Running head: SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY

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Selective Literature Review: Clinical Usage and Application of Hypnotherapy Tammy Daniel Coles Walden University

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY Abstract

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This literature review explores research conducted in the past 10 years related to the utilization of hypnotherapy treatments for Acute Stress Disorder (ASD), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The focus of this review is to investigate the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in treating the symptoms of each DSM-IV disorder. Findings indicate that the use of hypnotherapy methods in the treatment ASD and PTSD offer the most consistently positive outcomes. Hypnosis treatments in relation to MDD are relatively inconsistent.

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY Clinical Usage and Application of Hypnotherapy Over the past decade, there has been a great deal of discussion about the potential use of

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hypnotherapy as a treatment method in clinical counseling. There is a significant lack of empirical research to support the use of hypnosis in a clinical setting for most disorders. Much of the available research discusses moderate effect sizes utilizing small samples that may not accurately represent a multicultural population. That said most researchers support hypnotherapeutic treatment applications as effective methodology in mental health counseling. Current research is limited in scope and the study of hypnotherapy in individuals that meet the diagnostic criteria for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may require stronger supportive data to be recognized as an established clinical counseling method. Hypnosis in treating PTSD shows the greatest potential with the most supportive research. Much of the research reviewed discusses hypnotherapy as being most effective when utilized simultaneously with other treatment methodologies. The literature doesn’t seem to support this theory consistently. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is the most commonly cited as a complimentary treatment approach, but in data regarding the effectiveness of a CBT only control group in comparison to a CBT with hypnotherapy treatment group for treating Acute Stress Disorder (ASD), there was no statistical difference between groups (Bryant, Moulds, Guthrie, & Nixon, 2005). Findings in the current research literature regarding the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in treating depression are inconsistent. The empirical support necessary for hypnosis to be considered a viable treatment option for depression, just isn’t available. Although there are many individual case studies that offer evidence of a single individual who significantly benefited from

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY 4 hypnosis in treating clinical depression, there are very few empirical studies that offer supportive evidence. Some debate also exists regarding the over-reporting of positive results in current research and arguments that earlier studies utilized assessment instruments that don’t accurately measure the hypothesis of the research. Researcher bias is a strong topic of debate. The lack of independent auditing and lack of research bias statements also sacrifice the validity of the strongest supportive research. A combination of solid clinical studies, unbiased researchers, independent auditors and empirically recognized research methodologies could offer the support that hypnotherapy requires to be widely accepted a therapeutic mental health treatment strategy. Studies that have been critically reviewed by peers on both sides of the debate prior to publication would add further strength to the validity of current data. In case studies and convention speeches, it is obvious that clinical practitioners are enthusiastic about the potential of adding hypnotherapeutic methodologies to their practices. The need for solid research is a clear one that has and will continue to consistently limit the incorporation of hypnosis into clinical psychological practice. Strong and consistent PTSD treatment evidence offers the strongest support for hypnosis in clinical settings. Utilizing hypnosis in treating PTSD and conducting more research that scientifically/empirically supportable could help remove the “fad” stigma from hypnotherapy and help the methodology gain needed professional support. Research Inclusions and Exclusions The literature included in this review was limited to research articles that studied the effectiveness of hypnosis on symptoms that specifically related to ASD, PTSD, and Depressive Disorders. An article regarding the effectiveness of hypnotherapy on self-esteem was included due

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY 5 to the research criteria including depression related to low self-esteem. Research that based on a single case study or focused on ICD-10/medical diagnosis was excluded. Specific research excluded included those articles related smoking-cessation, medical hypnotherapy for physical ailments and pain management/anesthetic hypnosis applications. The research articles selected were those that pertained to depression and trauma that were conducted in the past 10 years. Utilizing Hypnotherapy In The Treatment of Depression Depression is one of the most common mental conditions that leads individuals to seek psychological counseling.t Most researchers in this review are supportive of the utilization of hypnotherapy in the treatment of depression. Findings are not always consistent with this support. There is approximately an equal amount of research available that supports the effectiveness of hypnotherapy and research that denounces the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in treating depression. There are many factors that may account for this inconsistency including research methods or issues, types of hypnosis/hypnotherapy administered, sample demographics, and staff training. In a quantitative meta analysis study, Shih, Yang and Koo (2009) examined six (n=7) randomized studies and found an effect size of 0.57 (p <. 0001), meaning that data demonstrated a medium effect of hypnotherapy in the treatment of depression. A major issue that Shih, Yang and Koo (2009) reporting in their findings was the inconsistency in results within the six studies. The quantitative data in the studies reviewed found hypnosis to offer a moderate beneficial effect on depression. Cultural difference with in the samples or locations if the studies were not discussed but could be one possible explanation for the inconsistency. The use of hypnosis is more widely accepted in certain cultures, countries, and ethnicities than in others.

