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Solutions to calc book

Solutions to calc book

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- Fourier Series
- Infinite Series Convergence Tests
- 20 Convergence Tests 2 - Handout
- Pade approximants
- Lectures 1 4
- Sia3e Ssm 10
- Riemann
- A-First-Course-of-Partial-Differential-Equations-in-Physical-Sciences-and-Engineering-PDEbook.pdf
- Module 20 - Further Calculus 2 (self study)
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Section 9.1

69. continued

dx (b) k dt (a x)(b x) dx k dt (a x)(b x) 1 A (a x)(b x) a x

kt

B b x

C1

Exploration 1

1. 1 2. x 3. 1 4. 1

1 3

A(b ( A

x) B)x

B(a bA

x) aB

x3 x

4

x x

2

x2 x

3 2

3 2

( x)n ( 1) x (2x)

n

.

n n 1

. .

2x (x

4x

8x

(x 1) (x 1) ( 1)n(x 1)n . 1)

1 n (x 3 1 (x 3

1)

1 (x 3

(a 1 a dx x)(b b 1 a b 1/(a b) dx a x ln a x a b 1 a 1 a b a x ln (a b)kt b x a x De(a b)kt b x b ln b x a b a b x x 1/(a b) dx b x

1 (x 3

1)2 .

1)3

1)n

,B

x)

This geometric series converges for which is equivalent to 0 gence is (0, 2). x

1,

C2

ln kt C

C2

Exploration 2

1. 1 2. tan x

1 2

x

6

ln

a b

x x

4

x

dt t4

t5 5 x5 5

( 1) x

n 2n

C2

C1

1 t2

0 1 x 0

(1

t3 3 x3 3

t2

t6

t7 7 x7 7

( 1)nt 2n ( 1)n

) dt

x 0

t 0. x

Substitute t

a b a b

0, x

D

x x a (a b)kt e b

t 2n 1 2n 1 2n 1 x . ( 1)n 2n 1

3. The graphs of the first four partial sums appear to be converging on the interval ( 1, 1).

b)kt

ab

bx

b)kt

abe (a b)

b)kt b)kt

axe (a

b)kt

b)kt

x(ae (a x

ab(e (a

1) b

1)

[ 5, 5] by [ 3, 3]

ab(e (a ae (a

4. When x

e bkt Multiply the rational expression by bkt . e ab(e akt e bkt) x akt bkt ae be

1 5 1 7

1 3

( 1)n 2n 1

This series does appear to converge. The terms are getting smaller, and because they alternate in sign they cause the partial sums to oscillate above and below a limit. The two calculator statements shown below will cause the successive partial sums to appear on the calculator each time the ENTER button is pushed. The partial sums will appear to be approaching a limit of /4 (which is tan 1(1)), although very slowly.

1. f (x) 2. f (0) 1 1 x 0

365

x 2!

2

2. u1 u2 u3 u4 u30

x 3!

1.

x n!

3. Since this function is its own derivative and takes on the value 1 at x 0, we suspect that it must be e x. 4. If y

dy f (x), then dx

y and y

1 when x

0.

1

1 2 1 3 1 4 1 30 18 6 54 18

dy dx y dy dx y

39,366 2(3n

4 8

1

)

2 4 1 64 1 2 1 , the common ratio is 2 1 . 2

ln y y 1 y Ke

x

k

1 9 2

Ke0 K e x.

(c) an

1 n 1 2

8( 0.5)n

1 n2

for n

1, 2, 3, .

6. The first three partial sums are shown in the graph below. It is risky to draw any conclusions about the interval of convergence from just three partial sums, but so far the convergence to the graph of y e x only looks good on ( 1, 1). Your answer might differ.

(Note that there is a point at (1, 0) that does not show in the graph.)

7. The next three partial sums show that the convergence extends outside the interval ( 1, 1) in both directions, so ( 1, 1) was apparently an underestimate. Your answer in #6 might have been better, but unless you guessed all real numbers, you still underestimated! (See Example 3 in Section 9.3.)

(b) lim an

n

lim

n

1 n2

0

1 n for n n

1, 2, 3, .

[0, 23.5] by [ 1, 4] [ 5, 5] by [ 3, 3]

(b) lim an

n

lim 1

n

1 n n

e 1, 2, 3, .

1. u1 u2 u3 u4 u30

4 1 4 2 4 3 4 4 30 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 6 4 32

2 3 1 8

[0, 23.5] by [ 2, 2]

n

oscillate between

1 and 1.

366

Section 9.1

1 1 2n for n 2n 1 ,a 3 2 1 , and so on. Thus 9

1, 2, 3, .

1 n . 3

1, a1

[0, 23.5] by [ 2, 2]

1, a2

1

( 1)n n

1 ,a 2 3

. 5, a1

5 . 10n 1 n 1 alternate 2

(b) lim an

n

1 n 1

lim

2n 2n

2 2

1

1 for n n

0.5, a2

n 1

n 1

[0, 23.5] by [ 1, 3]

1 n

(b) lim an

n

lim 2

n

2

ln (n 1) for n n

1 1, 2, 3, .

1 2

1 4

1 8

1 2 1 4 1 8

.

1 n 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 . 2 4 8 1 1

2 3 5 4

6. Different, since

[0, 23.5] by [ 1, 1]

1

n

( 1) 2n 1

n 1

1 4

1 8

but

(b) lim an

n

ln (n 1) lim n n

lim

n

(n

1)

7. Converges;

n 0

2 n 3

1. (a) Let un represent the value of * in the n th term, starting with n and u1 un

1 u4

5 4 2 n 3

2 3

n 0

5 4

15 4

1. Then

1 , so 16

1 u1

1,

1 u2

1 1 , 4 u3

1 , 9

1, u2 n2, or *

4, u3 n2.

9, and u4

11. Diverges, because the terms alternate between 1 and and do not approach zero. 12. Converges; 3( 0.1)n

n 0

3 ( 0.1)

30 11

(b) Let un represent the value of * in the nth term, starting with n

1 u3

0. Then

1 , so u0 16

1 u0

1, 1, u1

1 u1

1 1 , 4 u2

1 , and 9

n 0

4 1 2

2

n

3

4, u2 (n

1 2

1

u3 (c) If *

1 1 4

2

1 2

( 1)3 ( 1)6

( 1)4

1 2

2

( 1)5

1 3

2

n 0

1 2 2( 2

1 1 1) 1)

1 2

2 2 2 1

1

2

2 2 1

( 2

1)( 2

Section 9.1

22. Since tan n x

n 0

367

0.865

1,

e n 1

1 6

1

e

n 0

k , where k is any integer. Since the

1 , the series represents the 1 tan x 1 , k x k . 4 4 tan x

n 1

tan x

4

4

n 0

5n 6n

1

n 0

n 0

1 5 n 6 6

5 6

1

n n

n 0

n

2x

1 1 1 2 2x

1 1 , . Since 2 2

23. (a) Since the terms are all positive and do not approach zero, the partial sums tend toward infinity. (b) The partial sums are alternately 1 and 0. (c) The partial sums alternate between positive and negative while their magnitude increases toward infinity. 24. Since

en

ne

1 1 2x

1 . 2

n 0

1)n (x 1)

n 0

(x

converges when

n 0

n 0

e

e

e

e

1 1 [ (x 1 x 2 1 1)] x 2

n 0

xn

1 1 x

20 20, x 20 19

19 20

f (x)

1 20x

1 19. Since

n 0

1 n (x 2 3 2

3)n

x

n 0

3 2

x n

, the series

20x x

converges when

1 1

(3 2 x)

2 x 1

a 2 a 4 1 2 a 8 1 4 a 16 1 8

0,

a 32 1 16

2 x 1

,1

5.

. To get 0,

1 . 32

n 0

x 2

1 n

1: 1

x 2

3 1

(x 2 1)

n 1

2r n

2 1 r

5, r 5 3

3 5

2

6 3 x

5r

Since the sum of the series is represents the function f (x) 21. Since sin x

n

n 0

n 1

5r r

6 3

n

3.

3 n 1 5

13 2

n 0

2

(b)

sin x

1 1 , sin x

n 1

13 n 1 r 2

(2k

1)

r 13 2

5, r 5

1 5r

3 2 3 10

for integers k. Since the sum of the series is series represents the function f (x) x (2k 1) .

2 1

1 , the sin x

5r r Series:

n 1

13 2

3 n 1 10

368

Section 9.1

21 and r 100 1 , giving 100

33. 1.414

1 1 1 1

157 111

0.414

0.414(0.001)

0.414(0.001)2

0.21

0.21(0.01) 0.21(0.01)3

0.21(0.01)2

n 0

0.414(0.001)n

0.414 1 0.001 46 111

n 0

0.21(0.01)n

0.21 1 0.01 0.21 0.99 7 33

34. 1.24123

1.24

0.00123

0.00123(0.001)

0.00123(0.001)2

1 , giving 1000

1.24 1.24

124 100 41,333 33,300

0.234

0.234(0.001)

0.234(0.001)2

0.234(0.001)3

n 0

0.234(0.001)n

0.234 1 0.001 0.234 0.999 26 111

35. 3.142857

0.142857(1 )

0.000001

22 7

0.142857 0.000001n

n 0

30. 0.7

0.7

0.7(0.1)

(0.142857)

0.142857 0.999999 1 7

n 0

0.7(0.1)n

0.7 1 0.1 0.7 0.9 7 9

1 0.000001

4 4 4 4 16m

2[4(0.6)

n 0

4(0.6)2

4(0.6)3

31. 0.d

2 2.4(0.6)n 2

1 2.4 0.6

2 6

4 4.9

2

4(0.6)3 4.9

4(0.6) 4. 9

4(0.6)2 4.9

32. 0.06

0.06

0.06(0.1)

0.6

1 1 0.6

n 0

0.06(.1)n

0.06 1 0.1 0.06 0.9 1 15

4 4.9 4 4.9

2 2

( 0.6)2

7.113 sec

Section 9.1

38. The area of each square is half of the area of the preceding square, so the total of all the areas is 4

4

n 0

369

44. Comparing

3 1 x3

with

a 1 r

3 and

1 n 2

x 3. 3x 3n 1, so the interval

1 2

8 m 2.

n 1

2n

1 2 2

1 2 1 n 2

1 2 2n

1 (x

n 1

n 0

1 n 4 2

4 1 2

4)

with

a 1 r

(x

Interval: The series converges when x interval of convergence is (3, 5). 46. Comparing a

1 4 1 1 (x

1, so the

40. (a) S

rS

1)

with

a 1 r

n

Series:

1 4

1)

1)2

1 ( 1)n(x 4

1)n

a ar n 1 r

a ar . 1 r

1

n

1, so the

ar

...

ar n 1, 47. Rewriting

1 2 x

n

as

1 (x

1)

a 1 r

, 1.

