EDUCATING THE MASSES 1 he Topic "educating the masses" does not mean that the public should be educated

in a school or college. It aims at finding out some important spheres in which the public should be able to work in a suitable manner. In Western countries, the Government and the social organizations arrange short courses for the people so that they may be able to conduct the affairs in their civil life in a proper manner. For instance, a short course in Traffic rules trains them in road sense. Again a fire-fighting course trains them how to extinguish fire if it breaks out in their home or in the neighbourhood. A course in first aid is equally useful for the public. It teaches a person how to apply first aid when some accident takes place. We should follow the examples of the West. It is high time that out social organizations may come forward to advise the people from time to time. We may refer to the need of preserving the public properties. Generally, the government properties are handled in a careless manner with the idea that they belong to the government. This false idea must be removed from the mind of the people. It may be brought home to them that they are national properties. * We may refer to the books in a public library, the furniture in a public hall, the public gardens and the public institutions. We may also refer to the need of observing of Traffic rules etc. So that there may be common good for all. It is a common sight that while buying tickets at the cinema hall or a Railway Station, the people don't stand in queue. This is a bad habit and must be curbed. Proper training to the people is desirable to avoid confusion. General^, the people do not act with a team spirit. It there is a sigh board with the request to move to the left on the road, the people neglect it. The result is confusion, accident and delay to obstacles. •' Supposing a request is made not to walk over a green lawn. But few of us take the trouble to go round the corner. The green lawn is spoiled. It is often seen that flowers from the public gardens are plucked for personal satisfaction. Books borrowed from a public library are handled most carelessly. This is equally bad. We should try to learn that books are a great treasure, which will go down to the coming generations. The propaganda machinery should be such that it is able to educate the people in an effective manner. In the present world life, whether individual or national struggle is needed, only educated one can succeed in struggle for existence. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF

ADULT EDUCATION The problem of Adult Education has become very significant and the educationists of different countries of the world recognize its importance. However, it aims is not the encroachment upon the leisure of the adults as was done in the Fascist regime of Germany and Italy. There, adult k408 • for Prospective Headmasters

education was popularised for political reasons and through it the people were made warlike. UNESCO, through adult education aims to create sense of responsibility and live for mankind in the adult. The possibilities of war create hatred. The need for peace has been generally recognized both issues are simultaneously present in our minds, hence the anxiety. In the age of material progress, if moral obligations disappear, man is liable to believe that the outbreak of war is easier than the maintenance of peace. However, this day wartime cooperation has reappeared for nobler reasons. The nations are wondering how they can live together. But peace requires more skill, imagination and also more heroism than battles do. Moreover, everybody in peacetime must realize his responsibilities and duties, as peace requires unity of mankind. Adult Education should be based upon the international brotherhood. It must enable the adults to understand other people and appreciate culture. It must create in them the civilization can only be ensured if adult education is directed towards creating a sense of responsibility in all aspects of human life and to bringing about reconciliation of man and humanity. Man is a social being, his community is worldwide and his duties are on the increase. Under these circumstances, adult education should-lead individual to a living culture where the rights of individuals are regarded, selfishness is discarded and the moral solidarity of mankind is maintained. Adult education is yet in the beginning and no decisive programme has been chalked out for it. However, it must be stressed that adults should not be denied training in the art of reading and writing, though the ultimate aim of education consists in training individuals for the progress of civilization can definitely sing or enjoy 409 The Study of Education music all alone but you have no right to play a musical instrument when other enjoy sleep at night. Gardiner has quoted another instance of a person who behaved like the Russian lady who travelled with him in a railway train and dwelt upon miscellaneous topics, his son's

achievements mistakes of political leaders and cause of disturbances in his study of a blue book. She did not possess the social sense. THE ADVANTAGES OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION 1 he word Education' has been derived from a Latin source. It means to draw out True education indeed is the drawing out of the mental faculties, not a mere putting in of so much knowledge. In the true, University education means education received in a regular and recognized institution in the regular and recognized course of studies. In other words, it mean formal learning. Taken in the strict sense, it means completing the graduation course of studies. Cardinal Newman in his article, "The ideal of a university agrees with the popular conception of University that -it is a place where students acquire much knowledge on many subjects. But he disagrees with the idea of amassing of knowledge alone. He admits that knowledge is the indispensable condition of the expansion of mind and the instrument of attaining it, but it is not everything. The end of liberal education, in Newman's view, is not mere knowledge considered in its matter, in his opinion the business of a college or University is to train the- minds and intellects of its students in such a way as to make them perfectly healthy. He insists upon this cultivation of the

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