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY 6 In one of the most widely referenced studies regarding cognitive hypnotherapy (CH) for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Alladin and Alibhai (2007) conducted a study to investigate the effectiveness of CH in comparison with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Ninety-eight individuals who met diagnostic criteria for chronic MDD were randomly assigned to a CH or CBT group. Over the course of 16 weeks, using a baseline test, an assessment at the termination of treatment and a follow up assessment conducted 12 months later, Alladin and Alibhai found that CH produced an 8% greater reduction in hopelessness than CBT. The researchers also found that CH offered the greatest long-term impact on anxiety and hopelessness at the 12 month follow up. Alladin and Alibhai’s evidence suggest that CH may be an effective treatment option for chronic depression. In a feasibility study, Dobbin and Elton (2009) studied the effects of self-hypnosis utilizing 58 individuals (n=58), aged 18-65 who were currently experiencing a diagnosed episode of depression. In each case, the participant’s general practitioner intended to prescribe antidepressants. Of those individuals, 50 participants chose to participate in the self-hypnosis program in an effort to cope with depression. Depression scores were compared at the beginning and end of the study. The study was benchmarked against 3 other studies. The researchers found that 93% of participants preferred self-hypnosis to pharmacological treatment options. Dobbin and Elton (2009) utilize this information as further evidence that self-hypnosis is a useful addition to depression treatments administered by general practitioners. In a study of long-term depressed mood, Butler et al. (2008) created two treatment groups for those with long-term low to moderate depression. The first group (n=17) consisted of individuals that utilized meditation with hatha yoga and psychoeducation. The second group (n=17) consisted of individuals who participated in group therapy with hypnosis and

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY psychoeducation. Both groups were compared with a psychoeducation only control group

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(n=18). The randomized sample included 46 participants (n=46), 50% that had a clinical diagnosis of dysthymia, 28% had a dual diagnosis of dysthymia and a major depressive episode, 15% had a diagnosis of a major depressive episode with partial remission, and 6.5% were diagnosed with a chronic major depression lasting 2 or more years. Butler et al. (2008) report a remission rate of 77% with the meditation group, 62% with the hypnosis group, and 36% in the control group. Butler et al. cite Kocsis’s (2007) remission rate findings to be 73% for traditional psychotherapy and antidepressant treatment. Given this data, the hypnosis group’s success rate is still lower than current empirically recognized methodology. In a more general study of mood and tiredness, Thompson, Steffert, Steed, and Gruzelier (2011) conducted a randomized study of 35 individuals. The individuals were randomly placed in a verbal imagery self-hypnosis group, a 3-d computer animated imagery hypnosis group, and a relaxation group. A series of baseline assessments were conducted followed by mood assessments administered immediately before and after each treatment session. None of the methods achieved statistically significant results over the others. The researchers did discover that visualization through self-hypnosis increased participant engagement in imagery for those that traditionally have issues “picturing things in their minds” and that both self-hypnosis groups reported low levels of tiredness after each treatment session. Thompson et al. (2011) didn’t report any evidence of improvements in mood. Schreiber (2011) conducted an analysis of 5 case studies of hypnosis with clients that had major depressive disorders. In looking at the case studies, Schreiber clients were referred in each case by their family physician and had been formally diagnosed by a psychiatrist. Each client underwent the same clinical assessments and each client was able to hypnotized quickly. Schreiber

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY found that all five case studies showed a reduction follow treatment in a test-retest model. Schreiber’s findings based on the case studies appear to be inconsistent with those found in empirical research models. Acute Stress Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder In studying ASD, Bryant et al. (2005) identified 109 participant (n=109) who were at highest risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Of those participants, 22 (n=22) declined treatment and the remaining 87 (53 women, 34 men) were placed in randomly selected treatment groups. The 3 treatment groups either participated in CBT, CBT with hypnotherapy, or supportive counseling (SC). All participants met DSM diagnostic criteria for ASD. 69 (n=69) of the participants completed the program. The SC group had the lowest

