. and consefirst quently the logarithm of the proportional in the Radical table.000.8. not till the eighteenth century — — came into general use.

he proposes to take 1. 30. and that his published logarithms would be for. we have 1. + etc.000. the arithmetical mean between the difference of this differ these limits. ^ analytical expression for the true logarithm. as a sufficiently close approximation to the true logarithm mean from either limit being . ^ which multiplied by n gives g^ + etc. if we take mean of the limits. and multiplying the we have 1. So that up to the 15th place the logarithm yi obtained . which is the twenty millionth part of the logarithm. But there can be little doubt that Napier was able to satisfy himself that the difference would be very much less.00000005. 0000000 for n. Napier shows that the logarithm of 9999999. It will be observed that besides being very much less..ooooooiooooooioetc.. exceeds the true + 2^ + 5^ + 2^ + 1^5 + etc. Notes.000000050000005000000500 etc. for the arithmetical therefore. ^t<=- + 2V2 + sSS + 4^ + s^ + mean is ^he corresponding expression latter. The logarithm by ^. carried to a similar number of places. Again. And in sec.000000050000003333333583 the arithmetical result by 1 0000000. it cannot • unaffected.000000000000001666666916 or about a six hundred billionth part in excess of the true logarithm.000000000000000 etc. In this we follow his example. or j^j^A-. thereby making them integral to as 91 10.00000005. the first proportional after radius in the First table. from the formulae the indication of this multiplication. The error introduced is consequently etc.000 he multiplied his numbers and logarithms by that amount. and 1. 2 for the error in Napier's logarithm. lies between the limits 31. i. from the true logarithm by more than that amount. + ^ + j^. We the logarithm of 9999999. proceed to show the precise amount of error thus introduced into If we employ the formula substituting 1 before explained.^ + etc. many places as he intended to print. . In sec. omitting. as etc. this error is in the opposite direction from that caused by the mistake in the Second table.. however. We have given above the namely.

in the Second all by 50. which is introduced in passing from the logarithms of one table to those of the next. and would not have unaffected. The error. is obtained by Napier's method of computation the base e~^ If. 000000000 etc. multiplying the error in the first proportional by that amount. The with the difference found above. where n = looooooo. The true logarithm to the base e~' is 6931471. he had used the base — ^)". or 1.. The six hundred billionth part of the logarithm is . identical with that to ( I however. and 20 and again by 69. but this element is seen to have little effect in modifying the proportionate amount of the original error. 80559946464604 etc. or in .00000001155245 etc. although continually increasing. Let us take. which would have agreed with the true logarithm to the 8th place only. in the First : in the Third by by 6900000. then the logarithm of 9999999. so that. yet retains always the same ratio to the logarithm. so that his method of computation clearly gives accurate results far in excess of his requirements. .00000001155181 etc. for example. multiplied by looooooo. the logarithm of 5000000 or half radius. left his published logarithms The table cessively multiplied it is small error found above in Napier's logarithm of 9999999 is sucon its way through the tables thus.0000000115. would necessarily have been unity. however. 80559945309422 So that the difference between the two is etc. or in finding the logarithm of any number not given exactly in the tables as in this case of half radius. From the above example we see that the error in the logarithm found by Napier's method amounts only to unity in the T5th place. so that the true logarithm will always be very nearly equal to the logarithm found by Napier's method of computation less a six hundred biUionth part. we find it comes out 6931471. When computed according to Napier's method. except for a very small disturbing element to be afterwards referred to. and would have agreed to the last place given except for the small disturblatter agrees very closely ing element referred to above. we should have for the error in the logarithm of the last proportional of the Radical table about multiplied by 100.92 Notes. But it is easy to show that Napier's method may be adapted . as in the other two cases.

The effect of this would be to throw still further back the error involved in taking the arithmetical mean of the limits for the true logarithm. recomputed strictly To ensure accuracy in the figures given above. and the first proportionals in col. and the last proportional in each of the three tables. The values given are the proportional after radius. the logarithms of proportionals deduced from greater it will be given with absolute accuracy to a very much number of places.Notes. fourth proportionals being found in tables. Though the logarithms in the Canon of 1614 were affected by the M -} mistake . Napier. computed.. the last proportional in col. proportional after radius in the etc. the three preparatory tables were the Constructio. 1 Thus. substituting sult 00000000 for n. the work it is being carried to the place after the decimal point. we should have first for the true logarithm of 99999999. We see that the logarithms only begin to differ in the i8th place. as explained and 69. and second. the First table. proposes to take 1 00000000 as radius. as a check to any one who may desire to work out for himself the tables first and examples in the Constructio. using the re- formula given. In sec. 1. to base e~' are now quite superseded. new 1. As logarithms however. and also in the Third table. and multiplying the by that amount as already explained. by the present method of series which gives the value true to the last place. which is The proporincreased by unit when the next figure is 5 or more.000000005000000050000 This brings out a difference of .000000000000000016666 etc. 2 i.000000005000000033333 If we take the arithmetical mean of the limits. 94-95). and values (pp. we have etc. not worth while printing these preparatory tables. above. Opposite these are given their logarithms to base e~^. or a sixty thousand billionth part of the logarithm. 60. 93 adapted to meet any requirements of accuracy. first. according to Napier's method. The following may be of service for comparison. according to the methods described in all the preceding and both limits of their logarithms 2 7th being calculated. in suggesting the construction of a table of logarithms to a greater number of places. and that thus to however many places the radius is taken. tionals and logarithms are each multiplied by 1 0000000.

94 Notes. .

.Notes. 95 Logarithms computed by Napier's Method.

808942. I corrected the error and then. and Delambre repeats the remark. 285 It said. This I have done. it ought to be 6931471. a very slight error. p. has been his [Napier's] : .805599 . Now all the subsequent steps are deduced from that. but abridging the operations by our more rapid processes of development. using his method. thus the diflFerence commences with the tenth figure. given in the : ' Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal' for April 1836. or from some error of calculation in its applications. in the last term of the second progression which he forms preparatory to the calculation of his table. I found for its value 6931471. calculated the logarithm of 5000000.— 96 translation of the passage is Notes. which infuses those slight errors that have been remarked. and thereby have detected that there is in fact a slight error of this kind. the figures in the text are in or less inaccurate. whereas by the modern series. and consequently that upon which all the errors accumulate. to does not really commence Numerical errata in the text. It has been shown in the foregoing pages that the difference referred until the fifteenth figure. but after careful consideration objection is it is thought that the course least open to to give them as in the original. but it would have been a truth of more value to have ascertained whether the inaccuracy resulted from the method. Different . that the last figures of numbers are inaccurate this is a truth. — In consequence of what many places more is mentioned above. which is the last in Napier's table.

' pub- Higher Sang in lished in 1829. 1=0 I.) he indicates a method by which roots of tion is degrees referred to is may be computed. and arithmetical means beThe example given is to find the logarithm of tween their logarithms. Conr Log. Briggs did not employ the first method described in computing the logarithms for his canon. I append the following table from the article on Logarithms in the Edin5.' p. II. is a method suitable for numbers when the logarithms of any two This is done by inserting other numbers as i and 10 are given. described on pages 48-50. ' burgh Encyclopaedia' (1830). 97 Different Methods described a Table of and Log.. The second method. No general method of extracting roots was known at the time. which will sufficiently exhibit the method of working out the example. 10=1. At any rate. confirmed by an examination of his Ars Logistica. finding the logarithms of prime described on page 51. geometrical means between the numbers. and it does not appear that Napier had communicated his method to Briggs. involves fifth roots. This method of extracby Mark Napier in the 'Memoirs. ' Logistica Arithmetica.Notes. there given of the greater part of the chapter above A Sang in the chapter " method based on the same principles On roots and fractional powers " ' given by ' Mr in his Arithmetic.' cap.' at ' The p.' his tract and these principles are also made use of by Mr on the Solution of Algebraic Equations of all Orders. though it is not carried to the same number of places as that in the text. but as the example terminates abruptly after the second operation. The first the extraction of method of construction. inference 49 of which (Lib. . in the Appendix for structing Logarithms in which. II. from which we may infer that Napier was is acquainted with a process by which this could be done. and is a translation referred to. 479 seq.. N The Table. all vii.

98 Notes. Numbers. . THE TABLE.

Bringing together the successive approximations obtained in the iVhen 2 to the is table. 99 io= looooooooo. but their difference always remains unity in the last place. less one. The method. in the result produced by raising 2 to the loooooooooth power will be 301029995. These limits are carried one place further for each cypher added to the assumed logarithm of 10. we find raised power . 2 =. and the first steps in the approximation are shown in a tabular form. The table.301029995 &c. pages 61-63.— Notes. it will be seen. extended to embrace Napier's approximation. The process is explained by Briggs. we have log. 10 = i and log. is really one for finding the limits of the logarithm. is given below: in this form it will be found in Button's Introduction to his Mathematical Tables. with further remarks on the subject. the number of places. So that reducing these in the ratio of 1 000000000.

lOO Notes.K—coitiinueil. THE Powers of 2. TABl. .

A CATALOGU E OF THE WORKS OF JOHN NAPIER of Merchiston To which are added a Note of some Early Logarithmic Tables and other Works of Interest Compiled by William Rae Macdonald N 3 .

.

published in Latin in 1614. two years after the Author's death. edited by Mark Napier. Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio. Contents and Arrangement. between these two groups may be placed his other works. by his son. IV. in the Catalogue we have arranged his works in the following order I. The works of John Napier of Merchiston were published : in the following order A Plaine Discovery of the Whole Revelation of St John. Ars Logistica. and published These works in 1839. j5L<JCas:hc. 'The Baron of Merchiston his booke of Arithmeticke and Algebra. IL Ars Logistica As a suppleIII. published in Latin in 161 7. as one of the most learned Theologians of the day another contains his works on Logarithms. : N 4 ment . Rabdologise. together with the Canon or Table of Logarithms. published in Latin in 16 19. The Descriptio and Constructio. the year of the Author's death.— .k:<^<k5::kstJc^ PRELIMINARY.' in Latin. preparatory to or suggested during the elaboration of Accordingly. published in English in 1593. which result of his early studies in Revelation . Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Constructio. were more or less his Logarithms. A Plaine Discovery . by which his fame as a Mathematician was established in the scientific world . Rabdologiae . fall naturally into three groups : the first contains the by which he became famous among the Reformed Churches of Europe. Robert Napier.jc.

When a leaf is described B3I being used to signify as B3. 8°. both sides are included. Libraries. Ab. The following abbreviations are employed : Un. indicate the number of leaves into which the sheet of paper was folded .. 12°. under the head of Libraries. particulars of the Logarithmic tables computed by Kepler. &c. 12. The and 4. in the early editions of A Plaine Discovery. leaves in each bundle are usually are numbered thus printed only on the is — C. The etc. with a note of some other works of Collation. or 23 letters (in one or two instances J and V). though the sheet is folded into 4 there are 8 leaves to each signature.. and Briggs. C3. 8. To each entry in the Catalogue. and W. To each letter belongs a bundle of leaves. C2. etc. Preliminary. for instance. interest. signatures in the editions described consist of <the letters of the J. The symbols 4°.— I04 ment are added Ursinus. first but frequently the signatures one or two leaves in each bundle. as the case : may be. but in many cases the work in its original state must have been considerably : larger. the copy having been cut down in rebinding. the recto and B32 the verso. is appended a note of the principal public libraries in this country which possess copies. The arrangement of the title-page in the original is indicated by placing an upright bar to mark the end of each line. to these the names of a few foreign libraries are added. . The signature very rarely printed on a title-page. for example.. alphabet excluding U are used for I U. but the number of leaves made up in the signatures sometimes differs from this thus. The measurement of the largest copy examined has been given.

othek. Astor Library. do. Un. Stadt. do. Maat. Zurich. Miinchen. Nat. Un. . Sion Col. . Soc.. do. Ned. University. Paris. Frankfurt.. Utrecht. Bibliotheek der Rijks-Universiteit. Col. Halle. Stadtbibliothek. Konigl. Astor New York. Hof u. Queen's College. Let.. . Hunterian I ( Museum sity buildings. Un.. Institute of Actuaries. Hannover. Lon. . do. Vn. Pub.. . Bern.und Staats-Bibliothek. Manchester. Roy. Un. . Guildhall Lon. Kon. Ministerial Bibliothek. Hague. Hannover. . Lon. Universitats-Bibliothek. Bodleian. . do. Sion College. British Museum. Hunt. do. Chatham's Library. Ed. University College. \ . Un. Schaffhausen. Lambeth Pal. do. Prot. Brit. Soc. 105 Edinburgh. Frankfurt a/M. St And. Dresden. Qu. Ed. Dresden Stadt. London. do. Chethanis Manch. Leipzig. Breslau. Stadtbibliothek Utrecht. . \ \ versity buildings. / Soci^t^ de l I'Histoire du Protestan- do. Gl. Act. Mus. Un. . Halle a/S. Leiden. Universitats-Bibliothek. Breslau. Lon. Leiden. Library in the Uni[ Leiden. . Col. Gl. K. Stizdt. Royal Society. Mus. Oxf. St Andrews. Un. K. Min. Bern. s'Gravenhage.Preliminary. Paris. University. Ziirich. Stadt. Corporation or Guildhall. Lon. Konigliche Offentliche Bibliothek. New Cpllege.. o Bibliographies. Faculty of Actuaries. in the Univer. Stadtbibliothek. Lon. University. Berlin. . Konigliche Bibliothek. Bibliothfeque Publique. Hof.' do. Act. Kon. Ed. Lon. ( Stadtbibliothek. . Genive. Leipzig. Berlin. Bodl. Konigliche und Universitats BibliI ( do. Lambeth Palace. Bibliotheek der Universiteit.. Ox/. KSn. do. Glasgow. Stadtbibliothek. Oxford. Bibliothfeque Nationale. Schaffhausen. Breslau. Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Fr. Paris. Staats MUnchen. New Col. do.. Un. New York. De Maatschappij der Nederlandsche Letterkunde. j- Stadt. Off. Geneve.. tisme Frangais.

and the two others by Hondius. the is little first by lansonius. 11 Fracofurti ad Moenum. In these catalogues. Draudio.. videlicet Gallica Anglica . Bibliographies. that these were simply importers of the EdinSimilar remarks burgh editions who supplied the German market. Buchgassen verkaufft worden. Franckfurt am Mayn. and in bibliographical works founded on them. 1625. apply to the translations and other editions of Napier's works. Balthasaris Ostern. Le . 1625. oder auffs new widerumb auffgelegt. Das ist Verzeichnuss aller Biicher. de anno mdcxi. M. ' Rabdologiae 161 7. ac senales habA Frankfourt. Another edition. catalogues were issued for the half-yearly The Frankfurt book fairs held in that city at Fastenmesse and Herbstmesse. Georgium Draudium. the place ' ' dam. As several works of this kind are mentioned in the Catalogue. Anno 1611 entweder gantz : : — new Oder in der sonsten verbessert. however. Durch M. which were published at Edinburgh by Andrew Hart. Par Pierre Kopf. and name given cannot be taken as the actual place of publication and name of publisher without corroborative evidence. Permissu Superiorum. &c. and again appear as issued at Amsteras those of Draudius. . are sometimes given with the correct particulars. Hoc est Designatio omnium librorum. Nundinis Francofurtensibus prostant. Classica sive — II Bibliotheca Catalogus Officinalis. 1610. . Georgi6 1625.— io6 Preliminary. . Thus. etc. Bibliotheca Librorum Germanicorum Classica. & in entur. Lipenius. Balthasaris Ostern. Francofurti. the editions of the 'Descriptio' 16 14. so zu Franckfurt in der Herbstmess. . a short is note of the particular work and edition referred to Messkatalog. Typis Sigismundi Latomi. quotquot in Officinis Bibliopolarum indagari potu- erunt. There doubt. for example. omnium. Draudius. qui hisce nundinis autumnalibus vel noui vel emendatiores et auctiores prodierunt. and the ' Constructio 1619. Bibliotheca Exotica sive Catalogus Officinalis Librorum Peregrinis Linguis usualibus scriptorum.. . given below : Catalogus universalis pro nundinis Francofurtensibus autumnalibus.

Wm. 107 — Bibliotheca Sacra. Pastor an der Domkirche zu Bremen. Fiinster Band. Firmin Didot. Par Jacques Charles Brunei. et Prdcieux. Ludwig Schumann. 1863. Fortsetzung und Erganzungen zu Christian Gottlieb Jochers allgemeinem Gelehrten . Montalant. Par Jean George Thdodore. Frederic Adolphus Ebert. and in Feb. —A General Biographical Dictionary.—Tx€%ox de Livres Rares Graesse. Librarian of the Signet Library (sold in four portions in Dec. 1880. Paris. —Analecta Literaria de Libris Rarioribus. By Mark Napier.C. 1880. Rudolf Kuntze. Dresde. University Press.. Le Long. I. The Bibliographer's Manual of English Literature. Apud F. O 2 . 1837. Leipzig. bei Johann Georg Heyse. Kayser. 1750. 1879. 1863. Lowndes. Parisiis. — Florilegium Historico-criticum Librorum Rariorum. 1835. Graesse. — Brunei. — Manuel du Libraire. — — Bucher Lexicon (1750-1832) von Christian Gottlob Kayser. Gotthilf Freytag. Edinburgh.D. Bohn. Ebert. Lipsise.Lexiko. by William London. — Memoirs. Henry G. Jacobi Le Long. 1861. Groningasj & Bremae J Gerdes. — Memoirs of John Napier of Merchiston. worin die Schriftsteller aller Stande nach ihren vornehmsten Lebensumstanden und Schriften beschrieben werden. 1881).) ' ^ ^ f (By Daniel Haj Spandaw &> ^ iG. Catalogue of the Library of the late David Laing. 1816. Wilh. LaingCat.. in Jul. ^ J Rotermund. Edita a Frider. in Apr. 1834. 1723. Rump. Gerdes. Thomas Lowndes. In Officina Weidemanniana. Freytag. Esq.Preliminary. &c. Bremen. und vom Buchstaben K fortgesetzt von Heinrich Wilhelm Rotermund. Oxford. LL. Blackwood. Angefangen von Johann Christoph Adelung.

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vnles we be and of one bodie.lation of Saint lohn treatises The one searching and prouing the true interpretation thereof: The o-|ther applying the same paraphrasti. Title.: A CATALOGUE OF THE WORKS OF JOHN NAPIER of Mevchiston.] I Edinbvrgh Printed By Ro-|bert Walde-graue."] 4°. . I. for James VI. 1593.cally and Historically to the text. "In vaine are all earthlie conivnctions. agreeing with the Reuelation and 1 set in two : | I | | | | | | | other places of Scripture. of Marchistoun younger. Kings Ma-|jestie. at foot. Size A2^. Anne of Al is blank except for a capital letter 'A'. Set Foorth By lohn Napeir L. (Cum Priuilegio Regali. —A Plaine A Plaine Disdowne 1 Discovery of the whole Revelation of St John. Arms of Scotland and Denmark impaled.] I prin-|ter to the [On either side of the Title are well executed woodcuts of " Pax" and "Amor. A2^. Editions in English. fellow partakers of the promises of God in Q o Christ. Wherevnto Are [annexed certaine Oracles of Sibylla. 1 couery of the whole Reue. and his Queen Denmark. atid heires together. TjxSJ inches. I.