1, then lim r n

a ar n 1 r n

n

0 and so ar n

a 1 r

n 1

2

lim Sn

lim

(x 1

1)

If r

1 or r

a ar n has no finite limit and 1 r n

Interval: The series converges when x interval of convergence is (0, 2). Alternate solution: . Rewriting

1 2

1, so the

ar n

1

1 1 3x

42. Comparing

with

a 1 r

1 and

the first is a

1 2 1 x 4

as

1 1 x 2 1

x . 2

a 1 r

2

3x. ( 3x)

n

3x 1, so the

Series:

1 n x 2n 1 x 2

1, so the interval

Interval: The series converges when Interval: The series converges when interval of convergence is 43. Comparing

x 1 2x 1 1 , . 3 3 a 1 r

with

x and

n 0

(e b)n

1 eb 1

9 9 8

8 9

1 9e b eb b

9e b

1 1 , . 2 2

ln

8 9

ln 8

ln 9

370

Section 9.1

1, S

n 0

1 n 2 t t

1 1

1 2

2. 1 t.

51. Since

1 x

1 1)n

(x

(x

1)

(x

1)2

(x

1)3

x 1

1 dt t

( 1)n(x x 1

, we may write ln x

(x 4 1)4

1, or t

1, this inequality is equivalent to (1 t t), which is always false. 0, the inequality is equivalent to

1 . 2

3

dx

(1

x)

C.

t,

2

1 , we have 2 t 1 t

n

1

2

2x

d (1 dx

3x 2 2x nx n

4x 3 3x 2

1

4x 3 ) ... n(n

nx n

1 . 2

d (1 dx

x)

(c) For t S S

2(1

1 1

t 1 t

x)

0 2

2 6x

6x 12x 2

12x 2

n (n 1)x n 1)x n

2

n 0

t t) t

(1

t, so

Thus, f (x)

Replacing n by n f (x) 2 6x

10 when t

9.

4 1 t2

with

a 1 r

6

1, so the interval

n 2 2n

4t

4t

General term: ( 1) (4t ) (b) Note that G (0) 0, so the constant term of the power

53. (a) No, because if you differentiate it again, you would have the original series for f, but by Theorem 1, that would have to converge for 2 x 2, which contradicts the assumption that the original series converges only for 1 x 1. (b) No, because if you integrate it again, you would have the original series for f, but by Theorem 2, that would have to converge for 2 x 2, which contradicts the assumption that the original series converges only for 1 x 1. 54. Let L lim an. Then by definition of convergence, for

2

series for G (x) will be 0. Integrate the terms for f (x) to obtain the terms for G (x). First four terms: 4x

4 3 4 5 4 7 x x x 3 5 7 4 General term: ( 1)n x 2n 1 2n 1

(c) The series in part (a) converges when interval of convergence is ( 1, 1). (d) The two numbers are x convergent series G (1) and G ( 1) 4

4 3 4 5 4 7

t2

1, so the

2

and an

am

an

am am

L L

L an

an L N.

2 2

4 3

4 5

4 7

( 1)n

4 2n 1

whenever m

N and n

( 1)n

4 2n 1

respectively.

Section 9.2

55. Given an 0, by definition of convergence there and corresponds an N such that for all n N, L1 an L 2 an . (There is one such number for each series, and we may let N be the larger of the two numbers.) Now L2 L1 L2 an an L1 an L1 L 2 an 2 . L2 L1 2 says that the difference between two fixed values is smaller than any positive number 2 . The only nonnegative number smaller than every positive number is 0, so L2 L1 0 or L1 L2. 56. Consider the two subsequences ak(n) and ai(n), where

n

371

Exploration 2

1. cos (0) 1 cos (0) sin (0) 0 cos (0) cos (0) 1 cos(3) (0) sin (0) 0 etc. The pattern 1, 0, 1, 0 will repeat forever. Therefore, P6(x) 1

x2 2

1

x4 4!

x2 2

x6 6!

x4 4!

2. A clever shortcut is simply to differentiate the previouslydiscovered series for sin x term-by-term!

Exploration 3

0 4. 20 terms.

Approximating sin 13

lim ak(n)

n

L2, and L1

1. 0.4201670368

there corresponds an N1 such that for k(n) ak(n) ai(n) Let N an L1 L1 L2 , and an N2 such that for i(n) . Assume an converges.

1. f (x) f (x) f (x) f (x) f (n)(x) 2. f (x) f (x) f (x) f (x) f (n)(x) 3. f (x) f (x) f (x) f (x) f (n)(x) e2x 2e2x 4e2x 8e2x 2ne2x

1 x 1

n

N, we have that

L2

n

L1 and lim an

Since the limit of a sequence is unique (by Exercise 55), an does not converge and hence diverges.

3n 57. (a) lim n n 1 1

(x 2(x 6(x

1) 1)

2 3

3x x 1 , which means lim f (x) 1 x

1)

1)

(n 1)

3.

n

Exploration 1 Designing a Polynomial to Specifications

1. Since P(0) Since P (0) Since P (0) 1, we know that the constant coefficient is 1. 2, we know that the coefficient of x is 2.

3 3, we know that the coefficient of x is . 2

2

4. f (x) ln x f (x) x 1 f (x) x 2 f (x) 2x 3 f (4)(x) 6x 4 f (n)(x) ( 1)n 1(n 5. f (x) f (x) f (x) f (x) f (k)(x) f (n)(x) 6. 7.

dy dx dy dx

1)!x

for n

xn nx n n(n n(n

1

1)x n 1)(n

(The 2 in the denominator is needed to cancel the factor of 2 that results from differentiating x 2.) Similarly, we find the

4 5 coefficients of x 3 and x 4 to be and . 6 24 3 2 4 3 5 4 Thus, P(x) 1 2x x x x . 2 6 24

2)x n

n! xn k (n k)! n! 0 x n! 0! nx n n!

1

d xn dx n!

1

d 2n(x a)n n! dx

2n(x (n

a)n 1) !

372

dy dx dy dx dy dx

Section 9.2

d x 2n 1 ( 1)n dx (2n 1)! d (x a) dx (2n)!

2n

8. 9. 10.

( 1)n

a) (2n)!

2n 1

2n

( 1)nx 2n (2n)!

5. cos (x

2)

(cos 2)(cos x)

x2 2! x4 4! x3 3!

x 2n (2n)!

2n(x

(cos 2) 1

(sin 2) x (cos 2)

d (1 x)n n! dx

n(1

x)n 1( 1) n!

(1 x)n 1 (n 1)!

(sin 2)x

x5 5! (cos 2)x 2 2!

( 1)n

1. Substitute 2x for x in the Maclaurin series for sin x shown at the end of Section 9.2. sin 2x 2x 2x

(2x) 3! 4x 3 3

3

(sin 2)x 5 5!

( 1)n(cos 2) where 2n (2n)!

k.

2n 1

( 1)int[(k 1)/2](cos 2) ( 1)k/2(cos 2) , which is the same as . k! k! n 1 ( 1) (sin 2) where If k is odd, the coefficient is (2n 1)!

This series converges for all real x. 2. Substitute x for x in the Maclaurin series for ln (1 x)

2n

( x)2 ( x)3 2 3 n ( x) ( 1)n 1 n 2 3 n x x x x 2 3 n

( 1)int[(k 1)/2](cos 2) ( 1)(k 1)/2(sin 2) , which is the same as . k! (2n 1)! A n ( 1) Bx n 1 , where A int , Hence the general term is n! 2

and B B

1, so the interval

cos 2 if n is odd.

Another way to handle the general term is to observe that sin 2 x cos 2

2

3. Substitute x 2 for x in the Maclaurin series for tan shown at the end of Section 9.2. tan

1

cos 2

cos (2

1 cos 2 n!

),

n 2

2 2n 1 (x 2)3 (x 2)5 ( 1)n (x ) 3 5 2n 1 n 4n 2 x6 x 10 ( 1) x 3 5 2n 1

x n.

x4 2

x2 1

x6 24

x2 2!

1, so the interval of

x4 4! ( 1)nx 2n (2n)!

( 1)n

1

x 2n (2n)!

The series converges for all real x. 7. Factor out x and substitute x 3 for x in the Maclaurin series for

x 1 x3 1 1 x

n x2 x ) 2! n! 3 n 1 7x 7x 2! n!

1 1 x3

x[1 x

x3 x4

(x 3)2 x7

x 3n

(x 3)n

1

1, so the interval of

Section 9.2

8. Substitute 2x for x in the Maclaurin series for e x shown at x1/2

373

x 4

2

1 4 f (4) 1 , so 2! 32 f (4) 3 , so 3! 256 1 512 1 64

2x

1 2x

( 2x) 2x 2

( 2x)2 2! n n n ( 1) 2 x n!

( 2x)n n!

The series converges for all real x. 9. f (2) f (2) f (2) f (2) P0(x) P1(x) P2(x) P3(x) 10. f f f

4 4 4 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 xx 2 1 2

2 x 2 3

2 2 2 2

x 4 x 4 x 4 4 4 4 (x 4)2 64 (x 4)2 64

x 2x

1 4 1

x 2 4 4 6x x 2

, so

f (2) 1 2! 8 3 f (2) , so 8 3!

P1(x)

1 16

P2(x) P3(x)

(x

4)3 512

x 4 x 4 x 4

2 2 2 (x 8 (x 8 2 2 2

x /4

13. (a) Since f is a cubic polynomial, it is its own Taylor polynomial of order 3. P3(x) x 3 2x 4 or 4 2x x 3 (b) f (1) f (1) f (1) x3 3x 2 6x 6 3

x 1

2x 2

x 1

sin x

x 1

1

f (1) 2! f (1) 3!

