Department of the Classics, Harvard University

On the History of the Greek κοσμοσ Author(s): Aryeh Finkelberg Reviewed work(s): Source: Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Vol. 98 (1998), pp. 103-136 Published by: Department of the Classics, Harvard University Stable URL: . Accessed: 18/07/2012 08:59
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Anaximander'sidea of the eternal power of Dike ruling natural phenomenaimplies the idea of a cosmos ... Thereforewe arejustified in describinghis conception of the universeas the spiritualdiscovery of the cosmos ... The idea of a cosmos ... conveniently symbolizes the whole influence of early natural philosophy upon the culture of the Greeks." These much cited words are from WernerJaeger'sessay "The discovery of the world-order," publishedin 1933 as a partof his monumental Paideia,2 which played a significant role in stimulating the scholarly discussion of the history and meaning of the Greek x6<oto;, but seems to be responsiblealso for some of its essential shortcomings. Jaegersought to accountfor the emergenceof a new vision of the world which was broughtaboutby the Presocraticthinkers. His approachwas conceptual: in discussing the Presocratics' theories he did not argue from their use of xKo~to;,and therefore his conclusions are formally independentof terminologicalconsiderations. Yet in calling the emergence of the new vision of the universe "the discovery of the worldorder,"as well as in having defined it and systematically referredto it as "cosmos," he intimately linked the Presocratics' "spiritualdiscovery" with the term x6'aoto;, which was thus supposed to convey the very essence of this vision; the "idea of a cosmos" turnedout to be the In the subsequent discussion the terminological concept of xKr•to;. word has come to be treatedas the acknowledgedPresocraticterm for the new and distinctive vision of the world, so that the ultimate objective of the study has been, not to determine the precise scope of the
"... 1 An earlier draft of the first part of this paper was read at the annual meeting of the Israel Society for the Promotionof Classical Studies held at the Haifa Universityon 31 May-1 June 1995. 2 Quoted afterthe English translation: Jaeger,Paideia: TheIdeas of GreekCulture, W. trans.G. Highet (Oxford 1947) 1.160-161.


Aryeh Finkelberg

application of the word, but rather-partly tacitly, but mainly explicitly-to explain how the word came to convey the conception of the "cosmos."3Of course, such an approachhas not favored a critical analysis of the evidence. The currentnotion of IxCdoog "the combinationof order, fitness as is and beauty"4 the inexhaustiblesource of the scholarlytalk of the Presocratic vision of the universe as a structuredsystem exhibiting the the beauty of a perfect arrangement.Unfortunately, notion is speculative: the association of the derivativesense-"world"-of ic6ago with and its other derivativesense "adornment," with its primarymeaning, has never been empirically proved, but is in fact an artificial "order," semantic configuration. According to this logic the use of ix6ito; in must also have preservedits the derivativesense of, say, "adornment" and link with the primarysense "order"5 have been closely associated in with the word's other secondarysenses, e.g., "government." and X6aoto; in the sense of "adornment," x6"too; the sense of "order," K6xoio; in the sense of "world"are homonymic uses, and the divergentsenses of a word do not produce a cumulative meaning. The vitality of this the speculativenotion may be tracedto the mannerof implementation: lack of evidence is compensated by question-begging speculative
3 The meaning of K?aoiogin the Presocraticswas briefly discussed by K. Reinhardt, Parmenidesund die Geschichteder griechischen Philosophie (Bonn 1916) 174-175; his zu conclusions were critically assessed by O. Gigon, Untersuchungen Heraklit (Leipzig 1935) 52-55. Subsequentto the publicationof Jaeger'sPaideia there came the full-scale as a terminological concept by W. Kranz: "Kosmos als investigations of K6•Ci•o philosophischer Begriff friihgriechischerZeit," Philologus 93 (1938/39) 430-448, and Nachrichten d. Gdtt. "Kosmos und Mensch in der Vorstellungfrihen Griechentums," Ph.-hist. KI., 2.7 (1938) 121-161. The Presocraticuses Gesellschaftder Wissenschaften, were examined briefly by G. S. Kirk, Heraclitus: The Cosmic Fragments2 (Cambridge 1962; first edition: Cambridge 1954) 311-315 (on which see G. Vlastos's critical comAJP 76 [1955] 344-347) and at length by C. H. Kahn, Anaximents, "On Heraclitus," manderand the Origins of Greek Cosmology(New York 1960) 219-230. The discussion culminatedin J. Kerschensteiner's comprehensivestudy Kosmos. QuellenkritischeUnterhave been (Munich 1962). The general uses of K6oatog suchungenzu den Vorsokratikern in surveyed by H. Diller, "Der vorphilosophischeGebrauchvon K6otog;und KOagE~v," Festschrift Bruno Snell (Munich 1956) 47-60, and in the first chapter of Kerschensteiner's Kosmos 4-25. Relevant comments on the uses of Ka~tog; as well as concise summariesof the semanticdevelopmentof the word are found in some otherauthors. 4 W. K. C. Guthrie,A History of Greek Philosophy (Cambridge 1962-1981) 1.208 n. 1. 5 Which obviously is not the case, see, e.g., 11.4.145, or Hdt. 7.31.

to the world(s) which issue from the arche . the Ko•tog. and . could only mean 'order.og. is genuine. 2) 160: "We do not know whetherAnaximanderhimself used the word cosmos in this connection: it is used by his successor Anaximenes..since the notion of the world as an orderly was. n.. namely that HeraclitusB 30 "is evidence that KoG?. against Kirk... 345-346."regrettably begs the question. and from these theories to the meaningof xoGtog. but that nobody made this orderlyworld [Vlastos's italics].' at this [sc. less conspicuous... A more critical attitude. 7 By Vlastos (above. While it is clear that we try not to read the later senses of x~oogto into the earlier uses. I am not ." This is a cautious and philologically conscious statement. 345 n. 6 . in a given Presocratictext without seriously checking the possibility of other meanings.' and there is no good reason to suppose that this discovery was ever called by any other name.." (Note that Kahndoes not believe that in AnaximenesB 2 the Koa6to. confident . it still remains to decide whether it One of the most instructiveexamples is perhapsthe following. such a need is bound to be met sooner or later. 3) 219: "As Jaeger has put it. that was not used even in sixth century speculationfor 'world' . Kirk was attacked from the speculative positions7 and his approachcondemned as "too strict and narrow. n. adopted by Kirk. The danger of the anachronistic of rendering can be avoided only if the exclusive appropriateness the the of cosmological sense or..'not 'world.the typical approachis to take the word at the outset as referring to the world and to construe the text in the light of this assumed meaning. if the fragmentin which it occurs is corto rectly attributed him." (Vlastos's more specific arguarrangement ment.. present from the beginning. 19: "[Kirk concludes that] the word Kratog.. Jaeger (above. though it implies.6and a circularway of reasoning runs from the supposed to of meaning of x6o(togo an interpretation the general purportof Presocratictheories. But when the cosmological applicationof the word in a given text is proved beyond reasonable doubt. ibid. does not just mean. Milesians would certainlyneed a substantiveby which to refer . definiteinappropriateness all the other senses of the word may be shown. Editio Maior (Merida 1967) 99. Marcovich.. however... led to conclusions greatly differing from the currentviews. of course. see the following note.Kahn (above.'for what is in question here is not merely that nobody made the order of the world. scholars often take the cosmological application for granted. it could be met very early by the use of i6Cogo. seem too strict to demand It from those who claim certaintexts to be the first instancesof a new linguistic usage to take on themselves the onus probandi."8 does not.. 'order.. the philosophy of Anaximanderrepresents 'the discovery of the cosmos.OntheHistory theGreek KOXMOX of 105 assumptions. example.) For another.) 8 M.Heraclitus. It seems to me somewhat too liberal to grant conveniently the cosmological application of x6'rto. Heraclitus']time. n. 3) 344.

" being used with reference to the world.11. does not mean "furniso ture-adornment. is to be renderedas either "order" "world"dependingon whetherthe or use is occasional. "world-order. free of speculative presuppositions. soon after the attack against Socrates published by Polycrates in 393/2 B. E. The failure to draw this fundamentallinguistic distinctionhas ensued in the artificial as assumed by scholars to be the renderingof xo6a`ao.1-2. Xenophon says: "he did not even discuss.or regular.. Aristotle's oipav6.and hence the meaningis usual. for the purposeof the argument. I hope to show that a strict and open-mindedscrutiny of evidence.9It goes without saying that the usual meaning "world"of should not be admitted unless the x6a•Lo.leads to conclusions considerablydifferentfrom the familiarpicture. by Herodotus with referenceto Polycrates' furniture(3. inquiringinto how what the men of wisdom call the runs and by what necessities each of the heavenly phenomena xoa6oo takes place. still the testimony remains incompatiblewith the currentview of the fifth. Gigon (above." 10See. is but renderedneitheras "heaven"nor as "world-heaven.1. the natureof all things. Kerschensteiner (above. n." "world. characterof the use can be argued. Kirk (above. Dodds (Oxford 1959) 308.and the commentatorsgenerally agree that the usage must have been relatively new. 3) 54.10 If." These words indicate that by the time they were written was already put to terminological use.1). 5. systematic This would seem to call into question the currentscholarly consensus.123.and even sixth-century 9 Thus. n. n. Plato Gorgias. as most others. R. the word does not acquire the hybrid sense "world-order."The conventional is as "world-order" to be discarded. for example.. used. and thereforethe sense "world"is only contextual. 3) 314. 3) 226 n." transitional meaning between the primary sense "order" and the derivative"world. In what follows I propose a reexaminationof evidence on more critical grounds."Yetjust as x6pagLo. for example. but for Xenophon the •6•Loo term was still a peculiar technical idiom of a definite provenance.we assume the earliest date of Memorabilia 1.and the word renderingof x6a•Lo.106 Finkelberg Aryeh exhibits the usual or contextual meaning of the word. I In describing Socrates' philosophical interests at Memorabilia 1. . viz.C. ed. when used with reference to the world. among others.

In Achilles Isag. a drachma as the price of Anaxagoras' book in the Athenian market place. Kranz's strong contrast between "learnedpeople" and "averagecitizens" seems to be somewhat anachronistic."is schnittsbuirger ratherhe unconvincing. ad loc. 3) 345. ibid. Anassagora: testimonianzeeframmenti (Florence 1966) 217.all the philosophersactive in fifth-centuryAthens were visitors from abroad. 12The Athenianreadermust. including the philosophical.13 has also been suggested that Xenophon's It remarkmay have reflectedthe Athenianusage while elsewhere. for his inaccuracyin transcribing sources see ibid. Doxographi Graeci4 [Berlin 1879] 44). who draws on Stobaeus (see H. his 327a. Diels. Besides. more probably. Xenophon definitely was not a "Durchschnittsbtirger".doagog."" Yet Aristophanes'philosophical parodies demonstratethat until at least the twenties of the fifth century B.. have been well acquaintedwith Anaxagoras'usage. 129d rz xx&v a gloss on is Stobaeus' 1irOv ~"ov For Achilles' dependence on Stobaeus see Diels. glosses i1 Eptox7 as 6 o'pctvy. It has been contended that Xenophon's phrase only means "that it is the philosophers who call the world . then. even if ironically exaggerated. D. was a literateperson with a wide range of interests. ad B 8. is hardlyplausible. reports.v r&)v reptoX~lv ao)fo "x6EO. is traditionally associated with Pythagoras whom. Bibl. there must be something wrong with either Xenophon's testimony or. notably in Ionia. n. in Plato's Apology 26D-E. • Eptoxr. The beginning of the terminologicalcareerof xKogo. shows that the situation was not much different some The fifth-centuryphilosophersaddressedtheir twenty-five years later. We have two principal 2. AMtius y6axE xTil pt•obvjcThe 6Kaiov EiXrig ordinary Z. z'v 6owv e as the perfection and beauty of the heaven.12 books to the general reader and their phraseology could hardly strike this reader as peculiar.the currentaccountof the Presocraticusage. it is generally maintained. 440a27. Kommentar zum ersten Buch von XenophonsMemorabilien (Basel 1953) 17.1 (= DK 14.OntheHistory theGreek KOXMOX of 107 terminologicaluse of xdogog." Yet the examination of the testimony hardlywarrantsthis view. 3) 220. n. and thereforeO. n. not that they have started doing this fairly recently.oov 11Vlastos (above. that "dem attischen Durchwar noch un 400 Kosmos fiir Weltall ein Ausdruck der Gelehrten. Gigon's suggestion. 14 Photius. Yet except Archelaus.but at any rate Xenophon did not addresshis writings to citizens who did not readbooks.. 13Therefore Kranz's explanation (above. that Xenophon's "wise men" may refer to Anaxagoras. the Athenian public was well acquainted with contemporaryphilosophical writings. Kahn (above. 21-26. 3) 446-447. the sense "world"was established much earlier. including Ionia. cf.1.C. Greek doxographycreditedwith using the word as "world. Easy explanations do not work. and Socrates' mentioning. 21): Iua)0odpaxppro. . and specifies AMtius' rdtit.14 0. Lanza.

