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# Yeh, C. C., Leou, M. L., and Ucci, D. R. (1989) Bearing estimation with mutual coupling present.

IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 37, 10 (Oct. 1989), 1332-1335. Litva, J., and Zeytinoglu, M. (1990) Application of high-resolution direction finding algorithms to circular arrays with mutual coupling present. Final report, Part I1 prepared for Defence Research Establishment Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, McMaster University, Ontario, Canada, July 1990. Schmidt, R. (1979) Multiple emitter location and signal parameter estimation. In Proceedings of RADC Spectral Estimation Workshop, 1979. Steyskal, H., and Herd, J. S. (1990) Mutual coupling compensation in small array antennas. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 38, 12 (Dec. 1990), 1971-1975. Weiss, A. J., and Friedlander, B. (1988) Direction fiiding in the presence of mutual coupling. In Proceedinp of the 2 h d Asilomar Conference on Signals, System, and Canputers, 1988, 598402. Friedlander, B., and Weiss, A. J. (1991) Direction finding in the presence of mutual coupling. IEEE Transactwm on Antennas and Propagation, 39, 3 (Mar. 1991), 273-284. Swindlehunt, A., and Kailath, T. (1992) A performance analysis of subspace-based methods in the presence of model errors-Part 1: The MUSIC algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 40,7 (July 1992), 1 %1 7 . 7 -74 Roller, C., and Wasylkiwskyj, W. (1992) Effects of mutual coupling on super-resolution DF in linear arrays. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 5, San Francisco, CA, 1992, V257-V260. Sanderson, R. B., Tsui, J. B. Y., and Freese, N. (1992) Reduction of aliasing ambiquities through phase relations. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic S y s t m , 28, 4 (Oct. 1992), 950-955. Richmond, J. H. (1974) Radiation and scattering by thin-wire stxuctures in the complex frequency domain. NASA contractor report CR-23%, Contract NGL 36-008-138, Hampton, VA, May 1974. Richmond, J. H. (1974) Computer program for thin-wire structures in a homogeneous conducting medium. NASA contractor report CR-2399, June 1974. Mitra, R. (1987) Computer Techniquesfor Electromagnetics. Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing, 1987. Stutzman, W. L., and Thiele, G. A. (1981) Antenna Theory and Design. New York Wiley, 1981. Nakano, H. (1987) Helical and Spiral Antennas-A Numerical Approach. Research Studies Press, 1987. Jordan, E. C., and Balmain, K. G. (1968) Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating System. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1968. Pillai, S. U. (1989) Array Signal Processing. New York Springer-Verlag, 1989.

Antenna Sidelobes in the Presence of Flat Reflectors

Reflecting surfaces near the antenna may produce surprisingly large sidelobes even if the designed free-space sidelobes in the directiom of these surfaces are very small. Calculations of such sidelobes are presented for an example of a linear aperture with a parabolic weighting function for the received signal amplitude.

I. INTRODUCTION

It is known that small objects near an antenna may cause problems if they are within the main beam [l]. They may scatter into the main beam signals which arrive from outside of the main beam, thus in effect creating an increased sidelobe level in those directions. (In a nonideal real environment the far field pattern of the sidelobe level versus direction may be defined as the recorded antenna output when a source of radiation is moved around the antenna in the far field, with the output normalized for range ilnd source strength.) Those increased sidelobes vanish when the main beam is steered away from the objects. However, if there are flat surfaces near the antenna, we show that these surfaces may produce large sidelobes even when the surfaces are outside of the main beam. Low sidelobes are the result of mutual cancellation among the signals from all parts of the aperture. If the reflections from a flat surface reach only a fraction of the aperture, then the cancellation is incomplete, and the sidelobe level may be increased. This problem is illustrated for a linear aperture with a parabolic weighting function for the received signal amplitude. We assume that the reflecting surfaces are near the antenna. Therefore, the reflections arrive at the aperture as a collimated beam without much spreading. We neglect any scattering by the edges of the surfaces, such scattering is a secondary effect of less importance than the reflections. Fig. 1 shows three directions from which the receiver obtains reflected or direct signals which reach only a part of the linear aperture. Consider the direction denoted by Rf1. Surface 1 reflects a signal from that direction into a portion of the aperture near its center. In addition the signal arrives at the entire aperture on a direct path (not shown in Fig. 1). The output due to the direct signal corresponds to the designed free-space sidelobe level in the direction Rfl. The output due to the reflected signal would