/4

cos x

6, so 6, so 1)

3 1 1)2 (x 1)3

2 2

/4

sin x

, so

f

2 4

4

f (1) P3(x)

x 1

2!

(x

3(x

4 2

cos x

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2

x /4

, so

3!

2 12

14. (a) Since f is a cubic polynomial, it is its own Taylor polynomial of order 3. P3(x) 2x 3 x 2 3x 8 or 8 3x x 2 2x 3 (b) f (1) 2x 3 6x 2 12x 12

x 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 x 12

x x x

4 2 2

4 2 4 4

3 2

x2 2x 2

3x 3

8

x 1

x 1

4 2 4

x x

11

f (1) 2!

4

2 x 1

14, so

f (1) 12, so 3!

11(x

1)

7(x

11. f f f

4 4 4

cos x

/4

15. (a) Since f (0) f (0) f (0) f (0) polynomial of order 3 is P3(0) 0.

2 2 2 2 f

0, the Taylor

sin x cos x

/4

/4

, so

f

4

2 4 2 12

x4

x 1

1 4 12, so 24, so 1)

8 2 x 2! f (1) 2! f (1) 3!

2!

4x 3

x 1

sin x

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2

x /4

, so

3!

12x 2 24x 1 4 4

x 1

x 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 x 12

x x x

4

4 2 4 4

3 2

P3(x)

4 2 4

4(x 5x 5x

6(x

x x

4

2

6 3 x 3!

4x 2 4.848

x3

f (0.2)

P3(0.2)

374

Section 9.2

(x)(e x) d ex 1 x dx xe x e x 1 x2 e e 1 1 1 (e x x2 1)(1)

16. continued (b) Since the Taylor series of f (x) can be obtained by differentiating the terms of the Taylor series of f (x), the

(c) g (x)

g (1) second order Taylor polynomial of f (x) is given by 5 8x 3x 2. Evaluating at x 3.52 4 4 f (1.2) ( 1)(x (x 1) 1)

3 (x 2 3 (x 2!

0.2,

2 (x 3! x2 d x 1 3! dx 2! 2x 3x 2 1 3! 4! 2! nxn 1 1)! n 1 (n x3 4!

xn (n 1)!

1)2

1 (x 3

1)3

nx n 1 (n 1)!

1)2

1)3

P3(1.2)

3.863

Therefore, g (1)

(b) Since the Taylor series of f (x) can be obtained by differentiating the terms of the Taylor series of f (x), the second order Taylor polynomial of f (x) is given by 1 f (1.2) 3(x 1) 0.36 (x 1)2. Evaluating at x 1.2,

n 1

n 1

n (n 1)!

, which means

n (n 1)!

1.

20. (a) Factor out 2 and substitute t 2 for x in the Maclaurin series for f (t)

1 at the end of Section 9.2. 1 x 2 1 t2 1 2 1 t2

2[1

1 x 1 18. (a) Since f (0)x , f (0) . 2 2! 2! f (10)(0) 10 10! x 10 (10) Since x , f (0) 11! 10 ! 11!

t2 2t 2

(t 2)2 2t 4

(t 2)3 2t 6

(t 2)n

2

1 . 11

2t 2n

x2 2! x3 3! x4 4!

xn 1 (n 1)!

G(x)

2x

2x 3 3

2x 5 5

2x 7 7

2x 2n 1 2n 1

1 (1 2 x for x in the Maclaurin series for e x shown 2

x 2 2 x n 2

x)1/2 x)

x 0 1/2

1

1 2 1 f (0) , so 4 2! 3 f (0) , so 8 3! 1 16 1 8

f (0) f (0)

x 0

1 1 x 1 x x ex x x 2 x 2 1

1 (1 4 3 (1 8

x) x)

3/2 x 0

2 x2 8

n! xn 2n n!

f (0) P4(x)

5/2 x 0

x 2

x2 8

x3 16

x 2! x3 3! x2 3!

2

x4 8 x6 . 16

x

x2 2! x 2!

x 3!

...

xn n! xn 1 n!

x n!

x2 2

terms are obtained by integrating the first three terms of the answer to part (b). The first four terms of the series . for h(x) are 5 x

x3 6 x5 . 40

x 2! x2 3!

xn (n 1)!

Section 9.2

22. (a) a0 a1 a2 a3 1

3 a 1 0 3 a 2 1 3 a 3 2 3 n 4x d dx x 2 1 (x 2 1)(4) (4x)(2x) (x 2 1)2

375

3 2

3

9 2 9 2

a2

4 4x 2 , (x 2 1)2

n 0

we have f (0) f ( 3)

0, f (0)

4, f (

3)

3 and 4x and

anx

3 . n!

3x

9 2 x 2

9 3 x 2

3 n x n!

n

L2(x) 3

3)

(b) Since the series can be written as the function f (x) (c) f (1) 3e 3x e . 3e 3 0.6603.

3x

1 x 2

3 2

3,

n 0

(3x) , it represents n!

respectively.

x 1

n 0

1)n

[ 2, 4] by [ 3, 3]

(b) f (a) must be 0 because of the inflection point, so the second degree term in the Taylor series of f at x a is zero. 30. The series represents tan tan

1 1

x. When x

1, it converges to

. When x

4

1, it converges to

tan 1( 1) The sum corresponding to N 25 is about 0.6582 (not withing 0.001 of exact value), and the sum corresponding to N 26 is about 0.6606, which is within 0.001 of the exact value. Since we began with N 0, it takes a total of 27 terms (or, up to and including the 52nd degree term). 24. One possible answer: Because the end behavior of a polynomial must be unbounded and sin x is not unbounded. Another: Because sin x has an infinite number of local extrema, but a polynomial can only have a finite number. 25. (1) sin x is odd and cos x is even (2) sin 0 0 and cos 0 1 26. Replace x by 3x in series for sin x. Therefore, we have

(3x)5 35 81 so = . 5! 5! 40

0.

1 1 x

is

and multiply by x, we obtain the desired Maclaurin series x 2x 2 3x 3 nx n . Therefore, the desired

1 4

d ln x dx 3 1 . 24

2x

, which is

1 at x 4

2, the coefficient

f (x)

d 1 dx 1 x

x x)m

1 (1 x)2 (x

x 1)2

(1 m(1 m(m

3!

x)m 1)(1

x)m

m(m

1)(m

2)(1

x)m

(b) Differentiating f (x) k times gives f (k)(x) m(m 1)(m 2) (m Substituting 0 for x, we have f (k)(0) m(m 1)(m 2) (m

k k

1)(1 1).

x)m k.

376

Section 9.3

3. Since f (x) is increasing and positive on [ 3, 0], M f (0) 1.

2) (m k! k 1)

f (k)(0) k! m(m 1)(m

1 ,M 2 1 . 2

1 and the 2

(d) f (0)

1, f (0)

m

34. Because f (x) (1 x) is a polynomial of degree m. Alternately, observe that f (k)(0) 0 for k m 1.

Exploration 1 Your Turn

5. On [ 3, 1], the minimum value of f (x) is f ( 3) 7 and the maximum value of f (x) is f (0) 2. On (1, 3], f is increasing and positive, so the maximum value of f is f (3) 5. Thus f (x) 7 on [ 3, 3] and M 7. 6. Yes, since each expression for an nth derivative given by the Quotient Rule will be a rational function whose denominator is a power of x 1. 7. No, since the function f (x) x2 4 has a corner at x 2. 8. Yes, since the derivatives of all orders for sin x and cos x are defined for all values of x. 9. Yes, since the function f (x) e x has derivatives of the form f (n)(x) e x for odd values of n and f (n)(x) e for even values of n, and both of these expressions are defined for all values of x. 10. No, since f (x) f (x) x 3/2, we have f (x)

3 1/2 x and 2

x

(n 1)

f (n (n

1)

(c) (x 1)!

0) , where

(c) is the (n

1)

f (n (n

1)

(c) (x 1)!

0)

1 (n 1)!

xn . (n 1)!

The factorial growth in the denominator, as noted in Example 3, eventually outstrips the power growth in the numerator, and we have

xn 0 for all x. This means (n 1)!

1. f (0) f (0) f (0) e

2x x 0

1

x 0

2e 4e

2x

2x

2 4, so

f (0) 2!

Exploration 2

1. e ix 1 1 ix ix

Eulers Formula

n (ix)2 (ix)3 (ix) 2! 3! n! x2 x3 x4 x5 i i 2! 3! 4! 5!

x 0

2

4 3 2 3

(i)

nx

n

f (0)

n!

ix

8e

2x

x 0

8, so

1 1

ix

x2 2!

ix cos x

x2 2! x4 4! x3 3!

x3 i 3! x6 6! x5 5!

x4 4!

x5 i 5!

x 2n (2n)!

(i)

nx

P4(0.2) cos

0.6704

n!

x 1 2 x 0 x sin 0 2 2 x 0 2 2 2 x f (0) cos , so x 0 4 2 4 2! 8 3 x f (0) sin 0, so 0 8 2 x 0 3! 4 4 4 x f (4)(0) cos , so 16 2 x 0 16 4! 384

2

x7 7!

( 1)n

x 2n 1 (2n 1)!

( 1)n

i sin x.

(We are assuming here that we can rearrange the terms of a convergent series without affecting the sum. It happens to be true in this case, but we will see in Section 9.5 that it is not always true.) 3. ei cos Thus, e i i sin 1 0 1 0 1

x2

384

x4

1. Since f (x) M 2. 2 cos (3x) 2 on [ 2 , 2 ] and f (0) 2,

P4(0.2)

0.9511

Section 9.3

8. cos2 x

1 2 1 2 1 1 2 4x 2 2 2! 1 cos (2x) 2 (2x)2 2! 16x 4 2 4! x4 3 (2x)4 4!

377

0

5 sin x x 5 0, so

( 1)n

2

(2x)2n (2n)!

f (0) 0 2! f (0) 5 5 cos x x 0 5, so 3! 6 (4) f (0) 5 sin x x 0 0, so 0 4! 5 3 5x x 6 149 P4(0.2) 0.9933 150

1 1 9. sin2 x

( 1)n

( 1)n

22nx 2n (2n)!

x2

1 2 1 2

22n 1x 2n (2n)!