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dropout rates. Bryant et al. (2005) found that there were no significant differences in good end of treatment functioning between participants in each group. The CBT/hypnosis group didn’t have greater clinical gains than those in the CBT only group. Bryant et al. (2005) make the argument that CBT groups that include hypnosis perform more effectively than groups that participate in CBT alone. Bryant et al. suggest that the motivation of participants may increase the effectiveness of treatment. The researchers note that this is one of the first controlled studies to evaluate the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of ASD, the sample size is small, the drop out rate was higher in the CBT and CBT/hypnosis group, and that the researchers failed to use CAPS-2 at the initial assessment and were not able to index to what extend the assessors were blind to the participants treatment groups. The study provides no empirical support of hypnotherapy enhancing the effectiveness of CBT in the treatment of ASD. In researching the effects of hypnosis in treating PTSD in children, Lesmana, Suryani, Jensen and Tiliopoulos (2009) conducted a study of children ages 6-12 who met the criteria for

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY 9 PTSD after witnessing the 2002 terrorist attacks in Bali. Lesmana et al. (2009) utilized spiritualhypnosis assisted therapy (SHAT) for treatment children. The research design was based on a longitudinal, test-retest design. The study included 46 children (n=46) in the SHAT treatment group and 178 children in an untreated control group. 77.1% of the children in the treatment group showed improvement. There was an improvement of 24.2% in the control group. Lesmana et al. (2009) point to spirituality that is consistent with the culture of their sample group combined with children’s tendency to be more receptive than adults to hypnotic suggestions as a possible explanation for the strongly statistically significant results. In a study of 36 patients (n=36) with chronic PTSD, Abramowitz and Lichtenberg (2010) researched the use of hypnotherapeutic olfactory conditioning (HOC) with combat soldiers with symptoms that were not improved by other forms of treatment. In an uncontrolled open study, clinical assessments were utilized at the baseline, 6-weeks (immediately following HOC treatment), 6 months and 1 year. Abramowitz and Lichtenberg (2010) found an improvement of symptoms that was maintained over the entire course of the study. The potential benefits of HOC in the treatment of PTSD require further study. Barabasz and Barabasz (2012) conducted an open controlled study of 36 volunteers who met the diagnostic criteria for the PTSD. The volunteers participated in a single 5.5- 6 hour session of manualized ego state therapy emphasizing abreactive hypnosis. A Post Traumatic Stress Checklist (PCL) was conducted as a baseline and at 1 month and 4 month follow-ups. Barabasz and Barabasz (2012) found that the manualized therapy group showed significantly lower PCL scores than the control group at 1-month and 4-month follow-up retests and a significantly lower PCL scores at all post therapy testing periods than their pre-test scores.

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY 10 Barabasz and Barabasz concluded that 1 session of abreactive hypnosis was enough to show an improvement in symptoms. In experimental research aimed at studying the effectiveness of Hypnosis, Neuro Linguistic Programming and Time Line Therapy reducing the intensity of negative emotions attached to memories of stressful events, Bin Ahmad (2011) that all three methods offered significant reduction in negative emotions when compared with a null control group. The research consisted of 32 treatment group subjects and 32 control group subjects. The participants did not have to meet the diagnostic criteria for a trauma related disorder to meet the requirements for participation in the study. Bin Ahmad (2011) assessed participants at the baseline, during the procedure, and immediately after the procedure. He determined that there was a significant improvement in negative emotions after each session. Bin Ahmad (2011) specifically notes that hypnosis has been shown to be useful in helping people relax their minds and body. He suggests that hypnosis simply provides a distraction or change of focus (with out forgetting the event). It is important to note that Bin Ahmad utilized a combination of neuro linguistic programming, time line therapy, and hypnosis as complementary treatments in order to achieve the significant results. In a randomized controlled study, Abramowitz, Barak, Ben-Avi and Knobler (2008) gave a group of 15 patients SSRI antidepressant in the control treatment group and a second treatment group of 17 patients symptom-oriented hypnotherapy. Abramowitz et al. (2008) utilized a daily morning questionnaire and a series of clinical assessments at the beginning, immediately after the study and again 1 month after the study. At the end of treatment, the PTSD symptoms were tested lower in the hypnotherapy group than in the SSRI group. There was also improvement in insomnia and sleep disorder symptoms noted. Abramowitz et al. (2008) determined that symptomatic hypnotherapy is an effective treatment in patients suffering from chronic PTSD.

