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# Contents

Instructor's

Preface

vii

Student's

Preface

xi
xiii

Dependence Chart
0

Sets and

Relations

Groups

and Subgroups
and

1
2
3
.

Introduction Binary

Operations
Binary

Examples 20
Structures

11
28

Isomorphic
Groups

36

5
6

Subgroups
Cyclic

49
59
Cayley

\342\200\242

Groups

IT 11

Digraphs

68

Permutations,

Cosets,
75
Alternating
the

## and Direct Products

8
9

Groups

of Permutations

Orbits, Cycles,and

10

Cosetsand
Direct Plane

the

Theorem

11

Products Isometries

114

tl2

Groups

104

Contents

III

HOMOMORPHISMS

## AND FACTOR GROUPS

125

13
14

Homomorphisms

125

Factor Groups
Factor-Group Group Applications

135
Computations

15 *16
Tl7

and Simple

Groups

144

Action

on a Set
of

154
to Counting

G-Sets

161

Rings

and Fields
and

167
184

18
19
20

Rings Integral

Fields

167
177 Theorems of an

Domains
and

Fermat's
Rings

Euler's Quotients

21

The Field of

Integral Domain
over

190

22
23
i\"24

of Polynomials

198
a Field

Factorization of Polynomials
Noncommutative

209

+25

Ordered Rings

220 227

Ideals

and

Factor
and

Rings
Rings 245
254

237
237

26
27
+28

Homomorphisms

Factor Ideals

## Prime and Maximal Grobner Basesfor

Ideals

Extension

Fields
to Extension

265
Fields

29
30
31
^32

Introduction Vector

265

Spaces

274

Algebraic Extensions
Geometric
Finite

283
293

Constructions
Fields

33

300

VII

34

Group
Theorems
311

Theory
307

307

Isomorphism

35
36

Series of Groups
Sylow Theorems
Applications

321
Sylow Theory

37

of the

327

Contents
333 346

38

Free

Abelian

Groups
341

39 Free Groups
40

Group Presentations

'VIII

Groups

in Topology
Complexes

355
Groups 363

41
42
43 44

Simplicial Computations

and Homology

355
371

of Homology

Groups

## MoreHomology Computations 379 Homological lgebra A

ix

and Applications

Factorization

389
Domains

45
46
47

Unique

Factorization

389

Euclidean Domains
Gaussian

401
Norms 407

Integers

and Multiplicative

Automorphisms
48

## and Galois Theory

415
Theorem

415

Automorphisms

of Fields
Extension

49
50
51
T52

The Isomorphism
Splitting

424

Fields

431

Separable Extensions
Totally

436
444

Inseparable
448

Extensions

53
54

GaloisTheory
Illustrations
Cyclotomic

55
56

of Galois Theory
Extensions Quintic

457

464 470

Insolvability of the
Appendix:
Bibliography

Matrix Algebra
483

477

Notations

487

for Definitions

or Proofs

491

Index 513

' Not

required

\342\226\240

This section

## for the remainder is a prerequisite

of the

text.
17 and 36 only.

for Sections

Instructor's

Preface

introduction to abstract algebra. It is anticipated that the students have studied and probably linear algebra. However, these are primarily mathematical matter from calculus and linear maturity prerequisites; subject algebra appears mostly in illustrative and exercises. examples As in previous editions of the text, my aim remains to teach students as much about and fields as I can in a first course. For many abstract students, groups, rings, algebra is their first extended treatment of mathematics. Recognizing this, exposure to an axiomatic I have included extensive explanations concerning what we are trying to accomplish, how we are trying to do it, and of this text why we choose these methods.Mastery constitutes a firm foundation for more specialized work in algebra, and also provides valuable experience for any further axiomatic study of mathematics.
This

is an

calculus

## Changes from the

The

Sixth Edition

material had increased from one lesson in the first edition edition. My personal preferenceis to spend less time before to algebra; Much of it is review for therefore, I spend little time on preliminaries. getting four lessons on it may result in their not allowing sufficient students, and spending many time in their schedules to handle the course when new material arises. Accordingly, in this edition, I have reverted to just one preliminary lesson on sets and relations, leaving other A summary of matrices now needed. in the topics to be reviewed when appears
amount

to four

lessons

Appendix.