"A Tableofthe Treatise." are added. wherein (by the former grounds) the whole Apocalyps or Reuelation of S. the four subjects being I to 5. 10. that hitherto we could cite any of them in matters of scriptures. Ss'c". " Faults escaped. difficulHe. beginning the and most euidentlie knowne.\' with 26 lines following. 'The lohn Episle Dedicatorie. at the end of each chapter "Notes. after the manner of Propositions. Grace And Peace. S pages.269 numbered -H I = 296 pages. by the Evangell. and 22. the whole groundes thereof bee brought to light. F3''. and so proceeding from the knovme. Craning amendment now in • • • \ heast. dated. 15.'" As^-Ay^ $ pages. seuerally and apart to insert the same here. 18.". chapter of this holy Revelation." Signatures. and proued in the first . " Bl*-F3S " Tlie First And Introdvctory Treatise. no Historical application. S/^-SS^. and specially with the 1 8." . 8 pages. Paging. " To the misliking Reader whosoeuer. whose authorities neither being so authentik. Christ. "Hereafter Followeth Certaine Notable Prophecies agreable to our purpose. Fear of Marchistoun. 19. with the division into the title slight differences in the spelling lines. meaning of the Reuelation. because of thefamous antiquitie.". of the First treatise does not agree exactly with that given The Advocates' Library in Edinburgh has copies of the two following extract explains the circumstances under which this work of Napier's was published." 36 . then follow " Tlie Text. 2. Reasons. IS93Napeir. " To the Godly and Christian Reader. High And Mightie Prince. neither so prophane that altogether we could omit them : We haue therefore thought very meet. vntill fnallie. and temporallie on euery is and arguments on each Chapter "." K-^-K^. approued veritie. Page 26 numbered 62." A8\ " The booke this bill settds to the Beast. pp. conteining a searching of the true discouerie thereof at the places fnost easie. "The Second And Principal Treatis. and page 229 numbered 239. varieties. extrcut out of the books of Sibylla." Tl'-T4^. to the proouing of the vnknowne. Propositions and Conclusion.". " The Argument. then Conclusions introductiue to pp.I lo Catalogue. p. 7. The passage begins at the second last line in the second page of the address To the Godly and Christian Reader. historicallie applied. M?. "A Table Definitive Arid Diuisiue of the whole Revelation. l6 H. after the end of this worke of holy scripture. 8) of Signature above. Errors in Paging. with notes is paraphrasticallie expounded.". King Of Scottes. in which case the columns for it and also for Anno Christi are omitted). arranged in parallel columns (in chapters there is The outside sheet (leaves second time. 71-269.' (In the edition of 16 11 the passage begins on line 7 of the first ' The third page. and 7. 1-69. lohn. Tames The Sixt. B was set up a and occasionally in Consequently copies may be found in which i. " To The Right Excellent. " Paraphrastical and " Historical application. and harmonicall consentment thereof with the scriptures of God. "Anno Christi. 21.) After . at the begin- ning of each chapter exposition." i61ines. 70. A to S in eights H-T in four = 148 leaves.' signed "At Marchistoun the 29 daye of lanuar. and Amplifications. 3 pages." 'S^-'Ss'j'. the Reuelation.

Mitchell GL. Lon. The passage 161 1 enclosed in square brackets is omitted in the edition of (also in that of 1645) and in its place is inserted the following passage. I purposed not to haue set out the same suddenly.. Sig. may still insert in the Latin edition is an apologie of that which is and an amends of whatsoeuer amisse. But vndereditions) tongue. the godly confirmed. Col. Ab. Bodl. (both varieties). the simple of this Hand may be instructed. no doubt.. is here rudely and in base language set downe. : Catalogue. then in the true scripturs of God. I thought to haue published shortlie the same in Latine (as yet God- minde to doe) to the publike vtilitie of the is standing on the one part. that this work times in the French now imprinted. that hereby. As on the other part being aduertised that are alreadie set out. I doubt not to be pardoned thereof by all good men. Trin. leaning the Latine. and dayly increasing within this Hand doth so pitie our hearts. Oxf. til that of late. GI. this new God. Un. Un. but this idea had. the other latin editio hereof. And where willing I as after the first edition of this booke in our English or Scottish whole Church. Wherevnto Are Annexed | | A ( | : | | | | O 4 Cer-|taine . The other applying the same Paraphrastically|and Historicallie to the text Set Forth By lohn Napeir L of Marchistovn younger. Camb. [purposing hereafter (Godwilling) to publish shortly. Qu.. & set out diuerse & Dutch tongs. Brit. to be given up owing to the demands made on him by Libraries. and in the Pope and King of Spaine. almost vnripe. Ed. I was insolencie of Papists arising about the 1588 year of : and constrained of compassion. his invention of Logarithms. to the publike vtilitie of the whol Church.. Adv.. till first hauing seene the aduersaries obiections. Mus. to haste out in English this present worke. Un. . Ed. seeing them put more trust in lesuites and seminarie Priests. . We see from the above that in 1611 Napier had the intention of publishing a Latin edition. to preuent the same. I rightly done. : far lesse to haue written the same also in English. although (greatly rejoycing in the Lord) I began to write yet. thereof in Latine i i i After the which.. Oxf. and the proud and foolish expectations of the wicked beaten downe. Plaine Discoverie Of The Whole Revelation Of Saint lohn Set Down In Two Treatises The one searching and proving| the true interpretation thereof. St And.] Whatsoeuer therfore through hast. Un.. adversaries wer to write larglie against the said editions that Herefore I haue as yet deferred the Latine edition. our papistical. then in the King of Kings that. Camb. (beside these our English & therby made publik to manie. Col.

. This edition is very like that of 1593. The headpieces employed with one exception. mooved 1 | | | | | | : by some taine well-] affected brethren. pp. 333-366. 329-332.|Cum ' Privilegio Regiae Maiestatis. Brit. The collation remains the same. Of The Whole Revelation of S. but has been are. Set Foorth By lohn Napeir L. .| 1594. H3I. Y8^ blank. H32-Y8I. neere vnto|Paules Schoole. Edinbvrgh. ' . but they are less varied and are frequently used in different places. Ed. The second Treatise. 94-327. Libraries. A|Plaine Disco. the ornament appearing in 1593 at the head of the Epistle dedicatorie now doing duty at the head of the Title-page. To the mislyking Reader "/4 Resolvtion. agreeing [with the Revelation other|places of Scripture.. Newlie Imprinted and corrected. Printed by I Andrew i6ii. | Wherevnto Are Annexed. Reader. corrected and inlarged by him. ' The book this bill ' A12-A4I. New Col..' and Treatise. . agreeing with the Revelation Hart. pp. It seems highly probable that this edition was printed in Edinburgh by Waldegrave for John Norton. The type is the same. and needfull to Table. A4^ Table Bli-H2^ To the Godly . spelling. Lon. found in the edition of 1593. And now revised. | Cer-| Oracles of Sibylla. Oxf. proponed by well-affected brethren. AiS Title. of Marchiston. 6 pages. and Cer-|taine Oracles of Sibylla. only the ornamental Title-page has been superseded by a plainer one. pp. Bodl. of certaine doubts. lohn set|downe in two treatises: the one searching and proving the true interpretation thereof :| The other applying the same para-| phrasticallie and Historicallie|to the text. 4°. being corrected in the text. Size 6i X ej inches. .. The first Zii-Z2^. Mus.] | Printed For lohn Norton Dwel-jling in Paules Church-yarde.very.' Z3i-Bb3^ pp. | Size 7S X 6| inches. . there being numerous differences in spelling and occasional slight differences in the division into lines. reset..] 4°. 1-92.2 1 1 Catalogue.. With a Resolvtion Of|certaine doubts. and other] places of Scripture. except as regards the ' ' and also that on Signature A81 the Faults escaped are now omitted.

BbS^. except that the last paragraph of the title-page has been reset. Of The Whole Revelation of S. Adv. and page 299 not numbered. I Printed for lohn Norton. on back of the title-page. . Paging. Page 56 numbered 65. his type.. corrected and 1 | | | : inlarged by him. | London. With A Resolvtion | 1 Of|certaine doubts. . Sig. of Marchiston. Oxf. be explained in this Treatise" seven Resolutions. . are omitted. " Edinbvrgh. remain as before. the four words by Andrew Hart'' being altered to "London. being employed in both. | taine Oracles of Sibylla. Un. Camb. Ed. Ed. 367-375. for John Norton. Bodl. Plaine Discovery of the whole Revelation of St. |Cum Privilegio Regis 4°. mooved by some well- affected brethren. &c. Ed. head-pieces. Sig. Oracles of Sibylla. John Set down in two Treatises the one searching and proving the true Interpreta-Jtion thereof: the other applying the] same Para| | | A :| I : j P phrastically . Errors in Paging. Ab.. blank. . .3 | Catalogue. And now revised.) Set Foorth by lohn Napeir L. Signatures. Libraries. places of Scripture. Size 7^ X 6f inches. Un. Libraries. . and the Dedication to King James. i 1 Bb4^-Bb8i. . Astor New York.. This edition is in every respect identical with the preceding. agreeing] with the Revelation Wherevnto Are Annexed. 8 + 375 numbered + 1 = 384 pages.. pp. and for the first time the 'Resolution of Doubts' appears. Ed. lohn set|downe in two treatises: the one searching and [proving the true interpretation thereof :| The other applying the same para-| phrasticallie and Historicallie|to the text. Maiestatis... . A|Plaine Disco.. In this edition the Arms. A & B in fours + C to Z and Aa to Bb in eights = 192 leaves. The two slight errors in pagination &c. Adv. Cer-| and other 1611.very." The printing of both editions appears to have been done in Edinburgh by Andrew Hart .

.. Sion Col. Leaf l'. Ab. Brit. King James. treatises.." The substitution of Peer for Fear or Feuer of Merchiston seems to have been intentional. Curteous Reader thou art these faults following. Col.. Lon. Sig. Peer of Marchiston. 1-3. Ed. Un. pp. ' Aaai'I4''. The the author's name. pp." this is — followed by ten lines of corrections. 3 pages. Camb. The second Treatise. " The Paraphrasticall Exposition!'. Mus. Iz^. 1-244 there are 10 errors which do not affect the total but in pp. |Whereunto are | I | : | | his shop. The fifth Edition corrected and amended. Size cation to this Bill . and the Dedication to is spelt on the title-page in King James is signed. it will be observed. Dedi7i X 6J inches. 12 + 244 numbered + (38 + 2 for error = ) 40 numbered =296 pages. . Table. blank. " An. 4-32. i-6i..] and other places of Scripture. The first Treatise. This is the only edition in which " The Text. | moved by some annexed certain Oracles of Sibylla. Gl. but is of course a mistake. Ed. Eeel'-Eee4^. blank. (In some copies p. see Note.".' 62. Trin.) 4 & 5 are an insertion) + B to Z and Aa to Hh in fours + Ii in two + Aaa to Eee in four= 148 leaves. Printed for Andro Wilson.. Un. (2). Aaa2'.. agreeing with the Revelation. pp. at the foot of the I Ladies steps. 1645. Camb. Adv. Title. 2. Errors in Paging. Lord | phrastically of Marchiston.. Un. and the " Jlistoricall Application. Kl'-Ii2'. 1 14 Catalogue. The Book . To the Godly .. Signatures. 3^-5^ 5 pages. The is " Historicall Application. 3 1-38 [33-40]. Lon.". New Col. (2). 2'-3'." printed on the margin of each page in Libraries. It is not noticed in the errata. i-[ 40] the numbers 31 & 32 are twice repeated. Ed. Edinbvrgh. pp. And also an Epistle which was omitted in| the last Edition. [A] in six (leaves In Glasgow University Library leaf inserted at the desired to correct the absence of the is a copy of this edition with an extra end containing "Errata. are printed successively and not both in parallel columns. 65-244. "John Napier. Reader. 63. In pp. is printed in black letter.. With a Resolution of certain doubts. and Historically! to the Text. an additional sheet is inserted with list of Errata. To the mislikirig Reader. Editions . Un. Prophecies of Sibylla. A Resolution of Doubts. 1= blank. so that numbers on all the subsequent pages are understated by 2. and are to be sold at well affected brethren. Chr. Taile. Aaa2^-Ddd4*.. Paging. Ed. viz. 14'.".|By John Napier. .] 4°. modem form.. which chiefly happened through Author and the difficulty of the Coppy. Bl'-l3S pp. &.

. ende ey-(gentse Paraphrastischer ende Histo. E. followed by 26 lines." Aa2'-Ggg3S pp. woonende op den ( | Dam inde Druckerije. Schepenen.| Middelburgh By Symon Moulert. V." This baringe bewesen int e erste tractaet. datse haestelijck vvil bekeeren. . inden Jare Christi. T'samen ghestelt in twee Tractaten Het eene ondersoeckt ende|bewijst de ware verclaringhe der selver. " Sommighe fauteji om te veranderen. |woort Gods. Begeerende dats t'meeste." * 4'-* * l^ 4 pages. E. Panneel for lo years hy " De Staten Generael der vereenichde Nederlanden" signed at " s' Graven. Augusti. E. * i". " De erste Treatise contains the 36 Propositions. " Den Seer Wtnemenden hooghen ende Machtighen Prince Jacobo de seste Coninck der Schotten ghenade ende vrede. ende Raedt der vermaerder Coopstadt Middelburgh in Zeelandt. yulij." signed "Tot Marchistoun Den 29. Door|M. 4°. Wyse Ende Voorsienige Heeren. Vande Gantsche Openbaringhe Joannis|Des Apostels. * * 4^ " T'boeck sent dit sckrift de beeste. uwe Hoocheyts seer ootmoedighe ende ghehoorsaem ondersaet JOHAN Napeir. 1600. and on Aai^ is the " Beslvyt" or Conclusion. Aai^ [p. " \ Al^-j2^ pp." * 2^-* 3". | Een duydelicke verclaringhe. i6cx). "Een verclarende en afdeelende Tafel vande gheheele openbaringhe. .. Anno 1600.|Wtghegeven by Johan Napeir. Bailliv Burghemeesteren. Heere van Marchistoun.\". | inches. i i 5 Editions in Dutch. Dienaer des H. On a folding sheet preceding Al^ is "Een tafel vande inleydende sluytredenl deser openLeser.Catalogue. 4 pages. "Extract wt de Primlegie " granted to M. * i^." Size :(= 7jx5j * l^ to 32. appliceert ofte voeght.| Nu nieuwelicx obergeset wt d'Engel. Black letter with exception of the pages from and a few passages here and there.Haghe. Myne Heeren. den 4. . of zijt woude noteren. 1-68 (last 4 pages not numende het inleydende Tractaet ofte handelinge Inhoiidende een ondersoeck van den rechten sin ofte meeninghe der Openbaringhe Joannis (topeninghe van dien beginnende aende plaetsen die lichst om verstaen ende best bekent zijn ende also voortgaende vande bekende tot D'onbekende tot dat den gantschen grdndt daer van eyndelinghe int licht ghebrocht werdt ende dat by maniere van Propositien. &'c. Panned. "Aende E. dagh yanuarii 1593.sche in onse Nederlantsche sprake. de Jonghe. M. Erfachtich Heer van Mar**2'-**4'. 2-237. 2. 5 pi^es. tot ( | | : 1 | 1 Middelburch. Panneel.rischer wijse totten Text. Title-page. Endejhet ander. Onderdanighe dienst-willige." signed " Tot Middelburgh in Zeelandt." bered). desen 20. " Aen den Godtsalighen ende Christelijcken chistoun. "Het tweede ende voomaemste Tractaet daer in (achtervol- ghende de voorgaende grontreden) t'geheele Apocalipsis ofte openbaringe des Apostels yoannis op paraphrastischer wijse wtgheleyt op historischer wijse toegheeygent en p 2 tijdelijck ." At the foot of the page are three lines of errata under the heading. i].

Door M. "Anno Christi.|Den tweeden druck oversien. 1593 edition). vvoords Godts|tot Middelburch. This translation by M. Hhh4' "Errata inde Propositien. Een duydelijcke verclaringhe|Vande gantse Open-jbaringe loannis des Apostels. an edition. ende in velen plaetsen verbetert. There are some 18 of these. Panned. ^^ Paraphrasis. but otherwise translation of the edition of 1593. . Most likely this is the edition referred to.ii6 tijdelijck gedateert Catalogue. Errors in Paging. last Paging. Reader. Panned omits the address To the Mislyking it appears to be a full is Graesse states that there Pannel: Amst." Ggg3'-Hhh2'. 3d and 4th columns are wanting in the chapters mentioned in the Edin. Boeck-vercooper. blank. Met aettwijsinghen op elcke swaricheyt ofle hinderinghe ende argument op elck Capittel. woonende inden vergulden Bybel.". at the end of the chapter are added " Aeirwijsinghen Redenen ende breeder Verclaringhen. Hhh2'-Hhh32. vvijlent Dienaer des H." Libraries.|T'samen ghestelt in twee Trac-|taten: selver. " trad." then follow in four parallel columns "Den Text.|Noch zijn hier by-ghevoecht vier Harmonien.| Over-gheset vvt d'Enghelsche in onse Nederlandtsche|sprake. 6 pages. " Tafel qfte Segister der aenwistinghen Redenen ende breeder verclaringhen. &c.|Wt-ghegheven by lohan Napeir. the chapters commence with " ffet Argument. Hhh4^. Heerejvan Marchistoun.". mostly in the second none of importance. Zurich." an alphabetical index of the principal matters contained in the work. Stadt. * and * * and A to H in fours + J in two + Aa to Zz and Aaa to Hhh (the in fours and "Historic" = 166 leaves. " Totten Leser. Het eene ondersoeckt ende bewijst de wa-|re verclaringe der Ende het ander appliceert ofte|voecht. [Met Privilegie | voor 10 Iaren. ende eyghentse Paraphrastischer ende|Historischer wijse totten Text.| 8°. 3 pages. Size . 16 + 68 numbered (except 4) + 237 numbered (except first 3) + 11 but = 332 pages.|Voor Adriaen vanden Vivre. 1600 in 8°.| Middelburch.". and the Oracles of Sibylla. de Ionghe." which appears to be a Glossary of certain words used in the work. Guildhall Lon. part. Anno 1607. Si^ytatures." followed by 15 lines of corrections. wort. van I nieus over-|gheset vvt het Fransche. en hoUandais par M.".

and 308 numbered in error 144. DC. . . Vier Harmonien.| Bbi^. Boeck-vercooper. . "Aende E. Bbi^. blank. pp. Panneel. Pages 143. is bekeere. VII. To now 1603 et seq. " Het eerste ende inleydende Tractaet oftehandelinghe Table wanting. &c. except from * 2 to * 7. contain the Vier harmonien.|Vervatende 00c ten deele de Prophe. given.|ghen over de Openbaringe loannis. Door Greorgivm Thomson. \ | Signatures. Paging. Aen den Godlsalighen ende Ckristelijcken Leser. Anno 1607. " Den seer wi-nemenden. op Paraphrastischer wijse wtgeleydt." Aa5^-Aa8\ pp. 269." . Errors in Paging. besides the usual differences in spelling. Size 6| X 4J inches. and 208 respectively. 8°. 6 pages. 187. ende Prophetisch ampt lesu Christi. . sonder|ontbrekinghe der ghesichten. M. 24-1-383 numbered -fl On dress comparing this edition with that of 1600. tot het eynde der VVeereldt toe. . " Tafel vande principaelste materien die int geheele Boec verhandelt werden soo in de Propositien als in de Aenwijsinghen achter yder CapitteV At the foot of the last page (Dd4^) is printed: " Tot Middelbvrch. 189.. dat is. " ffet tweede ende voornaemste Second Tractaet. Priesterlijck. from the French editions of the Mislyking Reader Further. in signatures * * 4^ and Y^ P 1 the . Bb2i-Bb3^ 4 pages. Heeren. compare the of the above collation with that corresponding in the signatures * * 4^ and Aa2i of the collation of occasional alterations in the translation. For example.\ Ghedruckt by Symon " Moulert. |betreffende het Coninclijck. '^T'boecks endt dit schrift der Beeste.|Schots-man. "Aen den Leser.|Nu nieuvvelijcks wt de Fransche tale I | I 1 | | verduyscht. pp. . . woonende op den Dam. 377-383. wording. inde Druckerije. ende met Argimient op elck Capittel. " Voorreden. .\ lines. Title-page.the 36 propositions and the " ^ar/jy^ " or conclusion. Black letter. VVyse Ende Voorsienige * i^ blank. * i^ Title*2'->(=4''. F5^Aa4^. blank. Overeen-stemmin." signed " Gre- Dd2*Bb4^-Dd2''.\" followed by 28 Al^-F5^.|Door G. is we find that the ad- and there is also added a translation of the Quatre Harmonies. 270. doer in (achter volghende de voorgaende gront-reden) fgheheele Apocalipsis ofte Openbaringhe des Apostels loannis.tien ende Christelijcke Historien. 5 pages.Ifoog/!en ende Mac/iti^' ghen Prince lacobo noteere. 29 pages. * in eight -1- ** in four + A to Z and Aa to Cc in eights+Dd in four =224 leaves." *8^-*5|=4S 9 pages." * * 4". orgivs Thomsson. pi^ges. |T'samen-ghestelt." Aa8''. -^ 40 = 448 pages. Dd4''. van de gheboorte lesu Christi af." ^i^ $^-^7% 6 . .en bidt dat syt Op dat sy haer (difs fmeeste) sooH moghelijck First Table wanting. i i 7 page. . . wien dit merck mishaeghi. 1-89. E. ende op Historischer wijse ende nae de tijden der gheschiedenissen toe-gheeyghent irvordt : Verciert met aenvvijsinghen op elcke duysiere plaetse.". . we find.Catalogue. 90-376.