314. we can infer. n. because this Thus. 3) 345 n. 14] 364a16). Ecl.] the sense of "heaven. the envelopment. Kranz (above.108 Aryeh Finkelberg sense of nrEptox is "an enclosing. 16 Cf. U. 1. Hom. 16) 42 n.. 3. Furley and R. J. authorizedthe use of ic"aogo. and 436-437). in the sense of "world"is a phrase from the Theophrastean 15 [Plut. J. Mansfeld. LSJ.16 The other reportis D.29. 3) 313 and n. 14] 369b26 = DK 68 A 93).L. ad II."15 This being so. . for example. 1. n. Kai Xtv KIdcov K xTIv a o1pav(xv Rpfxrov 6volitixoat yfiv oxpoyyAyXrjV. Allen eds. s. n.rv yfiv suggests that the sense of the ouipav6. 14) and in Schol. The only historical evidence the reportfurnishes is the use of K61oto.. Mansfeld (above.. 385-417). E. is ov t6. 8. 492. 18As Gigon (above.297 n. is "heaven"ratherthan "world. "Anaximander the Beginnings of Greek Philosophy"in D. the reportwould fit with Theophrastus'charto acteristicinterestin the history of philosophicalterminology. 3. 6Pio6g&6ov I-II and Greek Philosophy (Assen 1971) 42 Hippocratic Tract F•ept n. because the date would be too early.1 (= Diels [above. Hilscher. n. it is impossible to know how old this use really was. 26.18 should however be realized that the reportcannot be taken at face value.892E (=Diels [above." and in its two other i occurrencesin AMtius word means "circumference.The attribution Pythagofor ras of the use of KoLo.8& b [sc. and we have no special reason to question the Theophrastean It provenanceof the information.v.rlotv ." Since the attributionof this terminological invention to Pythagorasconforms to the Pythagoreans' routine practice.48 (= Dox. OE)opao(To. the phrase l r'OvXiov rEptoxi most naturallyrefers to the (outer) heaven. What is reportedis a Pythagoreantraditionwhich. n. We shall returnto this meaningof the word later.""17 agreement The between AMtius'and Diogenes' testimonies makes it likely that they come from a common source. 3) 432 (who however is preparedto go beyond the report. The Theophrastean origins of AMtius' for been disputed because the alleged attributionto Pythagorasof the use of xoaCtog "world"does not conform to certainscholars' idea of the terminologicaluse of the word. i7 at 1ov rtn luv0ay6po Ei'prlyrat) a result of Kx••Lov informationhave of the deterioration the tradition. 41 (first published in Hermes 81 [1953] 255-277. HIapxpEvi8rl called the earthspherical]. Another reportthat has been adduced to prove the Milesian use of K6coo. Vlastos (above.og "world"in Achilles' report(see above. while Kirk (above.. n. Pythagoras]6 'axIopi'v6g . cf. 26. 3) 54. n. for "heaven"by the Pythagoreansof the last generations. 2. Stob. 19. compass. cf. Studies in PresocraticPhilosophy (London 1970) 1. nrEptoxii.q8E Z•v(ov 'Haiobov xrX. 17Cf. points out. The Pseudoch. questions the attribution would be too late a date. DK 28 A 44): ro'rov [sc. n. The opposition rbvo5pav6v --.1 (.. 0.

G. and for a more balanced view: Vlastos (above.yev. G. Strom. v ( auPpaivet yiv(o8E pol. 3) 175.13 = DK 12 A 9: tot." AJP 115 (1994) 502-504. toi Consequently the phrase ij. Phys. oiupavot? icac and Simplitv v a toi. avdrot. t~i1 Oat K t a1~Epol) e(P t(TV o] X&i6toV IdvrItV ittrav EFva Ti ?tv o~paov(v cf. ti6. and M.) / yveoOat rol. by Gigon (above.that oljpavot refer to Anaximander's celestial rings. n. J. Phys. . Kosmos und Sympathie (Munich 1926) 209-211. is correct in pointing out that o-pavc6ois used in the regularPeripateticsense of "world. Reinhardt. 4) 1. oiupavo6d. n. cf. n." The earliest philosophical text in which cK6ogo. K ctiov / tot. n."Cf. Kirk (above. (p0op~x. n. Guthrie(above. 3) 54." Incidentally. Vlastos (above. n. n. Gigon (above.1 = DK 12 A 11: tot. [sc. oiUpavoi`. Finkelberg. 3) 312. 2 (DK 12 A 10): tob TCetpov yEV eo. 21 Zeller's suggestion. A. 3) 29-38. 3) 433. followed."CQ 27 (1934) 10-11.the translationof the ou.13) speaks of the generation of worlds from the Apeiron. Yet the fragmentshows unmistakablesigns of a late has. oiupavol5. in the account the pluraloi. n. 3) 345 n. 55. (Simpl. 6outou. (Hippol. come rewordingand the genuineness of o~iogo. ( n A &iravTo. 20 As Kirk (above. 3) 363 n. 41.22But even if the word is assumed to be genuine. Anaximenesaus Milet (Stuttgart1993) 63-66. n. rightly comments. Schofield." 22 See K.111. 3) 312. e0. Raven. It Ko~6icoL)g)."PluralWorlds in Anaximander. Mansfeld (above. Kirk. Cornford. 19.pavot as "heavens" would also result in rendering the / as •icogo. n."Innumerable Worldsin Presocratic Philosophy. K•ioov) Ev 'tot. M. Ps. occurs is Anaximenes B 2. can scarcely mean other than "and the arrangementsin them.131-132.-Plut. Wihrle.21 •paE(o•. Guthrie (above. ibid.. with good reason. n. 24. 16) 45 n.6. the 19 Reinhardt (above. n. tpbS k toitco ivty dcV&Stov ro1. [sc. Kranz(above.17 (absent from DK): ?. among others. (pavat 'rTv Uoyav aitrav tvExLV' Ol Rtav)1bC yeV&e(•o tE K ao tIvo. and others. ~XV Tj .On the History of the GreekKOXMOX 109 account of Anaximander'sApeiron preservedin Hippolytus (Ref 1. and Kerschensteiner (above. 4) 1. Kerschensteiner(above.. ibid. n. 40. has been supposed that the locution reflects Anaximander's own words. The Presocratic Philosophers (Cambridge 1983) 159. Kranz(above. oiupavo.pavo" refers to Anaximander'spluralworlds: Hipe vat. 3) 53-54.19but the supposition is speculative. &ienipov]y~veioat rol. S. "thereis no suggestion thatTheophrastus is quoting Anaximander. n. and Kahn(above. under suspicion. cf. is untenable.Simpl. Ev aXrot. n. K•cogot "the heavens and the arrangement(s)[enclosed] in "arrangement(s)": them. E. 3) 433. 3) 46-53 in (who abrogatedthis interpretation the Preface to the 1985 reprint). and hence icai tbv v a(rot. 3) 77-83. followed by F.20 Besides. 24. icc cius (Phys.

Diller (above. and others.23 However.28 and Of the two extant occurrencesof the word in Empedocles the first is in B 26: 23See Kranz(above.25 icara' in B 4. ed.including the first two chapters. Calogero... D. 3) 55."27 the Greek audience must have taken the expression to may suggest. P. 3) 119-122. Aubenque U. n. the first two chaptersof the tract De hebdomadibus. TheFragmentsof Parmenides(Assen 1986) 218. in Heraclitus.110 Aryeh Finkelberg fact thatits immediatecontext suffereda rewordingmakes the fragment worthless as evidence of Anaximenes' linguistic usage. .21-22.24 earliest induin authenticoccurrenceof cK6aojo. E. n. 25See Diller (above. The Theologyof Early GreekPhilosophers (Oxford 1947) 35-36. n. n. of the The a much later date. 27As. Mourelatos. n. the philosophicalcontext is.232. or D. Studi sull' eleatismo (Rome 1932) 22 n. Kerschensteiner(above."26 Nevertheio6otov less some critics wish to understandParmenides' icara 6icotaov as but whatever sense modem commentators "throughoutthe world. O'Brien in P. H. 3) 57. 3) 433. Zur Formung des parmenidischenProoimions. M.The Route of Parmenides(New Haven 1970) 6-37. In the extant lines of Parmenides'poem appearstwice. Kerschensteiner (above.52 exemplifies the both instances are irrelevant:K6aojov nkiov and traditionaluse with reference to the order of a narrative. 28On Parmenides'dependenceon the traditionalepics see W. see also L. 26Cf."RhM 106 (1963) 134-142. see also A.C. H61lscher.Parmenides (Princeton 1965) 47-48. However for the purposes of the argumentI postpone the discussion of Heraclitus'fragmentsuntil we reachconclusions regardingthe use of the word in the firsthalf of the fifth century. Another text which for a long time has been referredto as an authenticwitness of a is very early cosmological use of cK6aojo. Finkelberg. Tarain. Etudes sur Parmdnide (Paris 1987) 1. H. 25) 189.S in B 8. entire tract. Coxon. Kirk (above. esp. 104.orderly. DK 1. n. for example. "Zur'Theogonie' bei Parmenidesund Empedokles." Parmenidescould not have been unawareof this. 24For the historyof the discussion of the date of the tractsee the firstchapterof Mansfeld (above. Coxon (above. most probablyfirst century B. id. n. n. n." CP 82 (1987) 135-138. 3) 9-10. "Hesiod und Parmenides. and others. Parmenides (Frankfurtam Main 1969) 47. bitably then. 25) 7-17. Heitsch. "Homer's View of the Epic Narrative: Some Formulaic Evidence. ad loc. as Mansfeld pseudo-Hippocratic has demonstrated. A. n. Parmenides (Munich 1974) 147. Kerschensteiner (above. Jaeger.. 16). 3) 54-55."WS 70 (1957) 278-289. 1. mean "orderly. Coxon (above. 92-96.3 is the epic formulafor "in order. 3) 313. Schwabl. but i6oto. 16-30.

R.. must indicate the general direction of the (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) ev & Lpt • ." the elements." REG 70 (1957) 61. argues that the x6Tog. alternatively.30 . they [sc. because they are not separateand dominantmasses but are in such a mixing . reaches a similar conclusion: "K6atov here means 'group. 30 The contrast is emphasized and correctly explained by Wright (above. he infers. seems correctin that the translationof to'rn&v as an adverbis contraryto Empedocles' usage.Empedocles: TheExtant Fragments(New Haven 1981) 183.. Bollack.(v Ire yivovtat 6vOpornot ai &ov EOvea "t •O•Prlpv ei. 3) 313.On the History of the GreekKOYMOY 111 KpwatrOt RptcLnogivoto K-1CX0oto. 29 Or.31 is found is B 134: Kct6og.x0t." is 31Cf.o" line 5 must refer to the perfect mixtureof the four in The other Empedocleanfragmentin which elements. organism'. Consequently the "one icoaCo. Empidocle 3: Les Origines: commentaire1 (Paris 1969) 131.7 which. the Sphere. animal bodies.. in B 26. viz."become totally subdued. the roots are 'underneath'in the opposite sense to their prevailing (cf. E. line 1). icore gtvvtDtXotrlit aUVEPX6•. the elements] are subdued and become the whole"29--describesthe ultimate condition of the perfect mixture.CX Cccd ciS~ueoat gept ev ai'•f. or to the ultimate condition of the perfect unity. E•t ei. r Inv 1neeVEpOE (7) eia6icev ev yeVrlltat. 29) 183: . if I correctly understandhim. the reigns of Love and of Strife respectively." J. n.. Kirk (above. growing together into one.. i. Wright. the Sphere.. lines 5 and 6-"now coming togetherby Love into one K6ago. the intermediaryperiod manifold world.. that none of their characteristics visibly distinct. og cKXorepig: he adduces as a parallel B 17. and this meaning is furthersupportedby the contrast with the first line of the fragment(Kpaerouaot-1nt where the reference is to vep0e y the ultimate condition of Strife.a. gPivto0v'ta Assuming that lines 4-6 are of cosmological ratherthan biological in line 5 does not designate the frame of purportand therefore K•otaog. Now it is evident that line 7-"until.. Bollack. viz. Bignone. M. "Sur deux fragments de Parmenide.vrlrat)7 depicts the ultimateconBut if line dition ratherthan the intermediary period. Empedocle (Turin 1916) 420. ic•d(pO•wt yp 3tLtv a'ria. •x' N••i•eo. 0.' or 'arrangement. the rendering of the word depends on whether the refers to the phrase "now coming together by Love into one of the gradualunificationof K6acto. cf.5 is not an equivalent of opitpo.e. n.ev' ieva cK6aoov. i icaora(popoujeoVa (6) •6•ore 69'aow . &8 acura &t' 8e Oeovta . // now again being borne apartfrom each other by the hatred of Strife"-must also describe the ultimate conditions.•."although J.