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY In a program evaluation of cognitive behavioral group therapy for PTSD in Knapp

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(2006) conducted a study of 10 young female offenders. Based upon research she cited from Van Etten and Taylor (1998), Knapp theorized that behavior therapy and a form of hypnotherapy known as Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) would be more effective than the CBT currently being utilized. The initial phase of her dissertation was to study the effectiveness of the current program. Knapp (2006) found that statistical analyses could not be performed because there were too few participants, poor retention, and considerable amounts of data missing. Knapp suggests a more structured research methodology with increased administrative and parental support. Knapp also notes that uncertified and untrained staff often runs the current CBT programs. She suggests incorporating proper training with staff prior to beginning the next study. Based on the lack of statistical analyses, Knapp is unable to make a recommendation regarding hypnotherapy or other alternative methods. Self-Esteem and Self-Concept In a randomized clinical trial, Scholze et al. (2011) found that there was no statistical significance between the treatment group that participated in 4 weeks of hypnosis and the Hawthorne method or Hawthorne method only control group. In terms of self-concept and self esteem improvement, the student participants (n=35) showed the same results regardless of randomized treatment group placement. There is no evidence to suggest that hypnosis improves self esteem.

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY Clinical Use

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In her doctoral thesis, Pignotti (2009) investigated that usage of unsupported therapies in clinical practice by licensed social workers. Pignotti utilized a research-specific exploratory survey instrument that included demographics (specific to the research), open ended questions, and different types of therapeutic approaches listed alphabetically. Participants indicated which approaches they used in their practice, how often they used each approach, and how recently they used each approach. The therapeutic approaches were categorized into 3 broad groups for evaluation. Those categories were empirically supported therapies (EST), conventional therapies that lacked empirical support (CUT) and novel unsupported therapies (NUT). The participants were not aware of the categorization. Out of 193 respondents (n=193), 45 reported current use of hypnosis in their practice. An additional 9 respondents reported using hypnosis in the past. The high amount of reported hypnosis usage in practice without empirical or scientific support demonstrates a disconnect between scientific support and practical application (Pignotti, 2009). Evaluating Research Looking at 444 studies of Flammer and Bongartz (2003) looked at the efficacy of hypnosis in a meta-analysis study. The researchers only considered clinical, randomized studies and that utilized one research group that was treated exclusively with hypnotherapy and another group that received no treatment. The researchers worked with a group of 57 (n=57) that met the research criterion. Two types of hypnosis were evaluated, classical (70%) and modern (19%). The researchers couldn’t determined the type of hypnosis being used in approx.. 11% of the studies. Flammer and Bongartz note that studies regarding affective disorders, obsessive compulsive disorders and psychotic disorders are missing completely in the sample and that somatoform and psychological disorders caused by substances are under represented in the

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY available studies. Flammer and Bongartz (2003) point to gap between clinical research and therapeutic research as a major issue in evaluating the effectiveness of hypnotherapy. ICD-10 disorders are well represented in the research, which pain management being most commonly represented hypnotherapeutic application. The prevalent lack of research in the area of psychotherapy is a significant weakness in supporting hypnotherapy usage in clinical practice.