" signed "lean Non- "A a3'-e2i. Title.) Nonpareil Sieur de Merchiston. ''. signed En Poems " De Georgii Thomsonii Parapkrasi Gallica Ad Galliam. 6 pages. Roy D'escosse. From this it would appear that for this 1607 edition the translation of 1600 was revised. " A I '-G I pp." 63^. sauue-toi. Maat. 10. Par lean Napeir (c. Apoc. Leiden . 7. 8. '^Av Lectevr Pievx Et Chrestien. Sisie Et Tres9 X 6i inches." 8 lines. Let. a." 40 lines. oignes tes yeux de coUyre. &" P. Par deux trait^s. the transBoth the Tables ar^ wanting in the lator of the Quatre Harmonies.". lean. le te conseille que tu achetes de moy de I'or esprouue par le feu. Ned. Zach. Catalogue. Tres-pvissant laqves Sixiesme. I'entende. 3 pages. possibly by G. lesqtielles sont couchees en ceste table selon leur ordre naturel. 24. I'vn recerchant & prouuant I'autre appliquant au texte ceste la vraye interpretation d'icelle interpretation paraphrastiquement & historiquement. OvvertvrejDe Tovs Les| Secrets De|L' Apocalypse |Ov Revelation De S." Preceding Al^ on a folding sheet is "Table des propositions seruantes d' introduction h V Apocalypse proiiuees au premier Traitl. Contenant Vne recerche du vray sens de F Apocalypse. a2'-53^." " Avx Eglises Francoises Reformees Tant La France Qv'aillevrs S. Et que tu Apoc. reueue par luimesme Et mise en Francois par Georges Thomson Escossois. Gr. Hola Sion qui demeures auec la fille de Babylon." 36 Propo- . demeurant pres|la bou| cherie Neufue. Matth. Si'. 18. mais au premier traiti suiuant sont fnises selon Pordre de demonstration afin que chaque proposition soil prouuee par la precedante. 4°. Qui lit. " Le Premier Traiti Servant D'introdvction. 3. | I | : 1 | | : | | Va. Editions in French. commenfant la descouuerture d'icelle par les points les plus aish "Georges Thomson. I Par lean Brenovzet. signed "Joannes Duglassius Musilburgenus. | | | | ] A havt I^a Rochelle. iasques h ce que finalement sitions tous les points soyent esclaircis par forme de propositions.| 1602. Libraries. 3. d. pren le liuret ouuert en la main de I'Ange. Ode. copy examined. blank. 1-50. 2. afin que tu deuiennes riche. 15. & passant d'iceux h fondamentaux la preuue des incognus." ez^ & 63^ pareil. also "Idem. &" manifestes. afin que tu voyes. Panneel. Si".— ii8 the 1600 edition.

" Gz'-Ffi^. DC." I' impression." and ' The Oracles of Sibylla. 51-234 [226]. at foot of last page " Fautes suruenues en 4 lines. a in four + e in three (leaf €4 being cut out).' are omitted. Raisons. . Errors in Paging. | | | | | Matth. I'vn recerchant & prouuant la vraye interpretation |d'icelle I'autre appliquant au texte ceste interpretation paraphrastiquement & historiquement." Before 02^ on a folding sheet is " Table difimssante &= diuisante toute P Apocalypse. " Table De [227-230]. followed by " Le Texte". 10. and " L' Application historique. 19 pages.|Pour Timothee Iovan. Je te conseiUe que tu achetes de moy de I'or esprouue par le feu. stir <5r° chaque chapiire. lean. Ov Revede S. blank. afin que tu voyes. Adv." arranged alphabetically. . pp. <2r= Amplifications. fours -l-Ii +A to Z and Aa to Hh = in in one=l32 leaves. Et que Apoc. D.|M. Apoc. n. Signatures. and 98 & 137 twice repeated + 2= -8. Qui lit. Par lean Napeir (C. Nat. &= datee du temps. sauue-toi. 1593 edition). the lines " The Book this bill sends to the .) nompareil Sieur de Merchiston. auquel chaque chose doit arriiier..10 In all the French editions. A La RocheIle. qui demeures auec la fille de Babylon. Paris Ovvertvre|De Tovs Les Secrets De L'Apo-|calypse. " Le Second Et Principal Traiti Avqvel {Selon Les Fondemens Desja posez) toute V Apocalypse est paraphrastiquement interpretie. Paging. 3. | lation I : | | | : | | Va. are " Av Lectevr Mal-content. Ed. pp." . reueiie par luimesme Et mise en Francois par Georges Thomson Escossois.| P 4 This . A. &• appliquee aux matieres. "An de Christ". sitions 119 and "Conclvsion. Tant au premier qu'au second TraitS sur P Apocalypse. at the beginning of each chapter is " L'Argvment". 14 + (238-8 for error = ) 230 numbered + 20 = 264 pages." Tovtes Les Matieres Principales Contenves. afin que tu deuiennes riche. En deux traites. The Tables are on two folding sheets which precede Ai' and G2^. Zach. 7. . Numbers 8l to 90 omitted. 2. auec annotations sur chaque difficult^." in four parallel columns (the 3d and 4th of which are wanting in the chapters mentioned in the Edinr. 15. tu oignes tes yeux de coUyre. Catalogue. 24. 18." Ff2'-Ff3^. The addition Beast here made to the title of the First Table appears in the English edi. 235-238 argumens Ff4'-Iii^. end of the Table. " L' Exposition Paraphrastique" . lil^. tions as a note at the Libraries. 8. and at the end of each chapter are "Annotations. Hola Sion. I'entende. selon leur histoire. pren le liuret ouuert en la main de lAnge.

reueue par lui-mesme..| Edition seconde. 1-91.\\ blank. Owertvre|Des Secrets |De L' Apocalypse. M. Haultin. Tito on folding sheet." Yj'. A 8°. eight more being added to those in the 1602 edition. de Geneve) differs. .) in certain small points which may be noted. D. Xi'-X42. u. A. Xs'-Y. Sieur de Merchi. 7 pages. A1I-F6'. K. Av Lectevr Mal-content. Amplifiee d'An notations. lean: Tovchant L a Royavte Prestrise. Par lean Napeir (C." Before All. . Bern . " a. 55^-63^. & langues. a2'-aS'. Lib. The copy examined for this entry (from Bib. "A Z'Eglise. Pub.1 I20 Catalogue. blank.'. 21 pages. Hof. & Prophetic de lesus Christ. 93-318 [320]. & Rois. the principal error in paging commences here with p. par le Translateur. with p. e8^. blank. namely on e3^ the signature is omitted. e4'-esS 3 pages. from that examined for the previous entry (from Adv. 1 1. " Table Des Matieres Principales Contenves en ce livre.. 'Ff-W?. 6 pages. 80 being numbered 90 instead of as above.ston. " Aduertissement du Translateur ati Lecteur. 8 pages. Son- net. . de H. however. Ov Revelation De| lean.| Size 7 X 44 inches. pp. and finally. 81 being : numbered 91. & gens. I I | Qvatre Harmonies Svr La Revelation De S. Staats. Before F7I.|Etmiseen Frangois par Georges Thomson Escossois. This substituted title has an ornamental border round the type. Ed." Y8. whereas Brenouzet's has simply a line. i plusieursfpeuples. This can in no sense be considered another edition.^ pp.j Apoc. on 03^ three little ornaments are omitted. La RocheIle. Brenouzet's titlepage having simply been cut off half an inch from the back and the above substituted. " Avx Eglises Francoises e5*-e8*. Munchen . Geneve . | DC III. 13 pages. & de quatre harmonies sur rApocalyp. Dedication to King James.jEn deux trait^s I'vn recherchant &|prouuant la vraye | : I'autre appliquant au|texte ceste interparaphrastiquement & historique. 7^. 3 the number is omitted.se. The first Treatise.|Par les Heritiers ai'. The second Treatise. interpretation d'icelle: I pretation I | 1 | 1 | | | | II te faut encores prophetizer 10. rai/e on folding sheet. Poems.ment. Pub.)|Nompareil. Av Lectevr pieiix . Contenantes I | | | aussi . Stadt. . S. Libraries.. Title. on p.

lean. 91-446 [406]. Lectur Mal- Av Cc7'-EeS^ 29 pages.| a2^-a4^. The Work itself. . le pp. 24 is printed. Gl." Signatures. Z2I-Z42. Title. blank. Lectevr pieux . & langues. Title. & Prophetie de lesus Christ. = 4i6 Errors in Paging. |0v Reve|De S. Before Al^. Et mise en Frangois par Georges Thomson Escossois. F6I-CC32.| Edition seconde.E. 5 pages. 2 pages.| 1603. Eglises Francoises e4^. Paging. sans interruption des visions. pp. Un.j | | I II te faut encores prophetizer k plusieurs peuples. Avx Size 7 X 4i inches. Nat. & Rois.] 1 | I Zii. Zi«. The first Treatise. Cc4^-Cc6''. a4^-a8^.|Par G. Berlin . Table I I des Matieres £052. The two Tables are on folding sheets which precede Ai^ and F71.T. 1 1. Sieur de Merchi-|ston. i6oS. La Royavt^ I Qvatre Harmonies Svr La Revelation De S.^-ksS?. Un.T. S pj^es.) Nompareil. Paris . Ad-uertissement e2'-e4''. Sonnet. Par G. sans interrup^^^'' tionjdes visions. d. 32 + (3i8 + 2 for error=) 320 numbered + 32 + 8 + 24 numbered pages. Q . 1-90. De Av la croix. At foot of p. blank. aussi la Prophetic i 2 & Histoire Chrestiene|aucunement depuis la naissance de Christ iusques 4 la fin du monde. reueue par lui-mesme.|Par Noel ai^. Kon. 6 pages. | ceste interpretation paraphrasti- 1 quement & historiquement. En deux traitds I'vn recerchant & prouuant I'autre appliquant au texte vraye interpretation d'icelle : I . lean. "La Preface:' 7.1 | 1 Catalogue. content. F6S Table on folding sheet. Rochelle. ai^. Table on folding sheet. lation la I Ovvertvre|De Tovs Les| Secrets De|L' Apocalypse.|| 1605. | Par lean Napeir (c. | Apoc. 1-24. | & gens. 9 pages. Poems. A1LF52J Before pp. Dedication to ei. 6 pages. as in the edition of 1603. A La 8°. a and e and A to Z and Aa in eights =208 leaves...E. Amplifi^e d'Annotations & de quatre harmonies sur|rApocalypse par le Translateur.. " Acheui cTimpritner premier iour de I'An 1603. Contenantes | | | | aussi la Prophetie la naissance & Histoire Chrestienne aucunement depuis | de Christ iusques]^ la fin du monde. The second Treatise. a. Libraries. King James. . Ed. The numbers 143 and 144 are twice repeated. Tovchant Prestrise. 10.

15 E. lean Tovchant te." Eei^-EeS^. is La Preface. Edition d'Annotations. velation Owertvre De Tovs Les Secrets De L' Apocalypse Ov ReDe S. Libraries. & de quatre harmonies sur TApocalypse par : | 1 1 | | : | | | | | le Translateur. is numbered 16. Eeyi-S^. VII. blank. 91-406. Eglises Francoises 1603. II. " Av Lectevr G8'-Dd52.1 122 Ee6'. I | & gens. and there are several errors in signature 401 numbered 441. En deux traites I'vn recerchant & | | | | : I | prouuant la vraye interpretation d'icelle I'autre appli. is p.T^. Table on folding sheet. The first Treatise. Mal-content. blank. It will be observed that . Dd6i-Dd8^. 24 + (446-40 for error =) 406 numbered + 36 + 6 + 3 1 pages. . & langues. Ai^. Gg8^. 1-31. | do. Kc^-Ki^. Stadt. 2 pages. Av Lectevr Pievx . Prestrise et Prophe.. Title.. as in the edition of Preceding B3''.quant au texte ceste interpretation pa. | Par Noel de la Croix. Et raise en Fran5ois par troisieme Amplifiee Georges Thomson Escossois. Trin. The second Treatise. B3^-G7^. . Poems." Signatures. Nompareil) Sieur de Merchiston reueue par lui-mesme. Col. numbered+l = S04 Errors in Paging. Table des Matieres . Par lean Napeir (c. but the only error affecting the last page. . Lon. 6 pages. | Size 6f X 44 inches. 1-90. on the last page at the end is the Sonnet.. Brit. Ab.raphrastiquement & historiquement.. . S pages. The two Tables are on folding sheets virhich precede Ai' and F6'. The Work itself. Preceding G8\ Table on folding sheet. 16 pages. P. | Apoc. Ffii-Gg8\ At foot of p. huictiesme iour de luin 1605.| II te faut encores prophetizer a plusieurs peuples. 10. Paris. Ai^ Title. Avx A8°-B2^. also the Aduertissement . blank. Un. . Adv. 4 pages. A7^-A8^. Dedication to King James. Ee62. a in eight printed. Paging. Chetham's Manch. A 8°. Dub. loC. & Rois. Qvatre Harmonies Svr La Revelation De S. Nat. lean. Catalogue. this is described as ' Edition seconde as well as ' that of 1603. . Un Ed. " Acheu^ dHmprimer U +e in four +A to Z and Aa to Gg in eights = 252 leaves. k d. 31 pp. pp. 5 pages. and so to the end. . Ed. hj^-h. La Rochelle. pp. Frankfurt.tie de lesus Christ. Contenantes aussi la Prophetie & Histoire Chrestienne aucunement depuis : I I | La Royav- 1 1 | | . Mus. 6 pages.

87-391.quement. blank.|& gens. Table on folding sheet. Poems. Dd8^. Stadt. VII. 1-86. La Rochelle. S pages. h. Nompareil) Siaur de|Merchiston reuaue par lui-masma..Catalogue. Preceding B3'. 3 numbered in error 5. Table on folding sheet. Kon. Amplifiee d'Annotations. + 6 + 31 numbered + 3 = 488 pages. II. d.e^. as in the edition 2 pages.d^-h. pp. Signatures. and pp..) p.. Title. FfiS Title. four lines are carried over to the top of Cc6^-Ddi^. Atix Eglises Francoises . 20 + 406 numbered + 22 error 441-444. | Apoc.tie da lesus Christ. do. do. loC. La Preface. Av Lectevr Pievx A82-B2''. in the Oxford copy this is followed by a hyphen. " Av Lectevr Mal-content. Oxf.ques k la fin du monde." Ddl^the page following 391. YOi^f-'Rh. lation |De S. 4 pages. G6'-Cc5\ pp. Table des Matieres ... The first Treatise. 14 pages. Ai\ Ai^ blank. 1 123 interru- depuis la naissance de Christ ius. Par G. also the Aduertissement . Qvatra Harmonies Svr I I La Revelation De(S. Bodl. 6 pages.. |Contenantas aussi la Prophatie & Histoira Chrestienna|aucunament La Q 2 depuis .) A 8°. VII. Gg in eights + Hh in four =244 leaves.|Par Noel da la Croix. I : 1 | : | | | I | II te faut encores prophetizer \ plusieurs peuples. A7^-A8\ Dedication to King James. in Errors in Paging. Ovvertvre|De Tovs Las Secrets|De|L'Apocalypse|Ov ReveEn deux traites: I'vn recerchant & prouuant la|vraye interpretation d'icelle I'autre appli-| quant au texte caste interpretation pa-|raphrastiquement & histori. Ffai-Ffs^. 10. A to Z and Aa to Paging. 397 numbered in error 367. 5 pages. k. " Libraries. but in the Breslau and Dresden copies the hyphen is wanting. & Rois. Size 6| X 44 inches. the fifth line ends with Prophe " . loC. & langues. P. Un. B3^-Gs^ pp. Edition troisiame. Dresden.T. of 1603. sans ption des visions. Prestrise Et Prophe. 1-31. Preceding G6'. Breslau. & da quatra Harmonies sur|r Apocalypse par la Translateur.. 3 pages. Ff4i-Hh3i. Par lean Napair (c.E. 401-404 numbered (Quatre Harm. Sonnet. In the title-page of the Quatre Harmonies. Et mise en Francois par Georges Thomson Escossois. Dd8^. The second Treatise.. 1 | | | F{i% blank. lean 1 : Tovchant Royav-|te.T^. lean... The Work itself. Breslau. 6 pages. | | A2I-A4'. Off.

See. to Ee4'-Gg3^. except that the word " Harmonies " in the seventeenth line of the first title-page for the set up. Paging. Gg3''-Gg4^ 3 pages.. Tiile. ' Libraries. in a library catalogue.T. blank.1 24 Catalogue. Ed. 1607. For some reason the type In this variety it will commences with a small h. in 4°. Fontaine. interru.' tres In that case. Errors in Paging.. p. but made by Draudius in the Bibliotheca Exotica. loC.| | Eei>. which appeared to Le proved to be the contenant in 4°. blank. p. These are numerous. L and S. but none The two Tables are on folding sheets which precede 83^ and G6\ Rochelle issue of 1607 was twice be observed that the number of pages occupied by the body of the work is about four per cent less than in the variety described in the preceding entry. Za Preface. Le Long mentions an substantiate edition.ption des visions. especially in signatures affect the last page. the work Ouverture des secrets de I'Apocalypse de Saint Jean.. as in the previous entry. under Napier's name. A to Z and Aa Ff in eights + Gg in four =236 leaves. 20 + 391 numbered + 2i+6 + 3i numbered + 3=472 pages. 1 depuis la naissance de Christ ius-|ques k la fin du monde. VII. 1642. sans Par G. Adv. I Eel'. Geneve. Paris. 1642. Stadt Zurich. 4 pages.' is mentioned Literaria. 1136. by Freytag in the Analecta omitting 'Genfeve. pp.E. parties . Geneva. An edition 'A Geneve chez laques Foillet. The Paris copy agrees with it. itself.jcIo. par Jean Gros.. 1625 edition. Editions . Prot. Long's statement. A similar entry. however. Signatures. 4. An entry was found. -3 1. Possibly Foillet was only the introducer of the work at the Frankfurt Book Fair.' is in 8°. The Work Eea^-Eea^. Fr. The above collation is from the Edinburgh copy. 11.