Zuntz. n. Fritz. ibid. which would hinder his argument. O•ml &XX.36. 3) 443. 214-218. N. XC&Rti v(Oxoto y KE(pxX11 1CItc oiu n6o&0. this is to beg the question.. "Empedocleum. yoiva. Unfortunately. in B 26.. Xo •ETCUioivov. it need not be other than B 134. see Bignone (above.g E•rtv acix~. 125. a view which is relatedto the perceptiveability of the "roots. "world"and thus as to avoid the unnecessary multiplicationof entities assuming an addicosmic developmentratherthan its final stage. viz. oC9 itr-i6a ic (pp v iepi~J apwro.g rl K &•XXX& descriptions are practically identical suggests the identity of their respective subjects-the (ppi"viepi and the Sphere. Mourelatosed. NOEINand Their Derivativesin Pre-SocraticPhilosophy(ExcludingAnaxagoras).127 (= DK 31 B 136)." However this sense is unnecessary. Yet Empedocles' belief in a cosmic god contemporaneouswith the world is otherwise unattested." . says that since the Sphere is not an ordered structure. "NOYX.S as "world. ThePre-Socratics. but if Sextus' words have a textual basis in Empedocles. C. 7. o0 C eV &ctovtot. as we have seen. either in the extant fragments or in the doxographical reports. Zuntz. n.PartI" in A.. K. refers to Sext. called by G. Horna." TheProem of Empedocles' Peri Physios (Amsterdam1975) 11-15. 9. D. not without reason. Persephone (Oxford 1971) 218. oi~i6Egn. oU EToCLa y• yTvvrievt~ . •xaviiev9a.32Nevertheless Empedocleanscholarsrefrainfrom the identification: takingfor granted that must mean "world. 3) 128. Diels' removal of B 134 to the Katharmoi was. compares the idea of the divine <ppilv supposedly pervadingthe world with B 110. the general presumption is that K6oYLo. 33 Kranz(above. it is obviously preferablenot to renderthe iK6ctog.oi30o.5 Empedocles uses the word to designatethe Sphere.10. Bollack fails to quote the identical line B 20.33and the whole idea rests on the rendering of K?ioo. The fact that the two o ipaqpo.A Collection of CriticalEssays2 (Princeton 1993) 62 n. 31) 631-649. This being so.Kerschensteiner(above. 0 This descriptionof the spp~iv icpij should be comparedwith Empedocles' portrayal of the Sphere in B 29: oi y7p &cr vxtkoto 6•o // hXlgiot &~ioovrato. WS 48 (1930) 3-7. xxi oo. n. but there is a great distancebetween the unifieddivine mind and the statement that all things severally have intelligence and share in thinking. x aCrati sppovriotKilov OavrIa ovxouaa oftv. 8&' necessarilysuggests the idea of an innerstructure wrong: OvZ~E K•YJog ai z (Hdt. div •6riv 32The more so as both fragmentsbelong to one poem.Empedocles could not have but designatedit as K6YoLo.2.for. the abuse of evidence." they conclude thatthe (ppi~v iepij must be a•c6o•og god contemporaneouswith the manifold world.112 AryehFinkelberg 01)~c x0 XVAPOgie C 6UoKXc•6OtyuiCOCOicxat. van der Ben. v. On Nature.5). oi~ ooiva( ( . Besides. P.

On the History of the GreekKOWMOI 113 tional. ad B 8.1. Theophr. 37 Not mere "beinahepleonastisch"(Gigon [above. similar to. n. 29) 238. be the Sphereratherthan qpp1lv the articulatedworld. n.. Wright(above. then.De sensu 10 = DK 31 A 86). 4) 2. the fact that Empedocles uses the word indifferentlyto denote the Sphere of Love and the world would entail the contextualcharacterof the meaning "world"in B 134. n. which qualifies t(A. cf. on the <ppriv. and Anaxagoras' illustration-the hot and the cold-suggests that "the one is "the one. are not separatedfrom one world. and others. the same order"to which complementaryoppoxo•tjog" 34Cf..27 seems to state that the elements are of equal which is. and otherwise unattested.. nevertheless admitted to is refer to the developed world. Reinhardt (above.2 and Phys. the opposite things. neither the hot from the cold nor the cold from the hot" implies that "things"are opposites like the hot and the cold.36But if the K6dogo. 39 Schofield (above. n. aptly recalls Heraclitus' doctrineof the unity of opposites.pp'v iep" of B 134."must. of course. rendering ic6~ago as "world.5. for it suggests that the "inseparability" things is of due.39 The phrase 9v -oovi specifies what precisely opposites are meant to be inseparable. and yet separatefrom it. Guthrie(above. see.."35 The ioagog. 22) 371. De anima 70. 1vi 'rch Anaxagoras B 8: o6 EX(pptorat XXhXhov Ev t6 KdoygJ i p noVcIon7at cna 'o•iCo0h -6 Ogp~tv & to x•uxpou oiit) t6 iC o06u: Simplicius quotes the fragmentas illustrat"toi Oepgo^. 68. K6ogip.. 38 Lanza (above. not to their intrinsic nature. cosmic deity alongside the Sphere. viz. throughwhich the "dartswith swift thoughts. the specification "in the one world" becomes irrelevant37 and even misleading.17.g. B 105. and therefore these are opposites that cannot be separatedfrom each other. •u•Xpbv&an6 doctrine"in ing Anaxagoras' everythinga portion of everything. 3) 143. but does not explain how the supposedreference to this doctrinehere may be pertinentto Anaxagoras'meaning. believes that the phraseconfirmsthe Anaxagorean doctrineof the uniquenessof the world. 11) 217. which is the perfect mixture of the four elements in equal proportion(B 17. but to their belonging to "the one Now the phrase "the things . 35 Simpl."If he is right." scholars are compelled to allow. . n.260. 3] 53). must in its entiretybe a thought organ34 . the bulk). 36This would dispense with the anachronisticimmaterialityof the which. Moreover it may be arguedthat if the four "roots"mixed in equal proportionmake blood which is the thought organ in men (B 98. the Sphere. this must be the ultimate explanationwhy Empedocles "hymns"the Sphere "as god. 1124."38 another . n. e.

. n. in the one array are not separatedfrom one anothernor cut off with an axe. 3] 229) into thinking that Melissus may have attackedthe idea of the changeabilityof the world maintainedby contemporaneousphilosophers. 3) 313. n.the argumentis a petitio principii.. 'b i6v] to be rearranged. ov ob~iC &n6 oiutre is directed against the changeability of 9b~6v and has nothing to do with cosmology.115.the continuumformed by ras' "one is each pairio6atog" of opposites":". Guthrie(above. 3) 220.'not the many continua of his multiple pairs of opposites. Yet the it phrasenot only allows the rendering"order.. contended that ico6atoo means here "einen bestimmten Zustand. Kirk (above. 40 .arrangement" the K6a0io`is obviof for ous: "noris it possible for it [sc..40If so. which would not be 'one world"' [Vlastos's italics]. 22) 396. n. 3) 313. 4) 2.. Kahn [above. like the hot and the cold. a&vaycrjl yi1l 6ioilov t6 lrp6aeOv 6v.114 Aryeh Finkelberg sites belong: the things that. 3) 345. 6 lrp6aoiv tEacoo'trljfjvat Eov Gvixgo6v-6 6 Since Melissus' argument "il t6Xrat yivertat. Ei ov ytxp E&rpototvrat. Unfortunately. &q •fvat."Hermes 76 [1941] 365-366.. 3) 345." is 41 Euripidesfr. n. says thatIc60otog here is an instance of the "philosophical"use of the word in the fifth century. 910 (= DK 59 A 30: dav~r&ooti0cxOopav cotov &ayrjp•v) (<pi6aJE•g thoughtto be an echo of Anaxagoras'teaching. the sense "order. n. of Anaxagoas "the one group or category .. world of deathlessnature" 42Reinhardt(above. n. if by the time of the composition of this text K6aogo. but apartfrom this Schofield (above.. t E o c"t6v yivs 0at . cf. the previously existing order does not perish. Schofield (above. cf."42 seems evident that. 3) 174. must be right in that the continuaof opposites were regardedby Anaxagoras"as providing the best illustrationof his general theory that 'in everything there is a portion of everything'. its was alreadya currentterm for "world. Now.. 22) 371. n. probably. n.he argues the impossibility of its alterationqua rt of (= arrangement) rb 6v that he demonstratesto be unalterd6v.43Yet he does not seem to have considVlastos (above. Vlastos (above. regardless of whether these it philosopherscalled the world ico6atog. n. &XX &nt6XXaUOat (3) &XX'o-08& yp K6aLo." even suggests it: "perceivingthe unaging does not make good sense. n. and others. 3) 52. nor a nonexisting one come into It being.5-"one arrangement. his [Anaxagoras']K6~oCtogindeed a continuum.eine Phase dieser Welt . objects to Kirk's construal(above. Kahn(above."41 Melissus B 7: (2) ." use in the argument could mislead the reader into thinking that Melissus argues the unchangeabilityof the world.. the sense of the phrase "one K6ctoog"here is precisely the same as in Empedocles26. Stel43 As it has misled some critics (notablyH.and it is the •c6aJto able. n. seems clear enough that whateverMelissus may intend to show to be unchangeable. "Die philosophiegeschichtliche lung des Diogenes von Apollonia. Diller." The construaldisregardsthe purportof Melissus' argumentand was rightly dismissed by Gigon (above.but a single one wherein 'everythinghas a portion of everything.

With this conclusion in mind we may turn now to Heraclitus. 3) 430-431. kindling in measures and extinguishing in measures. The fragmentis gend&iro6gevov held to be the first instance of the use of with reference erally i6cotoa to the world.we may infer that by the middle of the fifth century the word still did not acquire the cosmological sense.45 authenticity B 30: v o0ME (r6voe). C. though not too likely.On the History of the GreekKOXMOX 115 ered the possibility that his audience could hesitate to refer 6 K66ogo. has been generally abandoned. n. for otherwisehe most probablywould pp6e0ev ~vhv have avoided the use of the word or would have specified it as 6 r cp6oaOev 6oago. Hiraclite ou la Separation (Paris 1972) the Sphereat B 26. 3) 5-24. o0re t? K•x6oov axx' t6v Oet• i jv delicai tadv ai fo at *inp ai&. B 30 may be an instance of (a) the usual meaning "world.5. 2. n.seems to be invariably used in the traditional sense "order. Kirk (above. Marcovich (above.i6vrowvor d6vro. 8) 10. though only in B 30 its fragments K6GJaoo is unquestionable." Considering also that the established sense "world"most probablywould precludeMelissus' use of the word in his argument. cf.622. 3) 312-313. but this is not at all certain. ••ralooGkrOVMv Ed6vzov t in the next sentence. 3) 194 n. The Art and Thoughtof Heraclitus (Cambridge1979) 216. Wismann. but it ever was and is and shall be: everliving fire. taken as applying to the world. the word may be.juxtaposed to the applicationof ICoGxo. aooCrLov xv CE•aiKOG•tjrEi* ioWV Heidel. Kranz(above. 6 v to rbnup6~0( 6v. 24. 13. n.76-77. the same sense the word has in the epic formula in iact•r K6tov application to song. 44MS."(b) the contextualmeane?w Et 6vrowV. n.5. Bollack and H. a-rbyv a rv. and 124. J. 3) 52. If this is indeed Empedocles' referencehere. In his occurs in B 30. or Hdt."Only in one occurrence. and others. 45 The word is found also in B 75.46the same of all [things]. For further examples see Kerschensteiner(above. Od. 6vrov Ei•l.44 In all the instances examined thus far Kc60to. oativ MvOpnov inoiiEsv.""arrangement.67. 46 "Orderedsequence.---cf.disputed by Reinhardt(above.see Gigon (above. 89. at Empedocles B 134. but Diels's assessment of it as a fragment. . gtpa icta &tnooe~vv-iegvov grpa. n. as for instance. Kahn." Theoretically speaking. series" is one of the most fundamental and well-established meanings of ic6'tog in Homer and afterwards.oov. H. n. Mullach. it attests to the occasional characterof the use and the ensuing contextual characterof the sense "world. 8. for the reference to the ordered alterations of fire is equally possible: "This order[ed sequence]. in II. did none of gods or men make.