The first
which

two

editions

could

be covered

triple

consecutively

numbered to that

sections,

many of
avoid

have

reverted

cumbersome
In

and

intimidating

numbering
the

of definitions,
order

response

to suggestions

by reviewers,

of

## theorems examples,etc. has been changedso presentation

vii

design

to

the

Instructor's

Preface

that the
a new
In in

basic material

on

groups,
first,

one-semester

course appears
attempting

introduction,
response

to

be covered rings, and fields that would normally the more-advanced before Section group theory. of the study. some feeling for the nature provide
the

in

1 is

to several that

in the
first

material

on homology
is easily

topology

appeared

two

editions.

Computation

## groups of homology groups

accessible; in Section 38
have

strengthens

students'

## after Sections 0 through

through

of factor groups. The material understanding one need only read about free abelian 15, as preparation.
automata, sixth

groups,

Theorem

38.5,

To make
linear

room

for the

homology groups, I

omitted
structures

the discussion
that

appeared
of

of in the

binary edition.

codes, and
students

algebraic

I have

synopsis

also included a few exercisesasking a proof in the text. Before the first

to give a

one- or
an

two-sentence
to show

such

exercise,

I give

example

what I expect.

Some Features

Retained
down most

I continue
concepts,

to break and

## exercise sets into

parts

consisting

of computations,

a proof again Answers to odd-numbered exercisesnot requesting I am supplying the of the text. However, in response to suggestions, appear at answers to parts a), c), e),g), and i) only of my 10-part true-false exercises. a manual The excellent historical notes by Victor Katz are, of course,retained. Also, solutions asking for proofs, including containing complete solutions for all the exercises, theory. the back

A

instructor

dependence

chart

## from the publisher. with section numbers appears in

the

front

matter

as

an

aid

in

making

a syllabus.

Acknowledgments I am
and

very

grateful

to those
I am

who

have

reviewed

the text or

who

have

sent me

suggestions

who used the sixth M. Bergman, especially indebted to George and made note of typographical edition and other errors, which he sent to me along a great many other valuable suggestions for improvement. I really with appreciate this which must have involved a large expenditure of time on his part. review, voluntary I also wish to express my appreciation to William Hoffman, Julie and LaChance, of Addison-Wesley for their I was most with this project. Finally, Cindy Cody help
corrections.

fortunate to have John Probst and the staff at TechBooks handling the production of the text from my manuscript. They produced the most error-free I have experienced, pages and the solutions courteously helped me with a technical problem I had while preparing manual.

Suggestions
Those

## for New Instructors

of Algebra

developed their

have discovered the difficulties and taught algebra several times are not for them. solutions. The comments I make here This courseis an abrupt change from the typical calculus for the undergraduate who

have

own

students.
board

lecture
class

for most

of

the

time,

presentation, writing out definitions will not work with most students.

## and proofs I have

on
it

the

found

best

Instructor's

Preface

ix

to spend at least the first half of each class period answering on homework, questions to give a proof requested in an exercise, and generally checking trying to get a volunteer to see if they seem to understand the material for that class. Typically, I spent assigned about the last 20 minutes of my 50-minute time talking about new ideas for the next only of view, it is a waste of time class, and giving at least one proof. From a practical point to try to write on the board all the definitions and proofs. They are in the text. I suggest that at least half of the assigned exercises consist of the computational ones. Students are used to doing in calculus. Although there are many computations exercises asking for proofs that we would love to assign, I recommend that you assign at most two or three such exercises, and try to get someone to explain how each proof is should be asked to do at least one proof performed in the next class. I do think students in each assignment. face a barrage of definitions and Students theorems, something they have never encountered before.They are not used to mastering this type of material. Grades on tests to us, requesting a few definitions are apt to be low and that seem reasonable and proofs, this problem for most students. My recommendation for handling appears in depressing 2001 issue of the MAA Abstract Algebra Classes,in the November my article, Happy
FOCUS.

the

only

a single

short,

course

in abstract

50-minute

classes.