290. Im Jahr 1611.wundschet worden." (:) 4^-X X^'. durch Martinum Spiessen. Title. This edition contains a translation by Leo de propositions of Napier's First Treatise. Librorum Germanicorum Classica.hannis begriffen. ' ' Q 3 ^fter . (:) i^. u. Herrn de Merchiston. Size 7i X 6J inches. catalogues editions Leipsic 161 Bibliotheca in 1 and Gera 161 2. editions. | | [Printed in red and black. tained in Napier's First treatise. Dromna of the 36 ' Pa^ng.Catalogue.} 4°.' Con- Le Long dius also. The Preface "An den guthertzigen Leser" signed "/ot Jahr 161 1. b. I | Durch Leonem De Dromna. 12-1-171 numbered -f i = 1 84 pages. (:) i^. Draup. Dan. Jetzt aber treuwlich | 1 | | 1 | | I | 1 | | I | | verdeutschet. " Register aller vnnd jeder Prof ositionen. wiewol von vielen vornehmen. mentions a Leipsic edition of 161 1. at the end are added "Errata Typografhica" 18 Y2^. bisz auff die bestimpte Zeit. 125 4. U. so werden viel driiber kommen. Von lohanne De Napeier. way of expressing the umlaut. | | Daniel verbirg diese Wort. Jo. Darinen die Zeiten vnd Jahren der Regierung desz Anti. The Jirst treatise. | | Vnd nun Gedruckt zu Gera. Black letter. vnd grossen Vevstand finden.^^.'] Entdeckung aller Geheimniissen in der Apocalypsi oder Offenbarung S.christs. erstmals in Scotischer Sprache aus Liecht gegeben. Signattires. Zuvor zwar niemals gesehen noch gehort. 12. (vom Reich vnnd Zeit desz (Antichrists. so eygentlich durch gewisse gegriindete Vrsachen auszgerechnet. He gives the title exactly as above so far as the words zweiffeln kan at the end of the eighth line. Luthero selbsten. gelahrten vnnd erleuchteten Mannern. i-iji. the letters printed earlier —In the German an below as ' a. (:) in iova + XX ii twoH-A to X in four + Y in two =92 leaves. vnd desz Jiingsten Tages) vnd versiegele diese Schrifft. Ai^-'V2?^. wie von dem seligen Mann D. so in diesem Biichlein tractiert werden. but without its Title and The other parts of the original work are all omitted. blank.". ge. [Note. o. dasz man fast nicht dran zweiffeln kan. blank. are in the original printed a. clusion. being the titles of the 36 propositions con- lines. wie auch desz Jiingsten Tages. 6 pages. Editions in German. (:) 2^-(:) 3^ 4 pages. Leo de Dromna.

' ' Libraries. durch Martinum Spiessen This impression for 161 is | Im Jahr is 1612. Darifien | | [Same as preceding.stands nothwendig sind Demnach auch der gantze Text durch die Historien vnd Geschichten der Zeit erklart. not that there is an edition bearing on its title-page to have been issued by him at Leipsic. Johannis Napeiri.. Jo- Geheimniissen in der Apocalypsi oder hannis begriffen. 494. in 4. Breslau . Breslau . after which he adds ausz Scotischer Sprach verteutscht durch Leonem de Dromna. vnnd angezeigt wirdt. Stadt. The appearance of Schiirer's name may. except that in the last line of the Title-page the date 161 2 1. Eines trefflichen Schottlandischen Theologi. Breslau. His particulars regarding German editions of A plaine discovery appear to be copied from Rotermund. Frankfurt. vol. Schaffhausen. | 1 | | 1 : I I | | ( Ausz . 161 1. die zu Erforschung desz wahrenVer. Entdeckung Offenbarung aller 1 S. An edition Gera 1661 in 4° is mentioned by Graesse. Zurich . wie alle Weissagungen bisz daher seyen erfiillt wrorden. where the same date is given but there is little doubt it is a misprint for 1611. Un. imply simply that he brought the work to market and issued it at the Frankfurt Book Fair. Stadt. Adv. Min. 1 26 ' Catalogue. Stadt. sheet Di^. | identical in every particular with the foregoing. vnd noch in das kiinfftig erfiillt warden soUen.hannis. Stadt.. Leiptzig bey Thoma Schtirern. Ed. In welcher erstlich etliche Propositiones gesetzt warden. schone vnd lang gewiinschte | | | | Auszlegung der Offenbarung Jo. Herren zu Merchiston. however. v. substituted Libraries.' These particulars are copied verbatim from the Frankfurter Messkatalog vom Herbst 1611. p.] Gedruckt zu Gera.

Size ej X 4 inches. vnd kurtzen Argumetitis vnd Innhalt eines jeden Capitels. Englischen vnnd Schottischen Exemplaren. " and the " Stattschreibem." Lll^-Nn2''.Catalogue. Anno 1615. Gestrengen. (the 2d and 3d columns are wanting in the chapters mentioned in the Edin. 125-528. Auszlegung vnd Erkldrung der bezeichneten Oerter pages. Vnderthdniger. 36 ' Register Alter denckwiirdigen Sachen. nach den Frantzosischen. the chapters commence with " Argument oder Innhalt" then follow in three parallel columns " Auszlegung desz Texts". Hochgekhrten. pp.. loblicher Statt Sckaffhausen. auszgetheilet." to Z and Aa to in eights -I. begreiffend ein ersuchung desz wahren Verstandts der Offenbarung ausz den Leuchtem. Edlen. dritter Edition jetzund auch|vnserem geliebten Teutschen Verstand vbergeben. Johannis. )(z^-)C&-^. Ersamen vnd weisen Herrn" ." the "gewesenen Landvogt zu Louis. H. 36 propositions and " Beschlusz " or Conclusion. 14 pages. 1593 edition) at the end of each chapter are added " Ferrnere . meinen gnddigen vnd gonstigen Herrn". Ss'c. wie sich die Sachen auffeinander verlauffen vnd zugetragen. All the other matter in The additional matter consists of the the English editions is omitted." 2 " Seckelmeistem. especially being in great confusion. ingewisse Propositiones abgeiheilt". Preface and the Alphabetical Index to the principal subjects referred to Q 4 '" . blank. bisz zu vollkommener Erkldrung alter fiirnembsten Puncten. mit angehengter^ Verzeichnusz vnd Erkldrung vber die Orth vnd Spriich so schwerlich zu verstehen. )( and Paging. 2 " Burgermeistern" the " Statthaltern." H7^-Kk8^. but without the Text in the second. Gn.Nn in two = 290 leaves. the "Jahr Christi" and " Historische Erkldrung". Dieneram Wort Gottes daselbsten. 1-123. so in diesem Buck begrieffen. FiirFursichtigen." First Table wanting. then follow the names. On a folding sheet after H6^ is " Tabul. . The Preface nemmen. die vngewissere vnnd vnbekante Stiick schlieszlich beweisende. H62. "Der ander vndfiirnembste Theyl. of "Den den I Augusti. /i^. ' dieses Capituls. Ausz begird der Warheit." . Sampt einem gantzen Ersamen Rath.heimnussen. Aii-H6''. Errors in Paging. Frommen. vnd Eyngang dieses Wercks. Title. Ehrenvesten. Ew. Getruckt zu Franckfort am|Mayn. &c. vnd der offnung 1 127 jrer Ge. Signatures. dienstgejlissener Wolffgang Mayer. gewissen vnd bekanten Puncten. darinn {nach den hievorgesetzten Fundamenten vnnd Griinden) die gantze Offenbarung erkldrt vnnd auszgelegt. Following H6^ on a folding sheet is the second Table. Der ^rste Theil pp. 16-1-528 numbered + 36 = 580 pages. This edition contains a translation by Wolffgang Mayer of the two Treatises. conferiert vnd verglichen wirdt. im Jahr 1615. There are several. vttd mit der Historien vnnd Geschicht der Zeit. S.] 8°. 124] is blank. Erkldrung vnd Abtheylung der gantzen Offenbarung S.] | | | [Printed in red and black. nach dem Alphabet ordentlich zufinden. Jii. sheet A Mm X but none of the errors affect the last page. [p. D. signed "Basel Black letter. " Auszlegung vnd Erkldrung der Offenbarung Johannis.

Catalogue. and The collation. Signatures. Black letter. The second Table. Stadt. Frankfurt Johannis Napeiri. jetzund| auch vnserm geliebten Teutschen Ver. + Nn in four =292 leaves. Libraries. Breslau . . 1 28 book. Paging. Stadt. vnd noch in das kiinff-|tig erfullt werden soUen. Kon. Stadt. on a folding sheet. The first in the Table is wanting in the copies both of this edi- tion and that of 1627 in all the libraries noted. sheet X again in confusion. blank. Zurich II. . pz%es^ " Register Alter denckwiirdigen Sachen. is the same as in the Second Treatise. Size 6| X 4 Inches.standts nothwendig sind Demnach auch der gantze Text durch die Historien vnd Geschichten der Zeit erklart. die zu Erforschung desz wahren 1 | Ver. Errors in Paging. Un. nach dem Frantzosischen. Adv. In welcher erstlich etliche Propositiones gesetzt werden. . Herren zu Merchiston. schone vnd lang gewiinschte|Auszle| | I gung der Offenbarung Jo| | 1 hannis. 16-I-528 numbered+38 + 2 = s84 pages. vnnd der ofFnung ihrer Geheymniissen. wie alle Weissagungen bisz daher seyen erfiillet worden.] 8°. Eines trefflichen Schottlandischen Theologi. Englischen vnnd Schottischen Exemplaren. Berlin Stadt. but. follows H6^ as in the 1615 edition. |Ausz begierdt der Warheit. there are many differences in spelling. . Rather more numerous than in 1615." Nn 4.standi vbergeben. the errors do not affect the last page. dritter Edition. to the end of the The type has been reset for this edition. Breslau . edition of 1615. . Im Jahr 1627. Ed. Breslau . however. Getruckt zu Franckfurt am Mayn. as before. .] : | | | | | 1 | | [Printed entirely in blaclc. vnd angezeigt wirdt. after which we have Lll^-Nnj'^. Libraries. )( and A to Z and Aa to Mm in eights. 38 ..

^' Liber Primus. however. | in Latin." On the M2^-P2i.2 = 268 pages. pp. and on the recto of the fourth is the Dedication to Francis Lord Napier of Merchiston. the title-page being in part printed in red as well as the headings of chapters etc.DCCC. the other a view of Merchiston Castle. size R 10^ . De Logistica is the title " Algebra foannis Naperi\ Merchistonii •p'p. Baronis. 4 leaves [see notes]-!. " Liber Primus. on the recto of the third is the Title-page as above.\ " P2^. entirely blank.a to m and A to U in fours -1-X in two =134 Paging." pp. Algebra Parte. the copies are printed entirely in black line enclosing the type. leaves. g\-lli. " Introduction. blank.". Generally. word " Introduction.2 -H62 numbered -f. — De I Arte Logistica. | | 4°.. On the recto of m4 is the line " De Arte Logistica. De Positiva Sive Cossica blank. The collation is from a large-paper copy. The first is Size llj x 8| inches. There are also two plates. Signatures. There are 4 leaves at the beginning. 3-26. i 29 II. Impressum Edinburgi M. and on the recto of Al is the title " The Baron Of Merchiston His Booke Of Arithmeticke And Algebra. 27-81. De Arte Logistica jjoannis Naperi Merchistonii Baronis|Libri Qui Supersunt. on the recto of the second is the single line " De Arte Lo^stica. dated I November 1839.XXXIX. the one a portrait of Napier. Large paper. The number and arrangement of these pages is slightly different in the Club copies— see note."." X2. De Logistica Arithmetica." z." D2^-Ll^. and are without the double In his preface Mark Napier states that he was induced to publish the work " by the spirited interposition of the Bannatyne and Maitland Clubs of Scotland. recto of Mi Geometrica." The copies for members of these Clubs are printed entirely in black on their own water-marked paper. De Nominata Algebrce Parte. pp. 8 -I. "Liber Tertius." Ll^ the recto of al is On the \ \ \ \ \ \ \ L2^-L4^. " Liber Secundus. blank. II7-162.Catalogue. Each page is enclosed in a double red line.TS-ra'^. pp. For Mr Ilenrie Brings Professor Of Geometrie At Oxforde.xciv numbered -(." by Mark Napier. De Computationibus Quantitatum Omnibus Logisticce Speciebus Communium. iii-xciv. 83-88. "Liber Secundus. throughout the work. " Aa'-Di^ pp. P3'-Xi^.

Adv. loj X 8J inches. seu analysis philosophica qua nucleus vera intentionis hermeticcs posteris Deum timentibus manifestatur. and Algebra .— — 1 30 Catalogue. Libraries. 420). {Robert Napier Edinburgensis T) 2s. these papers perecutor." The treatise on Alchemy is elsewhere stated (pp. being entitled. E. — Rabdologiae. ." N. who mentions the fact. from Memoirs (pp. The foregoing differences make the preliminary leaves six instead of four as in the collation. 236. followed by two leaves containing a list of the members of the Club . They have not a blank leaf at the beginning. to be the only one of Napier's papers which survives. but have on the recto of a leaf after the title-page an extract from the minutes authorising the printing. Authore R. 237) to be contained in a thin quarto volume closely written in the autograph of Robert Napier. Omne Leo Geminis In this suppeditare potest. is the manuscript treatise on Alchemy by Robert Napier himself. N. Napier left a mass of papers. including his mathematical treatises and notes. 419. B. The work sold for ^^7. etc. " The Baron of Merchiston. Proall fessor of written in the it is of great length. that it is copied from such of his father's notes as the transcriber considered " orderlie sett doun. beautifully Geometric at Oxforde. " Orbis quicquid opum." and the motto vel kabet medicina salutis. but the other is a far more valuable manuscript." connection the following entry may be mentioned which occurs in the sale catalogue of the first portion of the library of the " JLambye {/.) Revelation of the secret Spirit late David Laing: {Alckymie) translated by R. bearing the title " Mysterii aurei velleris Revelatio . his booke of Arithmeticke.. Ed. The manuscript from which the following passage in the the work was published appears. of which came into the possession of Robert as his father's literary exWhen the house of Napier of Culcreugh was burnt. " hand of his son. 1623. 6d. for Mr Henrie Briggs. the Bannatyne Club having one hundred members and the Maitland Club ninety. I II. The one ished. with only two exceptions that I have been able to discover.

Bodl. Miinchen Astor. qum in Scacchiis abaco exercetur. the "Prsefatio " occupying the first two pages. Lon. Ed. unsigned. " Rabdologits Liber Secvndvs De usu Virgularum Numeratricium in Geometricis &' Mechanicis officio Tabularum." Bio'-Dg^. &c. 94. . Quibus accessit & Arithmetic3e|Localis Liber vnvs. Fyveei.I | | | 1 12°. "Lectori Rabdologice. pages. Oxf. (5).|Scoto. G6 blank. signed "Andreas Ivnivs.". pp. Utrecht . . Soc. and 95. The word in expeditissimo on the 5th and 6th lines of the title-page correctly printed expeditis. . In one copy belonging to the Edinburgh University Library the signature B5 is printed in error A5. S". " De Expeditissimo Multiplicationis Promptvario Appendix". Gl. viz. Catalogue. 12+154 numbered + 2=i68 There are 4 folding plates to face pages loi.simo. Trin. Sev Nvmerationis Per Virgulas Libri D vo Cum Appendice de expeditissi-|simo Mvltiplicationis promptvario. Title. blank. Supremo Regni Scotim 114^. 1-42. " IllusITi^. 1617. Un. New York Nat. Mus. 7.. Brit. (2). Size 5f X SJ inches. . Lon. . None. Camb. K." 4 lines. with those on pages 6. Bare. £9^-05^ pp. signed " Patricivs Sandfvs" and " Ad Lectorem." Verses. 1l2i-ir4\ S pages.chistonii. Un. Paris .|Authore & Inventore loannejNepero. Ed. pp. Un. Staats.|Excudebat Andreas Hart. Trin. the "Prsefatio" occupying the first page. Dresden Un. Ed. Errors in Paging. Breslau Un.. 43-90. Cancellario. 1 . Dub. Halle Un. Hi'. Lon. . Un. Camb. Col. 106. Liber unus. R 2 Rabdologiae . Paging. pp. sigati "loannes Neperus Merchistonii " Avthori Dignissimo. 6 lines. et vsvvm totivs operis. K in six +A to F in twelves + G in six =84 leaves. which. . &'c. 1 is some copies Libraries. (2).| Edinbvrgi. — Rabdologiae. &= Vrqvharti Domino. 113-1541 " Arithmetics Localis.." Dlo'-ES". Un." Ai'-Bg^. Leiden . but in their other copy it is correct. 8.: . Col. . 105. i 3 1 1 1. . Sig. Hof u. Barone Mer." 115^-116'." 4 lines. : | Rabdologiae." . " Saidologia Liber 116^ two lines in centre of page. 91-112. Berlin Stadt. 3 pages.— . . Off. Roy. and 130. . " Elenchvs Capitvm. Breslau Kon. Signatures. are copperplate. Col. Editions in Latin. Kon. Adv. Primvs De usu Virgvlarvm numeratricium in genere. | | I. . trissimo Viro Alexandra Setonio Fermelinoduni Comiti.

and E3 has no signature printed. seems to be correct throughout. I This . -I- all blank.ditissimo Mvltiplicationis promptvario. t2M4". : | | Rabdologise Sev Nvmerationis per Virgulas libri duo Cum Appendice de expe. Trin. +5^. 51. Libraries. and 117 those facing pages 94. Staats. The numbering of the pages. St And. I. 43-84. cation to Size BJ X 3i inches. for example. 1 | | | | 12°. 97. D7^-E3^ pp. New York. Bodl. Miinchen. Barone Merchisto-|nij. Lib. Col. Frankfurt..| Lvgdvni. Un. 5 pages. 98. Hof u. Scoto. correspond to the 4 folding plates of the 1617 edition. Astor. &c. A to E in twelves F and G in sixes=78 leaves. j as that of the Edinburgh edition of 16 17.nij. Quibus accessit & Arithmeti. though somewhat indistinct. . Rahdologia.|Typis Petri Rammasenij.|Authore & Inventore Ioanne|Nepero. 1-42. Typis Petri Rammasenij. blank. Quibus accessit & Arithme-|ticae Localis Liber unus. published at Leyden. pp. Seton. M. Lord Dunfermline. 41 we have 1994 rT).. Localis. 59. Breslau Stadt.9 160. 94. DC. thus.. 85-102. Elenchvs Capitvm. 115. with the 2 lines at end. Lvgd. E4'Bio^-D62.cae Localis Liber vnus Authore & Inventore loanne Nepero Barone Merchisto. Lib. Dub. Kon. promptuario. Signatures. DediAlex. 97. \ in six-^ G4*-G6*.1 39 numbered 4. Mult. Paging. however. Ab. 90i06Qo(V) / // while in the 161 7 edition it is printed in ini 1994. There are 9 folding diagrams to face pages 49. Greenock. M. Verses. Un. +S''-t6^ 3 pages. pp. This edition. Batavorvm. pp. In printing the signatures. 132 | Catalogue. 81. Oxf. and 117.. IT. Ed. Berlin. Un. Scoto. contains exactly the same matter None of the plates. Chetham's Manch. on p. C7 is numbered in error C6. G4^. to Simon Stevin's notation.ditissimo Mvltiplicationis promptvario.. &c. Arith.S = 1 56 pages. K. A'-Bg". Rabdologise Sev Nvmerationis per Virgulas libri duo Cum Appendice de expe. DC. . | : | | 1 | | | | 1 | | | XXVIII. 98. the others are tables which in 161 7 were printed in the text. +i^ Title. Un. 1 2 -I. however. The decimal fractions are printed according are engraved on copper. 6 pages. 103-139. XXVI. fi^.

|Accresciute dal medesimo alcune consi. Hof u.|Questa curiosa. is the substitution of the name Lvgd. Conte di Melzo. Tradottore dalla Latina nella Toscana lingua II Cavalier Marco Locatello . Rom. di Ecc^o. with 13 lines of verse. Sig. Paris 2. Appresso Angelo Tamo.". Cau. C. anzi vtilissima|i chi." +3^." fji-fS^. . di Mil.| Raddologia. Teodoro Trivvltio. Cau. che tratti numeri alti. K. Musocco. Filarm. Ace. Augustinus Dulcius Serenissima Reip. che sia d' illustre ingegno. Con licenza de' | I | Con appresso vn' espeditissimo Prontvario : | | | 1 | Superiori. and the above subonly important change in this new title-page. Siluester Inquisitor Veronce." Ai'-F4\ pp. libri diuisa. ^^ Delia Raddologia ^ T Libro . Giacomo.".|Ouero|Arimmetica Virgolare|In due Delia Molteplicatione. Batavorum. Nat.' Libraries. Francesco Pona Med. "Di Verona li 12. Ed.| In Verona. dated and .. the word Lugdunum being the usual to effect this single word ' ' Latin form of Lyons. Staats. but the original title-page has The change in name. followed by 10 lines of verse. Batavorvm for LVGDVNI. Prencipe Trivvltio L'isiesso Locatelli. ^ +1^. Febraio 1623. & poi vn libro di Arimmetica Locale Quella mirabilmente commoda. "Racconio De' Capiditutta V Opera. "Del Sig.| 8°. Locatelli. signed &» delta Valle Misolcina. Marco Localelli. ' as. t4'. ". Cau. Caualier deW Ordine di S. described in the previous been cut out. Catalogue. Veneta Seer. ^\^.derationi gioueuoli. is 133 identical with that of 1626. This edition stituted. e I. fzMsS 3 pages. . with 14 lines of verse.|Auttore. Prencipe del Sac.".Sigre. Edition in Italian.^//» Imperio. Miinchen . instead of the more common form Lugd. Et de' Titoli piil rileuantiin OnfS^ is printed " Imprimatur Fr. Signor di Codogno. Title. as confusion may have arisen from the Lugduni being used for Leyden. Coll. & Inuentore|Il Baron Giovanni Nepero. Sr^c". in the 1620 edition of the Descriptio. Al medes. and the object in printing a new title-page was probably entry. Ambrosio Bianchi Co. blank. 7 pages. " Al medesimo Sig. 1-95. & essi. Size 6 J X 4J inches. 1623. for example. Al Sig. Marco Locatelli. Adv. . Illmo. t4^ "Del Sig. besides the alteration of date. Pis. &• di Gorgonzola . & diIetteuoIe|4 chi. &• di Venzaghello .

