INFECTION CONTROL- preventing the spread of microorganism Microorganism: A.K.A.

microbes/germs - are living things so small that they can be seen only by a microscope - can’t be seen by the naked eye - always present in the environment and on the body Pathogen- microorganism that cause disease TYPES OF PATHOGEN THAT CAUSE DISEASE: 1. Bacteria 2. Virus 3. Fungi 4. Protozoa Escherichia coli- both harmful and microorganism, it helps the intestines work properly, but if it enters the urinary tract it can cause infection. PATHOGEN THAT ARE DANGEROUS IN HEALTH CARE FACILITY: 1. Streptococcus (Strep)- present in the throat, this can cause sore throat and pneumonia 2. Staphylococcus (Staph)- bacteria present in the skin causes infection of the wound and other places in the body. INFECTION CHAIN- how pathogens move from one place to the other 1. Pathogen or causative agent: causes the infection or the disease e.g. virus, bacteria, fungi 2. Reservoir- place where causative agent is able to live and reproduce Common reservoir: a. human with an active case of disease, carrier of the disease b. animals c. object that comes in contact with the infected person d. environment 3. Portal of exit- the way the pathogen leave the body in the form of urine, feces, saliva, tears, wound drainage, sores, blood excretion from respiratory tracts or genitals 4. Route of transmission- the way the pathogen is transmitted from reservoir to a new host, it is how the pathogen travels 5 ways: a. contact transmission- most common form i. direct contact- body surface – body surface contact ii. indirect contact- contact with contaminated object b. droplet transmission- droplet containing microorganism are sent flying a short distance through: sneezing, coughing, talking c. airborne transmission- occurs when evaporated droplets/particles of dust containing microbes remain in the air for long period and carried along by air d. vehicle transmission- microbes are transmitted by contaminated items e.g. food, water

Stomach from microorganism both pathogenic and nonpathogenic . draining/pus 3. Mucous Membrane.object or area that is contaminated by pathogen Sterile. Susceptible host. fever. pain/tenderness 4. gastrointestinal c.high body temperature kills many microorganism 8. respiratory b. Skin. creates a barrier to keep organisms from entering the body 2. Fever. transport mucus and pathogen out of the body 4. flies.g.produces sticky mucous that can trap and kill microorganism 3. reddening 2.means by which pathogen enters the body Common portal of entry: a. mosquitoes 5. It is the most powerful defense Signs of infection: 1. Portal of entry. cuts/breaks in the skin 6.produces special proteins that kill certain pathogen. very young and old NATURAL DEFENSES that wards off invasion of harmful microorganism: 1. Immune Response.if unbroken. Cilia. mother-fetus f. fatigue.tiny hair that is found in the respiratory tract. gastro-urinary d. or can harbor the pathogen Conditions that make a person susceptible to infection: Poor nutrition. vomiting 7.strong acid that kills many pathogen and devour them 7.the person who can be infected.expel pathogen and foreign materials 5. Coughing.e. rashes BREAKING the CHAIN of INFECTION: controls the spread of infection MEDICAL ASEPSIS/CLEAN TECHNIQUE. Inflammation. nausea.wash away pathogen and foreign bodies out of the eyes and chemicals in tears kills certain bacteria 6. Tears. fatigue 5.object or area that is not contaminated by pathogen Dirty.there is intermediate host that transmits microbes e. rats.most important defense . loss of appetite 6.bring blood and other disease fighting substance to the source of infection 9. Sneezing. circulatory e. vector transmission. emotional stress. Clean.procedure designed to limit the number of pathogen and to keep them from spreading.

apron.pneumonia. Never wear gloves in hallways 6. dead & living matters CAREGIVER’S ROLE: 1. Clean spills quickly 3. Keep linen away from uniform 9.killing microorganism by extreme high temperature . chickenpox. Droplet precaution.conjunctivitis. scabies 6 conditions that affects the growth of microorganism decrease the risk of transmission of pathogen from both known and unknown reason/sources of infection . moisture 3. gown. Disinfection. Remote gloves immediately after completing procedures. Sterilization. Terminal cleaning. Consider blood. light 6.TB. body fluids & excrement contaminated .does not kill all spores 2. Airborne precaution.slows the growth and activity of microorganism that are not killed . Keep environment clean 7. mask & protective eyewear when needed  Washing hands at appropriate time  Transporting infected residents using indicated safeguards  Cleaning common equipments between residents use TRANSMISSION-BASED precaution/isolation a. food 2. Hand washing before and after performing procedures 2. Use isolation technique when ordered and follow directions on posted signs 8. influenza c.using a chemical substance or boiling water to kill most microorganism . oxygen 5. do hand washing 5. Contact precaution.thorough cleaning of patient after patient is discharged end bed is remade STANDARD PRECAUTION guidelines by Center for Disease Control: .every person is treated as potential infectious STANDARD PRECAUTION: universal precaution body substance isolation .MEDICAL ASEPSIS TECHNIQUES include: 1.killing all microorganism including spores 3. temperature 4. measles b. Follow standard precaution 4.steps that can help protect against transmission of microorganism through body fluids:  Wearing gloves.

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