3) 314.the same for all" is better. the reference to the world would turn the phrase "none of gods or men made" into the denial of the view that the world was 47 Kirk (above. as a gloss.Melissus). this was not a customaryapplicationof the word. Kranz(above." and naturallylooking for its K6ctgog of all in the text itself. Heraclitus'x•6oog contemporariescould hardly understand 6og`og. and others.e. relating the fire. rather they would have understood it as "the order of the fire's kindling and extinguishing.. Finally. In other words.the same of all [things]"does. its grammar that of B 30. Heraclitus'readerwould readspecificationfirst vov pov pa the suitable ily find in &wr6A'gevov ptgtpa Iai &roope3vvCTP of reference of the word and consequentlywould understandthe point to the orderedalterationsof 66E as proleptic. as we have seen.Early GreekPhilosophy4 (London 1930) 162. n.116 Aryeh Finkelberg or ing "world. 3) 308-309. portrayingas it does fire's regularalterationsas changes of the global scale. the orderof the world. It has been repeatedlyarguedthat as •SE specifies the K6oatog that very order which we see aroundus. n.47 has another principal meaning. Heraclitus' supposed specification must have been misleading. and reasons in favor of the latteroption seem to be more cogent. . However since beside its deictic sense "8E i."48 the artificiallyrendered. 3) 346-347. n. 3) 175-176." Option (a) is hardlycompatible with our conclusion thateven some fifty years later "world"was not the usual meaning of Kop`og either in the Greek West (Empedocles) or. that of referring forward. 48Reinhardt(above. as in B 114. same of all [things]"does not make sense. "one as the masculine and understands Vlastos (above. and it is the latterconstructionwhich is found in B 30. n. the idea is conveyed by the dative ("the common [binding]for everybody"). 3) 170 n. Burnet." (c) the usual meaning "order. n. between (b) and (c). viz." Further. what is especially significant. n. 1. as in B 89 and also in B 113. then. When the "common"is related to men. and others. Apartfrom the questionableauthenticityof Kicago. cf. J. 3) 441. by the genitive ("the common [principle]of everything"). takes the nctivryov of of the waking as distinctfrom "private and common x6atCot" those asleep (B oca•gog" differs from 89).as "the order of the world". Habituallytaking in the general sense of "order.but when it is related to things. followed by Kirk(above. he K•6itog would have had to clarify this because. The decision is."world-order"]. Reinhardt( Ionia (Anaxagoras.49But the phrase"thisorder. If by Heraclituswished to refer to the orderof the world. excises rov aurbyv •nicvryov 49 One may however wonder whether "this world-order. in B 89. Heraclitean scholars regularly mistranslate -rv antbyv because "this world [or as the word is as &RntVtOWV "the same for all.

. B 124: &ronep odapla EiKfi KEXU?xWvoV 6 K0h1ZGto." which was not the case even half a centurylater. which may well be a reflected in a number of dependent accounts in which the fire's kindling and extinguishing are said to be KxtrXd tvx Ei••ap?tavrlv &vdyXrv(Simpl.22. 12 and n. T. ." 51 This notion was reportedby Theophrastus. [6] IX6opto. n. assumed to be a part of the quotation.28. 3) 441.. Yet we have considerabledifficulty in identifyingthis with any certaintyfrom our availableevidence. icotvov instead of 4. and if Diels's emendation adppta for adp4 of the MS is accepted. the idea thus conveyed is comparablewith Anaximander's i toi Xpbpvou tr. 1. 3) 10. see Kerschensteiner(above. HeraclitusB K•a' 137. 3) 63-64. rd(t. 8) 100..~ yprlYop6atvwia ti Kotvbv 'vo IOTOV i'tov onooUpE(PEGOtt. an idea which no Greek (at least until Plato's Timaeus)held.If K6~6to. n. = DK 22 A 1. Lloyd. and the solemn rejection of which would But have soundedto Heraclitus'audiencepointless and grotesque. 1. 9. Kranz(above. 8). And there can be little doubt that it is indeed a gloss: the word means "one's world. Robinson.OntheHistory theGreek of KOXMO1 117 brought into existence by a Both the Theophrastean context and the intrinsic meaning of the opposition suggest that the 50 The difficulty is concisely stated by G. Phys. as Gigon pointed out.33 = DK 22 A 5) or simply Eitapkvxprlv (D. 17 n.L.. 54 Or. "thesum of one's experience".v6v in the first clause indicates that it also underwenta rewording. M. E. cf. 1. dEvat. t(v 8F Kol VotltvoV Ev c(ojlov o Diels accepted the first clause and the word i'tov in the second one.. but. Polarity and Analogy (Cambridge 1971) 273 n. Aet. 1. 3: "It is strikingthat in Fr.52 B 89: 6 'Hpdlhxt T6 (Plat i rtot.8.50 the assertionthat the orderof fire's alterationswas not broughtaboutby an extraneous agent is an informativestatementof the self-sufficiency of cosmic fire.1. 22. as Kirk(above. 5.1 52On the synonymy of ro'atog.tq (B 1)."54 but such a metaphoricaluse presupposes the usual meaning "world. Marcovich (above. This is such an explicit denial that it looks as if it is directed against some specific myth or theory. 1.53 This casts doubt on the genuineness of co'ato. 53Gigon (above. 45) 104.7. n. puts it.Heraclitus (Toronto1987) 138. 3) 63. n. Kahn(above.51Considering all this. n.. R. then Heraclitus'contrastwould be between a randomheap of sweepings and the most beautiful co6ijto. n. Kirk (above. 30 Heraclitusdenies that the world-order is the productof 'any god or mortal' . the fragment seems to be properly understood as speaking of the ordered eternal sequence of the fire's measuredalterations. n.which is also the sequence of all things. q(PTGV 'HpdlKhtTo. 3) 11 and and n.

it would be more prudentto reach our conclusions independently of these texts and to check their use of the word as against the conclusions arrived at. 2. 3) 440-441. in the sense "world"is quite frequent. o68api4 o 9te t(doayeaOt a&XXfXot •186varo K•cX.5. thus exhibiting the contextual sense of "world. Gigon (above.9" may seem to suggest a conand trastwith some other ico1ao. It may also be observed that while the idea of in orderlinessis pivotal in the supposedlyHeracliteanuse of K6copo. n. the latter may have been (though not necessarily) the case. 8) 550." AJP "A 59 (1938) 319. 56Cf Kranz(above. 3) 97 and n. 3) 52. pqoat. Frainkel. n. The relevant fragments are those of Diogenes of Apollonia and Democritus. n. then. A. C. or K6coraot. 57In the fragmentswhich came to us under the name of Philolaus (whose floruit may see be as late as c.55 meaning of ~c6opo. H.56 The only secure conclusion seems. but Theophrastus cites the phrase for a rhetorical effect and therefore his context is indecisive. ThoughtPatternin Heraclitus.icde "tohe'o a•rjattrepototh 0at P ocnr6o* a y XtX E6v ca. 400 B. . The emphatic repetition"in this I6o'Jo. as exemplified in Empedocles B 134. rqic 5•op icai &tIpKca eo6vta "tO E x t0e t Ko•do •6vxa. then. B 124. however. Kerschensteiner (above. Ei 'iYp a i V'r 6)a )t oa pauveEat v J1?) i -v . in its cosmological application. the authenticityof these ic6oato fragmentsis controversial. iaci 'Sepovtoi &rtEpoi'trpov 8v TTf tt toYPo•v '6 a)Ct&6 e'r"tErMtE 6v RoXaXc.Since.. Huffman. is. whetheror not the word was used with reference to the world must remain undecided. n.5 and B 29.57 Diogenes B 2: aco heoei6oKEt t "iv Uav E•ToV &p r tx mtdvayvra svuxa&7et th•sC w doorXpO vi• i0x•oC ndv.118 Aryeh Finkelberg contrastturns on the idea of order.Philolaus of Croton[Cambridge1993] 1-6)." it remains unclear whether the word is used absolutely or with reference to the world. is employed here in its usual sense of "order". We turn now to the philosophersof the second half of the fifth century. the but "order. to be thatK16opo. Yet in speculatingon the possibilities one should rememberthat it would not be particularlydiscriminatingto postulate a contextual sense in ignorance of the context. indeed the doxographical 55Cf. the word does not distinctivelysuggest this idea. ~xa &'trepotoi'ro. (p KOCYJO) v qv.C. Marcovich(above." If the cosmological context of Theophrastus'quotation is taken as indicative of the similar purportof Heraclitus' saying.

From the philosophical point of view as well the contrastbetween our world and other worlds is scarcely possible here. 313. Diogenes' usage would exactly parallelEmpedocles' in that the word would apply to both the uniform arche (which is 58D. in sum.60 of then. is .") and its general content suggest that the fragment is such an "indisputablestartingpoint. emphatically repeated the demonstrativemust be pointless.12 (= DK 64 A 1. Further. etc. Reinhardt (above.. 3) 174. Y~o•e av ( tv '06e 6avrao vuv suggests a contrastwith rx& 'r5Fe r K0o•JL• if is renderedas "world. 6).59and the temporal specification of the manifold as "existing now" habitually puts this metaphysicalcontrast on the cosmogonical plane.. the phrase rx I6vrxo]. Ps. the arche. 3) 178." and indeed Simplicius. It follows that on the assumptionof the established sense "world"for -6Ko?to. viz. yields k6vtxa Kr6t~o) 7tp~oev.-Plut.. Strom. if in Empedocles B 134.if ic60go. therefore the implied ra or rather t6 bv (8oe ) ic6ct'o ~bv tp6o0ev is unified natureitself. yi iS' wpi i p t6t pp Rp -drKIo? 'rat Ev eitou~rov rt ix•h. 'r comparedwith his usually succinct style: ei y'&p av [t•Fi6] T0 KG[(1o wi wad p ii3 Kid 6. with referenceto the uniform Sphere. Finally. must refer to the general arrangement things. and Melissus' use with reference to homogeneous being. Diogenes' opposition is between the apparentlymanifold and essentially unified nature of things. Consequently even if a few sentences between B 1 and B 2 are missing. 59So correctlyKerschensteiner (above. ." which. for the principle Diogenes is formulatingis universal." The opening words of B 2 ("my opinion. it seems obvious enough that they were not dedicatedto the theory of pluralworlds.OntheHistory theGreek KOXMOX of 119 traditionascribes to Diogenes the belief in a pluralityof worlds." Diogenes' wording appears intolerably and surprisingly pleonastic. 60Cf. who cites it. spective The latter application is exemplified by Empedocles' use of KcJopog. 61Cf. of whether this is the articulatedworld or the uniform arche.58Now Diogenes Laertiusadduces the first sentence of Diogenes' book (B 1): "I believe that at the beginning of any accountthe authorought to make his starting point indisputable . n. 3) .raxx [oa qxpaiveE6v'tx[viv]. n.57.. Kirk(above.61irreroapog.L. K•doog the patently impertinentopposition between the present and previously existing componentsof the world. means "world.5 KoJCpog assumedto is refer to the world.. n. 9. says that it directly followed the proem.