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Flammer and Bongartz (2003) point to the high effect size in their findings as evidence to support randomized clinical studies of psychological hypnosis applications. In a separate meta analysis of the studies reviewed by Flammer and Bongartz, Moshagen and Musch (2008) reevaluated the entirety of the 444 studies to assess for publication bias. Moshagen and Musch theorized that Flammer and Bongartz may have overreported the mean treatment effect of hypnosis by selecting publications with positive outcomes. Moshagen and Musch (2008) did find evidence of publication bias, but still showed a significantly significant treatment effect to suggest that the efficacy of hypnosis is substantial and can’t be attributed to the selective reporting of positive outcomes. Discussion of Findings In conducting a literature review, many of the researchers consistently found that those individuals who met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD were more susceptible to hypnosis (Abramowitz et al., 2008). Findings in each of the PTSD studies support that hypnotherapy is often most successful when treating PTSD and trauma related disorders. The literature reviewed did not support hypnotherapy as a successful treatment for depression. In terms of the hypnotherapy/hypnosis in each study, there was a lack of consistency in the types of hypnotherapy being utilized. Many of the studies include a type of hypnosis that is specific to that individual study. There is also a lack of information regarding the hypnotherapy

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY provider in each case. In the absence of data regarding who administered the hypnotherapy,

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what type of certification or licensure the hypnotherapist possessed, what specific experience or training the practitioner possessed in the type of hypnosis administered, or in some cases if the hypnotherapy was administered in-person…it is hard to determine if the treatment being administered was the best available for the intended study. Discussion of Cultural Impact As with most types of treatments, there are cultural concerns that can greatly impact the effectiveness of hypnosis. Some cultures and traditions are generally more accepting of hypnosis than others. Capafons et al. (2008) used a sample of psychology students from Spain, the US, Portugal and Romania to examine the effects of having personal experience and information versus beliefs and attitudes about hypnosis. Capafons et al. used a large research sample consisting of 1103 students in Spain, 1024 students in the US, 402 students in Romania, and 315 students in Portugal. The researchers utilized the Revised Valencia scale to develop 8 categories. The researchers determined that accurate beliefs were correlated with positive attitudes and inaccurate beliefs correlated with negative attitudes in regard to hypnosis. Capafons et al. (2008) found evidence that cultural and personal experience with hypnosis translated to a more positive attitude and accurate beliefs about hypnosis. In cultures where hypnosis is practiced more commonly, the more positively students studying psychology received the treatment. These findings are supported by a randomized controlled research study conducted by Green. Green (2003) t sampled 276 undergraduate students beliefs about hypnosis utilizing a control group and a treatment group that was hypnotized. Utilizing a test-retest approach, Green theorized that experience with hypnosis would change participant’s perceptions and attitudes about hypnosis. Half of the students completed a hypnosis susceptibility questionnaire and the other students

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY completed an Opinions About Hypnosis Scale. The Opinions About Hypnosis scale was organized into 4 broad categories with a total of 21 items measured. Green (2003) found that

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experience being hypnotized altered beliefs and eliminated many misperceptions about hypnosis.

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY References Abramowitz, E. G., Barak, Y., Ben-Avi, I., & Knobler, H. Y. (2008). Hypnotherapy in the treatment of chronic combat-related PTSD patients suffering from insomnia: A randomized, zolpidem-controlled clinical trial. International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis, 56(3), 270-280. doi:10.1080/00207140802039672 Abramowitz, E. G., & Lichtenberg, P. (2010). A new hypnotic technique for treating combat-

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related posttraumatic stress disorder: A prospective open study. International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis, 58(3), 316-328. doi:10.1080/00207141003760926 Alladin, A. (2011). Integrating hypnosis and CBT in the management of depression. Washington, District of Columbia, US: American Psychological Association (APA). Alladin, A. (2010). Evidence-based hypnotherapy for depression. International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis, 58(2), 165-185. doi:10.1080/00207140903523194 Alladin, A. (2009). Evidence-based cognitive hypnotherapy for depression. Contemporary Hypnosis, 26(4), 245-262. doi:10.1002/ch.391 Alladin, A., & Alibhai, A. (2007). Cognitive hypnotherapy for depression: An empirical investigation. International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis, 55(2), 147166. doi:10.1080/00207140601177897 Alladin, A., Sabatini, L., & Amundson, J. K. (2007). What should we mean by empirical validation in hypnotherapy: Evidence-based practice in clinical hypnosis. International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis, 55(2), 115-130. doi:10.1080/00207140601177871 Amundson, J. K., Alladin, A., & Gill, E. (2003). Efficacy vs. effectiveness research in psychotherapy: Implications for clinical hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY Hypnosis, 46(1), 11-29. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/218780923?accountid=14872