269 numbered -t. Eerst ghevonden van Joanne Nepero Hear van Merchistoun. " Arimmetica Locale. 264. the sides containing the diagrams are numbered as pafges 25. . 251.. each of which counts as two pages 169. 266. One of these may be mentioned. in- licenza de' Superiori. the " Prefatione " occupying the first 2 On Con QS''. and 267 numbered in and 165. Waer achter bygevoegt zijn eenige seer Hchte manieren van | | | | 1 I | | | Rekenen . ". There are 7 diagrams on interleaved and folded sheets. 1623. are represented by the diagrams at pages 179 233.". 161-210. Waer door seer licht konnen volbracht worden de Geo. Un. " Con che a questa nostra ARIMMETICA LOCALE poniamo fine. Paging. Un. error 152. nelle cose Geametriche." Signatures. Lon. 179. loi and 130. Errors in Paging.metrische ende Arithmetische questien. con taiuto di alcune Tauole. the two facing pages. pp. pp. Lon. 1 34 Delt vsa Catalogue. Brit. In Verona. Camb. Col. " Atque hie finem ArithmeticjE Locali imponimus. Dedication and Complimentary Verses are substituted for those and there are numerous notes throughout the work by the Translator. but the other two are not given in this edition. 97-159.. DEO soli laus omnis & honor tribuatur. Mus. Nat Paris 3. delle Virgole Libra Prima. . 63." Ks>-N3^ emio" occupying pages. N4^-Q8^. Col. Trin. " Prontvario Ispeditissimo Delia Molteflicatione. | Eerste Deel Vande Nievwe Telkonst. P." the "Prothe first 2 pages. & alia Beatissima Vergine MARIA tutta la gloria. + and A to Q in eights=l36 leaves-t-7 diagrams interleaved and cluded in paging= 143 leaves. blank. Che nel Piano dello Scacchiere si esercita. Libraries. Edition in Dutch. 211-269.1 = 286 pages. as well as additions and alterations. Deltvso delle Virgale numeratrici K4^." and Of the four folding diagrams in the edition of 1617. " II Fine di tutta T Opera. At the end of the work Napier adds these words. F5'- K4\ pp. 49. and pp. 75 not numbered. Appresso Angela Tamo. ende uyt het Latijn overgheset door Adrianvm Vlack. Amen. . FINIS. Ed. New in the edition of 161 7. a DIO. 1 6 -). Inhovdende Verscheyde Manieren Van Rekenen. "Delia Raddologia Libra Secondo. blank. 36. and 233. '' F4*. but his Italian translator makes the champion of Protestantism say. . &" Mecaniche. numeratrici in genere. & I'honore attribuendo.

Vande Tellingh door Roetjes. Van Het Ghebrvyck Der Telroetjes int ghemeen. Met Previlegie voor | | | | I | thien laren. * i^. [90]. the last page. Van Het Ghebrvyck Der Tel-Roeties in Meetdaden. Mitsgaders De Edele. \ : " loanni Nepero\Avthore Dignissimo. [150]. " Voor-reden tot den Goetwilligen ende Konstvilegie. Vande Tellingh door Roetjes. pp. mijn Heeren Bailiu. Hooge Ende Mogende Heeren. 04^. int Vergult ABC. ende L42." signed by Ezechiel de Decker at Gouda 4 Sep. "Joannes Nepervs Van de Plaetselicke TelkunstJ". pp." granted lievenden Leser. Mitsgaders Nieuwe Tafels van Interesten. I | Leerende Door onghehoorde lichticheyt | alle re- R 4 . [ii3]-i48.. pp. The index. 128 pages. Emtfeste Ende Wyse Heeren. | 4°. leerende alle ghemeene Rekeninghen sender ghebrokens afveerdighen.| Ter Govde. [89]-[ii2]. the title is on p. mijn Heeren de Staten Generael vande Vereenighde Nederlanden. 1626. Sckepenen. " Copie Van De Pre- by the States-General to Adrian Vlack for ten years. being blank. pp. Voorsienige Heeren. Boeck-verkooper inde corte Groenendal. 41-87. Size 8| X 6| inches. the title is on p. de Heeren Gecommitteerde Raden van Hollant ende Westvrieslant. in eight chapters. "Lectori signed Patricius Sandseus. *2. | 135 Rekenen tot den Coophandel dienstigh. the preface. Leerende Door Thiendeelighe Voortgangh sonder gebrokens met wonderlicke lichticheyt afveerdigen alle ghemeene Rekeninghen". Als Mede Aende Achtbare. [114]. signed Andreas lunius." . 1625. +l^-t2^ 3 pages. residerende ter Goude. Noch is hier achter byghevoeght de Thiende van Symon Stevin van Brugghe. in eight chapters. Catalogue. Burghemeesteren.! Lantmeter. " loannis Neperi Aenhanghsel Van Het Veerdigh-Ghereet- schap van Menighmildigingh. I-40. [89] and the Preface on p. Door Ezechiel De Decker. " loannis Neperi Tweede Boeck. *3^-*4S 3 pages. " Toeeyghen-brief Aende Doorhichtighe. Pli-T2^. "loannis Neperi Eerste verbeteren. [113] and the Preface on p. 4 lines . Boeck. * i' Title-page. in four chapters. 2 pages. Three Latin verses Rabdologia.". 4 lines . Rekenm"". The dedication. in nine chapters. 1626. signed at s'Gravenhaghe." . 24 Dec. and "AdLectorem." signed by Ezechiel de Decker at Gouda 4 Sep. Tables. in eleven chapters. 1626. By Pieter Rammaseyn. ende Vroetschap der Vermaerde Stadt Gouda." t2^ "De Druck-fauten salmen aldus Al^-E4^. Mi^-04^ pp. met behulp van Tafels. noyt voor desen int licht ghegeven. 21 lines of errata. al'-q4''. "Ezechiel De Decker Van Coopmans Rekeningen." \ *4^. "Register van alle de Hooftstuchen. ". ". 6 lines. Werckdaden. De Thiende. blank. the title is on p. ende | | I Liefhebber der Mathematische kunst. |. [i49]-3o8. ende Ghebruycken deses gantscken Boeckx." Fi^-L4^. [149] and the Preface on p. Vl^-Rr 4''.

( = 154) + a to q in fours A Aa ( to Rr in fours. endeallen Cooplieden. 16PP. Un. Ter Govde. except that Napier's dedication to Lord Dunfermline on the pages 5[2i-^4i and the two 5 on the page ^6^ of that edition are omitted. 258. 308." 81^-84'. inde Corte Groenendal. pp. Camb. A2'-A3^. Lon.lende. Muntmeesters. Errors in Signatures. 217. 1 | | 1 | | | | blank. Boeck. Libraries. Col." A3^.vercooper. 219. The translation of Rabdologise. 275-284. By Pieter Rammaseyn. Berlin . 222. but the numbering of the last page. 218. V2 as V. 3-5. 7 27. 254.9-lS> " Het Ander Deel Der Thiende Vande Werckinghe. pp. 6. Col.len. 255. 121. 103. " Cort Begriip. Wijnmeters. Lichaemmeters int ghemeene. 221. 270. and 8. is not affected. 274. 112-114. 218. Ai''. extending from ^ki? to T2^ and em- bracing 5 unnumbered and 148 numbered pages. and Cc. Paging. pp. blank. 1 keninghen onder den Menschen noodigh val." A4. Tapiitmeters." B4^-D2'. The leaf K4 has been cut out and another substituted. except T. 88-90. M. Kon.. The translation is by Adrian Vlack. 105. Hague NaL Paris IV. 169-176. wenscht Simon Stevin Gheluck. Errors in Paging. appears to correspond exactly with the original Latin edition of 16 17. " Het Eerste Deel Der Thiende Vande Bepalinghen. Ai^. sonder ghebrokenen. XXVI. Door Simon Stevin van Brugghe. N3 is printed as N5. 149. . 271. Signatures. 12 + 308 numbered + 128 + 27 numbered + 1 =476 pages. . afveerdighen door heele ghetal. for this lines work. and the numbers are not printed on the following pages. respectively. 150. Title-page. and Gg2 as Gg3. Kon. 187.— Mirifici . Aenhanghsel. p. + in four and t in two ( = 6) + to Z and Y. DC. and was made at the request of De Decker. which are in twos. . Preface "Den Sterrekiickers. in fours = 64) + A to C and D in two (= I4) = in all 238 leaves. 136 re( Catalogue. Landtmeters. are numbered IIO. int Duyts Vergult ABC. Trin. Da''. The pages ill. 196.

I. [loanne Nepero. 21-57.".". Authore ac Inventore. Potentissimi. &' RothesaicB.". in utraque Trigonometria ut etiam injomni Logistica Mathematica. "In Logarithmos D. 137 IV- — Mirifici logarithmorum canonis descriptio and. Amplissimi. do. Neperi. 7 lines . &" Invictissimi. I . blank. " Admonitio" or blank [see note]. 8-1-57 numbered -I. 2 pages. 1-20. quitur Tabula seu canon Logarithmorum." 10 lines .| Edinbvrgi. 12 lines signed " Patricius Sandfus.91 = 156 pages. Liber I. ' ' . 57 after the " Conclvsio.— " Catalogue. A reproduction of the Title-page will be found at p. Wallice Principi. A3^." . " yn Mirificvm Logarithmorum Canonem Prcefatio. Francia. ut etiam in omni Logistica mathematica. 2 f3. A42. In some copies pp. Scoto. filio unico. signed " Joannes Nepervs. 4 lines signed Bl'-Da^. I Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis descriptio. &' expeditissimi explicatio. on p. A H m note]. lacobi D. The Table. Verses: " Ad Lectorem. Size 7 J X 5 J inches. D. 374 of the Memoirs. Errors in Paging.1 in one + a to 1 in fours -Iin one = 78 leaves. Title." . Duci Eboraci. to in fours -I.". " In Logarithmos. dr'c. De canonis mirifici Logarith- morutn prceclaro usu in Trigonometria. " yilustrissimo. Paging. 14 and 15 are numbered 22 and 23 [see Signatures. Ai^." follow " Errata ante lectionem emendanda. Barone Merchistonii. Hibemia Regis. A2. Trigonometric sttidiosum. eiusque usus in utrSque Trigonometria. pp. optimts spei Principi Carolo. and the last line of the page is " SeIi^ and ai^-mi'. magna Scotite Senescallo. &c." D3''-Ii\ pp. magna Ss' BritannitE. & expeditissimi explicatio. Andreas Ivnivs Philosophim Professor in 6 lines . I. " Aliad. S Table . Ex officini Andreae Hart Bibliopolse.ges. ac Insttlarum Domino. |Ej usque usus. D. Editions in Latin. "Ad Lectorem. <5r= Kt?-. Academia Edinburgena. amplissimi. Mirifici logarithmorum canonis constructio. I I | | | | ( | XIV. do. 1 [The title is enclosed in an ornamental border. Facillimi.] 4°. D. 90 pages. facillimi. " Liber Secvndvs. " A3^-A4^. G. ." 4lines."." " Mirifici Logarithmorum canonis descriptio." mi''.

Gr.1 1 138 Catalogue. min Sinus 30 + Logarithmi — logarithmi Differentice Sinus 5000000 5002519 5005038 3 6931469 6926432 6921399 6916369 6911342 6906319 6901299 6896282 6891269 5493059 5486342 5479628 1438410 1440090 1441771 1443453 1445136 144682 1448507 1450194 1451882 1453571 1455261 1456952 8660254 8658799 8657344 8655888 8654431 8652973 60 59 58 57 56 55 4 S_ 5007556 5010074 5012591 5015108 5017624 5020140 5472916 5466206 5459498 5452792 5446088 5439387 6 7 8 9 10 II 8651514 8650055 8648595 54 53 52 51 5022656 5025171 5027686 5030200 50327)14 6886259 6881253 6876250 6871250 6866254 6861261 6856271 6851285 6846302 6841323 6836347 6831374 6826405 6821439 6816476 5432688 5425992 5419298 5412605 5405915 5399227 5392541 5385858 5379177 8647134 8645673 86442 1 8642748 8641284 8639820 863835s 8636889 8635423 50 49 48 47 46 45 12 13 14 IS 5035227 145864s 1460339 1462034 16 17 S037740 5040253 5042765 5045277 5047788 5050299 1463730 1465427 1467125 44 43 42 41 i8 19 20 21 22 5372499 5365822 5359147 535247s 5345805 5339137 5332471 5325808 S319147 1468824 1470525 1472227 1473930 1475634 1477339 1479045 1480752 1482460 8633956 8632488 8631019 8629549 8628079 8626608 8625137 8623665 8622192 40 39 38 37 23 5052809 5055319 5057829 24 25 26 27 5060338 5062847 5065355 5067863 5070370 5072877 6811516 6806560 6801607 6796657 6791710 6786767 6781827 36 35 34 33 32 31 28 29 5312488 5305831 5299177 5292525 1484169 1485879 1487590 1489302 8620718 8619243 8617768 8616292 30 5075384 30 59 There .

Un. See. Berlin Stadt. Staats. Adv. . Ab. Gl. Catalogue. (see note) Bodl. . in Fleet-Street. Genfeve. In general the former variety has the error in paging before mentioned. . 1796. Ed. and was compiled by Baron Francis Maseres. [men| I tioned in tion Dr Hutton's Historical Introduction to his New] Ediof Sherwin's Mathematical Tables :] together with] Some Tracts on the Binomial Theorem and other subjects [connected with the Doctrine of Logarithms. . . Dub. in the years 1791. 1804. 1801. Un. Oxf. Halle. Kon. Mus. (2). error in paging. (3). . Lon. . (see note) Foreign Libraries. Un. for instance. Un. Breslau. varieties not distinguished. . Oxf. Un.) With Admonitio. Ed.|or|A Collection of Several Curious Tracts on the (Nature And Construction] of Logarithms. the other with-that page blank. Gl. Ed. . Col. specimen page of the table is given opposite. (2) Trin. in Chancery-Lane | | | . Scriptores Logarithmici. Nat. Volume VL London. A translation of the Admonitio referred to above is given in the Notes. the back of the last page of the table. Brit. Col. Un. consists of six large quarto vol- The volumes umes. Leiden. Lon. Roy. Un. (2). however. K. Un. and 1807 respectappeared S 2 ively. 1791. Frankfurt. Un. Pub. White.) Without Admonitio. Hunt. Sig. Lon. (l. Hof u. one of the copies in the Bodleian in University College. Wilks. | MDCCCVII. Stadt. . (2) . There are copy also. and a full debe found in section 59 of the ConLibraries. Bodl. Breslau. page 87. Mus. copies which want the Admonitio but have the and the London. | The work. . while the latter has the paging correct. i 39 There are two noticeable varieties of this edition. Miinchen .. Printed by R. the one with an Admonitio printed on mr^. (2. Camb. | and sold by J. Paris A reprint of the Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio is contained in | | Scriptores Logarithmici . Leipzig . A scription of its arrangement will structio.

Catalogue. Sac.] Size 7J X 6| inches. Scoto.! Excvdebat Andreas Hart.gula sphaerica mird facilitate resolvenda." 'Ei^-Y'^. ^^ Appendix" containing "i?« alia eaque prastantiore Logarithmorvm specie construenda. vt etiam in omni Logistica Ma-| 1 | | . which will sixth volume. the type only being altered. pp. with the Admonitio on its last page. ( Qvi Et Tabvla Artificialis ab autore deinceps appellatur) eortimque ad naturales ipsorum numeros habitudines.1 I40 ively. The reprint. & Logarith. thematica. 40-45. of the Roy. Scoto. | & expeditissimi explicatio. Terti6." He probably refers to this reprint as Baron Maseres was a member of the Royal : Society. Mirifici | in utraque Trigonome-|tria Logarithmo. Barone Merchistonii." A3'-E4^. pp. $-39.| 1 | | 1 | | Edinbvrgi.] Mirifici Logarithmorvm Canonis Con. etc.strvctio Et eorum ad naturales ipsorum numeros habitudines Vn^ Cvm Appendice. Ed. blank. [See note.rithmorum specie condenda.rvm Canonis Descriptio. Excudebat Andreas Hart. Autore ac Inventore loanne Nepero. Al^. Graesse states that the edition of 1614 was "R^impr. de alii eaque praestantiore Loga. gives the Descriptio be found on pages 475 to 624 of the and the Canon in full. Henrici Briggii. amplissimi. Barone Merchistonii.| Accesservnt Opera Posthvma Prim6. A2. is Anno iSip. Appendix de alia.ges. Mirifici ipsius canonis constructio. 2 ^a. | | 1 . sous la m^me date dans les Transact.) the same as in 1614. facillimi.| .morum ad naturales ipsorum numeros habitudines. " Minfici Logarithmorvm Canonis Constrvctio ." Lectori MatheseosStuiiiosoS. vnitalis . Propositiones quaedam eminentissimae. I I Edinbvrgi. Qvibvs Accessere Propositiones ad triangula sphaerica faciliore calculo resolvenda Vn4 cum Annotationibus aliquot doctissimi D.". Secund6. Adv. | | 1 | | : | | | &c.|Anno Domini 1619. &c. F. ad Trian.| Authore & Inventore loanne Nepero. Ejusque usus.] Ai\ Title. in eas & memoratam appendicem.| [The ornamental part of the Title-page 4°. edque praestantiore Logarithmorum specie construenda.sig[LeA "Robertvs Nepervs. Libraries. in jua scilicet. [ .

posiiorum. Sig. with a blank leaf attached. leaves. only the new in the preceding entry. Henrici Briggii In Propo. Signatures. given above. Barone Merchistonij. in these copies. Ed. facillimi & expeditissimi explicatio. prcemissam. Un. however. | | | | | | | | | | Lvgdvni.-H3^. Authore ac Inuentore loanne Nepero. Ed. " " De semi-sinuum versorum prcestantia Gf vsu. 67 numbered + + 1 in two = 34 = 68 pages. pp. Un. | M. DC..." 54-62. vt etiam in omni Logistica Mathematica. 46-53. Without Admonitio. 63-67. Galliarum Regis. blank leaf attached. With Admonitio. II. Foreign Libraries. Aliqvot Doctissimi D. | Apud Barth. The to have first title-page. A to H in fours 1 Paging. " Annotationes Aliqvot Doctissimi D. Trin. pp. Oxf. ". Adv. Copies containing the Constructio only with the new title-page and Un. Scoto. Consequently. . Col. H4^-l2^. tatis 141 Logarithmus est o. " "Alius modus facili creandi Logarithmos numerorum coin" Habitiidines Logarithmorvm . | Cum Priui- legio Caesar. &c." . Henrici Briggii In Appendicem. l2^.] S 3 . 1. Logarithmorvm Canonis Descriptio. blank. X | X. Un. Sev Arithmeticarvm Svppvtationvm Mirabilis Abbreviatio. Catalogue. with the new title-page substituted. . m^ird facilitate ?-«o/z. Bodl. we find the same varieties as mentioned In other copies. ." sitiones Pmmissas. " . title- Copies containing both the Descriptio and Constructio. Fs^-Gs^. " Lvcvbrationes G3^. Majest.««(/ffi. ex datis Logarithmis suorum primorum. Ed. Ed. title-page is usually cut out and the new one pasted on in its place. 2. Ltdrari'es. & Christ. varieties not distinguished. Col. " containing " Triangulum spharicum resolvere. [Printed in black and red. Camb. &f suorum naturalium numerorum invicem. I. Eiusque vsus in vtraque Trigonometria. Dub. appears been printed in order that it might be substituted for the titlepage of the 1614 edition of the Descriptio by those who desired to have In such cases the 16 14 the two works on logarithms bound together. absque eiusdem divisione in duo quadrantalia aut rectangula. page and blank leaf are inserted before the Constructio. amplissimi. Vincentium.. '' Propositioites Qvcedam Eminentissimce ad triangula sphcsrica. Lon. Halle. pp. Un.