The authenticity I of B 247 (&v6pi aotp noa yfi 6 yap •atii. B 258 and B 259 the in referenceis to political order... B 195. and B 274 the meaning is "adornment". a•pxov'tat W6o0tCFp 62In B 180..64 is noteworthythat in the second line of the trimeter the meter is broken precisely by the unmetrical As KoCYIo. 3) 173 and n.g.. "cosmological arrangement. Die 64Both in tragedy (e.63 this meter is hardlyinciand for the phrase is a banal variation on a sentiment popular in dental. Demokrit [Leningrad1970] 602.. id. 65Some scholars (notably S. See DK ad B 247. ov tp6') acrbv v Awtl6'Kptrov & 6 vw. n. 31. S ap6pvlxva ictai v 'r 'z8& 6. it comes from David the Armenian.. 3.a Christian Neoplatonistof the sixth century. 1925. Lys. 2. "Demokrits Sittenspruche."Proceedings of the Academyof Sciences of the USSR.. 6 60lt . Luria." Geschichte einer kosmopolitischenSentenz. of the world components are thus intended to specify the of as and sense "arrangement" Ko6~jto.62but both instances are unreliable. tpxovtat ic•ai ica 6pxolotv (.g. 'r WoRtep Xoyo. 8•a & fl En?tteoupa. if this was the case (which does not seem particularlylikely). see the previous note. but the popularityof the sentimentalreadyin the second half of the fifth centurymakes her suggestion of the Stoic provenanceof B 247 unnecessary. 4. Hermes 59 (1924) 369-371. t ep (bXv va px& 6o•oyxa 0a. who denied the genuineness of B 247.. the unmetricalK6otog. VUXfiG &ya0fiGXatpi."RhM 78 (1929) 88-90. fr. in in B 274 and B 34.6). the maxim is cited also in prose writers(Thuc. . Plut.14 (Busse): )inavri 6p&04ev p[~v cati6c(rEp v w Xr 6povTa otov T& ~t6vo(g t 6& otov T av6p6r(iEta e Kai 6pXovTawaxi 6eta.. Theologiedes Xenophanes(Breslau 1886) 38 n. Eur. has been rejected for the reason that the phrase con. The emphaticallyrepeateddemonstrative the list.120 AryehFinkelberg comparable with the homogeneous Sphere) and the differentiated world. but later changed his mind) are ready to admit that Democritus could cite the popular verse maxim.43. 1151). the sense "world"occurs twice. Philippson." the fact that Diogenes was at pains to secure this sense shows that by his time the word was not habituallyused in the cosmological context. 1047 N) and in comedy (e. 63J. "Einstellungendes Klassikertextesbei Stobaios. CrLP v t ic•ax K6p b•t oPXoUxtv •wa -tx gev piovov.65 to B 34. In Democritus'fragments co6aiog. Freudenthal.Prolegomena38. It fifth-centuryAtheniandrama. 777. Aristoph. cf.g. 6 . 1 &v0pdrOt iicP. Kerschensteiner(above. S. Luria. 78-81.could not originally belong to Democritus'quotation.vx %?t6vC0&p r(J cal'rca0opoFvat. "Zur R. JtntagKoa6Jog) sists of two corruptediambic trimeters. otherwise and pleonastic.

the comparison he draws between the world and man is patently Platonic.22 = DK 22 A 4) concerningthe deepness of Heraclitus' meaning which David adduces. D.472. In Porph. applies it to animals in general. but the views considered by Aristotle. are Democritus'. is related by Galen to "men of antiquityexpert in inquiry into the nature of things.OntheHistory theGreek KOXMOX of 121 of David has no doxographicalauthority. The argumentAristotle considers in Phys.L. 2."67 Scholars are willing to see in Galen's reference to ancient philosophers of nature an assistance to David's attribution. 65) 425. 4) 2. for since Aristotle's Rhetoric Heraclitus' style was commonplace. this seems to be a mistake:the parallelbetween but the world and man suggests a world ruledby Reason. 252b26. comments.68 philosophical plausibility of David's attributionscant.note the popular dictum (cf.2 is that if it is possible for an animal to rouse itself from rest to motion. but Guthrie (above. In the Atomists' world there is nothing akin to the human intelligence.11 (Busse). and his appeal to the authorityof Democritus is surprising.and seeing that beside Democritus there is no other Presocraticphilosopheraddressedin either of David's extant works. to Heraclitus' mannerof writing as exemplifying &a`pemais irrelevant. David's reference. of course. 3. n. 4) 2. 2. without specifying its provenance. but." 69 Save. .66The term. whose theory of soul (which is significantfor our case) was influentialenough to be included in a doxographyeventually used 66 Phys. n. and therefore of all the Presocratics Democritus is the least likely choice for being credited with But not only is the formulatingthe conception of man as microcosm. as Guthrie (above.69the question arises whether the Democritus referredto is the Abderite.and his attribution the notion of ttxpb. says that he is "deeply convinced" that not only the term. 105. again in applicationto animals. these are two conceptions of different philosophical provenance. it may be possible for the universe as a whole to be now at rest and now in motion. "the most striking thing about their [the Atomists'] achievementis the extent to which they freed themselves from the anthropomorphic conception of the universewith which the microcosmic theory is most naturallylinked. n. Kx6`tLo Democritusdoes not find supportin other sources. which the parallel between the world and animal does not. to The earliest instance of the term is in Aristotle who.471 n." 67De usu part. Luria (above. 8. seems closer to the truth when he remarks that "this is certainly not an analogy of which Democritus would have approved. Considering that the microcosmic theory was quite popularin laterphilosophy in general and in Neoplatonism in particular.10 (= DK 68 B 34). Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans. 68The idea was implicit in Presocraticthoughtfrom its very beginning. or ratherthe prominentthird-centuryNeoplatonist of the same name.

73 70 Ecl. 987B7: the sphere of the fixed stars is said to be what "one would especially seems to be used exclusively in the call Although in the Epinomis K6oagIo. may have been an ultimatesource of the confusion. defined Koago. speak against the formerpossibility. n...B 11. or David mistakenly credited him with the Platonic conception of the microcosm. 72Pyth. D8).Melissus' and Diogenes') suggest that the word had no distinctive cosmological connotations. The definit a ~oapaCE ix yiyv ai itdrvTa qpactv6~geva nept•Zoiaa. 16) 43. 112: ritva& ~~Ipo. saw. IIIa-IVain D.2-3) is often noted. Sedof and ley. 977B2 (for this use of"Ok•vXno. The title of Democritus' book Mipb S.S 'oapa oTpEpocatl roi cf. for "heaven"is a well attestedsense of the GreekKiago.. 987A5.. "Epicurus the Mathematicians Cyzicus."OXtIRno. Mansfeld (above.Kai r 'C. Palvet oi CdRvov Tb ' axoT i. at oibpavd. as well as the general silence of Greek doxographyabout the Democriteanprovenanceof this popular notion. David's appeal to his authorityin connection with the Platonic theory of the microcosm would allow two explanations:either the as notion of jtipo K6icago. B7. e. as nTIptoijr ti oupavoi. Burkert'sobserva- .122 Aryeh Finkelberg But by Stobaeus. Epicurus. K6 ro'roroC -to oE arvat." sense "heaven"(977B2.g.o "world.o ta'.certaininstances of the Presocraticuse (notably. n. II A philosopherwho began to teach in Athens in the last years of the fourth century...370. For furtherinstancesof this use in Epicurussee flepi pqaFo. r?toago. col. &XX&cxKai &vrlv po. Parm.uruCii roi irEPiirOXEiV. 3) 50. fifth-centurysenses of 6oCjgo.49 (1."CronacheErcolanesi 6 (1976) 37-38.6idiooto.1-2 Wachsmuth)." even in this sense no systematic employmentof it in cosmological speculationsis traceable. On the contrary.71 It thus emerges that the fifth-centurytexts do not furnish any clearas cut evidence for Koago. 1. o 'outnv'verxl ppE•qEat Ccx aXaca Krx. Kerschensteiner(above. 71As H. W.72 tion need not much surpriseus. 88. 73Epin.A6•i. niEpi0 r ." The word is consistently used in and its primarysense of "order. arrangement. yiF-IcwXovaxi'y lrOEplEarivcxl id (0O. see. Xenophon's testimony that "world"was not among the proves to be correct. such was intimately associated in the Greek traditionwith Democritus' name. The fact that in mentioningthe microcosmic theory Aristotle and Galen fail to refer to Democritus. 986C4. the only generally recognized instance and of this meaning remains 987B7. cf..70 even if we assume thatDemocritusmeanthere is the Abderite. though the synonymy of -co"ago. intpoagii• (Berlin 1935) 77. Langerbeck. This meaning is explicitly statedin the Epinomis.and thereforethe latteris more probable. cf.

Hsch. 8' n' &vaToXfi...77and is recorded by Greek lexicographers.EN..q.v. Egypt] v Xa. The speech.r. 1141bl.74 found in the thirdcenturyin Cleanthes'Hymn to Zeus75and in the astronomicalwork of Euclid. yxp oT9pia ati7' tx ivo t'aTzoXavov i6SpaodU6 It tb inotist f9 'Ilovi oite x& o.158 (247. we may thus infer that by this time the use of in the sense "heaven. •Rpsov •Xzrauovoivo0u. K6atgo. 173.o kX. K laoovjgvrle Xi. A Lexicon to Herodotus2 (Cambridge1938). Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism.3-4: ao' 86i n&.. 1.nEptiyyatcv. s. 78 Pollux 4.79 thus emerges that where Herodotussays 6v to4 oupavoi. i1 lccxaTovT&vx&haviv earipoy &ir jvaToki. t 6. 380.. Meteor. 1063a15. napaylver•at &q' o lnoToiv '6Trnouv ini acxbyv v6nrov. 12. Cvat.•tu g•v al It Kai &ypoi itew6gtva. S3ca iv TO T& iicuxy. Stob. Stoicorumveterumfragmenta (Stuttgart1905) 1. Arnim.340b10.12 = H.pav6.14). by Philo to be a regular use of the word. KEtiivylv hereK6aoto clarified by the comparison with Herodotus 1. K*6aooGRo &d'n' pop&qOapeaOl. For the use of o6aIgo. E. Cf. v. •c fr. 2812 (3. 36. o. 1.trans. Rev r6nouno u tot. 14) 467. 1.tes.q nK. E. composed several years earlier: &dpa olou) yocptot.D.. 8Xoa rt [[tijRCVr. Met. This conclusion finds supportin Isocrates Busiris 12. 77 Philo De aet. 12..27): r*v 8' iXtIovIKaiTiv aGXk•vrlv 6io 76 Phaen. which was finished c.34.." viz.169.8' r to.354 Schmidt): n6xo.o(8ta oupavo6.~. that "at 986C the word [is] connected in an emphaticway o6atgo. The sense in which Isocrates uses xK6ajo.Xp6vo. AiCiko. cKac in' abxrfi •zv for ('ov iaic quTwv. mund.17. )Ib io '11 Riv 'Aaiaoq6.1.iaroc tob Krk. Mass. KaO' eTpov ii'6vo. REv nr' alo )i rov . & oi inokoit xakooatv nKcr. 8.. o. c6a0TCo.29: ic6ajgotneptarpoqi~. iC6atao.. 79 For other instances of Herodotus'use of oupav6q in the sense of "climate"see J.• loRv o1Jpovo wK(Xt O)po)evLv K•) tO) vot nt6ktax. 75Ap. was not of course an esoteric philosophical piece. 33 Diels (above. 6E 6ato.8 (Milller). Minar Jr. Powell. was fairly popular. Et&taindal. ) FiCninTov iV o' .n. tx& inb roi Xt 0IUXpo sTe . (Cambridge. Xtaao6oFevo.. rtavt6I1Oo`(6t&oviEK . lVo I'Civ ininE6ov &8 69piroyv E~i rbv o6agIovi (cf. synonymouslywith o^Opav6q.76is reportedin the first century A.." 74E. 8' E'pU'PTn% . Koa.OntheHistory theGreek KOLMOY of 123 is frequentin Aristotle.. n.142: oi &8 is best tov tO ioC '"o0ve.g. 1972) 245 n. Ecl.122.. -o6ago. Rtvrl.g. ini iv & &ava'tOXijv 'an'Vt rTv tVij.24 Bethe): obpav6. 19.. Arius Did. iatc Xoao •toi tion. &F Rv 8taCpi0tpogRLvou.//Iiei•rat.15 (Menge): YIaOor' 6t& Tfij. Cai"rlv i7v o6pav [sc. "heaven"in general literaturesee Diod.Ka' tiv [np&Tov] Ag oao2x$aica oipavo) Ica rIapoov KaTx& neptoXiv ((ai) yi.73 (Cohn-Wendland): yFcxTat ao.7 (= Arnim.. Ev totvvy 6 6ato. Lex. 6. riiv ri'v &'xvacxohiv. L. aOriv. tix 6k 'nb ToGOspgoi [s KiiaO g 8Fo.78 The use is attested as early as t KOO IsocratesPanegyricus 179: cti yxNp tri yj. pt'vin8 Oi wvavCI o(98ion Ii'rcapaivovra. with paths of the stars.o-rot .