Manuscript received March 14, 1994; revised March 16, 1994. IEEE Log NO. T-AES/’30/4/05042. 0018-9251/94/%4.00@ 1994 IEEE

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and it likewise reaches only a fraction of the aperture.F g 1. . However. Assume that the main beam is steered to broadside (8 = Oo). The signal from direction O is obstructed by b the surfaces. 2. The total output is the sum of the outputs due to direct and reflected signals. LINEAR APERTURE WITH A PARABOLIC WEIGHTING FUNCTION For an illustrative example let us consider a single reflecting surface as shown in Fig. Three directions from which signals reach only a part of the receiver. in this case the direct signal itself does not reach the entire aperture. since the reflected signal is missing on parts of the aperture. 2L I. weighted by the parabolic weighting function Z ( y ) : b ~ ( 8 = ej+ ) ciyZ(y)e-ikysi"e. the output is changed. have corresponded to the designed free-space sidelobe level in the direction of surface 1 (which is different from the direction Rf1) if the reflected signal had arrived at the entire aperture. i. I' a 2u __3 Reflector F g 2 Geometrical parameters for illustrative example. (1) 1123 . added with appropriate phase differences. The signal from direction Rf2 is reflected by surface 2. CORRESPONDENCE II. i. The receiver output R(8) due to reflection alone (no direct signal) is obtained by an integration of the reflected signal over the part of the aperture which receives the reflection (the line segment from d to b).

kH kW = 250. The parabolic weighting function is given by Fig. Fig. 2. lesser energy from the smaller surface provides less The total output consists of the sum of the outputs energy for the mutual cancellation process among from the direct and the reflected signals.The highest free-space sidelobe is the small surface may be much larger than due to -21.(Y /L>21.30 Q . quite a difference from the designed free-space maximum of -21. and q5 is the phase of the reflected signal relative to the direct signal at the center of the aperture. The same conclusions apply to planar and changing phase difference between the two outputs. 30.or U in . The latter depends on the geometry. and seemingly paradoxical way. Similar results are level. dB -20 Gain.3 dB [2]. and the main beam steering direction. three-dimensional apertures.(~B/G)cosGB].B2 + 2/G2)sinGB the reflecting surfaces. Free-space and reflection sidelobes for kL = 45. 4 shows (4) versus B for G = 5 and 10. B = b/L. or f L .6 dB at B = 0. then the energy remains uncanceled. the aperture weighting If d = -b then (3) reduces to function. . and the receiver output is total output versus 0 fluctuates rapidly because of the increased. Equation (1) yields R(0) = (j3e’@/4G)[e-’GB(1 2 -E (2) Ill. kH = 80. D = d/L. therefore. and thus the latter free-space sidelobe level is less than -34 dB. One can relocate bothersome sidelobes by a rotation of R(0) = (3ej@/2G)[(l. and the reflecting material. = 80. 4. Z(Y 1 = (3/4L)P . + 2 / G 2+ 2 j B / G ) . Reflection sidelobes for d = . kW = 250. kL _ _ _ kLsin0 = 10. For G = 5 the sidelobe reaches a peak of -10. A small surface reflects d=(W-U)tanO-H.31. The paradox is solved if one observes that the obtained for a cosine weighting function [3].3.NO. polarization. X is the wavelength. depends on the size of the reflecting surface: in a b = (W U)tan0 . 3).5 1 In (1) k = 27r/X. the entire aperture.9 dB in a direction in which the designed surface reach the entire aperture. some outputs are nearly equal (as at go in Fig. where H and the other geometric parameters are defined in Fig. (4) Fig. The peak of the reflection sidelobe the large surface if the reflections from the large is -19. The sidelobe level due to reflections where G = kLsin8.e-jcD(l . CONCLUSIONS A flat surface outside of the main beam cannot be disregarded just because one has designed a low free-space sidelobe in the direction of such a surface. 2. less energy into the aperture than a large surface if Fig.D2 + 2 / G 2 + 2 j D / G ) ] + 1124 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL.0 -10 -10 Gain. and kU = 60. At the peak of the reflection sidelobe (at 16O) the The increased sidelobe direction is determined by direct output in Fig. degrees Rg. 3 shows the free-space pattern and the the reflections from the small surface do not reach reflection sidelobe for k L = 45. dB . 3 is so low that the fluctuations the geometry.3 dB. If the reflection coefficient of the surface is +1 then q5 = -2kHsin0. or by changing H. Yet the receiver output (due to and kU = 60. while the sidelobe level depends also are negligible.H. an receiver output is reduced to the designed low sidelobe increase by more than 14 dB.b versus B (B is fraction of linear aperture which receives reflections). When the two signals from all parts of the aperture.orfL. on the size of the reflector.U’.sin B = 5. 0 B 0. Reflections by the surface may produce a very (3) large sidelobe. 4 OCTOBER 1994 .