2n 2n 1 2 x

(2x)6 6!

( 1)n

4x 2 2 2! 16x 4 2 4!

2n 1 2n x 1 2

4. Substituting x 2 for x in the Maclaurin series given for ln (1 ln (1 x) at the end of Section 9.2, we have x 2) x2 x2 Therefore, P4(x) 5. f (0) f (0) f (0) f (0) f (4)(0) P4(x) f (0.2) 6. xe x (1 2(1 6(1 x)

2 x 0

2 n (x 2)2 (x 2)3 ( 1)n 1 (x ) 2 3 n 2n x4 x6 ( 1)n 1 x 2 3 n x4 x2 and f (0.2) P(0.2) 0.0392. 2

( 1)n x2

x4 3 2x 6 45

2 (2n)!

( 1)n

(2n)!

x2 1 2x 22n 1 x 2n 2 . (2n 2)!

1 2 6, so

10.

x2

1 1 2x

x) x)

3 x 0 4

2x 2x 3

(2x)2 4x 4

(2x)n 2n x n

2

]

x3 , so we use 6

x 0

P3(x)

the Remainder Estimation Theorem with n f (5)(x) cos x 1 for all x, we may use M

4. Since r 1,

2x

3x 2 1.56

x2 2! x3 2!

4x 3

5x 4

P4(0.2) x 1 x x2

x3 x 3! x3 x5 3! 5! x7 x9 7! 9!

0.06

4

when

0.56 (approximately).

7. sin x x

x5 5!

x 2n 1 (2n 1)! 2n 1 n x ( 1) (2n 1)!

x3 3!

sin x

x3 6

10

when

0.57

0.57.

P2(x)

x2 , so we may 2

x written as ( 1)n (2n 5)!

2n 5

4

3. Since r 1,

x . For x 4!

(0.5)4 4!

0.0026 (approximately).

378

Section 9.3

Alternate method: Using graphing techniques, we find that when x error 1 1

x2 2 0.52 2

12. continued Alternate method: Using graphing techniques, we find that when x error 0.5, cos x cos 0.5 0.002583. The quantity 1 graphs of y

x2 tends to be too small, as shown by the 2 x2 cos x and y 1 . 2

0.01,

1 1 1.26

x 0.01 10 x

5

1 1 .

x 2 0.01 2

e x at x

e

0.1 3

0.1 and r

x . Thus, for x 0.1, the maximum possible 3! e0.1(0.1)3 error is about 1.842 10 4. 3!

[ , ] by [ 1.5, 1.5]

x

1

x 2!

2

x2 2!

( 1)n

x n!

n

xn n!

and

1 x (e e 2 1 x for cosh x (e 2 x3 sinh x x 3! x2 cosh x 1 2!

sinh x

giving R2(x)

x3 . Thus, for x 10 3, the maximum 3! (10 3)3 possible error is about 1.67 10 10. 3!

Alternate method: Using graphing techniques, we find that when x error sin x x sin 10

3

x 5! x4 4!

10 3, 10

10

17. All of the derivatives of cosh x are either cosh x or sinh x. For any real x, cosh x and sinh x are both bounded by e x . So for any real x, let M e x and r 1 in the Remainder

ex x n 1 (n 1)!

10

1.67

0, as we may see

Estimation Theorem. This gives Rn(x) But for any fixed value of x, lim

ex x n 1 1)! n (n

0. It follows

that the series converges to cosh x for all real values of x. 18. For n

[ 10

3

, 10

] by [ 2

10

10

,2

10

10

x , so we may use 2

a, then for each x in I, f (x) f (x) f (a) f (a) R(x), where R(x) f (c)(x f (c)(x a), so

x. Then P1(x)

1 (1 4

1. Since

f (b) b f (a) for some c a

x)

3/2

Letting b

between a and b. Thus, for the class of functions that have derivatives of all orders in an open interval containing a and b, the Mean Value Theorem can be considered a special case of Taylors Theorem.

R1(x)

0.2538(0.01)2 2!

1.27

10

Section 9.3

379

ln (cos x)

x 0

ln 1

0 tan x x

f (0) 2!

0

22. f (0) 0

1 2

sec x x

1

0

1 ( sin x) x 0 cos x

f (0) f (0) so

f (0) 2!

sec x tan x x

2

0

(sec x)(sec x)

1 2

1,

sec2 x x 0

1 2 x 2

1 so

1 1

x2 2

(c) The graphs of the linear and quadratic approximations fit the graph of the function near x 0.

(c) The graphs of the linear and quadratic approximations fit the graph of the function near x 0.

[ 3, 3] by [ 3, 1] [ 3, 3] by [ 1, 3]

sin x x 0 sin x

x 0

cos x x

tan x x

0 0

0 1

0

1 2

f (0) 1, f (0)

sec2 x x

f (0) so 2!

0, so

f (0) 2!

(a) L(x) x x 1

x2 2

(b) P2(x)

(c) The graphs of the linear and quadratic approximations fit the graph of the function near x 0.

(c) The graphs of the linear and quadratic approximations fit the graph of the function near x 0.

[ 3, 3] by [ 2, 2] [ 3, 3] by [ 1, 3]

f (0) 2!

(1 k(1 k(k

(1

x )

1 (1 2

1/2 x 0 2 3/2

x)k x x)

1

x 0

1 ( 2x) x

5/2 0

f (0) x(1 (1 x ) x 2)

2 3/2 x 0 3/2 x 0

k 1

k

2 x 0

x )

3 (1 2

0 1,

f (0) so

f (0) 2!

1)(1

1) 2 k(k

x)k

k(k

1),

(x)

1 2

x2)

( 2x)

k(k

P2(x) For k

x2 2

kx

1) 2 x

1 1

3, we have f (x)

(1

6x3 3!

3

6. We may 2, M 6,

1 100

(c) The graphs of the linear and quadratic approximations fit the graph of the function near x 0.

3

0.01. In the interval [0, 1], this occurs 0.01 0.215. 3x 2. Using graphing

1 when x 100

Alternate method:

[ 3, 3] by [ 1, 3]

3x 3x 2)

3x

0.215.

380

Section 9.3

e x. Then P3(x)

x2 2 x3 , so we may 6

dy dx

use the Remainder Estimation Theorem with n f (4)(x) e x, which is no more than e0.1 when x e

0.1

3. Since 0.1, we

e 1 1

x2

e0.1(0.1)4 24

and r

1, giving R3(x)

e0.1 x 4 . Thus, 4!

( x 2) x2

x 2!

4

( x 2)2 2!

( 1)n

x n!

2n

( x 2 )n n!

x3 3 x5 10

x 2

2

( 1)n

x 6

x 2n 1 (2n 1)n!

By substituting n

0.001 6

1

0.1

6

0.01 2

be written as ( 1)n

(2n

x 2n 1 1)(n

1)!

1 1 x

(c) The power series equals the function y for all real 2 values of x. This is because the series for e x converges for all real values of x, so Theorem 2 of Section 9.1 implies that the new series also converges for all x. xn , 28. (a) Substitute ln (1 x for x in the Maclaurin series for

1 1

(4)

x x (x)

x2 x2 24(1

x 3.

x x

24(0.9) 4!

5

ln (1

5

x2 2

x3 3

xn n

when x

24(0.9)

and

(b) ln

1 1

ln (1 x

x 2

2

x)

3

ln (1

x)

1, giving R3(x)

x4

0.14 0.95

x 2x 29. (a)

2x 3 3

approximation error is

1.694

10 4. Rounding up 10 4.

n x ( 1)n 1 x 3 n n x2 x3 x 2 3 n 2n 1 2x 5 2x 5 2n 1

to be safe, an upper bound is 1.70 Alternate method: Using graphing techniques, when x error

1 1 1 1 0.1 x

0.1,

2

(1

x ) 10 4. (b)

by [ 2, 2]

1.111

1.11

by [ 1, 4]

Section 9.4

30. (a) sin2 x

1 (1 cos 2x) 2 1 1 (2x)2 1 2 2 2!

381

(b)

e ax cos bx dx e(a

a a2 a a2 a2 e a2

ax

i e ax sin bx dx

(2x)4 (2x)6 4! 6! (2x)2n ( 1)n (2n)! 256x 8 4x 2 16x 4 64x 6 2 8! 2 2! 2 4! 2 6! 1024x10 2 10! x4 2x 6 x8 2x10 x2 3 45 315 14,175

bi)x

dx

eax

bi (a bi)x e b2 bi ax e (cos bx b2 b2

(a cos bx

b2

[(a cos bx

2x 2x

4x 3 (2x)3 3!

4x 15 (2x)5 5!

8x 315 (2x)7 7!

e ax (a cos bx a2 b2 ax e (a sin bx a2 b2

31. (a) It works. For example, let n 2. Then P 3.14 and P sin P 3.141592653, which is accurate to more than 6 decimal places. (b) Let P x where x is the error in the original

x3 . 6

(pp. 487496) Exploration 1 Test

1. For

1 :L n 1 n

1

ei 2 cos 2 cos 2 i sin 2

sin P and

e

i

lim

n

n 1 n

lim

n

n n 1 n2 (n

1.

(cos

1 dx x 1 dx x2

lim

n

(n 1 n2

1)2

lim

n

1)2

1.

cos

i sin ) i sin ) 2i (cos ( 2i (cos ) i sin ( ))

lim ln x

k

k 1

1k

lim ln k

k

.

1 k

(b)

ei

e 2i

lim

k

1 1 n

lim

k

1.

1 dx. Since x 1 dx. x2

i sin )

3. Figure 9.14a shows that is greater than the integral diverges, so must the series. Figure 9.14b shows that

1 is less than 1 n2

sin

d 33. [eax(cos bx dx

ax

i sin bx)] bi cos bx) bi cos bx) i sin bx) (aeax)(cos bx a(cos bx a(cos bx i sin bx)

Since the integral converges, so must the series. i sin bx)] i sin bx)] 4. These two examples prove that L 1 can be true for either a divergent series or a convergent series. The Ratio Test itself is therefore inconclusive when L 1.

ax

(a bi)x

i sin bx)

Exploration 2

1. L lim

n

1 n xn

x n

n 1

lim

n

n n 1

x . The series

a a2 bi (a bi)e(a bi)x b2 a 2 (bi)2 (a bi)x e a2 b2 a 2 b 2 (a bi)x e e(a bi)x, a2 b2

1 2 1 3

1, so the radius of

n 1 n

Each term in this series is the negative of the corresponding term in the divergent series of Figure 9.14a. Just as diverges to , this series diverges to .