. ri1g and the heavenly revolutionas visual manifestationsof the moon. &.stoXrunpaygoIcai 5Xov [bv KIca0ovqpNThv ?rleltv 88&v veiv tI&g yp o38U' otov etvat--zo F_ oairig t n toitoiAEpvvovzaog--oa to vavtiov ytYv6pievov 6po. although it is often overlooked by translators and commentators.tov Icxr. basic sense of which is "to look down. J. in the sense of "heaven"is frequent in Plato."8' thereforeK6ogo. g &v yti~yveo~ 'otcevov ov 6tXX' ." Similarly.C. coal 6taovcooaEdt 'v o oS acot ove(g CoXO6poouKct?l (iou ot oehal Vrl. eic6ra iarpov r?npt~gdOrla xi otoorov oiyetg" ave'upfioog•v. Aristotle On the Cosmos (Cambridge. 1978) 349 note c. av loitg e'tX& o•aa opaotr7 OeNv ?X oioa oi 7a1i To9vavtiov . Furley's comment. 897C this sense is furtherwarranted the comand 967C5) Kico"Tog by parisonwith Plato's explanationof the benefitsof sight in Tim.80 Leges 820E-821B: AO. stars. The use of K•coog. was so close and familiaras to make possible the occasional use of the latterin derivativesenses of the former. The two referencesto the study of the stars and the subsequentdiscussion (821B-822D) of the tracksof the heavenly bodies indicate that the inquiryinto tbv gyytorov O0bvcail iXov tbv 6i0agov is astronomyand here ratherthan "world. the whole heaven" not only avoids the translation"in the middle of idtvraa oddness of the location of the god's residence "in the middle of the whole world"(in the midst of the sphericalearth?in between the earth the and the sky?) but is distinctly suggested by the icaOopQ..Mass.46E-47C.g doalpyov iaocldolg with the &poCnqcl •t~y3toaov TiRt&O oitCe o'me.F•Ev. 121C3.Rb OrlOtyV v`otg.. "climate"testifies that as early as about390 B.for Kxo•Cgo)v. KA. ao[pov 86i1 . in Criti. where Plato says that Zeus called all the gods into ' "their most honorable residence" which icarx eoov nravro.the synonymy between olpav6o and K6ago.gro the I aCi op& ioc yeveaeog Er KcT6xoot P3EP3cuia •E~.124 Aryeh Finkelberg Isocratesuses ev ahcaio' toU Isocrates' use of 6oago. Mind's orderingactivity again favors the sense of "heaven. . must mean "heaven" &' a t Philebus 28E: cb vo6v nidvra pydvaoit fig. 81Also in its two other occurrencesin the cosmological context in the Laws (897C8 in means "heaven". Plato's counting "theK6(coog" neptupopa." 80But see D. .

alpacitexItv . Lg. Phys.. etc. ui•xro. aether]i•rThprlS n7pir. The fourth-centuryuse of Ka6~1og "heaven"brings us back to for Aitius' report. Again. (Meteor 339b18. more remotely. ExivoU oi xo. This is 0' . yFveFatv (that Theophrastusconceived of the oapcapa]which is cKaxi cx-arax &d formeras filled withegLytvtvrl ratherthan aetheris immaterialhere). [sc." The first instance of this use seems to be Rep.82As we concluded above.28B2. De caelo 301a17. Another semantic developmentwhich took place in this period was the extension of the meaning of oupav6g.C.g. The meaning "heaven" suits the context better: "beginningfrom the generationof the heaven and going down to the creation of man" is indeed a series of accounts in which Timaeus' expertnessin astronomymay find its properapplication. 68o evat. the third sense of ocpav. Theophrastus'similar subdivision of the heaven into the upper and lower regions. 6 epi qtiv yfiv 6KoCgo. 26 Ross). Met. etc. i~va ouipavou b a?6t)o tIl ei?inv 860 ( ot a coipi eooa t nrepi t6 voxa. 86'a~ 6patoi. Cf. 509D: .and was takenup by philosophers. and. on the currentrendering. Aristotle's 6 K•X6og •-rti ri"vyiiv. The phrase resembles Epicurus' neptoxTi tig oupavob. fr. The phrase &p6dgpievov-FXUexe&v suggests a series of consecutive accounts.& avo cpopx. i•Tog cf.and we by •c6•gog can now see why it may have drawnTheophrastus'attention:it became currentin Athens at the beginning of the fourth century B. 990a5. eevx&v &k 5vOp8nyov (pa3ntv Kxh. 84E. 212b17.which. Cf. 896E1. yev~(oeS. Tim. cpcaipav [sc. more than two-of the world and of man-as the traditionaltranslation of the as "world"makes it mean. o nIpTov Xyetiv p06pOevov &rbt Ei. which consists of the element whose nature is and and i'lxepi r•v figyi~.). Phlb. the reportreflects rteptxov the use of K6•Rgog the Pythagoreansof the last generations. De igne 351..84The use is attested in 82Meteor 339b4.accordingto which Pythagoraswas the first who called yiv tilv 8T(ov rneptoxlyv 6cogov.g. 30B5. (Meteor. Pit. cKacapa•.e tb TV vo-roi YVvoug Iai 6tonlou. 340b8.. iCTOvTa cuTpovott'pyov to. in addition to its primary sense of "heaven. The meaning is frequent in Plato83and is well instanced in Aristotle. Ko•R•og Plato's emphasis on Timaeus' being an astronomerappearsirrelevant: to account for the generationof the world and of man one might well (and would better) have been a philosopher. 273C1..340b12) located below 6 (Meteor 339a19."came to mean "world.OntheHistory theGreek KOLMOI of 125 Timaeus27A: "8o4ev y xp iifRivTipgatovgLv. Ei&vat l XlctoXa Kcxtatov fLgov Kal 7Lcpi qcpeTCoog 7avLbrg t ig to K6ogo(TO) InetnrOTgtjvov. which is composed of the four elements 6 o 6 Iog. etc.19-25 (Wimmer): il npcfirrl a(cpppa. ~icaog. the Oepgo6v 83E..6 in Aristotle's definition at De caelo 278b10-21: "In yet another sense we call 'the .

~av "Xov [to1o x taia K6Cdoaov 6 •raipe. gods and men" ("the heaven and the earth" stand here for the respective abodes of gods and men. but it seems •o6•og.. Guthrie [above. not for cosmological entities) which rests on "orderand temperanceandjustice. n. Whether or not it is Pythagorean(for a balanced view see Pythagoreanuse of Ki6otgo. The currentrenderingof the ico(tog. Taylor. ad 508A3). E...284. 10] 308. n. in 87Kerschensteiner (above. 10] 308.KcaiTb pt•.g (otvoviav ouv•xetv Kcai iai 'ilv Cai Kooglt6trl-a Kai aocppoo. Woodheadin E. Burkert[above. as he most probablydid. "world" hardlybe the opposite of "intemperance. who "is incapable of fellowship" "would be dear neither to a fellow-man nor to a god.Jo vbv cai yfiv . and moreover. ad 508A3. ". 86For the moralsense of &riooa(ia Plato cf. The Man and His Work[London 1926] 128-129. -rbOXov can scarcely mean "the universe"here: the denial is that the universe may be called "intemperance" absurd. Kerschensteiner.. D.caiOECoCg &vOpthnou."rbo "the heaven and the earth. that not in all instances in which the word is traditionallytranslatedas "world"does it have this meaning. as "world"or o`Ni d•oXao(iav." For this reasonthe sages refer to this all-embracingcommunityas a (moral) and order. and others) and the passage is often taken as witnessing the 4. it demonstrativeto^ro. Plato could not hope.and that is why the intemperate."85 Secondly.126 Aryeh Finkelberg philosophers. not the world of disorder and riot" (W. The Collected Dialogues of Plato 2 [Princeton1963] 290). A. But if -r6 iOXov to^ro is the fellowship of cannot be called "a world-order. is correctin stressingthe moral and political. Plato. in the sense "universe"to ~iXovneed not be specified by the oXov does not refer to the universe." 85To avoid the difficulty translatorsresort to awkwardverbal additions:". . Gorgias 507E-508A: cpaq 86'oi odpaKaXhiKeXt. K6oaLog contrastedwith but can dwKoX(aoia.not disorderliness86 intemperance. Symp. 4] ibid. cf. Hamilton and H.. not a world-disorder"(Dodds [above. Plato's use of for "world"is well exemplified.. Cairns eds. oi~ drCoogitav Coaiocotv."87 heaven' the body encircled by the extreme circumference:the whole or totality we are in habitto call 'the heaven'. .. his wordplayin Republic 509D be understood by the generalreader. n. they call the sum of things the 'ordered'universe . Kai aocpoi.. they call this universe a world-order ... n. some is raises "world-order" problems. 73] 77-79). 8t6. 188B. purportof the passage. n. the linguistic use is quite regular:the sense of the K~6ojto. 3) 223-224..but if it were not popularenough.vlv Kcai8tccat6trlTa. First. The sages Plato refers to are commonly maintainedto be the Pythagoreans(see Dodds [above. ratherthan cosmological.

it falls from the throughout The passage is heaven. 31. notably. The soul journeys throughout the whole universe. it enters o0&toa yqi. is preparedto recognize in the K6otgo. c&ta yri'vov Xa4Coixoa KcXk.Phetdre R. 90For a concise critical survey of the studies concerningthe chronology of Plato's diain logues.XToT'-v Xo1)A d8 ytYvotFVrj. 8 tEpoppl )oaOa o. Platon. still not acquiredthe sense of "world. it emerges that this meaning is found only in the late dialogues. Kco•og. presumably from the fifties of the fourth century B. onwards) control.90) had K6coog." R.g v oGtpEEO) 'tvog0 o &vt1iXPrlat. sense of "heaven"here. where he depicts the procession of gods and souls following paragraphs the heaven). Oeuvrescompletes.vov. now another:when it is "perfectand and inhabits rndvra winged" it travels in the heights ([tewexoporopd) "the whole heaven"(precisely as Plato portraysthis in the r6v K6aoaov.universe"suggests that by that time (presumablythe mid-sixties of the fourth century B. Since these dialogues seem to be the first Greek texts in which is used in the sense of "world" (we shall return to Ko6oLo. strippedof its wings."88 the parallel Yet with Kacott o0dEac suggests the other sense of &8otl~.5ed. oT eoax. 288. K•aotmoOl1 The verb 8totiko is usually takenhere in the sense "to manage. Hackforth."the ensuing translationbeing: "when a soul is perfect and winged it travelsin the heights and controls the whole world. 508A3 and Phdr 246C2 is erroneous.e.Plato's Phaedrus (Cambridge1952) 70.C.89 of great interest:the fact that which standsfor "heaven"is conK•6o•og trastedwith o0pav6g which stands for "world. Krauted. 16) 43 n. e. inhabitsthe earth. Robin 4 (Paris 1961) 3e partie.S is "social order"which Plato associates with the related moral notions." If I am correct that the rendering of as "world" in Grg.g.Rtspo•tvrvl pte poiropsi T E l & <pUpEat 8totKE1C.TOza Cgtiv o0v 'Tv 6opov -rEici dvmroa K o~oa 1cuaiin. . The Cambridge Companionto Plato (Cambridge1992) 90-120. rndtva oupav6v.OntheHistory theGreek KOLMOZ of Phaedrus 246B-C: 127 X1 RCX cxv XVUX a av0XC . Brandwood. Tim.a[poioax indicates that the reference is &totw•1 to the heaven. translation. 122 n. &m o8pavcv irtv-ra tt'o E1U1Xat Xoi zoC . . while the contrastbetween r6v oK6aoov and o&toa yrji'vov .qand 88 See.. L. taking now one form. viz."Stylometryand Chronology. 19E). see L. 'v•xTo 7reptroXi. the Timaeus. 89Mansfeld (above.but when. namely "to inhabit"(cf. coojit6zr.C. 246C. n. and Philebus (i.Politicus.