## algebra. When I taught

I gave three 50-minute tests in class, about 38 classes for which the leaving was given an assignment. in Sections 0-11, 13-15, I always covered the material Of 18-23,26, 27, and 29-32, which is a total of 27 sections. course, I spent more than one class on several of the sections, two but I usually had time to cover about more; sometimes I included Sections 16 and 17. (There is no point in doing Section 16 unless course, student
you

do

Section

sometimes

becoming

17, or will be doing Section 12 (see the Dependence discouraged in the first few weeks
Section

36 later.) I often coveredSection25, and from The job is to keep students Chart). of the course.

Student's

Preface

This

course

may

You may

approach

than

those you
working

used in

previous

mathematics

courses.

## to have become accustomed

a homework

problem

by

turning
That

This
should

in the text to find a similar problem, and then just changing some numbers. work with a few problems in this text, but it will not work for most of them. may all important, and where problems becomes is a subject in which understanding the text. not be tackled without first studying on studying the text. Notice that the text bristles Let me make some suggestions
back

The definitions are crucial. We with definitions, theorems, corollaries,and examples. a defimtion is followed Sometimes agree on terminology to make any progress. are probably the most important an example that illustrates the concept. Examples by I suggest you skip the proofs aids in studying the text. Pay attention to the examples. first reading of a section, unless you are really \"gung-ho\" on of the theorems on your and try to understand what it just proofs. You should read the statement of the theorem means. Often, a theorem is followed an example that illustrates it, a great aid in really by what the theorem says. understanding concentrate on what In summary, on your first reading of a section,I suggestyou a real understanding of it. If you do not information the section gives, and on gaining
must

the statement of a theorem means,it will probably be meaningless for the proof. Proofs are very basic to mathematics. After you feel you understand the information at least some of the proofs. in a section, you should read and try to understand given the easiest Proofs of corollaries are usually ones, for they often follow very directly from under the \"Theory\" heading ask for a proof.Try the theorem. Quite a lot of the exercises It takes a bit of practice and experience. Proofs in not to be discouraged at the outset. than for there are usually can be more difficult proofs in geometry and calculus, algebra
understand you

what

no

suggestive

pictures

that you

can draw.

Often,

a proof

falls

out

easily

if you

happen to xi

Student's Preface

look at

expression. Of course,it is hopeless to devise a proof if you do not to prove. For example, if an exercise asks really understand what it is that you are trying is a member of a certain that the defining set, you must know you to show given thing criterion to be a member of that set, and then show that your given thing satisfies that
just

the right

criterion.

aids for your study at the back of the text. Of course, you will not to odd-numbered problems requesting a proof. If you run into a discover look in the list of notations notation such as Z\342\200\236 you do not understand, that that appears that you do after the bibliography. If you run into terminology like inner automorphism not look in the Index for the first page where the term occurs. understand,
There

are several

In mathematics

summary, course,

although it is really

an understanding

of the

subject

is important

in every
you

crucial to

your

performance

in this

course. May

find it a

rewarding experience.

Narragansett, RI

J.B.F.

Dependence

Chart 0-11
12

13-15

16

34

17

36

35

37

38

39

41-44
18-23

40

24

25

26

28 27

32
29-33

45-47

48-51

52

53-54

55

56

section

Sets

and Relations
Notion

On Definitions,and the
Many

of a

Set

do not realize the great of definitions to mathematics. students This importance to communicate with each other. stems from the need for mathematicians importance If two people are trying to communicate about some subject, they must have the same of its technical terms. However, there is an important structural weakness. understanding

It is

impossible to

define

every

concept.

## Suppose, for example, we define

One objects.\"

the

term

set as
by then,

\"A

set

is a well-defined

collection of
it

naturally
an

what is meant

a collection. is

We could define

as

\"A

Now our language will run out of new words to use and have to repeat is finite, so after some time we somewords already examined. The definition is then circular and obviously worthless. or primitive Mathematicians realize that there must be some undefined concept with set shall be such a primitive which to start. At the moment, they have agreed that concept. We shall not define set, but shall just hope that when such expressions as \"the set of all or \"the set of all members of the United States Senate\" are used, people's real numbers\" to make communication feasible. ideas of what is meant are sufficiently similar various We summarize we shall simply assume about sets. briefly some of the things
collection

is

aggregate

of things.\"

What,

an aggregate?