382

1. Diverges by the nth-Term Test, since lim

n

3. Geometrically, we chart the progress of the partial sums as in the figure below:

2 +3

1 4 1 +5 1 1

n n 2n 1 1

0. . (The

2. Diverges by the nth-Term Test, since lim Ratio Test can also be used.)

1 etc.

1 1 1 2 + 3

n n

12

n

an an

lim

n

(n 2

1) 2

n 1

1 n

2

2n 1

1 1 1 1 2 + 3 4

1 2

1.

1 , 8

4. The series converges at the right-hand endpoint. As shown in the picture above, the partial sums are closing in on some limit L as they oscillate left and right by constantly decreasing amounts. 5. We know that the series does not converge absolutely at the right-hand endpoint, because of this section).

1 diverges (Exploration 1 n

3n 1 2 1. 3 2n n n 2 Alternately, note that n for all n. 3 3 1 n n 2 2 Since converges, converges by the Direct n 1 n 1 3 n 1 3

lim

an

an

n n (3

lim

2n

1) 2n

1. lim

n

nx n 1 3 1)

x lim

n

n n 1

Comparison Test. x

n2 n

2

2. lim

n2 x n n(n xn n!

n

3 lim

n

lim n sin

n

1 n

3. lim

n

n

(Note: This limit is similar to the limit which is discussed at the end of Example 3 in Section 9.3.)

(n 1) 4 x 2 (2n)4

2

an an

lim

n

(n

1)2e n 2e n

n 1

1.

n

x lim

n

n4

4n 3 x 16

2

6n 2 16n 4

4n

lim

n

an an

x

2x 1 5. lim n 1 2x n 2

n 1 n

2 1

(n 1)10 10 n 1 n

lim

10 n n10

1 10

1.

16

2x 2 1

2 1n

lim

n

2x 2

lim

n

an an

6. Since n 2 7. Since 5

n

5

6, an 6, an 1, an

n 2, bn 5 , bn

n

5

6. 6.

8. Since n N 1.

n

n, bn

1 for n n!

ln n, and

lim

3!n! 3n (n 3)!

n

1 n n

0.

2 , 3

3

10. Since n 2 n 2, an

n 3 and hence

1 ,b n2 n

1 n2

for

so r

1.

, and N

n

an an

lim

n

(n

1)!e n!e n

n 1

lim (n

n

1)e

Section 9.4

13. Diverges by the Ratio Test, since lim

n

383

an an

n32 n 3n

22. lim

n

an an

lim

n

3x 2 n n 1 2 3

n 3x 2n

3x

2 3

1, or x

x 10 2

(The nth

1, or x

n

10.

n

an an

lim

n

(n

1 lim n 2 1 1. 2

1)ln (n 1) 2 2n 1 n ln n n 1 ln (n 1) n ln n

24. lim

n

an an

lim

n

(n n

1) x n 3

n 2 n xn

lim x

n

x 1, so

an an xn (n x lim n 3

n

1

n

25. lim

n

lim

n 13

n 1

an an

(2n 1)! 1)! n! 3)! n 1 lim 3)(2n 2) n (2n 1 lim 0 1. 3) n 2(2n (n n (2n

lim

1) n x 3

n 3n xn

3, so

n

n

an an

lim

n

lim

n

lim

n

lim

n

an an

x 2n 3 1)! n (n

lim

n! x

2n 1

lim

n

x2 n 1

an an (n x 5 1) x 5n 3 3n

1 1

27. lim

n

lim

n

5n nx 3n

1 e

lim

n

x 5

1 diverges (see Exploration 1 in this section) even n 1 n 1 though lim 0. n n

3

an an

(n 1) x n [(n 1)2 n 4 x x lim 4 n 4

1

28. lim

n

lim

n 1

1]

4n(n2 1) nxn

a

and bn

4, so

bn

n

an an n 3 1xn

n 1 1

19. This is a geometric series which converges only for x so the radius of convergence is 1. 20. This is a geometric series which converges only for x 5 1, so the radius of convergence is 1. 21. This is a geometric series which converges only for (4x 1) 1, or x

1 4 1 4 1 , so the radius of 4

29. lim

n

lim

n

3n n x

n

lim

n

x 3

x 3

3, so

convergence is .

384

Section 9.4

an an (n 1)! x 4 n n! x 4 n

1

30. lim

n

lim

n

(x 4 1)

2

1 and

(x 4

1)2

lim (n

n

1) x 4)

a 1 r 1 4 x2 x2 1

(x 4 1)2

(x

an an ( 2)

n 1

31. lim

n

lim

n

(n 2) x 1 2n (n 1) x 1 n

n 1

4 (x

1)2

lim 2 x

n

4 2x 4 2x

2x

1 1

an an

(x 9 1)2 (x 9 1)2

1 and

a 1 r 1

32. lim

n

lim

n

4x (n

5 1)3/2

2n 3

n 4x

3/2

5 2n

4 Sum

lim (4x

n

5)2

(4x

5)2 5)

2

5 4 an an

1

1, which is equivalent

1 9

(x 9

1)2

1, or x

5 4

9 (x

1)2 9 2x

x2

9 2x

x2

33. lim

n

lim

n

x n

n 1

n x

n

x 2 x 2

1 and

lim x

n

an an

1 x 16.

a 1

r 1

1

x 2

2 1 4 x

x 2n 2 2n

1 3

34. lim

n

lim

n

2n x 2 2n

1

1 and 1,

1 e

lim

a 1 r 1 1 ln x

e.

x2 3 1

1 and

x2 3 1

equivalent to x x 2

3 (x 2

1,

a 1 r 1 1

x2 3 1

2.

3

1)

x2

Section 9.4

40. This is a geometric series with first term a

sin x sin x common ratio . Since 2 2

385

1 and

46.

2 sin x

n 1 (2n

s1 s2 s3 sn S

of convergence is Sum

a 1 r 1 1

sin x 2

3 (3 (3 3

6 1)(2n 3 3

1)

n 1

3 2n 1 2n

3 1

1) 1)

3 2n 1

1 1

3 5 3 5

3

3 5

3 5 3 7

3 7

41. Almost, but the Ratio Test wont determine whether there is convergence or divergence at the endpoints of the interval. 42. (a) For k a1 N, its obvious that ak N, ak aN aN a1 cN

1

a1

aN

n N 1

lim sn

cn.

For all k a1 a1 a1

47. ak

n 1 (2n

s1 s2 s3 sn S

aN

aN ck

n N 1

cn

(b) Since all of the an are nonnegative, the partial sums of the series form a nondecreasing sequence of real numbers. Part (a) shows that the sequence is bounded above, so it must converge to a limit. 43. (a) For k d1 N, its obvious that dk N, dk dN dN d1 aN

1

n 1

5 1)2

5 25 5 25

5

5 25

5 25 5 49

5 49

lim sn

2n (n 1 1)2 1 4 1 4 1 4

d1

dN

n N 1

48. an.

n 1n

s1

n 1

1 4 1 4

1 n2

1 (n 1)2

For all k d1 d1 d1

1 1 1 1

dN

dN ak

dk

s2 s3 sn S

n N 1

1 9 1 9

1

1 9

1 9 1 16

1 16

an

1 (n 1)2

(b) If an converged, that would imply that dn was also convergent. 44. Answers will vary.

4 45. 3)(4n n 1 (4n 1 s1 1 5 1 s2 1 5 1 s3 1 5 1 sn 1 4n 1

lim sn 1 1 1 1 lim sn

1 2 1

49. s1

1)

n 1

1 9 1 9

1 4n 3 4n

1 1

s2 s3

1 2 1 2 1

1 3 1 3

1

1 3

1 3 1 4

2 1 2 1 n

1 4

1 5 1 5

1

1 9

1 9 1 13

sn 1

1 13

S 50. s1 s2 s3

lim sn

sn S

1 1 ln 3 ln 2 1 1 1 ln 3 ln 2 ln 4 1 1 1 ln 3 ln 2 ln 4 1 1 ln 5 ln 2 1 1 ln(n 2) ln 2 1 lim sn ln 2 n

1 ln 3 1 ln 3

1 ln 4 1 ln 5

1 ln 2 1 ln 4

386

Section 9.5

1 1 1 1 1

51. s1 s2

tan (tan

4

1 1

1

1

2 2)

tan (tan

1

2 tan

1

3)

Exploration 1 The p-Series Test

tan

1

s3

(tan

1 3

1 1

2)

1

(tan 4)

tan

3)

1. We first note that the Integral Test applies to any series of the form function f (x)

1 where p is positive. This is because the np

(tan

4

tan

tan tan

4 (n

n

x p

1

0,

sn S 52.

1 1 x

4

n

1) lim tan

1

and f (x) n

4 2 4

xp

0.

lim sn

If p

1:

k

n 0

xn nx nx

(1 (1

n 1

1 dx xp

lim

k

1

1 dx xp 1 kp

lim

k

1

p 1 k

p 1

Differentiate:

1 (1 x)2

n 0

= lim

k

1 1 p 1 p 1

1 0)

0

1 p 1

(since p 1 .

Multiply by x:

x (1 x)2

n

n 0

x)2(1) x)

3

1

Differentiate:

d x dx (1 x)2 (1 2x (x)(2)(1 x)4 x)( 1)

2. If 0

p

1 dx xp

1:

k

x (1

1 x)3

n 0

n2x n

(1 x ) x 1 (1 x)3

1

lim

k

1

1 dx xp

p 1 k

lim

k

x 1

p 1 1 p

Multiply by x:

x(x 1) (1 x)3

n 0

lim

k

(k 1

1)

n 2x n

Let x

1 3 2 2 1 3 2

1 : 2

(since 1 p 0). The series diverges by the Integral Test. If p 0, the series diverges by the nth Term Test. This completes the proof for p 1. 3. If p 1:

k

n 0

n2 nn

2

1 n 2

1 dx xp

lim

k

1

1 dx x

k

n 02

lim ln x

k

1

The sum is 6.

lim ln k

k

1. Since f (n)(0) 0 for all n, the Maclaurin Series for f has all 0.

n 0

zero coefficients! The series is simply 0 x n 2. The series converges (to 0) for all values of x.