•ai Finally.1-2 is of an early date. 59A3.If my conclusions are correct. and in Ko6•1o. the first K-tX.--ii KOgOO. n. In Timaeus28B3. n. oTt lro'TE same a synonym of oi6pav6g (in the sense of "world"):6 8 ir& 11 a •XXo _ovowX ogi6vo. as in the Timaeus. If these chapters are of an early date indeed. Astius. Now the "the men of wisdom" used Kacoog. in 28E4."Platonoder Pythagoras? Zum Ursprungdes WortesPhilosophie. Above I allowed for the sake of the argument that Memorabilia 1.40A where the meaning is "adornment"(so correctlyF. 27A6. The way in which the term is treatedin all three dialogues supportsthis conclusion.v. s.128 Aryeh Finkelberg Xenophon's Memorabilia in a moment). W ia'TXV xi ' oIapav•.though Mansfeld (above. B 17. in its regularsense of "heaven")Plato defines n Kcoa~o. "world"would be readily understandable outside the Academy. in the first of the two occurrences of the Etzei?rlXpEv KcTX. cK6aoog. In the ixotto. it seems reasonable to conclude that the usage was Plato's own terminological innovation. currentlyconsidered a distinctively Pythagoreanterm.. B 6.If so. Pythagorean 93 So in F W. 31. too the very first appearanceof the word. 73] 218-277. xc6'ogo. 16) 43 and n.v." 92 W."Herwas mes 88 (1960) 159-177.776. B 2. are accepted by Burkert[above. .92 There was however one writer who immediately noticed Plato's terminological innovation. and Huffman [above. subsequentto the definition are in the terminologicalsense. was also Plato's innovation. seems and correctin detectingthe pun on "adornment" "heaven.91 word in the terminologicalsense in the Philebus (29E1. suggested that the term (plXoYocpia inventedby Plato rather than by Pythagoras. according to Memorabilia 1. seems evident that Plato did not expect that his use of for Koatgo. LexiconPlatonicum [Leipzig 1835] 207. all these least those in which ic6aoog. s. Philolaus' fragments--at occurs in the sense of "world"(B 1.can only be "heaven. tro~0' iyIV davotd0om'o time the term occurs in the Politicus (269D8) it is expressly introduced as a synonym of oUpaxv6g(=world): 8v &i8oiUpavbv m c6xl ov ici LEv CX cap1ovplv nxapx noXXav xro yevvvioavxog 7rn(OvotdKxa1CEv. Kc6o`o. as we have seen. the peculiar sense in which. The only exception is Tim. n. is in the sense of "heaven")its conventional characteris carefully pointed out: Ta-rxbv8i Xca3g XnRpi ro•8 ~v It thus &8 K6otLov XTyog•v.LexiconXenophonteum (Leipzig 1801) 1.11. It is not for nothing that in accountingfor the doctrinesAristotlefailed to mentionPhilolaus' book.1. 57] 15-37 and passim)-must be a post-Platonicforgery.."93 91In both dialogues all the occurrencesof ic6ogio. but now we may try to determineits chronology with a more precision. Cornford's "world"is a mistranslation). before he starts to employ the word in the new sense (in 24C1 is used in the political context. Sturz.

.if the means "heaven."the KoqoLto.1-2 cannot be earlier. than Plato's Timaeus. Nickel.8.the sixties of the fourth century).On the History of the GreekKOWMOI 129 discussion of "the natureof all things"is specified by Xenophon as the runs"and inquiry into "how what the men of wisdom call the Ko"tgoq into "by what necessities each of the heavenly phenomenatakes place.96 ues to use in the sense of "heaven.3. recall Kc6oL'o. .must.4. less frequentlythan ou'pav6. o'rto t&x K•ioalvVzoxv p v rpd&x'Trv oa'itt'tov (Mem. 246C. Xenophon(Darmstadt1979). which is the terminuspost quem (presumably."and in reference to the K•6o•o. and hence its absence from the Laws seems to have been due to Plato's ad hoc decision ratherthan to a principledrenunciationof the usage. in sengested vo."a use which he never entirely abandoned. Xenophon's referencemay be to the oral use of the term ratherthan to specific dialogues. and it is their peculiaruse of Ko6Lgo. which is now commonly considered a unified composition. The Memorabilia..e. eeoFo yeE 6Wv 6ttyv Icr. be "world.and in the Laws he returned to the use of the word in its regular meaning. then. 821A2. For a critical survey of the discussion of the date of the Memorabilia. Aristotle contin"heaven.94 Xenophon's "the men of wisdom" are thus the Academy.. It seems that in working on the TimaeusPlato felt the need for an additionalterm for "world" which would convey semantic nuances absent in o)pav6. the way in which Xenophon conveys a similar idea in Cyr. then. must mean a meaning which sugis 897C8.. Memorabilia 1. interchangeablywith oppabv6. All this however must remain purely speculative. At the same time Aristotle's use of the word in Plato's terminologicalsense suggests that the term was not eventually discarded in the Academy. then.o. . be later than Phaedrus and probablyeven later than Timaeus. Our textual evidence is Phdr. as What. world he uses 6o . 95 Cf... and the Timaeus. must. which is the terminus ante quem (presumablythe fifties).. 28E4(i. in oral discussions." The latter inquiry is astronomical. immediately. The sense of the K6co0o.95 6p&'opat gt'ytorxo Plato seems to have not intendedhis new usage to replace the traditional ones: he used Ko~0ao. oi cai -rivE-riiv 96 Lg. and the whole discussion of "the natureof all things" would turn out to be about astronomyalone. or at least much earlier.ato. 6 8taicExcoogincgi))oa caZr' by o-opavov theprevious we that in the irtv0' of is in 27A6and tence)." (at967C5 ic•(6ogo..•Xh•v oiv(*Xoxotv "order.13: . could be Plato's reasons for introducing 6oag. recordshere and imitates elsehe where: 6'rbv Xkov aoov T ... sense "heaven"found Tim.." This being so. . former would be both cases before formal the introduction newterminological of the sense) andin theCritias whichpresumably followstheTimaeus (121C3). an additional term for "world"? The traditional scholarly association of 94 Perhaps the new usage was initiated earlier in the Academy.see R.3.13).. Phlb.

which is the first known occurrenceof the The word (zrv oot Ey 6c8tcoojpov otuc6rz andvrozor`pazro). Its use in the resultative sense is derivative.98 There is how/ ever a principal morphological difference between 8td•Kootog.60. of the in B 8. comes to designate the result of its action. then to the created one. said to be in a state of disorder before it comes to its present orderly condition. Timaeus 29A: "If this the designationof its Sta•xooF`o action. but ignored by Kranz [above. for it [sc. sion of meaning brought cK6?oo. it is obvious that he looked to the eternal [pattern]. in Using K6~C1og. cosmogony. . It is clear to everyone that he looked to the eternal. the latter. see also Kerschensteiner[above. 14.. a/ctaro in the cosmological context alreadyin the fifth century. the assumption that cK6o"o. the world as an outcome of cosmogony. of the word and the contentof the Doxa).setting in order.60 as "the system of the naturalworld"neglects both the morphology 8t~IKootgo. 273B5 the Kcoaog. the sense of "world"was the extension of its sense of "heaven"by analogy with the extendeduse of This extenoopa(v6g. 273A1). which the goddess is promising to by relate turns out to be a cosmogony. namely.with beauty and orderliness seems to be irrelevant.riEZXov&tr(aiat lXpiv ei. and hence later. 99As Kerschensteiner (above. n. observed. viz. 8toiCooigo.) and the creator good." Plt.-the of the word must be "[world-]ordering"ratherthan "[world-]order"(in Parmenidesthis sense is authenticated the fact that the 6t& a verbalnoun and as such designates action-"(distributive) marshalling. this K60oYog] the most beautiful is (iKktolrno.if relatedto the verb. 3] 434. and 8StaK16(Xojt otg. verb 8t•aoopj(io was used 0 by Anaxagoras(B 12) with referenceto the cosmogonical activity of the Mind.but if what is awful to say is right. cf. .) of creations . n.6 KooaIo) and its derivative8td&Kcooao. As to the idea of "order. (272E5. n. 3] 175. 6 viyvK~6ojgov a0ptPto(uOtParmenidesB 98For the first time in 8.regulating"(as was stressed by Reinhardt.99I would therefore suggest that Plato sought for a term 97 Note that the logical subject of the phrase 'v . n.[above.60 and in the Atomists' book titles--MEyaq properrendering o8tiKooajo. formeris the verbalnoun relatedto K6ctJog. that of its morphology and the semantic field to which it was linked by Plato's innovativeuse. strongly implies the idea of beauty would turn Plato's reasoninginto a in is sophistry. 3) 13. 3] 227. For this reason in ParmenidesB 8. 3] 13). viz. is 0K60ojo. on the other: while the on the one hand.130 Aryeh Finkelberg K6oJog. 16. zrv Kahn's interpretation[above. n. and Mtcpb &8tdrooKgo." Clearly.into a semantic relation with 8towhich were used / beautiful (KcX6.97 Plato's meaning can perhaps be better isolated if we consider the word from the linguistic point of view.

it is however noteworthythat he uses the word predominantly the deverbativesense. n.the only clear instance of the resultativemeaningis Tim. K6Jogo. where the word is applied to battle order.103 passage reads as follows: in the Stoics: 100Ps. Taylor. then.23E2 the sense is ambiguous.19). F.101As a and became synonyms. but never in the cosmological context. / to designate. cf. but also III It remainsto examine the semantic developmentas a result of which Kcoaogo came to designate the world's several regions. Lg. of time these terms generally replaced the use of oupav6. The first instance of this use is Aristotle Metaphysics 986a6. the ensuing world.A Commentaryon Plato's Timaeus(Oxford 1928) 378. Prep. def.but it seems that what is meant to have been recorded is the chronicle of founding the city ratherthan its constitution. in Critias 118A1 "the organizing of the territory" the works describedin the next paragraphs. terminologicaluse in the resultativesense. 209A7 the meaning is "the orderingof society". 103 D. 4. D. Mansfeld (above. 421F-422A. 3) 51-53.). 16) 43. De mundo 391bl 1 (StoaKcolrolat).. but in later authorsthe use is abundant.. A. of (London 1888) 198-199. Presumably in drawing on current exegeses Plutarch construes the five aoCioot Timaeus55C-D as earth. 853A3 "the arrangin by ing of the law".-Arist. in Tim.On the History of the GreekKOLMOZ 131 which would be a resultativenoun in respect to the action conveyed by 8taKooaglo. Arius Dyd. in the sense of "world. occurs several times. not only cosmogony. 389F-390A. etc.t. water. air. E. ad loc.137. fire. De De or 430B-C. Eus. and heavens.The Timaeus Plato R. Evang. . taocdoagrlot. and in the course result.L. 102 E. 422F-423B.169.400b32 (Sta6Kooago. n.93." 8t61ooago. It may. seem thatPlato's was too strong to put the word to the feeling for the deverbativesense of &taKcdoaglo. Archer-Hind. Cornford. ap. and icoogo was just the word. n. 7.15 (= Arnim [above. Plato's Cosmology (London 1937) 221. which is the only occurrenceof the word in the cosmological context in Aristotle. 15. In in Symp.102 and scholars are prepared to follow his interpretation.In Plato Stoacirlo. This suggestion seems to be corroborated a semantic developmentwhich evidently took place by outside the Academy but which seems to have been motivated by the same terminological need-I mean the extension of the use of o86acoardlot. thus allowing "world's The regions" as Plato's intended meaning of Koa6goti. 101This use seems to be first attestedin Thuc. Kerschensteiner(above.24C4.100 This usage conforms to the general semantic developmentof the word which graduallycame to be used also in the resultativesense. ad loc. 75] 2. M.

