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Aims: To explore 2D vibration and implications for musical acoustics. Learning outcomes: An appreciation of modes in more than one dimension (2D bar example) Using the Laplacian for equations of motion Using separation of variables to solve (2D Circular Membrane Example) Using separation of variables to solve (2D Rectangular plate example discussed in tutorial)

Two dimensional vibration is an important aspect of musical acoustics because it not only helps us describe the sound generation of instruments whose main oscillators are two dimensional such as plates, bars or membranes but also the resonating surfaces of sounds boards and bodies belonging to violins, guitars, pianos, etc. You could try investigating two dimensional vibration of say a xylophone by a) striking a bar with the hammer in different locations b) trying to damp different locations along a bar with your finger As you strike a bar the sound is louder in some locations than others. Typically the centre and edges are the loudest suggesting these areas are able to move the most.

Conversely the sound is least damped when a finger is positioned above an area that moves the least (a node).

If you could view the bar in slow motion or investigate the phase of the vibration you find that when the middle of the bar is at its maximum extent downwards the edges would be at their maximum extent upwards so it is often useful to describe this first mode of vibration in terms of pluses and minuses.

Striking or damping a bar transversely as opposed to longitudinally reveals similar results with centre and edges louder than the nodes.

Weve already seen that with one dimensional waveguides there will be harmonics superimposed on each other to build more complex timbres. With two dimensions there will be added overtones. So for example the second mode of vibration with combined horizontal and vertical vibration will look as follows

As with the study of strings or a pipes it is useful to derive and equation of motion (i.e. wave equation) for the waveguide and solve it. We have already seen the 1D wave equation (for string or pipe) takes the form 2 1 2 = 2 2 x 2 c t (10.1)

where ( x, t ) is the displacement of the string. It is convenient at this point to introduce a short hand notation used with many differential equations called the Laplacian operator (or often shown as 2 ). It can

be used to represent the second order derivate of a term in a way that is consistent across different dimensions and coordinate systems. So for example in one dimension our wave equation the Laplacian operator is = 2 x 2

we can also show our Laplacian operator in two dimensional polar coordinates is = 2 1 1 2 + + 2 r 2 r r r 2

= 1 2 c 2 t 2

(10.2)

Though not this same equation as written here can also represent our wave equation in one, two, three, etc dimensions. So for instance the wave equation in 2D is = 1 2 c 2 t 2

2 2 where ( x, y , t ) and the Laplacian = 2 + 2 x y so expanding gives 2 2 1 2 + 2 = 2 x 2 y c t 2 Similar in 2D polar coordinates is ( r , , t ) and the Laplacian (10.3)

(10.4)

With circular membranes we are dealing with circular surfaces so is convenient to use a polar coordinate system instead a rectangular coordinate system because our equations can be simplified to reflect the inherent symmetry of the system. Lets assume our membrane is circular and has been struck in the middle hence our solution for the membrane has symmetry such that displacement doesnt change with . Hence our term is unimportant and the wave equation becomes 2 1 1 2 + =0 r 2 r r c 2 t 2 where ( r, t ) (10.5)

Using good old separation of variables when assume a solution of the form

( r , t ) = R( r )T ( t )

(10.6)

Hence substituting into the wave equation and apply partial differentiation gives 2R 1 R 1 2T T+ T R =0 r 2 r r c 2 t 2 Next collect all R terms to one side and all T to the other (10.7)

2R 1 R 1 2T T+ T R =0 r r c 2 t 2 r 2 2R 1 R 1 2T 2T+ T = R r r c 2 t 2 r 1 2R 1 R 1 2T T+ T= 2 2 R r 2 rR r c t 2 1 R 1 R 1 2T + = 2 R r 2 rR r c T t 2

(10.8)

Since the left hand side doesnt care about T and the right hand side doesnt can about R we can say both sides equate to a constant. 1 2 R 1 R 1 2T + = 2 = k 2 2 2 R r rR r c T t Hence we have two ordinary differential equations 1 2T +k2 = 0 c 2T t 2 1 2 R 1 R + +k2 = 0 2 R r rR r The first differential equation (11.10) can be written as 2T + c 2 k 2T = 0 2 t and has the standard solution T = A cos( kct ) + B sin ( kct ) The second differential equation (11.14) can be written as 2 R 1 R + + k 2R = 0 r 2 r r Lets assume s = kr hence r = Substituting in gives kkdRdR k kdR + + k 2R = 0 dsds s ds s ds and dr = . k k (10.13) (10.12) (10.10) (10.9)

(10.11)

where n = 0

(10.15)

Hence the solution consists of Bessel functions of the first and second kind. y = A1 J 0 ( x ) + A2Y0 ( x ) Where the Bessel function of the first kind is

m x ( x ) = ( 1) Jn m = 0 m! ( m + n + 1) 2 2m+ n

(10.16)

(10.17)

and the Bessel function of the second kind (Neumann function) is J n ( x ) cos( n ) J n ( x ) sin ( n )

Yn ( x ) =

(10.18)

Dont worry too much about the equations (11.17) and (11.18) as resulting values can usually be access from tables or computer functions such as Malabs besselj(). One can already see that if n = 0 Yn ( x ) is infinite, which doesnt make much sense given the displacement of the drum will be a small finite value, so well ignore it. So lets bring our solutions (11.13) and (11.6) together to represent drum displacement.

(10.19)

Hence lets try to simplify and make sense of this solution by applying realistic boundary conditions. Typically drum membranes are fixed to a circular rim so our solution can only be valid if J 0 ( kr0 ) = 0 where r0 = the radius of the drum surface. Lets try plotting J 0 with respect to kr0 see where the zeros occur.

We can see J 0 = 0 when kr0 =2.40, 5.52, 8.65, 11.75, 14.93 etc. Hence our solution will be the sum of discrete values

= [ An cos( ck n t ) + Bn sin ( ck n t ) ] J 0 ( k n r0 )

n =1

(10.20)

Considering the initial conditions the drum has no shape so clearly all values of A = 0 because the cos( ckt ) is non zero when t = 0 Hence

= [ Bn sin ( ck n t ) ] J 0 ( k n r0 )

n =1

(10.21)

So our we are looking at a set of sinusoids of the form sin ( n t ) oscillating at discrete frequencies n where clearly n = ck and k1 = 2.40 / r0 , k 2 = 5.52 / r0 , k 3 = 8.65 / r0 , k 3 = 11.75 / r0 , k 3 = 14.93 / r0 , etc These frequencies do not form a harmonics series so the timbre might not have as discernable a pitch as one dimensional waveguides. Its interesting to try hearing some of the discrete frequencies together. Matlab is ideal for this, where by adding sinusoid at these Eigen frequencies one can producing a range of timbres from gonglike and drum-like sounds depending on values for tension, density and the relative amplitudes of the harmonics. Cut and paste following Matlab the material properties chosen arent that realistic. fs=11000; SurfaceTension=10;

SurfaceDensity=0.003; DecayConstant=7; % try 1 for gong r0=0.3; B1=1.0; B2=0.7; B3=0.5; B4=0.3; B5=0.1; c=sqrt(SurfaceTension/SurfaceDensity) w1=2.40*(c/r0) w2=5.52*(c/r0); w3=8.65*(c/r0); w4=11.75*(c/r0); w5=14.93*(c/r0); t=linspace(0,5,fs*5); y=B1*sin(w1*t)+B2*sin(w2*t)+B3*sin(w3*t)+B4*sin(w4*t)+B5*sin(w5*t); y=0.1*y.*exp(-DecayConstant*t); sound(y,fs)

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