Signatures. | sub Signo Vic- M. = 32 leaves. 62 numbered -1-2 =64 pages. None. Lib.rithmorvm seu Arithmeticarvm Svppvtationvm. Verses. & Christ. Ki^-Vli^. pp. 2 pages. Fi^-Gi^ pp. Paging. 3 pages. A H in fours =32 leaves.r^ra!V/ ' or blank [see note]. Ai" blank. & aussi en toute Logistique Mathematique. Vincentivm. Bi^Dz^. Barone Merchistonii. Galliarum Regis. 1-20 Dedication to Prince Charles [see note]. Henrici Briggii in eas. M2^ ' £.\ Extraict to ' or blank [see note]. printed as 4°. Ai' blank. Catalogue. Mirifici | Logarithmorvm Canonis Con| | strvctio . S. &c. "Robertas Nepervs Avctoris Filivs Lectori Matheseos Studioso. 42-49. faciliore calculo : | ( | Scoto. 5-35." A3'-E2\ pp. Lvgdvni. but sig. Errors in Paging. | | 1 | | | | A | I 1 | | ( | | Ki^ Title. A to L in fours + M in two = 46 leaves. S'ensuit I'lndice du Canon des Logarithmes. & memoratam appendicem. 92 pages not numbered. Caesar. A2. in fours A to H Seqvitvr Tabvla Canonis Loga. II. Lib I. DC. Paging. pp. Table.rica | | 1 resoluenda Vn4 cum Annotationibus aliquot doctissimi D. Quibus accessere Propositiones ad triangula sphse. pp. On the issue of the Edinburgh edition of 16 19. I Lvgdvni. None. Ki. Ai^ Title. pp. 3 & 4. d'Arithmetique auec son vsage. A3' Preface. pp. De Alia eique prsstantiore Logarithmorum specie condenda. Authore & Inuentore loanne Nepero.142 8°. Apud Barthol. The Descriptio. 36-41. Size 8j X BJ inches. 58-62. Signatures. Gi^-Hi'. Cum priuilegio Csesareo & Galliarum Regis. Annotationes by H4'' blank. Vincent would appear .xx. pp. Signatures. Ai' Title. The Appendix. E22-F1'. 8 + 56 numbered = 64 pages. D3I-H42. Lvcvbrationes by Eriggs [see note]. Errors in Paging. | . D3 is printed D5.putations. Scavoir. toriae. A3^-A4°. Barth. A2. 1 Paging. Hi=-H3". en rvjne & I'autre Trigonometrie. The Constructio. | Et Eorvm Ad Natvrales ipsorum numeros habitudines Vna Cvm Appendice. Briggs. S0-S7> Propositiones ' Trigonometricce. 21-56. | Cum priuilegio Maiest. La Table de I'admirable inuention pour promptement & facilement Abreger les sup. | | Apud Bartholomasum | Vincentium.

New York Nat. | X I X." at the end of which is printed " Acheue dUmprimer le premier Odobre. . New York. Gl. Kon. . but in many copies its place is taken by the "Extraict du Priuilege du Roy. DC. and Astor Library. The three parts are usually found together. Edinburgh. And. (parts i and 2 only) Un. had some copies printed with the date 1619 on the first title-page. Cum | | Priui- legio Csesar. Majest. Act. Un. besides the title-page." The edition is a fairly correct reprint of the Edinburgh one. and have also on H4I of the Constructio the Extraict reset with the note at end altered to " Mirifici Logarithmorum Acheui d'imprimer le 31 Mars 1620. Francim. . | Apud Barth.. Sev Arithmeticarvm Svppvtationvm Mirabilis Abbreviatio. 143 appear to have at once set about the preparation of an edition for issue at Lyons. Off. Vincentium.] The only respect in which this entry differs from the preceding is in the date on the title-page. and. is in the Dedication to Prince Charles. Lon. Berlin Un. Ed. Hof u. Dresden K. St. Staats.. . .. . " magnm Britannix. the line placed by him under the fractional part of a number to distinguish it from the integral part being here printed under the whole number. . Eiusque vsus | | | | | [Same as preceding. . Logarithmorvm Canonis Descriptio. Ed. Munchen Zurich (parts i and 2 only) . mil six cents dixneuf. Galliarum Regis. Mus. as will be seen from the next entry. & Christ." The copies in the Advocates' Library. Col.. Paris Un. Un.] Lvgdvni. where " Francige " is omitted from his father's title. but the decimal notation employed by Briggs in his Remarks on the Appendix has not been understood. Brit. Breslau (parts i and 2 only) Kon. Roy. Libraries. Adv. dc. . The only intentional alteration. [Printed in black and red. Utrecht Stadt. Lon. Catalogue. but some copies contain only the Descriptio and Tabula. Ed. &' Hibernia Regis" Un. Astor. xix. The Admonitio is omitted from the last page (M22) of the Tabula. M. See Lon.. A possible S explanation of this may be that the title-page was originally set up with the date m. have this Extraict on Mz^ of the Tabula. . but 4 when ..

but the remainder of the edition of 1620 with the following alterations. and has on H4I the Extraict the same as entry. is often wanting on M22 of the Tabula. [Printed in black This issue is evidently not a new edition. The Constructio has the The Extraict is two leaves cut out so that the first page is numbered 5. Kon. M. & Astronomis | vtilissimum. was found that the whole work could not be issued in that year. 2. Stadt. Un. Libraries. Anton. dc. Ed. | Lvgdvni. nobilissimo Barone Merchistonio Scoto-Britanno. Ant. the date was altered to m. 144 when it Catalogue. Halle . Geometris praesertim.rithmes Of The Most Plentifvl. Opvs Cvri| Omnibvs. and speedy | 1 :| | | vse . Berlin . the name of the work in the Extraict being that on the first title-page of the 1620 edition. and red. Un. exactly as in the Advocates' Library copy of 1620. The Tabula unaltered. Breslau . Paris. Editions in English of the Descriptio alone. DC. x x. retaining the name first of Barth. | | | Hvgvetan. in the Bibliothfeque Nationale. Adv.. in the Advo- copy mentioned in the preceding Library.] & Marc.. Vincent on the title-page. Description I A | With I A Declaration Of The Admirable Table Of Loga. printed before the alteration. | Inuentore. Arcanvm Praxis osis | | Svppvtationis | Arithmeticse | : | Quo | Doctrina | & | Sinvvm ac Triangvlorvm mire abbreuiatur. the Constructio has on the usual date of 1620. Ravavd. LVIII. is and several other still important alterations. In the Descriptio signature less A has been reprinted with title-page as above. Gl. the its title-page Tabula has M42 blank cates' Library . . Nat. Un. Apud loan. Zurich . but in the copies printed on examined H4I of the Constructio. and a few copies may have been The only copy which we have found is The volume contains the three parts . Easy. and not that used in the title-page given above.

E9^-I 6'.' AS. A 10 two being cut out. blank. 90 pages. 6 pages. rithmes. | 145 | vse thereof in both kindes of Trigonometrie. 1-29. Brigges. Paging. & pub-|lished since the death of the Translator. pp. 8. inuented by| the Translator. 30-89. " The Vse Of The Tri"Triangular instrumentall Table. pp." . "A A to H in twelves +1 in eight +K in tvjro = 106 . Size the East-Indies. as also in all Mathematicall Accounts. Authour. "In praise of the neuer-too-much signed ' H. and hafpinesse in the life to come." Cf-'Z'^. '^ By the vnfained Aio louer and admirer of his Art and matchlesscvertue. Leaves Eio and Eii have also been cut out. ." After I &. With an Addition of an Instrumentall Table] to finde the part proportionall. 54 lines.".' ^ praised Worke and Authour the L." A32-A42. Lines. Right Honourable And Right Worshipfvll Company Of Merchants of London trading to 12°. is an engraved diagram of the I &. and Ireland: Prince of Wales: Duke of Yorke and Rothesay: Great Steward of Scotland: and Lord of the Islands. Signatures." . I 7'-IC2^ pp. as also in all Mathematicall calculations. but in their place new leaves are inserted. 22 + 89 numbered + 9H-8 numbered=2lo pages. 1-8. 2 pages.ron of Marchiston. but the X logarithms . " To The Most Noble And Hopefvll Prince. Description Of The Admir58 corrections are given.". The Table is to one place less than the Canon of 16 14. A9.i = 105 leaves.". "A View Of This and Translator. Table. cut out in all copies. 1616.Catalogue. " Some faults haue escaped in printing of the Table. Samvel Wright viisheth all prosperiiie in this life. " The Preface To The Reader By Henry Brigges. All perused and approued by the Author. Ai^ blank. Leuer. penned by Henry Brigges.". " 7i r/^a 5j X 3| inches. also on p. 2 pages. signed " Ri. Booke. " Errata in the Treatise. 49 lines. | 1 | 1 | | | | | 1 | I | | | | K\^ Title. Also plate following Errors in Paging. B1LC3I. The Booke. London. and described in the end of the Booke by Henry Brigs Geometry-reader at Gresham.house in London. of Marchiston. and translated into English by the late learned and famous Mathematician Edward Wright. " The Second Booke. able Table Of Logarithmes. King of ^eat Brittaine. Charles : Onely Sonne Of the high and mightie lames by the grace of God.". Lines. . " In the iust praise of this Booke. A12I. With The Most Plentiful.shed In Latin By That Honorable L lohn Nepair. on a folding sheet." signed lohn Nepair. Printed by Nicholas Okes. lohn Dauies of Hereford." angular Table for the finding of the part Proportionall. None. 2 pages. Al2^. And Ready Vse thereof The First in both kindes of Trigonometrie.". Easie. Invented And Pvbli. " The Authors Preface to the Admirable Table of LogaA6'-A8^. 8 corrections." Ai I. A2i-A3S 3 pages. France.". 3 pages. Ba.

" One of the copies in the Glasgow University Library has the new title-page with blank leaf attached. the earliest instance of the decimal point being used in a printed book.rithmes most Plenti-|full. Adv. Oxf. as also in all MaI | 1 : | 1 thematicall Calcu. .. Signatures. Ed.of in Of The Admirable Table Of Loga. the exact finding out of such lines and also a new and ready way for and Logarithmes as are not precisely to be found in the Canons. Baron of Marchiston. sig. Gl. pp.reader at Gresham -house in London. intended by the Translator. Easie. I believe. and described in the end of the|Booke by Henrie Brigs Geometry. the first The Admonitio at the end of the Table is wanting.try. inside of which is placed the of the 16 16 edition with its first leaf cut out. I Inuented and published in Latine by that Honourable Lord lohn Nepair. and published since the death of the Translator. logarithms of the sines for each minute from 89°-90° are given in the last figure being marked off by a point.] London.1 . Un. full. and translated into Eng. 1 46 Catalogue. there being also added at the end of the work (A3i-Aio^.|lish by the late learned and famous Mathematician. | This edition is really that of 1616 with the title-page cut out and the above put in its place .| 1618. Brit. Whereunto is added new Rules for | | | | | | | I | | | | the lease of the Student. 1-16) "An Appendix to the Logarithmes. Mus.. Qu. . Printed I for Simon Waterson. With an addition of the Instrumentall Table to finde the part Proportionall. . Bodl.Col. A Description I With I A Declaration of the 1 1 vse there. and also the new sig. All perused and approued by the Authour. This is. Lon.Oxf. A A (A3-A10) containing the Appendix. The two words " and maintaine " in the last line of edition page of Briggs' preface (A6I) are ruled out in ink in all copies both in this and in that of 1618. and Speedy both kinds of Trigonome. Edward Wright.lations. Libraries. shewing the practise of the Calculation of Triangles.

Mus. Act. Signatures. Published for the Editor] Square. Ed." a7'-bi2. p. Errata." title I. Catalogue.. each divided by 10. from I'd to 1200. in eight (commencing with ending with A 10). Baron of Merchiston. Un. signed " lohn Nepair. Bodl. Book Table II. xix. ix-xii. Lon. Brit. Edinburgh.. James' inches. Size B^x3| scribed to William hz^.000. so that the logarithms are strictly to base e-^ The Admonitio at the end of the Table is wanting. Oxf.|metry. " Tc^le Logarithms to Numbers. v and vi. table occupies the intervening 90. a native of Scotland. Libraries.| I | | I | | | I 1 By Herschell Filipowski. by the Translator. vii. iVoto. Un. Roy. (2). as^-a6^. Signatu7-es. The Author's preface. 1-24.] 1857. Un. 147 A3 and Libraries. Gl.000." b2^. the last blank. called also Hyperbolic Logarithms. Trin. . Ai'-Fe^. A3. (2). Soc." a*. Ed. pp. F42. Camb. 92 pages. [a] in 8 +b in 2. a2^ " This edition is in" Thomas Thomson.D. Lizars 1 3 St. Esq a2^. 24-71. xiii-xviii.. Paging. 16*. Camb. then follow the table occupying 18 pages. etc. are to . Re. both in plane and spherical trigone. al^ Title.. I. Invented and published by John Napier. = 113 leaves. base e. + A. 1614. are those of the Canon of 1614. 20 pages. F7''-G8^. pp. pp. pp. T 2 . Lon. blank. and on the last page is printed "END " within an ornamental device. " The Preface To The Reader By Henry Briggs. . and the II. H. "Note to A1I-B42.".. the occupies the page. As in 1616 edition 105 leaves + A. C and E in eights + F in four + A to G in eights = 102 leaves. A. . The Wonderful Canon Of Logarithms or the First Table Of Logarithms with a full description of their ready use and easy] application. ai^. on first page is the title. " Translator's Preface. The numbers and logarithms in Table I. Book is II.". The logarithms in Table II. Paging.. as also in all mathematical calculations. and viii. Act. and enlarged with a table of [hyperbolic logarithms to all numbers from i to I20i. B. blank.. '&/i^-Yi^\ pp. As in 1616 edition 210 pages+ 16 numbered=226. Dedication to Prince Charles.translated from the Latin text. pp. Lon. " Table first Napier's Napier's Logarithms of Sines. | By W. XX numbered + 72 numbered + 112 = 204 pages. Col.

It seemed desirable to preserve a record of them. D. 1 | my reward is with me. Size inches. The . 12. A. as also a discovery of Antichrist together with very probable conjectures touching the the time of his destruction. Signatures. ] 4°. And behold I come shortly. Oxf. | and seven Angels. 2 + 20 + 2=24 pages. Napiers Narration I I : Or. seven Trumpets. Or An Epitome of his Booke on the Revelation. and This tract is written in the made the scholar and Napier the master Mus. to give to London. p.] Subject very seasonable for these last Times. several works by other Authors were met with which have considerable interest from their connection with the works of Napier. I An Epitome Of His Booke | | On The] Revelation. touching the I | foure Beasts.(JcicJssClfest'yijjtdls^cJ^^ APPENDIX. : is Libraries. seven Vials. blank. Bodl. 175. and they are accordingly given below.] seven Thunders. In the preparation of the foregoing Catalogue. and G. ] for Giles Calvert.] : | I A every Revel. blank. Wherein are divers Misteries disclosed. Printed by R. Paging. C2 numbered in error C3. form of a dialogue. O." C4. not numbered. and the end of the World. C in fours = 12 leaves. Ai^ A2^-C3^ 20 pages. with such particulars as were noted at the time. Brit.. ^'Napier's Narration 2 pages. and man 1 according as his worke shall be. wherein RoUock see Memoirs.. Ai^ Title. 22. Errors in Signatures. B. 1641. Lon.

I | | By the [The printing round the woodcut is slightly altered. "V. Concerning the seven Angels mentioned Rev. "IIII. ." ." and " M." "III. 8 & 9. J. Concerning the Prophesie of Elias.] 4°. Concerning the Prophecie of Daniel. also . Lon. Size inches. With Additions. Concerning the SymboUof the Sabboth.". Libraries. noble Napier. "VI. Ai''." Signature. 6. Concerning the seven Trumpets mentioned chap. Booker his Verses Libraries. A in 4=4 leaves. Lord of Marchistoun in | Scotland. : J To which England is directed . to foreknow what shall come to passe.. A2i-A4^. The bloody Almanack . drawne out and published by that famous Astrologer." . Ai^.] With a calculation concerning the time of the day of Judgement. Title. Mus. M. 1643." . . A I Bloody Almanack Foretelling many certaine predictions | | passe this present yeare 1647. " VII. "II. Appendix.". . . Mus. additions are .] London Printed for Anthony Vincent. Concerning Christ's owne saying. on Ai^ "A Table on A4'' at the end an added Note. 1643. 14. : | 149 The bloody Almanack To which England is directed.] Being a perfect Abstract of the Prophecies proved out of Scripture. . . 2 + 6 numbered = 8 pages.] . Brit. Concerning the opening of the seven Scales mentioned Revel. and are to be sold in the Old-Baily. Paging. and are to be sold in the Old-Baily. Another Edition. blank. | London Printed | for | Anthony Vincent. . Lon. 1-6. | John Booker.. pp. Lord of Marchistoun in Scotland. [With large woodcut in centre of page containing symbolical designs. .] The . | [With symbolical woodcut surrounded by the signs and names of the zodiac] T 3 . The Lord Napier which shall come to | ] | | of Marcheston. " The bloody Almanack" containing " I. by that famous Astrologer." . Brit. . By the noble Napier.

tant|de la Doctrine des Prophetes. rue sainct Ger. but the first two subjects there treated of Ai^. Size 6J X 4 Inches. Signature. "Zes Secretz De L' Apocalypse ouuerts mis au iour" tion" dated 20 June 1609. A3'-H3'. Oxf.|Auec Priuilege du Roy. Paging. . DediAi'. | A 8*. 5-62.. Paging. Lon. Sn." "In . Concerning the Symboll "IV.. aduerty que ses partisans mesme le desauouet. are here omitted. a este veu vn rApocalypse. A in 4=4 leaves. Ed. svy-|uant I'ordre des Chapitres. Astrological predicA3I-A42. Brit. & i la verite pleines d'attrait. 27 March 1610.. 63].D.C. cation Ai'.— 150 4°. duquel n'ay voulu pub- les erreurs. 14. . Libraries. 64 numbered (except on first two and last two) = 64 pages. A H From the title-page it would appear that a previous edition had been is published at Rouen. pour nous pyper. Bodl. Le|Sommaire|Des Secrets De|rApocalypse. nous enuoyer par ce docteur ses harmonyes Pythonissiennes. Title. tion of events "/« Jannary. 4 pages. come plein de mensonges & impostures Croy certainement qu'en son ceuure Sathan a voulu iouer sa reste . Ai^-Az". Size inches. Libraries. mis en lier liure intitule." etc. Et voyant son temps si pres.X. I | | Heureux sur qui le Soleil d'intelli- Igence se leue. "V." H4I [p. Appendix. Vouuerture de lumiere par Napeyr Escossois. Baron de et Manny .. " Prophecie of Daniel. Mus. to in fours = 32 leaves. 64]. . .|M. Signatures. A2.".". H4'' [p. and commences thus Depvis quatre ou cinq ans. Le tout conforme aux passages de I'Escriture saincte. The work written to confute Napier's inter: pretation of the Apocalypse. 3 & 4. February. Concerning the of the Sabbath. these contain the same matter as in the Almanack of 1 643. | | louxte la | coppie imprimee k Rouen. 8 pages not numbered. Messire Guillaume de Hautemcr. "I. 1 Paris. Un. "II. Concerning the Prophesy of Elias. " III. Par le Sieur de Perrieres Varin. que des Apostres. pp.main de Lauxerrois. Le . cauteleusement douces. Tres-havi Et Tres-pvissant Seignevr..".". "A sieur de Feruaques. blank.. Title. "Approba" Extraict du Priuilege du Roy" dated . Concerning the seaven Angels mentioned Rev. Chez Abraham le Feure. pp. Concerning Christ's own saying. 3 pages.