zo). Microwaves and RF (Sept. PHASE-HISTORY MODEL Polar-format processed synthetic aprrture radar (SAR) images have a limited focused patch diameter that results from unmitigated phase errors. V. Note that in this geometry. exasperate the problem via a residual video phase error term. 1994. Now consider a transmitted chirp signal of the form cos ( w(f . Coordinate system is target based (Le. V. (1993) Flat ref lectors influence antenna sidelobe performance. 1.y. (3) (Note that this is merely de-chirping with IQ demodulation) and low-pass filtering.00 @ 1994 IEEE CORRESPONDENCE .. 325-333. revised January 20 and April 4. This letter d i f l e s the traditional maxlmum patch diameter expression to include effects of very high chirp rates. Very high chirp rates. Furthermore. and the focal plane is the surface z = 0. independent of vehicle position or flight path) wiith origin at Scene center (CRP). and the vector r. IEEE nansactwns on Aermpace and Elecironic Systems.yo. NJ OSsL6 vehicle tlight ~palh REFERENCES [l] [2] [3] Mangulis. For most applications this limit has been shown to be quite adequate. I.z) and is pointed to by vector r. However. y < 0. Mangulis. and the time tk is the reference time of the kth azimuth sample.f k ) + -Yf .O) and pointed to by vector s. we define angles (r and @ such that x = -ytancr. II. Consider the geometry of Fig.s. The phase of the received signal of the echo from the scatterer located at s is then where r. 127 Ainsworib Ave.. Ramsay. under the condition of very large chirp rates.fk)') ( 2 (1) where w and are the radian center frequency and chirp rate.V MANGULIS . A single scatterer is located at coordinates (s. 1993). T-AES/30/4/05043. respectively. E (1%7) Lambda functions describe antenna/diffraction patterns. J. Fig.. Walker does develop an additional constraint on patch diameter based on chirp rate but treats it separately. is the difference between r. such as with wide chirp bandwidths and short-duration transmit pulses. we arrive at 1125 0018-9251/94/$4.(1979) Effective sidelobe levels due to scattering. This work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC0476DP00789. The origin of the coordinate system is placed at the imaged scene's central reference point (CRP). This letter combines the effects and shows a modification to the traditional expression for maximum polar-format patch diameter Manuscript received July 8. 113-116. INTRODUCTION Polar-format processing of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images has proven to be an effective algorithm for imaging relatively large patches at fine resolutions [l.3. 6!3-107. 1.. and z = IlrJlsin+. East BnurSnirk. by effectively mixing the received signal with a complex local oscillator with phase IEEE Log NO. AES-15 (May 1979). Patch Diameter Limitation due to High Chirp Rates in Focused S A R Images that within a single expression makes fociused patch diameter additionally a function of effective transmit pulse length and range resolution. is also a function of k. The phase center of the SAR antenna is located at coordinates (x. Now. 51. The center of the synthetic aperture is located at (O. Microwuves (June 1967. encountered 4 t h fIne-resolutionshort-pulse radars.. 1993. and s. other phase error terms become significant and impact the patch diameter for a given image quality constraint. The focused patch diameter limit traditionally used is calculated by Walker [5] from a single dominant spatially variant phase error term. SAR geometry.