3. Since f (x) 0 only at x 0, the only place that this series actually converges to its f-value is at x 0.

1 p dx with p 1 x 1 2. Diverges, limit comparison test with integral of x

387

n

n 2(n

5n 3 3n 2)(n 2 5) 1 n2

1, and

n 1

1 n2

2.

1 3. Diverges, comparison test with integral of x 2 4. Converges, comparison test with integral of 2 x

n

3n

3n

1 3

0.

1 , then ln n

5. Diverges, limit comparison test with integral of 6. Yes, for N 7. Yes, for N 0 2 2 3

1 x

n

8. No, neither positive nor decreasing for x 9. No, oscillates 10. No, not positive for x 1

lim un

0.

10 n n10

n

.

n n 1 1

1. Diverges by the Integral Test, since

1

5 x 1

dx diverges.

n

3 n

n 1

n 1

lim un

x 1 and observe that x 1 1 (x 1) ( x 1)(1)

2 x

f (x)

n 2

ln n n

1 for n

f (x)

(x

1)2

1 x 2 x , 2(x 1)2 x

1 diverges. n 1

1

1.)

ln n ln n2 ln n 2 ln n 1 , 2

2x

dx diverges.

15. Diverges by the nth-Term Test since which means each term is

1 . 2

1 ln 2

1.44.

1 n 1 and bn n2 1 . n

1 ln 3

Then an lim 1.

n

0 and bn lim

n

0 for n

n n

2 and

1 1 n

0.91.

an bn 1 n

1 n 1 n

1 n2

lim

n

lim 1

n

1.

n

en 1 e 2n

n 1 n 1

for n

0, and e

n 0

converges as a

0.37.

17. Converges absolutely, because, absolutely, it is a geometric series with r 0.1. 18. Converges conditionally:

n n2 1 1 for n n3/2 3 . 2

1, and

n 0

with p

If un

n2

1 n

1 n2 n 1 n diverges by the Direct Comparison Test, since n2 1 1 for n 1 and diverges. n n 1 n

n 1

388

Section 9.5

2 n converges by the 3 2 3

n 1

27. This is a geometric series which converges only for x (a) ( 1, 1) (b) ( 1, 1) (c) None 28. This is a geometric series which converges only for x 5 1, or 6 x 4. (a) ( 6, (b) ( 6, (c) None 29. This is a geometric series which converges only for 4x (a) 1 1, or

1 ,0 2 1 ,0 2 1 2

1.

n

an an

(n

1)

n 1 2 2

1 3 n n2 2

1.

1 , then {un} is a decreasing sequence of n ln n 1 positive terms with lim un 0, so ( 1)n 1 n ln n n n 2

If un

4) 4)

2

n 2

b

0.

1 dx x ln x

lim ln ln x

b

2

.

n! 2n

n

and so the

(b)

n 1

(c) None

sin n converges by direct n2

30. lim

n

an an

lim

n

n 1

3x 2 n n 1

n 3x 2n

3x 2

2 1, or

1 3

1. Check x

1 : 3 n

(

1 n 1

1 1 n

conditionally. Check x 0, so

( 1)n 1 n

1:

1) converges n 1n 1 diverges. n n 1 n

1 , n1/2

n

n 1

1 ,1 3 1 ,1 3 1 3

1 1 n

n 1

1 . 2

(c) At x

n 1

which diverges as a p-series with p 24. Converges absolutely, since converges as a p-series. 25. Converges conditionally, since (See Examples 2 and 4.) 26. Converges conditionally: If un

1 n n 1 cos n n n

n 1

n 1

1 , which n3/2

x 10

1, or

12.

(a) ( 8, 12)

cos n n

n 1

n 1

1)n+1 . n

n

an an

lim

n

(n n

1) x n 3

n 2 nxn

x 1, or

n

( 1) n

n

n 1

converges by the Alternating Series Test. But un diverges by the Limit Comparison Test:

n 1

If vn

n 1

lim

n

n n

1/2

1 . 2 1 1 , u also 2 n 1 n

diverges.

Section 9.5

an an xn (n 1) n

n n 1

389

33. lim

n

lim

n

n 1 3n

1

n 3n x

n

x 3

38. lim

n

an an

lim

n

(n

1)! x 4 n n! x 4 n

x n

3. Furthermore,

lim (n

n

1) x 4 4

n 1

n

n3 3 . 2

(a) Only at x (b) At x (c) None 39. lim

n

0, x , x 4 4

an an

lim

n

2 n 1(n 2 n(n

2) x 1) x

1n 1n

2(x 1)

1) 1, or

an an

lim

n

x (n

2n 3

1)!

n! x 2n

lim

n

x n

1 2

The series converges absolutely for all real numbers. (a) All real numbers (b) All real numbers (c) None 35. lim

x 3 5n 5 nx 3n n n x 3 The series converges absolutely for 1, 5 x 3 or 8 x 2. For 1, the series diverges by 5 an

1

3 . For 2(x 2

1)

1 3 , 2 2 1 3 , 2 2

an

lim

(n

1) x 5n

3n

(b)

n

an an

lim

n

n

4x (n

5 2n 3 1)3/2

4x

n 3/2 5 2n

2n 1

(4x 5)2

5)2

3 . Check x 2

1, or

1

an an

(n 1) x n 4n 1[(n 1)2 n

lim

1] x 4

4n(n2 1) nxn

x 4

( 1) 1 x 1: n3/2 n 1 n 3 converges as a p-series with p . Check x 2 12n 1 3 . 3/2 converges as a p-series with p 2 n 1 n

1 n3/2 3 : 2

n

1, or

4.

(a) 1, (b) 1,

3 2 3 2

4:

n 0

n

Check x

an an

lim

n

x n

n 1

n x

n

x 1, or

n 0

n2

n

with

1 1 . 1 n

n

1.

n

4 lim

n

n 1

(

1

1) n

1 . 2

an an

n 3n

1 xn

1

Check x

3n n xn x 3

n 1

n

3, or

3.

1, 1, 1

1) 1)

390

Section 9.5

46. (a) Diverges by the Limit Comparison Test. Let ak

1 . Then ak 0 and k1/2 ak k1/2 1 bk 0 for k 1 and lim lim . bk k k 2 2k 7 1 Since bk diverges as a p-series with p , 2 k 1 1 2k 7

42. This is a geometric series which converges only for ln x (a) (b) 1, or

1 ,e e 1 ,e e 1 e

e.

and bk

k 1

ak also diverges.

1 k k

(c) None 43. n 13 109 365 24 3600 ln (n 1) sum 1 ln n ln (4.09968 1017 1) sum 1017) 40.5548... sum 41.5548... 40.554 sum 41.555 4.09968 1 1017 (b) Diverges by the nth-Term Test, since lim 1

k

ln (4.09968

0.

cos k k2 k 1 for k k2

1 and

k 1

1 converges as a k2

n 1

1,

p-series with p

2.

f (x) dx

1

a1

an

a1

f (x) dx.

1

If the integral diverges, it must go to infinity, and the first inequality forces the partial sums of the series to go to infinity as well, so the series is divergent. If the integral converges, then the second inequality puts an upper bound on the partial sums of the series, and since they are a nondecreasing sequence, they must converge to a finite sum for the series. (See the explanation preceding Exercise 42 in Section 9.4.) 45.

y

3

18 dx x ln x

lim 18 ln ln x

b

3

1 dx x ln x

n 3

1 n ln n

b

b

3

roughly ln (ln n), so they are much smaller than the partial sums for the harmonic series, which are about ln n.

y = f (x) a N aN + 1 an 1 an n+1

1/k 0

48. (a) ak

n x

( 1)k ( 1)k ( 1)

1

6(kx)2 dx

1/k 0

0 y

N N+1 N+2

2k 2x 3

k 1 2

(b) The series converges by the Alternating Series Test. (c) The first few partial sums are: S1 N, S7 2, S2

319 ,S 210 8

1, S3

5 ,S 3 4

n 1

f (x) dx

N

aN

533 ,S 420 9

an

aN

f (x) dx.

N

series, the sum is between any two adjacent partial sums, so 1 S8 sum S9

If the integral diverges, it must go to infinity, and the first inequality forces the partial sums of the series to go to infinity as well, so the series is divergent. If the integral converges, then the second inequality puts an upper bound on the partial sums of the series, and since they are a nondecreasing sequence, they must converge to a finite sum for the series. (See the explanation preceding Exercise 42 in Section 9.4.)

n and bn 3n2 1 an

n bn

1 . Then an n n2 3n2 1 n

0 and bn

1 . Since 3

0 for

1, and lim

lim

n 1

bn diverges, an diverges.

n 1

Section 9.5

391

(b) S

n 1

3n2n

3 3n2 1

3 n

n 1

3n23

53. ln (1

n 1

x)

n 1

1 and n2 n

( 1) n

( n 1

1)n

n 1 x

, so at x

1, the series is

n12 is convergent as a

1

n 0

p-series with p

2.

n 0

(

1

1)n

x 2n 1 2n 1

50. (a) From the list of Maclaurin series in Section 9.2, ln (1 (b) 1 x x) 1

3 2 1 2

1, the sequence is

1)n( 1)2n 2n 1

n

n 0

x2 2

x3 3

( 1)n

1x

n

n 0

1, the sequence is

un

1

The truncation error is less than the magnitude of the sixth nonzero term, or

x6 6 1 26 6 1 384

n 13

for all n

1 1 2

N.