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Barabasz, A., & Barabasz, M. (2012). Abreactive Hypnosis for Combat Stress Injury and PTSD. Washington, District of Columbia, US: American Psychological Association (APA). Bin Ahmad, K. (2011). Alternatives to simply forgiving and forgetting: Comparing techniques in hypnosis, NLP and Time Line Therapy[sup]TM[/sup] in reducing the intensity of memories of stressful events. Stress And Health: Journal Of The International Society For The Investigation Of Stress, 27(3), 241-250. doi:10.1002/smi.1351 Bryant, R. A., & Kapur, A. (2006). Hypnotically Induced Emotional Numbing: The Roles of Hypnosis and Hypnotizability. International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis,54(3), 281-291. doi:10.1080/00207140600689462 Bryant, R. A., Moulds, M. L., Guthrie, R. M., & Nixon, R. V. (2005). The Additive Benefit of Hypnosis and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Treating Acute Stress Disorder. Journal Of Consulting And Clinical Psychology, 73(2), 334-340. doi:10.1037/0022006X.73.2.334 Butler, L. D., Waelde, L. C., Hastings, T., Chen, X., Symons, B., Marshall, J., & ... Spiegel, D. (2008). Mediation with Yoga, group therapy with hypnosis, and psychoeducation for long-term depressed mood: A randomized pilot trial. Journal Of Clinical Psychology, 64(7), 806-820. doi:10.1002/jclp.20496 Capafons, A., Mendoza, M., Espejo, B., Green, J. P., Lopes-Pires, C., Selma, M., & ... Carvallho, C. (2008). Attitudes and beliefs about hypnosis: A multicultural study. Contemporary Hypnosis, 25(3-4), 141-155. doi:10.1002/ch.35

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY 18 Castel, A., Salvat, M., Sala, J., & Rull, M. (2009). Cognitive-behavioural group treatment with hypnosis: A randomized pilot trial in fibromyalgia. Contemporary Hypnosis, 26(1), 48-59. doi:10.1002/ch.372 Dobbin, A., Maxwell, M., & Elton, R. (2009). A benchmarked feasibility study of a self-hypnosis treatment for depression in primary care. International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis, 57(3), 293-318. doi:10.1080/00207140902881221 Duff, S. C., & Nightingale, D. J. (2005). The Efficacy of Hypnosis in Changing the Quality of Life in Patients with Dementia: A Pilot-Study Evaluation. European Journal Of Clinical Hypnosis, 6(2), 20-29. Fallon, O., Depratt, T. M., Quant, M. B., Lira, E., Aloma, A., & Sapp, M. (2012). Hypnosis' Role in Decreasing Anxiety in Athletes Returning to a Sport Post-Injury. Washington, District of Columbia, US: American Psychological Association (APA). Green, J. P. (2003). Beliefs about hypnosis: Popular beliefs, misconceptions, and the importance of experience. International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis, 51(4), 369381. doi:10.1076/iceh.51.4.369.16408 Hammond, D. C. (2010). Hypnosis in the treatment of anxiety- and stress-related disorders. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics,10(2), 263-73. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/ern.09.140 Harford, P. M. (2010). The integrative use of EMDR and clinical hypnosis in the treatment of adults abused as children. Journal Of EMDR Practice And Research, 4(2), 60-75. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.4.2.60 Hutchinson-Phillips, S., & Gow, K. (2005). Hypnosis as an adjunct to CBT: Treating selfdefeating eaters. Journal Of Cognitive And Behavioral Psychotherap

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY Jamieson, G. A., & Sheehan, P. W. (2004). An empirical test of Woody and Bowers's dissociated-control theory of hypnosis. International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis, 52(3), 232-249. doi:10.1080/0020714049052349 Knapp, J. H. (2006). Evaluation of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in female juvenile delinquents in residential placements. (Doctoral dissertation)Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.pcom.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1071 Kuttner, L. (2009). CBT and hypnosis: The worry-bug versus the cake. Contemporary Hypnosis, 26(1), 60-64. doi:10.1002/ch.375 Milling, L.S., & Costantino C.A. (2000): Clinical hypnosis with children: First steps toward empirical support, International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 48(2), 113-137 Lesmana, C.B.J., Suryani, L.K., Jensen, G. D. & Tiliopoulos, N (2009). A Spiritual-Hypnosis

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Assisted Treatment of Children with PTSD after the 2002 Bali Terrorist Attack, American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 52:1, 23-34 Loriedo, C., & Torti, C. (2010). Systemic hypnosis with depressed individuals and their families. International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis, 58(2), 222-246. doi:10.1080/00207140903523277 Lynn, S. J., Accardi, M., Cleere, C., & Condon, L. (2011). Hypnosis, mindfulness, and attention in the treatment of depression. Washington, District of Columbia, US: American Psychological Association (APA).