1623. Centre Perrieres Varin. qui assigne ce lour en I'annde 1666. vnd auszfuhrliche Wiederlegung. wie iibel vnd boszlich M. vnd anderer Calvinisten grobe Jrrthumbe von der Rechtfertigung eines armen Sunders. vnd dem werden alle fromme Hertzen Gedruckt zu Rostock. | De | Covrcelles.chen Schottlandischen Theologi. Napeiri. I 151 | Le Desabvsement. Et Napier Escossois.Ceremonien. Par Lavrens Mavrry. Leons de Dromna. desz Treffli. auch anderen Glaubens Articuln Nebenst auch einem kurtzen Discurs von den Kirchen. Wie dann auch eine bewerthe Prob aller Propositionen. der vermeynten lang. Herrn Johannis Napeiri.rinn der wahre Verstand vnd Einhalt der wichtigen Geheimnussen.. gelegt vnd dargestellt. fin du Monde.ptica zu halten sey. Svr Le Brvit Qvi Covrt de la prochaine Consommation des Siecles. Wolffgangi Mayers.gewiinscheten Auszlegung liber diese Offenbarung Johannis. | | 12°. | 1 Recht musz doch recht bleiben. [Printed in black and red. vnd im Propheten Daniel. in der Offenbahrung Johannis. reichlich vnd iiberflussig gefunden wird. Lo. zufallen. M. In vorlegung Johan Hallervordes Buchhandlers daselbst. Brit. Da. vnd was von seiner. Paulas Nagelius mit dem Propheten Daniel vnd der Offenbahrung Johannis vmbgehe. | | A erie Rouen. durch Mauritz Sachsen. Avec Permission. a rimprimdu Louvre. 94. Worter vnd Zahlen. Libraries. durch die Historien vnd Geschichten der zeit erMehr wird auch darinn vor Augen klaret vnd angezeigt. | | | | | | | | Par le Sieur F. Letzlich werden auch erortert H. | | | 1 1 | | I | 1 | | | | 1 | Psal. rue neuve S. &c.| 1 1 1 Appendix. LXV. & du lour du lugement Vniuersel. Lon. DC. Aureum Johannis Woltheri | 1 Peinensis Saxonis : | Das | ist : | Gvlden Arch. vnd der andern Newen Rosencreutzbriider Astronomia gratiae oder Apocaly. Mus. qui le met en I'annde 1688.] | T 4 *°- .

| is printed " Gedruckt zu Rostock \ dtirch Moritz Sachsen. 14 + 272 numbered + 2 =288 pages. 1-122. vnd hergegen | | | | 1 .' p. Size 6 X 4 inches. si^eA" Datum Liechtenhagen den 15 Octobris des 1621. vnd sehr leichte durch etliche Stabichen allerhand Zah. 1-272. 152 4°. omitting the Beschluz. 1 1 1 | | | fast. In his work he reprints in full the 36 propositions of Napier's First treatise as given in the Frank' of 1615. Ai^. A to Z and Aa to Nn in fours=l44 leaves.messern.' printed at Frankfurt in 1615." On B3* is the title of the German translation of 'A plaine discovery. Libraries. Signatures. art Rhabdologia Neperiana. Paging. B4'-Nn32. Das ist. Appendix. B3'. Newe. vnd zum Truck gefertigt. and adherent of the Augsburg Confession. pages. Bawmeistern. Dedication to Kurfurst Durchl. Hof u..len ohne miihe. vber die masz dienlich. A2I- Georg Wilhelm Markgraf von Brandenburg. form the bulk of the book. nacher ausz anleytung. 1 | | 4°. 1 1 Black letter. In. furt edition Libraries. Johann Wolther. Bayrn durch Frantz Keszlern zu Werck gericht. In lateinischer Sprach durch Herrn Johan Nepern. K. 123. Erstlich 1617. Freyherrn in Schottlandt. Stadt. yaAres £. alien Rechenmeistern. Im Jahr " Nn4S blank.genieuren. pp. | | Gedruckt zu Straszburg bey Niclaus Myriot. Size inches. being much longer than the propositions. Breslau Kiinstliche Rechenstablein | zu vortheilhafftiger vnd leichter | | Theilungwie nicht weniger Auszziehung der gevierdten vnd Cubi. the Pastor of Liechtenhagen. Black letter. beschrieben. Un.cographum Anno MDCXVIII. desz hochgelehrten weitberiihmbten Herrn v. \ On Nn4^ Christi\ 1623. Staats Miinchen. pp. These refutations. Gehorsamer Vnterthan yohannes Wolthertis Pfarrherr daselbst. Frankfurt. Churf. Title-page. was a zealous Lutheran. To each proposition is appended a refutation of the same. In Kurtz ver1 ma- nifaltigung. TTie work itself [see note].schen Wurtzeln. Ai^ blank. vnd Land. In verlegung Jacob von der Heyden Chal.

vnd beyderley ins gemein vbliche Radices zu extrahirn ohne alien brauch des sonsten vb-vnnd niitzlichen Ein mahl Eins. I | A2'-A3^ 3 pages. Lon. Ai^. A to C in fours = 12 is .ren vnd zu dividiren. zu Multiplici. hiilffder Stdbichen verrichtet werde. wo er der miihe die Stdbichen auffzutragen. alsz jmmer miiglich gewesen." A3^-C4''. " Von der StabelrechKK«^. a diagram of the rods. " containing Cap. I gen. .^'' . " tVie das Dividiren anzustellen sey. blank. Gedruckt zum Berlin im Grawen Kloster. Breslau . " Von erfindung einer jeden Zahlen quadrat Wurtzel." Cap. Title. Stadt. Cum Gratia Et Privi| : | | | ( I | | | | | | | | | legio. Durch M. " Vonheschreibungvnd gebranchder Stdblichen ins gemein. Anjtzo aber auffs kiirtzeste. Zurich Manvale Arithmeticae | I & 1 Geometriae Practice | : | In het welcke Beneffens de Stock-rekeninghe ofte Rhabdologia J. " Wie man mit hUlffe des Bldtichen Pro Cubica. Ai". 4°. Nat. 18 pages." Cap IV. " Vorrede an den guthertzigen Leser. Erstlich erfunden durch einen vornehmen Schottlandischen Freyherrn Herrn Johannem Neperum Herrn zu Merchiston &c. "Der Leser Stdbichen einer jedern Zahl radicem cubicam erfinden soiled wisse. zufinden bey Martin Guthen. 1 153 hergegen gar gewisz. auch die Regulam Detri. II.ne den Landmeters en Ingenieurs. alter notturff nach zugerichtet zubekommen sein. Paris .. Churf. Mus. Bran. Buchhdndlern zu Colin an der Spree. Facing A3^ on a folding sheet Libraries. nopende 't Land. Kon. Benjaminem Ursinum.denburgischen Mathematicum. Alsz in dem man sich leichtlich verstossen kan." Signatures. Stadt. Appendix. V. V wort ." . " Wie das Multipliciren mit . durch George RunIm Jahre Christi 1623. Napperi cortelick en duydelic t' ge. nach vorhergehenden gnugsamen Probstucken ins Deutsche vbergesetzt. Another Edition. | Anno 1630. Cap. Paging. Size 6i X 4i inches. 24 pages not numbered. mil vberhaben sein : das solche zierVnd lich in einem subtilen Kdstichen. | Libraries. vnd der C4^. leaves. Cap III. Brit. Berlin . Gedruckt im Jahr Christi.meten en Sterckten-bouwen nootwendich 1 is. I.

' communicated to the Amsterdam Academy Verslag. As Multiplication. 1 2 + 86 numbered + 10 = ic8 The author was William Leyboum.1 154 I Appendix. Door Adrianum Metium. int Schryfboeck. Anno 1634. Bierens de Hann in his ' BouwstoiFen voor de Geschiedenis der Wis." ES^-Eg^. 6 pages. Are performed with incredible Celerity and Exactness (without any [charge to the Memory) by Addi. 16 + 246 numbered + 8. By Henderick Laurentsz. Sawbridge.Drucker. Aa". Med. D. ordinar. After A62 on a folding sheet is a diagram of the rods. Size 4i X 2| inches. Paging. and are to be sold at his House on Clerkenwell-Green. A in six + B to E in twelves=S4 pages. Size inches. The Work. L. | wort geleert ende exetnplaerlick aenghewesen. E8S "Errata. leaves. of | | | I The Art | Nepeir's Bones. Gedruckt by Ulderick Balck. 19. London Printed for G.thes.ten hare wannigheden af te pegelen. Ordi. and Ex.tracting of Roots both Square and Cube. 1-86. Op een nieu met een nieuwe inventie on alle ronde va. & Ma. | | | 1 | | 1 || || . Anno 1646. 7 pages. binnen Franeker." h6\ blank. Boeckvercooper op 't Water. verrijckt 1 | | 1 | | I | 8°. p. Eloi-Ei2'i. 8 + 377 numbered + 11. 1878 (Natuurk. j | | 12°.). Profess.en Natuurkundige Wetenschappen in de Nederlanden. Advertisements. Published by W. " The Argument To The Reader. Tot Amsterdam. 3 pages. blank. 1 1 | Paging. Division. Paging. A3I-A61. blank? Signatures. Ai. Another Edition.tion and Substraction only. 1667. and the work contains a short description . Bi'-E7^ pp.. blank? Ki\ Title-page. papers entitled These two editions are catalogued by D. xii. — Numbring By Speaking-Rods :| Vulgarly termed By which The most difficult Parts of Arithmetick.naris Landschaps ende Academise Boecke.

de Bretagne. published at Leipsic in 1835. Mus. Brit. at the Bible on Ludgate-Hill. B. printed by T. Brit. Errors . v. Lon. 20 pages. ai^. Ab. Nepper's Rechenstabchen. G.. Decimalbriiche . woodcut. London. [175] "Des In the first part. Netto." 8°. with examples of their use in multiplication. M. Gentil-homme de la Chambre du Roy de la Grand' Rectilignes | | | | | Bretagne. Comte d'Ancrame. Al'-Y4S pp. et lean de la Coste. | A | Chez Nicolas | | Hilaire. The work apparently treats of ' Napier's Bones. on a folio sheet facing p. Kayser's Vollstandiges Biicher-Lexicon (1750-1832). 1685. Appendix. Arnold. Division d. Povr Resovdre Tovs Triangles | | | | Et Spheriqves. '^ Des Triangles Rectilignes. Dedide A Messire Robert Kar. Multiplication u. This entry is copied from C. Pa^n^. Un. 20+116 numbered + (193-18 Signatures. 1-116.-i4^. their logarithms. Paris. Zahlen. Triangles Spheriqves. Un. (2) . 155 division.u. Preliminary matter. Mus. k I'Escu | | | | Size 6J X 3J inches. a in 4. and the extraction of square and cube roots.' Traits De La | | Trigonometrie. non encores demonstrees. for H. hrsgg. . . Another Edition. F. Lon. ai^-p2^. Sawbridge." Y42. Lon. & en leur boutique a la petite porta du Palais deuant les Augustins. description of the rods. Avec Les Demonstrations Des deux celebres Propositions du Baron de Merchiston. 181 5. Lambeth Pal. . Libraries. au mont S. | | Libraries. Dresd. Ed. e in 2 for error=) 175 numbered+l = 3i2 & iin 4 + a to o in4 y & 2 p in 2 +A to Y in 4= 156 leaves. A. XXXVL Avec Privilege Du Roy. als Hiilfsmittel bei d. is a table of ' Racines de 10' and of pages. DC. I-193 pp. 18^. 68. Mit 100 Rechenstabchen.

part of which is quoted ' at p. Item Nova Tabvla Clima-|tum & Parallelorum. 116) of the first part will be found the passage relating to Napier's burial-place.| Appendix Canonvm Secvndi Libri Directionum. Theagrius Scotus. was probably the one he made use of. qui in Regiomontani opere desiderantur.. item umbrarum.drantis propagatus. Ed. Lon. Un. Libraries. Libraries.|His Insertvs Est Canon fecundus ad singula scrupula qua. Permission to print the work was given on 5th April 1635. Benjaminis Ursini Sprottavi | Silesi | In Electorali Brandenbur| gico Gymnasio Vallis Joachimicae. Col. thus making an error in excess of 18. . Napier says that Reinhold's (or common table of sines any other more exact) will supply the values for filling in the natural sines in columns 2 and 6. | . 156 Errors in Paging. Trin. Discentivm Prima Elemen-|ta Astronomiae necessarius &|utilissimus.' On the last page (p." fol 1 14). In second part 168 numbered and so to the end. part none of consequence. | Mathematici | | | & Generosi DN. In describing the formation of the Logarithmic Table. 426 of the Memoirs. . Anno | M. Adv. part. The two celebrated propositions by Napier are Nos. Primvs Liber Tabvlarvm Directionvm. Roy. DN. in section 59 of the Constructio. &c. Dub.D. Practici Volumen Primum continens | | Cursus Illustr.. first Appendix. and the table of sines in this work (" Canon Sinvvm Vel Semissivm Redarvm In Circvlo Svbtensarvm. Size 8 X 6J inches. The Dedication is signed by the Author Iacobvs Hvmivs. In 186. Soc.] 4°. 117 & 120 of the second . Ed. [Printed in black and red. Avtore Erasmo Rheinholdo | | 1 I ( | | | | Salueldensi Maiestatis. . I Haere des Vlrici Morhardi. | | Cum Apvd gratia & | priuilegio Caesarese 8l \ Regiae Tvbingae LIIII.

Generos. &'c.] error in printing. 5 P^ges. blank. Dn. but through an '' Lectori Benevolo. Johannis Neperi 1 | Baronis Merchistonij &c. Canone Cum Privilegio Beni. Dedication to " lUustri " Baroni et Burggravio de Dohna signed "in Valle nostra loachimica XVI. Cum Gratia Et Privilegio. I | | | I [Note. \ " \ pages. Sco- Bbl^-Gg6^.^ [errata. 2 pages. Mathematici Electora-] lis Brandenburgici Trigonometria cum magno Logarithmor. " Tabula Propor-\tionalis\Seqtienti\Canoni\Logarithmo-\rum Inser-\ Aa5^-Aa7^. as the Dedication dated 17th May 16 17. 48 + 16 + 91+9= 164 pages not numbered. &°c. Signatures. 2 pages. Aai^ The title. Colonise. | Trigo- nometriam Loga. \ ti. but Stadt.rithmicam Usibus discentium accomodatarn. 40 8°. Another Edition. . et generoso domino. AaS. Brit. Gg6''-Hh2^. \ \ chistonii. | Scoti. Libraries. humilimi addictus Cliens Benjamin Ursinus. 157 | DN.] Ai^-As". " Usus prcecedentis mens. Ursini | | | | | | | V 3 Coloniae . Bbl^ The title.. Neperi Baronis Mer-\ tdbulm. which is is no doubt correct. Spree = Berlin. Oxf. Ai'. Nat. to | Mirificus \ Canon Logarith. Paging. 9 pages. T. 90 than that of 1614. Anno CID IDC XVIII. the two pages. " Trigonometrice Logarithmicce J. 1 Appendix. . anni seculi hujus XVII.. The Canon two places less Napier's Canon of 16 14 is here reprinted. The Table. Hhi^ and HI12'. A to C and Aa to Gg in eights + Hh in two = 82 leaves. Bodl. CoIonia=K51na. have been left blank. Martinus Guthius.d." A4^-C7''. "J. Breslau is shortened two places. Un. 1619." C8. Lon. Libraries. " Aai^-Aa5S 8 pages. blank. 5 pages. Paris The First Edition is stated to have been published in 161 7. Neperi. Size 4jx3 inches." pages. Title.morum. Camb. Mas. The work should have ended on Hhl^. Kal. . Abrahamo lib. exscriptam Colonic sumtibus Martini Guthij. Illustr. Jun. Typisq.

Harmonic. Anno M. forming the centre of a title-page elaborately engraved by Fetrus RoHos.. impensis Bibliopolae. . Sectio Posterior. the place of publication. Signatures. blank. | | — [followed by extract of 8 lines. Neperi. XXIV." 35 lines. .. Et Sinu toto 1 00000000. further." Liber II. novissimo. . ( p.." ." . Georgio Wilhelmo Marchioni Brandenburgico. On LU32 is printed " Berolini. impensis &' sumtibus Martini Guttij LII4. .] & sumtibus Martini The Table occupying 450 pages.| [The above is engraved on a half-open door. VII. tipys | G. Colonia. The references in the text are to the Lyons edition of 1620 (see p.. Rungij descripta. Bibliopola Coloniensis. " De Trigonometrid Spharicorum. Colonise. M.. " De Usu Canonis Logarithmorum in utraq. 1-272. Excudebat Georgius Rungius Typographies. Sectio I. but are carried one place the quadrant. Lll3^. and are of the same kind as those in Napier's Canon of 16 14. " De Constructione Canonis Triangulorum . " De Mensuratione Triangulorum Planorum sive Rectilineorum. secundor. "Z'e Triangulis Planis. blank. DC.. "2?^ usu Canonis Logarithmorum in genere. " De Constructione Canonis Sinuum." Sectio Prior.158 Coloniae | Appendix." Liber III. affectionibus. decadas usq'. Al^. 5). Sumptib. Vigili Consilio | Ex Voto & Illustr." Signatures. 131. \ \ \ \ | Paging.. | m." Sectio II. Sectio I. Trigonometria. " De Constructione Tabula Logarithmorum. | CIO IDC XXV. ):( 2'- ):( 4^ 6 pages. ):( i'. Ll4^. | Keppler. Title. 2 + 450 + 4=456 pages not numbered. p. . cjusq." . d. : Benjaminis Ursini Sprottavi Silesi Mathematici Electoralis Brandenburgici Magnvs Canon Triangulorum Logarithmicvs | | | | | . ) ( and A to Z and Aa to LI in fours =140 leaves. Guttij. ". 168. Liber I. " . these works being largely made use of by Ursinus. dated 1624. A2'-Lll2''. " De Triangulis Spharicis. in three books. Size 7f x5| inches. Spree or Berlin. Guttij I Typis Georgij Rungij. books of the Trigonometria deal with the subjects treated of in Napier's Descriptio and Constructio. Al'Dedication to Dn. Trigonometrid. Sectio II. is Koln a. IV. A to Z and Aa to Zz and Aaa to Lll in fours=228 leaves. ):( i^ blank. Title. Anno do Icd XXIV. Sectio III. Paging. " De Triangulis.] 4°. 8 + 272 numbered = 280 pages. 1. cap. | | | | studio & pertinaci industrii | diductus. eorumq. 178). pp. usu in genere. third The second and The Magnus Canon contains the logarithms of sines for every 10" in They are arranged in a similar way. ad scrupulor." . Ai'. Lib. . who speaks of Napier as a Mathematician without equal (see p. " Emendanda in Canone.