1/3 1/3 1 1/2 1/2

1

n

n 1

21n

0.002605

1

1 . 2

Thus, a bound for the (absolute) truncation error is 0.002605. (d) 51. lim

k

1 2n

n 1

ak

( 1)n 1x 2n 2n

1 k 1

1 ln (1 2

x )

n

an

lim

n

n2 2n

lim

n

n) 2 2

1 2

n n

ak 1 2

2 x lim 3) k ln (k 1 . 2 1 : 2

k 1

2x

1 , 2

an

lim

n

n n 2n 1

n 2n

lim

n 1

1 2

n

n

Check x

( 1) converges by the Alternating Series Test. 2) k 0 ln (k 1 Check x : 2 1 diverges by the Direct Comparison Test, since 2) k 0 ln (k 1 1 1 for k 2 and diverges. The original k ln (k 2) k 2 k 1 1 series converges for x . 2 2

(c)

lim

n , n odd

an

lim

n , n odd

n 2n

n

lim

n , n odd

n

n

2 1 2n

1 2 1 2

lim

n , n even

an an lim

n

lim

n , n even

Thus, lim

n n

n x

58. (a) lim 52. (a) The series converges by the Direct Comparison Test, since

1 n ln n

p

an

1n 4

n

x 4

1 x 4 1

1 for n np

3, and

n 3

1 converges as a np

1, or

p-series when p

1.

1 , which diverges by the n ln n

b

(b) For p

1, the series is

2

Check x Check x

3: ( 1)n diverges.

n 0

n 2

1 dx x ln x

lim ln (ln x)

b

2

5: 1n diverges.

n 0

1 1, we have p n ln n

1 , so n ln n

n 2

392

Chapter 9 Review

x 4 n3 n an 3 x 4n n x 4 The series converges absolutely for 1, 3 an

1

n n

an

lim

n

n x

2n

2. lim lim

n

x

n

x 3

x n (n

lim

4n 1 1)3 n 1

n 3n

1, or

or

1. 7: 1:

( 1)n converges n 1 diverges. n

5. 1: 5:

n 1

Check x

( 1)n converges. n

n 1

Check x Check x

n 1

n 1

1 diverges. n

1) 1) 7

n n

an

lim

n

2n x n

2 (x 3

1 1 x . 2 2 1 : ( 1)n diverges. 2 n 1

2 (x 3

Check x Check x

1 2

1)

3 2 1 5 , 2 2 1 5 , 2 2

1 : 2 n

1 diverges.

1 1 , . 2 2

n

5 . 2

n n

an

lim

n

ln x n

ln x

1 e

an an

1

e.

1 : e n

Check: x Check x

ln

1 n e

n

n 0

1)n diverges.

e: (ln e)

n 0

n 0

1n diverges.

1 ,e . e

lim

The series converges absolutely for all x. (a) (b) All real numbers (c) All real numbers (d) None 5. lim

an an

1

(pp. 509511)

1. lim

n

an an

lim

n

x (n

n 1

lim

n

1)!

n! xn

lim

n

x n 1

3x (n

1n 1 1)2

n2 3x 1n

3x

2 . Furthermore, when 3 1 1, we have an and n2

The series converges absolutely for all x. (a) (b) All real numbers (c) All real numbers (d) None 3x

1, or 0

n 1

2, so an also

n 1

1 3 2 3 2 3

(b) 0, (c) 0,

(d) None

Chapter 9 Review

an an (n 2) x 3n 3 (n 1) x 3n n an an xn n

1

393

6. lim

n

lim

x3 1, or

9. lim

n

lim

n

n xn

x 1, or 1 x 1.

n 1

1:

n

Check x

1 n

n 1

1:

1 . 2

n

an an

(n 1

2) 2x 1 n (2n 3)2n 1

(2n 1)2n (n 1) 2x 1 n

n

2x 2

1

en 1 x n 1 (n 1)e n

3 2

2x 2

an an

1, or

lim

ne e xn

n

ex 1,

1 2x 1 . When 2 2

1 e

3 1 , 2 2 3 1 , 2 2

1 . e

Furthermore, when e x

1, we have an

n 1

e, so an also converges

1 and ne n

1 ne

xn 1 1)n n (n 1 nn xn nn 1)(n 1 e 1 1 , e e 1 1 , e e

n

an an

lim

x lim

n

(b)

1)

n

(n

x lim

n (n

1) 1

1 n n

x 1 lim e n n 1

(c)

3n an (n 1) x 2n 1 n n x2 The series converges absolutely when 1, 3 an

1

The series converges absolutely for all x. Another way to see that the series must converge is to observe that for n 2x, we have

xn nn 1 n , so the terms 2

lim

(n

2) x 2n 3n 1

x2 3

are (eventually) bounded by the terms of a convergent geometric series. A third way to solve this exercise is to use the nth Root Test (see Exercises 5758 in Section 9.5). (a) (b) All real numbers (c) All real numbers (d) None

or

3) 3)

(d) None

394

Chapter 9 Review

an an x 1 2n 2n 3

3

12. lim

n

lim

n

2n x 1

1

2n 1

x 12

12 1,

x2 2 1

x2 2

, so it converges x 3. It

n 0

1, or

( 1) ( 1) 2n 1

n 2n 1

Check x

n 0

( 1) converges 2n 1

3 3, 3, 3) 3)

n 0

1 1 x

Alternating Series Test. (a) 1 (b) [0, 2] (c) (0, 2) (d) At x 13. lim

n

x

1 . Sum 4

x2

1 x2 2

1

1 4

( 1)nx n

4 . 5

n

2

1)! x 2n 2n 1

2

18. f (x)

2n n! x 2n

ln (1

x)

x

2 . Sum 3

x3 3

2 3

( 1)n ln

5 . 3

1x

an an

(n

ln 1

x5 5!

lim

n

(n

1)x 2 2

0, x , x

0 0 0.

x3 3!

sin

( 1)n 0.

x 2n 1 (2n 1)!

evaluated at x The series converges only at x (a) 0 (b) x (c) x 0 only 0 21. f (x)

10x n 1 ln (n 1) n

. Sum 1

3 x2 2! x4 4!

20. f (x)

cos x

cos

3 xn n!

( 1)n

1 . 2

x 2n (2n)!

evaluated at x ex 1

. Sum

x2 2!

n

x e ln 2 x

1 3

2.

, evaluated at

an an

lim

ln n 10x n

10x 1,

x 22. f (x)

ln 2. Sum tan

1

1 10

1 . 10 1 : 10 n

x3 3

x5 5

tan

1

( 1)n

1 3

x 2n 1 2n 1

evaluated at x

2

. Sum

. (Note that

1

n 1 x

2n 1

2n

1 : 10 n 1 Test, since ln n 1 10 1 1 , 10 10 1 1 , 10 10

given in the exercise.) 23. Replace x by 6x in the Maclaurin series for the end of Section 9.2.

1 1 6x 1 1 x

given at

1 1

(6x) 6x

(6x)2 36x 2

(6x)n (6x)n

1 1 x

1 10

given at

n

1

an an

(n 2)! x n 1 (n 1)! x n n

lim

lim (n

n

2) x

(x

0)

x3

1 1

(x 3) x3

(x 3) 2 x6

( x 3)n

0.

( 1)nx 3n

(d) None

Chapter 9 Review

4x 1 x 1 1 x

395

26.

4x

3

4x(1 4x

xn 4x

n

)

1

Section 9.2. xe

x2

4x 2

x1 x x3

( x 2)

x 2!

5

( x 2)2 2!

x n!

( 1)n

2n 1

( x 2 )n n!

27. Replace x by x in the Maclaurin series for sin x given at the end of Section 9.2. sin x x

( x)3 3! ( x)5 5!

( x)2n 1 (2n 1)!

x given at

1

3x

3x

28. Replace x by

(3x)3 3

(3x)5 5

( 1)n

(3x)2n 1 2n 1

x)

35. Replace x by

2x sin 3

2x 3

2x 3 3

2x 5 3

3!

5!

2x 2n+1 1)n 3

(2n

1)!

( 2x)2 ( 2x)3 2 3 n ( 2x) ( 1)n 1 n n 8x 3 (2x) 2x 2x 2 3 n

2x 3

4x 3 81

4x 5 3645

( 1)n (2n

2x 2n 1 3

1)!

29.

sin x

2

( x)]

3

30.

ex 2

1 1 2

x

1 1 2 x2 2!

x2 2!

x2 2!

xn n!

( 1)n

xn n!

x3 2

( x) 2

x4 3

1

( x) 3

xn n

1

( 1)n

n 1 ( x)

1 1

x

x4 4!

x 2n (2n)!

(3 (3 2(3 6(3

x) x)

x 2 2 x 2 3 x 2 4 x 2 n 1

x) x)

2, so

31. Replace x by

f (2) 2! f (2) 6, so 3!

1 1 1

n!(3 1 (x (x

x)

( 5x)2 2! 5x)4 4! ( 5x)2n ( 1)n (2n)! n 5x (5x)2 ( 1)n (5x) 2! 4! (2n)! ( 3

x 2

f (n)(2) n!, so n!

2

1 x

2) 2)n 2x 2 4x) x 4) x

1

(x 5) x

1 1

2)

(x

2)

38. f ( 1) f ( 1) f ( 1) f ( 1) f (n)( 1)

(x 3 (3x 2 (6x 6x

7 10, so

f ( 1) 2!

32. Replace x by

x 2 2 x n 2

x/2

f ( 1) 6, so 3!

0 for n 5 2

1 1

x 2 x 2

2!

2 2

n! 1 n! 2 x n

x3

2x 2

x 8

396

Chapter 9 Review

1 xx 3 1 3

2 x 3 3 x 3

f (n)(3) n! 1 1 x 3

1 9 1 , then {un} is a decreasing sequence of ln (n 1) ( 1)n positive terms with lim un 0, so converges ln(n 1) n n 1

x 2x

If un

n 1n n

1 diverges, so

40. f ( ) f ( ) f ( ) f ( ) f (k)( )

0 1 0, so

f ( ) 0 2! f ( ) 1 1, so 3! 6

1 dx x(ln x)2

lim

b

1 b ln x 2

1 . ln 2

n

an an

1 (x 7!

3n 1 1)! n (n

lim

n! 3n

lim

n

3 n 1

0.

2n3n nn 1 n for n 2

sin x

1 (x 3!

)3

1 (x 5!

12 and

)5

n 1

1 n is a convergent 2

geometric series. Alternately, we may use the Ratio Test or the nth-Root Test (see Exercise 57 and 58 in Section 9.5).

)7

1

1 1)!