. 'r6 lgiv &Xnipou. nI6epov . pcXv•xIt o1v 6p0•e Eva '04 oCpavbv ii InoXX Kai neirpou.. 7n6'rEpov Eva i i •xv axbro).oxtt.g Ei.q 7(xipov trvb."105 Timaeuspassage two other texts have been referredto as supposedly testifying the fourth-centuryorigins of the notion of the universe as stratifiedinto several oajogot. 70. Damascius De Principiis 321 (Ruelle) = Eudemus fr. rlV vTC 'aixTbv iv'Zxov KacXcL[tiVjv. 150 (Wehrli. .12-19): ~ &S 6 evaoCt &d•i mic Xp6vov cxi EpEFicrj.q &pxd. EXXo.132 Aryeh Finkelberg & 81i Ei vr6voXa Xoy~t6Igvo. However. srpEi.o fvat Xiyetv i irCnpaXq v 66y(iya &nEipou.Xpl Kcogou. 68t& iv yetyv nori npoon•icnt. which is confirmedby the comparisonwith Timaeus31A-B. 6XX(a nirl 5dot. 860x phi•q. 105 Though conceding Plutarch's interpretation."'"xva vre (x i~i' a'rooi in the next clause and 'vaxatxr6v in the last one must also refer to worlds. n. va. riv pnkuijv. wonders:"Itstill remainsa puzzle why Plato should speak of the notion that thereare five cosmoi = regions in the one world as an alternativeto a single cosmos = world or an indefinitenumberof worlds"[Cornford's italics]. XrlV av. Ualoto 7np ici irveiwcoa ci {6p. the K6aoLotmeans "worlds. n7epi & tol)Tov (kxog i'a•g E•o K(Xtpo. I'x.. npcjaX. 103) 220-221. vo)v TnoxilV &rlv 8tplvtt• LZFotg uov oivat 8&0v. •ttXgE &knopoin~drepov it ~xovrx. devat &A evat.1'4 But if the io6agot in the first clause means "worlds. what seems clear is that the question posited in the first clause refers to the numberof worlds allowed to be in existence. X•ytv •i nrpoostpjiKcaOEv.otat "tb oi•zre &0ooijZ'&nIEpo.. yewvev ( ibo) inEv. taXXov &v a(xiq o'Trg . 'rtepa Timaeus' unaccounteddigression from the discussion of the primary bodies to the question of how many i6~o0aotshould be assumed is puzzling. nesvtEKoopgov. LiKCxOq 6taunopi7otj 'r jgivo3v 6i1 nap' 1[t(6v va acxbyv ixar&x & 'rv eiK6CaX6yov nTUcx6o vrtrljvut el 6v. npitv roi cai g C 1v v tCvTe vorl ou. Z&vmro [. E1pto. lunrtpov xpe~Ov Fxrl0ex o ne_<(uxd. ijyiatxr' &v ? ~aXvg(Pninp6 X8oviav Tcv 8voiv.Cornford (above. o pav6... 6XX' Ef 688 govoyevi~. e~nicO1eV6 rnot~vKC6ogou."not "regions. Ei'nspCa-r nap6d&itYga taOra 86Erl1itoOpyrg1vo. 'ilv x 'Xv &8Xp6vov notiIoat -KTouy6vov aXi 6io poZ& xr&. Plutarch'sexegesis is unwarranted: whateverthe purportof the passage Besides this may be.

De caelo 287a30-b14. 83. Mansfeld109aptly compares the notion of regional with the popularview of the universe as composed of concenK6at1ot tric elemental spheres.C.but it was alreadyprefigured in the Presocraticcosmologies. 213. Mansfeld traces this view back to Aristotle.108 if nonetheless Simplicius' version is preferred.Heraclides Ponticus fr. n. 251. 16) 44-45. be Damascius' (and it rtevr_4guXo. n. 109Mansfeld (above. The explanation of as og must. Arist. 3) 53-54 and n. n. if (arrangement) coato. 21) 486. fr. 215 IsnardiParente). 115 and notes 253 and 256.the correct version But being the singularKacoiogin Hippolytus. the plural acoigot in which have been admitted to refer to the elemental spheres. which is not the case.the grammaticalparallelbetween rob. 5 and 18 (Heinze = fr.110 well as with the subdivisions of the heavas in the early Academy"' and the Aristotelian distinction enly region (above. n. 7. 137. Cf. 252. in following Aristotle Metaphysics 1091b8. n. and the third is quite on a par with them.S Theophrastusis supposed to have describedthe cosmic stratain others' doctrines by the term co6aogot. "La religion astralede Platon ' Cic6ron. Yet although the notion of the world's several a6oigot cannot be traced back to the fourth century B." REG 65 (1952) 331-335. and toi. and Kerschensteiner106 suggested that the explanationof the Pherecydian as must be his. 15. 36. n. Furtherevidence of the early use of Kc6?aog for several cosmic regions has been found in the Theophrastean report on Anaximanderdiscussed above (pages 108-109). Kerschensteiner (above.OntheHistory theGreek KOEMOX of 133 Damascius draws here on Eudemus.19-25). 107Mansfeld 106 Kerschensteiner . 493-494. The first two underlined phrases are clearly Damascius' own surmises. Burkert(above. P. then. oipaseems to suggest the meaning "a single vou. 110See.(world). The suggestion does not appeartenable when Damascius' whole passage is considered. for instance." At any rate. may certainly be expected to have he used the term in his own stratification of the universe (De igne 351. Pherecydes' approach as midway between theology and natural philosophy.its preconditionsare plausibly already there. 1. she argues. Ill Xenocrates fr.L. the surmise i'owg bespeaks Eudemus' attemptto EittEnv construe.107 Yet Simplicius' plural seems to be due to a corruption. cf. tuXo'o coatoot for. nrev'r•co~o may be added that this explanationneed not be more relevantthan his two previous conjectures). 3) 44. (above. 16) 43-44. n. 155.. cf. 73) 245 n. 108 See Finkelberg(above. K6tomago in each single oiUpav6. and in the Stoics: D. for furtherreferences see Mansfeld (above. 16) 114 and notes 250. Boyanc6. 96 (Wehrli).

tbv &vwKai Ko6o•go•T TbvKXdOC CT X.. rnepteXeo0at rtdoa T&.169. ov pog. a generalizationof its use in the sense of "a (particular) was heavenly region (sphere)" for all the world's spherical strata.Yiq Rept Cb g•oov . was applied to more than one. Aristotle's two senses of Koa(log.15. n. Thus it seems that the name Kojogo.. or g'pip (1. we as Burkerthas shown. 14) 466.114 may thus suppose that the "regional" of K6opog.and the earth. &~havwvTilv tlV tdhrlv elvat TeX& (xZCv) Tv icaijleC' etra ilv toi "Apeog. cov ( Tfi T•&v ocpaipaq.1).9 (=Arnim [above.43.15). 2. oP v (PEP U p tail ae&lIv TjilV t To TEXEvETo3Xa aR rlV t' qK oralgeovToDlrogot ceIteIVl X. Burkert (above. n.. heavenly regions. tger& Ta(xriv TijvTzo-At'd. In the first two chapters of the treatise the world is divided into seven ro4t. fr.of water. 73) 245 and n. Ta(av 5•% til%T. except for the earth and the peculiar outermostheaven (2. Epinomis 987B advises to reserve the name for the sphere of the fixed stars alone. ro l)1noo(krlvov Kai R-pPyetovjgipo.41. t&v 5e nr(avwgevwvdyrlxo&(hav&v nmXb Irxavwgjvw0iv & Toi Kp6vou. As to the term 6co(toq.70). These are the outer heaven. repeatedin Mansfeld'srefer- ence (above.. Again.7. and it was but a short step to make this cumulativeuse systematic. readily suggest the terminological distinction between two We meaning heavenly KG6got. to Burkert.. 70.1) . nDR&8 eFxa •lv toi illioi. of air. 73) 244-246. 16) 43 n. n. the sun and the moon. jgoipat (1. 50. but in the second partof AMtius' reporton Philolaus. 113Burkert's"of the cosmos" (above. e' Adv. (1. of the moon. all of them (including the spheres of air and 112Aet.31: E{vat 5& yet [sc. pseudo-Hippocratic in of 6o'Tgoq the "regional"sense.. as distinct which is the outerheaven. Aristotle] &51o 114Epiphan. 75] 2. the upper and lower heavens. ilV & i 'Eptoi.134 Aryeh Finkelberg between the upper and lower heavens.112 find the typically is the in Platonic threefold division of the heavens113 which ioa'to. and from oUpav6. of the sun. 2.Pefij. confirms known instance of the use this conclusion. 42) and collectively (1.beneathwhich there are other Ki6ogotoiot 8 -rv t0bv j opttolyv jloto vetv •18v (2. 31 &% Diels (above. which. 115It should be noted in this connection that the Stoics seem to have used the term a(paipa for both the celestial spheres and the elemental sphericallayers:Arius Did. which is from"Ok•hgnro.. if eventuallynot to all. The is feature of these K6opGot that. is a Platonic concoction.78) which severally (1. TV (TO) i6azo. name of the sphereof the five planets. 34. 63 Roscher). 36. haer 3.j i azr(lV i i&o't tSi jlV TvfiG iAvl Rald(ovdo av tzcod~pt .7 = DK 44 A 16.. n.115The which seems to be the first tractDe hebdomadibus. &e% to3 TfiT 'Ap(poSi'lT. the spheres of the stars.95) are referred to as mistaken. n.

have been a philosophical tract in which the theory of the homocentricrotatingspheres was adaptedto the Academic-Peripatetic stratificationsof the heaven into several main regions.44) is accepted. the tract evidences the derivationof the use of K60ototin the "regional"sense from the use of the word for heavenly spheres. Platonic account of Philolaus).1. Eudoxus' spheres were known as and uptipa1t. like the Hebdomadic author.6.OntheHistory theGreek KOXMOX of 135 water as well as the subterranean ones) move in circles (2.24.g.7: EirthxKoagIot the seven planets. as the name of the outer heaven in the "Oh••rtog. 256. "Okugnrog. oaUpav6g used synonymously of the outerheaven (cf. 12.2. Met.32. 218.does not hesitate to locate the fixed stars and the planets in the same spherecan hardlybe a reader of astronomicaltreatises. It is however noteworthythat ic6agog was the established astronomicalterm for the sphere whose radiusis the straightline between the centers of the earthand sun.17 certain features of the Hebdomadicpicture suggest its philosecondly. 117Both in astronomical and general literature. Eucl.6 (Menge). 31 etc. 34 (Miiller). and the use of K6o'tot for the designation of all the elemental spheres must be part of this generalization. 1073b17. Herm. K6cLog. The piece seems to have originated in Platonic-Peripatetic circles: Eudoxus' theory (as improvedby Callippus) of the homocentric spheres was introduced into philosophy and adaptedby Aristotle. 47).Aren. Indeed. 1. Corp. this epithet of the outermostsphere would parallel Theophrastus' description (De igne 351.15.. The source of the De hebdomadibus must.1 (Heiberg). and these concentric stratawere termed K6O(0ot. where 6o(0og. if Roscher's emendation lprilrou for Xcipitro(1. e.172. This terminological use of K6o•gog meaning "heavenlysphere.the name of the outermost sphere 6 (2.. This bizarrebehaviourof the 6oaTjotsuggests their origin in the astronomical theory of the homocentric rotating spheres. Aren. must be derivativeof its 218. The Hebdomadiccosmology seems to be a generalizationof the astronomicalmodel for the world as a whole. 1. Diod. To these it may be added that a person who. First of all.. Arist. Kcotio.the Hebdomadicterminology suggests Academic. the immobility of the outermost is conspicuous:in so far as it is not the sphereof the fixed stars.see. cf. Arch. and are 977B. it cannot come from an astronomicaltheory.l16 More specific conclusions must remain conjectural. If so. The source on which the Hebdomadicauthorpresumablydrew could hardly be astronomical. sophical. see Arch. Phaen. then. = Cf.24) of his rpdokrl but apcixpa as Ktircxog. ratherthan astronomical. above all. 42) evokes Epinomis 06X•rtigto." 116 .provenance.

"). there properly i. it besides the use in seems evident that the "regional"sense of 6oajgo. as in Herm. 1: ". Or the may be those other 'climes. . TEL AVIV UNIVERSITY 118 Not the narrowing of the sense of "world" as is generally supposed. sections or zones of the earth'which Ka6•aot have suns and moons of their own (Adt. e... 16) 44 and n. 2. The meaning was never lost and the word seems to have been used only for the world's strata or strata-like 6 regions.24. 'world-arrangements.. Ecl.. in Cornford[above. aroundthe first century B. is a linguistic fancy. . the sense of "world." or in Kirk [above. with referenceto 6 pverdpoato Kpog6to of leading). the term for the solar sphere)usage.e. But whateverthe detailed points of semanticdevelopmentmay be. s. n. 396. 119 in This is the exact meaning of icoaJgog its "regional"use. n.v.17. ap. c6ajgogiv.. 35.9). while the use of KoG'Tot for all the heavenly regions is a generalization as of Platonic (but perhapsalso the astronomical-K6oJlgo..C. n.119 Assuming Mansfeld's date of the De hebdomadibus..1 (Wachsmuth). The popularconstrualof the word as referringto "partialarrangements" the world (as.g.where 0'er6polo. Kerschensteiner (above.this use must be late. also Peripatetic. Stob.""118 The word which meant "heaven" and then "a (particular)heavenly of sphere."is anotherextension of its meaning "heaven.. 22] 178 n.provenance. for instance. see.. 3) 58-59."came to designate also all the other "spheres" which the universe was commonly believed to consist. Mansfeld (above.136 AryehFinkelberg and if Roscher's emendationis accepted. the ambiguous use of Kdoagot [in the same report of Hippolytus] . 21] 9: "K6ajgothere [in Hippolytus'report in on Xenophanes]might mean successive 'arrangements' which dry land and sea are distinct . are and K6oagog 6 ~irntx6vioqK6Tagog distinguished(LSJ. 405. n. "of any region in Stobaeusis misof the universe"[LSJ's italics].' of the earth'ssurface .

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