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY Lynn, S., Barnes, S., Deming, A., & Accardi, M. (2010). Hypnosis, rumination, and

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depression: Catalyzing attention and mindfulness-based treatments. International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis, 58(2), 202-221. doi:10.1080/00207140903523244 Lynn, S., & Cardeña, E. (2007). Hypnosis and the treatment of posttraumatic conditions: An evidence-based approach. International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis,55(2), 167-188. doi:10.1080/00207140601177905 McCann, B., & Landes, S. (2010). Hypnosis in the treatment of depression: considerations in research design and methods. The International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis, 58(2), 147-164. doi:10.1080/00207140903523186 Moshagen, M., & Musch, J. (2008). Publication bias in studies on the efficacy of hypnosis as a therapeutic tool. Contemporary Hypnosis, 25(2), 94-99. doi:10.1002/ch.355 Nash, M. R., Perez, N., Tasso, A., & Levy, J. J. (2009). Clinical research on the utility of hypnosis in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical and psychiatric disorders.International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis, 57(4), 443-450. doi:10.1080/00207140903099153 Nathanson, D. L. (2009). Affect and hypnosis: On paying friendly attention to disturbing thoughts. International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis, 57(4), 319-342. doi:10.1080/00207140903098361 Niles, B. L., Klunk-Gillis, J., Ryngala, D. J., Silberbogen, A. K., Paysnick, A., & Wolf, E. J. (2012). Comparing mindfulness and psychoeducation treatments for combat-related PTSD using a telehealth approach. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, And Policy, 4(5), 538-547. doi:10.1037/a0026161

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY Pignotti, M. Department of Social Work, (2009). The use of novel unsupoorted and empirically supported therapies by licensed clinical social workers (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from Flordia State University website: etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-09202009094359/unrestricted/Pignotti_M_Dissertation_2009.pdf Roberts, L. M. (2005). Trial design in hypnotherapy: Does the RCT have a place?. European Journal Of Clinical Hypnosis, 6(1), 16-19. Sapp, M. (2004). Confidence Intervals Within Hypnosis Research. Sleep And Hypnosis, 6(4), 169-176. Scholze, S. J., Sapp, M., Lui, J., Kihslinger, D. R., Chien, L., Holguin, S., & ... Quant, M. (2011). A Randomized Clinical Trial: The Use of Hypnosis to Improve Academic SelfConcept and Self-Concept in College Students. Washington, District of Columbia, US: American Psychological Association (APA).

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Schreiber, E. H. (2011). Use of Hypnosis in Psychotherapy With Bipolar and Major Depressive Disorders. Washington, District of Columbia, US: American Psychological Association (APA). Schreiber, E. H. (2010). Use of hypnosis in psychotherapy with major depressive disorders. Australian Journal Of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis, 38(1), 44-51. Shih, M., Yang, Y., & Koo, M. (2009). A meta-analysis of hypnosis in the treatment of depressive symptoms: A brief communication. International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis, 57(4), 431-442. doi:10.1080/00207140903 Thompson, T., Steffert, T., Steed, A., & Gruzelier, J. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of the effects of hypnosis with 3-D virtual reality animation on tiredness, mood, and salivary

SELECTIVE LITERATURE REVIEW: HYPNOTHERAPY cortisol. International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis, 59(1), 122142. doi:10.1080/00207144.2011.522917 Uccheddu, O., & Viola, A. (2006). Descriptive survey of Therapeutic Alliance in Hypnotherapy. European Journal Of Clinical Hypnosis, 7(1), 10-25. Yapko, M. D. (2010). Hypnosis in the treatment of depression: An overdue approach for encouraging skillful mood management. International Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Hypnosis, 58(2), 137-146. doi:10.1080/00207140903523137 Yapko, M. D. (2010). Hypnotically catalyzing experiential learning across treatments for

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