( 1)n

(2n

(x

)2n

( 1)n(n2 2n2 n n 1) does not exist. 1

n 1

5 n

lim

n 1n

50. Converges absolutely by the Direct Comparison Test, since 42. Converges conditionally. If un

1 n 1

( 1)n n 1 . 2

n

converges by the

n 1

2)

1 and n3/2 n

1

1 n

is a divergent p-series p

51. Converges absolutely by the Limit Comparison Test. Let an Then lim

1 n n2 an 1

n 1

ln n n3 1 for n n2

and bn

n2 n n2 1

1 . n2

1 and

n

1 converges as a p-series n2 1

n bn

lim

n

1 and

1

2

n 2n

converges as a

with p

2.

p-series ( p

n 2

n

2 1)2

an an

n lim n (n

2 1)!

n! n 1

n lim n (n

0.

lim

n

n n 1

lim 1

n

1 n

1 e

0.

Chapter 9 Review

53. This is a telescoping series. (c) The fourth order Taylor polynomial for g(x) at x

x

397

4 is

n 3

(2n

s1 s2 s3 sn S

1 1 3) 2(2n 1) 3 2(2n 1 1 1 3 1) 6 10 1 1 1 6 14 14 1 1 1 1 6 14 14 18

[7

4

3(t

3 (t 2

4) 4)2

3 (x 2

5(t

5 (t 3

4)2 4)3

5 (x 3

2(t

1 (t 2

4)3] dx 4)4

1 (x 2 x 4

7t 7(x

1 18

4)

4)2

4)3

4)4

(d) No. One would need the entire Taylor series for f (x), and it would have to converge to f (x) at x 3.

57. (a) Use the Maclaurin series for sin x given at the end of Section 9.2.

5 sin

2 1

n 2

n(n

s1 s2 s3 sn S

n

2 1) 2 2

n 2

2 n

5

5x 2

1 1 1 lim sn

2 2 1 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 n 2

( 1)n

2 4 2 4

1

2 4

2 4 2 5

2 5

(b) The series converges for all real numbers, according to the Ratio Test: lim

n

an an

1 f (3) f (3)(x

f (3) (x 3!

n (2n

lim lim

(2n

(2n 5

1)! 2 2n+1 x

0

5 2n

3) 3) 3(x

3

f (3) (x 2!

3)2

(c) Note that the absolute value of f (n)(x) is bounded by for all x and all n 1, 2, 3, . 3)3

1 f (3.2)

4(x

3)

3)2

2(x

1 . 2

P3(3.2)

1.936

(b) Since the Taylor series for f can be obtained by termby-term differentiation of the Taylor Series for f, the second order Taylor polynomial for f at x 4 6(x 3) 2.74. 6, which 3. 6(x 3)2. Evaluated at x 3 is 2.7,

Pn is bounded by

5 2n

1

2n 1 (n 1)!

5 (n 1)!

. 4. So, two

To make this less than 0.1 requires n terms (up through degree 4) are needed.

f (2.7)

(c) It underestimates the values, since f (3) means the graph of f is concave up near x 56. (a) Since the constant term is f (4), f (4) 2

f (4) , f (4) 3!

58. (a) Substitute 2x for x in the Maclaurin series for given at the end of Section 9.2.

1 1 2x

1 1 x

1 1

2x 2x

(2x)2 4x 2

(2x)3 8x 3

(2x)n (2x)n

7. Since

12. (b)

1 1 1 , . The series for is known to converge for 2 2 1 t

(b) Note that P4 (x) 3 10(x 4) 6(x 4)2 24(x 4)3. The second degree polynomial for f at x 4 is given by the first three terms of this expression, namely 3 10(x 4) 6(x 4)2. Evaluating at x 4.3, f (4.3) 0.54.

1, so by substituting t 1

398

Chapter 9 Review

(b) Integrate term by term.

2 , so one percent is approximately 0.0067. It 3 1 , the series is the 4

x

1 4

ln x t

2

3

1 t 2

dt

1 (t 3

takes 7 terms (up through degree 6). This can be found by trial and error. Also, for x alternating series

n 0

1 (t 2

3)2

(t

3)3

x

1 (t 4

3)4

( 1)n (x

Series Estimation Theorem, it shows that 8 terms (up through degree 7) are sufficient since

18 2

0.0067.

(x 4

3)4

It is also a geometric series, and you could use the (c) Evaluate at x remainder formula for a geometric series to determine the number of terms needed. (See Example 2 in Section 9.3.) the size of the third term is 59. (a) lim

n

1 23 3

1 2

1 22 2

( 1)n

2n

1 (n

1)

1 24

3 is 0.375. 2

an an

lim

xn

1 , so the e

1 e

1, or x

2x 2

1 (b) f

1 3 1 1 1 2 3 1 3 1 2 1 3 9 6 5 0.278 18 22 2! 1 3 3 33 3!

( 2x 2)

n

an an

(c) By the Alternating Series Estimation Theorem the error is no more than the magnitude of the next term, which is 60. (a) f (3) f (3) f (3) f (3) f (n)(3) f (x) 1

1 4 3 44 4! 32 243

1 x 3

lim

The series converges for all real numbers, so the interval of convergence is ( , ).

0.132. 1 1

f (3) 2!

(x (x 2(x

2)

(c) This is an alternating series. The difference will be bounded by the magnitude of the fifth term, which is 1

f (3) 3! (2x 2)4 2x 8 . Since 0.6 x 0.6, this term is less 4! 3 2(0.6)8 than which is less than 0.02. 3

2) 2)

2 x 3 3 x

= 2, so 3

4 x 3

6(x

2)

6, so

( 1)nn!, so (x 3)

(n)

(3) n!

(x 3)n

x2

1 1 x

( 1)n(x

x x3

x2 x4

n 0

Chapter 9 Review

63. (a) Substituting x 2 for x in the Maclaurin series for sin x given at the end of Section 9.2, sin x 2 x2

x 3!

6

399

(e) Let u du

x2 2x dx x 2e x

dv v

e x dx ex 2x e x dx

x 5!

10

( 1)n

x (2n

4n 2

1)!

x 2e x dx Let u du x 2e x 2x 2 dx

x 0

dv v

1 0

sin t 2 dt

x3 3

x7 7(3!)

2xe x dx

2e x dx 2e x C C 2 0.71828

( 1)n

1

1)!

2)e x e

1 (b) sin x dx 11(5!) 0 1 . ( 1)n (4n 3)(2n 1)! 1 1 Since the third term is 0.001, it 11(5!) 1320 1 3 1 7(3!)

1 0

x 2e x dx

(x 2

2x

$1000 will be

suffices to use the first two nonzero terms (through degree 7). (c) NINT(sin x 2, x, 0, 1) (d)

1 3 1 7(3!) 1 11(5!)

(b) Assume that the first payment goes to the charity at the end of the first year. 1000(1.08) 1 1000(1.08) 2 1000(1.08) 3 (c) This is a geometric series with sum equal to

0.31026830

1 15(7!) 258,019 831,600

1000/1.08 1 (1/1.08)

1000 0.08

0.31026816

should be invested today in order to completely fund the perpetuity forever. 66. We again assume that the first payment occurs at the end of

1

10

1 0

e 4 e0.5 4

x 2e x dx

f (x) dx

0

1000(1.06)

1000(1.06)

3

h f (0) 2 1 0 4 e0.5 8

f (1)

1

1000(1.06)

1000/1.06 (1/1.06)

16,666.67

1000 1.06 1

0.88566 (b) x 2e x x2 1 x2 x3 x

x2 2!

xn n!

n 2 x4 x 2! n! x4 2 3 x P4(x) x 2 1 3 x x4 41 x5 1 P4(x) 3 4 60 10 0 0

0.68333

(c) Since f is concave up, the trapezoids used to estimate the area lie above the curve, and the estimate is too large. (d) Since all the derivatives are positive (and x 0), the remainder, Rn(x), must be positive. This means that Pn(x) is smaller than f (x).

400

67. (a)

Section 10.1

Sequence of Tosses T HT HHT HHHT Payoff ($) 0 1 2 3 Term of Series 0

1 2

Probability

1 2 1 2 2 1 3 2 1 4 2

n 1

1

1 2 1 2

identity x n

n 1

x 1

(for x

2 3

1 3 2 1 4 2

Differentiate.

n 1

(n n(n

(1 (1

1)x n

(1

2x (1

x2 x)2

x)2(2

1

n 1

1 (1 x2 (1 x)2 x)2 1 2

1 1

1 2 2

1 3 2

1 4 2

x)( 1)

2x 2x 2x 3

3x 2 3x 2 3x4

nx n

(1

1 1

2 x)3

x 2(1 x2

nx n nx n

Multiply by x.

n 1

n(n

1)x n

1 x

2x (1 x)3

(d) If x nonzero terms of the series in part (a). Since 2 (1/2) 1, the expected payoff is $1. 2

[1 (1/2)] s2 4

Replace x by .

68. (a) The area of an equilateral triangle whose sides have length s is (s)

1 2 3s 2 3

n 1

n(nxn 1)

(x

2 x

1 3 x

(x

2x 2 , x 1)3

(b) Solve x

2x 2 to get x 1)3

2.769 for x

1.

b2 3 4

3 3n

b 2 3 2 4 b 2 3 2n 4

b 2 3 4 4

Chapter 10 Vectors

3

1

or

3nb2 4n

b2 3 4

3b2 3 42

32b2 3 43

.

b2 3 4

(pp. 513520) Exploration 1 Investigating Cycloids

1.

(b) This is a geometric series with initial term a and common ratio r b2

3 b , so the sum is 4 1

2

3/4 (3/4)

triangle.

[0, 20] by [ 1, 8]

(c) No, not every point is removed. For example, the vertices of the original triangle are not removed. But the remaining points are isolated enough that there are no regions and hence no area remaining. 69.

1 1 x 1 (1 x)2

2. x 3. a

x2

x3

4. An arch is produced by one complete turn of the wheel. Thus, they are congruent. 5. The maximum value of y is 2a and occurs when x (2n 1)a for any integer n.

Substitute x

6. The function represented by the cycloid is periodic with period 2a , and each arch represents one period of the graph. In each arch, the graph is concave down, has an absolute maximum of 2a at the midpoint, and an absolute minimum of 0 at the two endpoints.

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