Logarith. O o S 0000000 20 30 04199 08397 12595 16794 20992 69314718 06321 69297925 54930614 19417 08222 54897027 85833 74640 14384104 86904 89703 60 86602540 00116 24 50 4o_ 86507692 40 JO I 89530 81136 72743 64351 55960 47570 39181 30792 22405 92503 9S303 98103 14400904 03705 06506 95267 92842 90417 87992 85567 83141 30 20 10 o 10 20 30 25190 293S7 3358s 37783 41980 46178 5037s 54S72 58769 63447 52255 41064 29873 18682 07493 54796304 85115 73928 87 62741 51554 40368 059 SO 40 09308 12110 14912 JO 2 80716 78290 75863 03 73437 71010 68583 lf_ 30 20 10 O 10 20 30 40 50 3 14019 05633 69197249 1771S 058 50 20518 23321 04 40^ 30 20 10 28 62966 67163 71359 75556 79752 83949 88145 92341 96537 88866 80483 72101 26125 28929 31733 05 66156 63729 61302 58874 56446 54018 ° 10 20 30 63720 55340 46961 38583 30206 21830 13455 05081 69096708 29182 17997 06813 34538 37343 40148 057 SO 40^ 40 JO 4 ° 10 54695630 84447 73265 62083 50902 39722 28542 17363 06184 54595007 83829 72652 50100733 04928 20 09124 13320 17515 95 21710 25905 30100 34295 42953 06 45759 48565 07 51372 54179 56986 59794 62601 65409 68217 71026 09 73835 76645 794S4 82264 30 51590 20 49162 29 10 46733 44304 41875 39446 37016 34587 32157 29727 27296 24866 22435 20004 17573 15142 056 50 40^ 30 20 10 30 40 50 5 88336 79964 71593 63224 54855 46487 ° 10 °55 5° 40^ 30 20 10 30 40 JO 60 38490 42685 46879 51074 38121 29755 21390 13026 61476 50301 39126 27952 85074 °54 S. Grad.M. 10 Sintis. Sinus. Different. 30. Grad.Appendix. D. Logarith. 59. V . MS. 159 + — D.

. Brit. — i6o further. Seu Compendium. Buchhandler | In Der Briiderstrasse. | Caes. Trigonometrischer und anderer Zum Gebrauch Der Mathematik Unentbehrlicher Preussischen | | | | | | Tafeln. Praemissi Demonstratione Legitima Ortus Logarithmorum eorumq. Stadt. \ Secanten \ und \ deren zustimmenden briggischen zu und vier letzten Grade von 10 den iibrigen Theil des Quadranten aber von Minute zu Minute. | Bey August Mylius. sect. . Ferdinandi II. 2. The entire Canon was recomputed by Ursinus. Band. quo post numerorum notitiam nullum nee admirabilius. The logarithms from 4° to 86° are given for every minute only. Nat. pp. and ence may also be made to my notes. 1 10 Secunden \filr \ \ \ Joannis Chilias | Kepleri | Imp. and full details of its construction are given in Book II.. Tangenten. Lon. 2-261 in Volume II. Ed. The methods employed are the same as those laid down in the Constructio with the modifications in sect. Academic der Wissenschaften Neue Und Erweiterte Sammlung Logarithmischer. Totidem | Logarithmorum | Ad j | | | | nee . refer- Un. | Mathematici | | Numeros Rotundos. being the and last four same as in the original. | || Berlin. usus Quibus Nova Traditur Arithmetica.. 95.000. In this work the logarithms of the Magnus Canon first of Ursinus are reprinted to every 10 seconds in the case of the degrees. Libraries. being made 100. Breslau . \ schen Logarithmen \fiir die vier ersten . Ursinus' logarithms occupy half the lower portion of pp. Bodl. of the Trigonometria. Mus. regard to the preliminary tables proposed by Napier in 60: A specimen page of the Table is given on the preceding page. " nebet dem bten Theile der Differenzen berechnet. Oxf. Paris Johann | Carl Schulze | wirklichen | Mitgliedes | der Konigl. radius Appendix. || II.000. 1778. Size 8f X 5 inches.. the title of the whole confour tents of these pages being : " Tafel der und hyperboliI \ Sinus. . 94.

Ferdinand! II. Dedication by A2''-F3^. Kepler to Philip Landgrave of Hesse. extractio. | i6i nee utilius solvendi pleraq." P4^.|cIo loc 4°. some of the Ger- X man . The pages are all hpaded "Joannis Kepleri Chiliadis Complement. 121-216. Continens Prsecepta De Eorum Usu. pp. Title. Principem &c. Marpurgi. Kv^. Casarei. pendiosissima construendi Chiliada Logarithmorum. 113 [ii5]-ii6 [118]. I Pi2. labores mole-| | 1 stissimos. 108. The first part of the structure of logarithms.^. " On G4^ is the title " Chilias LogaritJimorum Joh. Mathematici. | Ad | lUustriss." Qi^-Dd4^. Paging. notaviista. Errors in Paging. Postul 2. 4-45." Logarithmis. '' -if. which work contains Kepler's demonstration of the is in form geometrical. O been in four. Problemata Calculatoria. praesertim in Doctrina Triangulorum. Principem et Dominum." \ \ \ \ 10 lines. p.\i\^'\" Correctio Figurarum post punctum in Eorum Usu. Ai^. the work ending with p. The work in 9 chapters. Joannis Kepleri. Imp." not Supplement. 113 to 116. and at the foot of the last page " Errata.| Size if. Supplementum Chiliadis Logarithmorum.gravium Hassiai. Pi^ p. nondum h Typographo animadversa. V^^-Vf. -if. Philippum Land. xxiv. Dn. Pages 115 to 118 containing the Preface are numbered ia error Signatures. PhilipCum Privilegio Authoris | Coesareo. " Demonstratio StrucF3^-G4^ pp. Marpvrgi. Paging. in Numeris prolixis. tvra Logarithmorvm. p. Joannis Kepleri Supplementum Chiliadis Logarithmorum. ' ' P to Z and Aa to Dd in fours = 52 leaves. Title.Appendix. but the Supplementum assumes it to end with p. pp. Caes. Aa^." in 30 propositions. & Dominum. Signatures. " Hi'-02°. 46-55. Divisionis Radicumq'. [120] " Prosterea in textu Detnonstrationum jam im8 lines of corrections. Ex officina Typographica Casparis Chemlini. 216=104 pages. citra Multiplicationis. which it would have done had sig. Mathem. Continens Pracepta De V^. also folding sheet. 112. blank. " Methodvs Com- •". Lectori S. Dn. | pvm Landgravium I | Hassiae. 4 pages. 52 pages occupied by the table. A to N in fours + O I in two = 54 leaves. presso. Kepleri. ] | | | | | | | | | 1 | | | clo locXXV. 8x6^ inches. &c. [113] to p. Ad Illustriss.|Excusa Typis Casparis Chemlini. • • • Folding sheet with Ad Exemplvm Sectionis.[ii3]. pages. 3. pp. p.nis. 55 numbered + + 52 = 108 Signature O is distinctly in two. blank.

3. IS 3- 29. 56. 36. 00 48700. 00 29. 29. 3- O 58 33- 58 59 30. 3- 2 58 30. 20. 52. II 3 57 58 50200. 00 50400. 8. 00 49300. 16. 40. -3- 9 58 49600.IS3- 54 59 . 00 49100. 00 49000. 30. -3.2 l62 Appendix. 48. 00 48800. Partes vicefima guaria. Circuit cum 3- differentiis. 4 58 29. 00 4. 00 55 59 30. 28. 3- 20 57 58 57 1 29. 3- 30 S6 29. 00 49800. 3- 7 57 29. 00 50300. 45 S6 48500. 00 56 56 57 29. 00 50000.37 3- 29. 00 49900. 00 49400. O. 32. 30. 12. AR c u s Sinus feu Numeri abfoluti. 00 49200. 00 49700. 33 -3- 29. 00 48900. 00 57 29. 00 50100. 23 3- 57 29. 3- 26 S7 29. O. 17 3- 29. SS 29.41 -3- 48600. 24.44. 3- 49500.

" The logarithms in the Table are of the same kind as Napier's. man 163 mathematicians. For specimen page of the Table see preceding page.' vol. 200 to 2.850.— .000. 2.980. Column 4 contains the logarithms of the numbers in column with interscript differences. 900 . 10. 9.000 represents the ratio 4. 000. p.000. omitting only the demonstrations of the propositions. in degrees. . The 2nd and 4th are the only columns containing entries for the first 36 numbers. Taking as an example the first entry in the specimen page. while in this table the numbers or sines are equidififerent.000. The arrangement is as follows Column 2 contains looo equidififerent numbers. I. Hii of which will be found a "brief translation of both parts. i. 10. minutes. i. but they are not affected by the mistake in the computation of the Canon of 1614. with interscript differences Column 3 gives in hours. minutes. and 1000. In Napier's Canon the numbers in column "Sinus" are the values of sines of equidifFerent arcs. the num- ber in column 2 which is 4. The two parts together with the Table are reprinted in 'Scriptores Logarithmici. corresponding to a sine equal to the j-^th and part of the radius. It also has at the be- ginning the 36 numbers to 9. 20.000. It will be observed that a point marks oflf the last two figures of the values in these two columns. 30 to 90.000 to Similarly column I o. 3. 9. The Tables for numbers : 30.000. 20. and seconds the xMf^h part of a day of 24 hours finally X 2 Column . on p.850. . 100. 2000 to 9000. and some rather long illustrations of them. . in being referred really represented are So that the values the ratios of the numbers there given to 10. 16 14. . and the which the logarithms are given are also different.000. and seconds. I gives the arc. but if it be left out of account the numbers and logarithms agree with those of the Canon of to a radius of 10. not being satisfied with Napier's demonstration based on Arithmetical and Geometrical motion.000.990. 10.000. 000 or a j^ggg ^^th = a yM** part of radius.000. Appendix.000.000. At the beginning of the same volume is reprinted the Introduction to Hutton's Mathematical Tables. of Kepler and Napier are differently arranged. as he mentions in his Preface.

Ed. .cilio.faceret partim. volaccurate extructu autor typis . Adv. non eo con. Ulmae. Hunt. Gl. | | in lucem sedaturum sperat. quam primum commode | | Quod autem hi Logarithm!.nim cal. Gl. etc. Size 13| x 9 inches. k seipso. Oxf. & differentias... Anno M. 1 Quam publici iuris fieret 1 1 1 . Jonae Saurii.164 Column 5 gives in Appendix.culo inseruientem commodius absolueret. Dub. vt eius adiumento. Trin.bus proportionales.. . memorise semper colendae... . per sequationes Algebraicas. omnium Triangulorum Habet e. k primis fundamentis quem vna cum Logarithmis adjvnctis. . vt sed partim. quos Clarissimus inuentor. minutes and seconds the ^^gg th part of a degree of 60 minutes.rithmorum Canonem. Edinburgi. abunde nobis prorum. bis inuiseret. ipsis Sinu. eius libru posthumum. vt quorun. diversi sint ab ijs. Col.DC. per aliquot septimanas libentissime mansisset eique horum partem Mirifico . ante Decennium. | praecipuam quam tum absoluerat | ostendisset) suadere non destitit.XXVII. Libraries. in suo edidit Canone | sperandum. | | excudendam curauit. . Bodl. . pro singulis Gradibus & graduu centesimis.das aliquot insequentes sed etiam integrum Loga. Tabvlae Rudolphinae. & apud eum humanissime exceptus. Edin. loannes Keplerus. Sig. Qui autori (cum eum domi suae. Un. 1 1 1 | 1 | : | ente Deo. non solum Chilia. Mus. LoGARITHMORVM ChiLIAS PrIMA.dam suorum necessariorum desiderio priuatim satis. licuerit. Libraries. . . The logarithms used in this work are those of Napier. Folio. | pediem I satisfactu- 1 | . Canonem Sinuum.

. but the evidence which assigns it to Briggs. Appendix. The above I short Preface occupies the first page of a small tract of sixteen pages. however. tenuis. to base lo. structusve Idborve. Note. to 14 places. In the foregoing Catalogue the only collections of Napier's works referred to are in public libraries. The largest single collection. It is unnecessary here to refer to subsequent works on Logarithms of a different kind from those originally published by Napier. titit. . In tenui. it embraces several not found in any of the public libraries of this country. | | se laborem susciperet. the remaining fifteen containing the natural numbers from bears no author's The tract to 1000 with their logarithms. 1617. sednon 16 pages.' which contains Kepler's letter of dedication to Napier. London. Besides the editions more commonly met with. Lon. is that in possession of Lord Napier and Ettrick. The Table of Logarithms is the first published to a base different from that employed by Napier. and fixes the place and date of its publication as. Brit. 165 Cui ille vt hunc in gessit. name or place or date of publication. as well as a copy of the rare 'Ephemeris Motuum Ccelestium ad annum 1620. seems conclusive. non | inuitus morem 8°. Mus. Libraries. — dated 27th July 1619.

.. . 1602 . Edinburgh. . 118 pour . .. vised. . .. • • . In English.. par Noel de la Croix. with additions.. by Symon Moulert. Panneel .115 Translation re. . . . La Rochelle. . 161 Edinburgh. Dzenaer des Godelijcken worts . 1600 Middelburch. par Jean Brenouzet..1 SUMMARY OF CATALOGUE. . 113 In Dutch. . . . Treatise ends . . La Rochelle. In . tot Middelborch... A Plaine Discovery.112 .116 In French. . 406 Variety.119 . . . 392 ." . Translation by *' Michiel Panneel. 1603 Rochelle. Translation by Georges Thomson. The Second Harmonies .. 1602 The same. on p. by Robert Waldegrave. with difference in title-page of the Quatre . on p.. 1607. for Andro Wilson. par Noel de la Croix. with part of Sig. with_ substituted title-page. The Second . .110 . 1607.. 161 1 London. 1605 Rochelle.120 121 Treatise ends 122 . for John Norton.. La La La Rochelle.113 . by G. Haultin. par les Heritiers de H. . .. . . . B reset London. 1645 . for John Norton. voor Adriaen vanden Vivre. Timothee Jovan. 1607. .. .. . 1594 Edinburgh. 123 123 La Rochelle. par Noel de la Croix. by Andrew Hart. Middelburgh. 1593 Variety. . . PAGE 109 .111 .

. -133 . vol. Joan. . . with substituted title-page. A of Descriptio reprinted. . Wilks. Andreas Hart. Works on Logarithms.. .. Barth Vincentium. but with date 1612 Translation of the First Treatise only by 167 ." . . 1614. Logistica.. with error in title-page corrected Lugduni. Andreas Hart.. 125 126 Translation of the First and Second Treatises by Franckfort Franckfurt am Mayn.. 1620 Variety. but sig. In Latin. . . . . . 131 131 132 .. In German.. Ant. .. . Petri Ramasenii.....132 Translation In Italian. Batavorum. With Admonitio The same varieties without Admonitio Descriptio reprinted in Scriptores Logarithmici. Wolffgang Mayer. Ravaud. Anton. with title-page of Descriptio dated 1619 The same. Leo de Deomn a.. am Mayn... Edinburgi.. Edinburgi. . Andrese Hart. . 1807 Constructio.. .134 In Dutch. . by "II Cavalier Marco Locatello.. vi. Edinburgi.. 143 144 . . . R. Edinburgi. 1619 Descriptio and Gonstructio. . ... 1623 . .. Gera. . Translation by Adrian Vlack. London. In Latin.. Huguetan & Marc.126 128 De Arte Edinburgi. . X 4 In . Club copies and large paper copies . durch Martinum Spiessen. 1615 1627 . Goude. Lugd. . Lugduni. 1626 The same. Andreas Hart.. . 1617 The same. Angelo Tamo. Petri Rammasenii. 1658 Descriptio. .. 1628 ... . . In Latin. 1839. 137 139 139 140 140 141 . New title-page for two works.. : .Summary of Catalogue. 1619 Descriptio and Constructio.. by Pieter Rammaseyn. .. 1626 . Lugduni. Verona. 1611 The same.. . .. 129 Rabdologise.

.. for H.. Mauritz Sachsen^ . 1815 Another . gen. by Benjamin Ursinus.. 147 SUMMARY Napier's Narration. .. 1634 Another edition.1 68 Summary of Appendix..... ..... . . Sawb ridge.. 1618 Edinburgh. The Bloody Almanack. .... The same. Abraham Rouen .. . title-page. George Run^ Manuale Arithmeticas & Amsterdam.. IS4 155 155 Traitd . . . Rouen.. Anno . .. Dresden. le Sieur F.. 150 ISO iSr 151 by Frantz Keszlern.. A. 1643 Paris.. edition. 1610 A previous edition. par le 1647 Sieur de Perrieres Varin. In English. at Feure. 1646 1667 The art of numbring by speaking-rods. 144 London. by Nicholas Okes. laus Myriot. with additions A Bloody Almanack. The Descriptio translated London. L.. published Le Desabusement. 1618 Rhabdologia Neperiana. London. by Adrianus Metius.. Nic 152 152 IS3 Berlin. Le Sommaire. 153 1S4 for Ulderick Balck... Henderick Laurentsz.. 1623 Another edition. Straszburg.. London.. 1665 Gulden Arch. . by F. with substituted Waterson. 1630 Geometriae Practicae. Rostock. for for Giles Calvert. Laurens Maurry... Netto.. Arnold. H. by Retranslated by W.. 1623 Kilnstliche Rechenstablein. 1685 Nepper's Rechenstabchen.... .. Lizars. by Edward Wright. de Courcelles. 1616 The same.. for Simon 146 Hbrschell Filipowski. OF APPENDIX. Sawbridge.. 1641 Anthony Vincent.. G. 148 149 149 149 le London. by Johannes Woltherus. London.. by W. 1857 . .. par .

August Mylius... 1625 and 1624 erweiterte Sammlung Logarithmischer . 1778 Chilias Logarithmorum and Supplementum. 157 Neue und 160 1627 Logarithmorum Chilias Prima. Hume.. 1617 Colonias.. by Joannes Keplerus. 1636 169 Primus Liber Tabularum Directionum.Summary of Appendix. Berlin. Traitd de la Trigonometrie. by Joannes Keplerus. 1554 Cursus Mathematici Practici Volumen Primum.. Casparis Chemlini. Martinus Guthius. 1624 and 1625 Tabulse Rudolphinse.. Paris. by [Henry Briggs]. The same. [London..] 160 164 164 Y . Ulmae. .. Haere des Ulrici Morhardi.. Jonas Saurii... by Jacques de la Coste... Nicolas et Jean 155 First edition.. by Johann Carl Schulze. Colonise.. .. Tafeln.. 156 Ur IS7 156 157 Colonise. Georgii Rungii. 1617. Marpurgi. . by Benjamin sinus. The same. by Erasmus Rheinholdus Tubingas. 1619 Trigonometria and Magnus Canon by Benjamin Ursinus. Martini Guthii. 1618 .

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