1.

A set

## S is madeup denote this fact by

is exactly 0.

of elements,

and if a

is one of
It is
the

these

elements,

we shall

a e

S.
with

2.
3.

There by

one set

no

elements.

empty

set and

is denoted

We may describe a set either by giving a characterizing property of the such as \"the set of all members of the United States Senate,\" or by elements, the elements. The standard a set by listing elements is listing way to describe to enclose the designations of the elements, separated by commas, in braces, for example, {1, 2, 15}.f a set is described by a characterizing I property P(x) of its elements is also often used, and is read x, the brace notation {x \\ P(x)} \"the set of all x such that the statement P(x) about x is true.\" Thus
{2,4,

6, 8}

= {x | x is an

even

whole

positive

number <

8}

= {2x\\x 1,2,3,4}. =
The

notation

{x

\\ P(x)}

is often

called

\"set-builder

notation.\"

4.

A set is well defined, meaning that if S is a set and a is some object, then either a is definitely in S, denoted by a e S, or a is definitely not in S, denoted a \302\242 Thus, we should never say, S. \"Consider the set S of somepositive by 2 e S or 2 \302\242. On the other hand, for it is not definite whether S. we numbers,\"
1

Section 0

T of all
or not

can

consider

the set
prime

prime

positive

integers.
T

definitely

either

prime. Thus 5 e

and

## Every positive integer is 14 \302\242. It may be hard T. to

actually goes

2(2 )
It is back a set.

is in a set. For example,as this book determine whether an object unknown whether 2(2\") + 1 is in T. However, to press it is probably + 1 is certainly either prime or not prime.
text

to push

to the

concept of a

set.

For example,

of everything

define

way

of

Every

definition

is an

if and

only

if'type

of statement.

With

this

understanding,

definitions

## understoodas part of the is isosceles triangle as follows:\"A triangle

is always

to be

are often stated with the only if suppressed, but it definition. Thus we may define an isosceles if it has two sides of equal length,\" when we

is isosceles if and only if it has two sides of equal a triangle length. labeledand numbered text, we have to define many terms. We use specifically for the main algebraic conceptswith which we are concerned. To avoid definitions of such labels and numberings, we define many terms within overwhelming quantity using boldface type. body of the text and exercises

## really mean that

In our

an the

Boldface Convention
A

term

printed

in boldface

in

a sentence

is being defined

by

that

sentence.

Do not feel that you have to memorize a definition word for word. The important is to understand the concept, so that you can define preciselythe same concept in your own words. Thus the definition \"An isosceles is one having two equal triangle sides\" is perfectly correct.Of course, we had to delay stating our boldface convention
thing
until not

we define

finished
section,

using boldface in

the

preceding

discussion
as sets,
and

some
illustration

a set! we do
concepts.

In

this

for review

of

the

by B c be used

concepts
definitions

and

notation.

0.1 Definition

set

B is a

A. The
\342\200\242

notations

## subset of a set A, denoted B C A or A D B will to

A this

or

Z>

B,
A

for B
A

C
itself

but

if every B /

element of B is in A. \342\226\240
subsets

Note

that according

definition,

for any

set A,
A.

and 0

are both
A

of A.

0.2 Definition

is the

improper

subset of

Any

other

subset of

is a

proper
\342\226\240

Sets

and

Relations

0.3 Example
0.4 Definition

## Let S = {1, ,3}. his 2 T

Let
If A
A

set
and

S has
{1,2,

a total

of

eight

subsets,

{1,2},{1,3},{2, }, 3
and

namely

0, {1},

{2}, {3},
A
Cartesian
\342\226\240

3}.
x

B be
and

sets. The
B. B

set A
4},

B =

{(a, b)

\\ a

e A

and b e

B) is

the

product
0.5

of A

Example

= {1, 2, 3}and

= {3,

then

we

have
(2,

A x
Throughout Let

B=

{(1,3),(1,4),

3), (2,

## 4), (3, 3), (3,4)}.

involving
for

this

us take

care of notation
set

text, much work will be done for these sets once and

familiar sets

of numbers.

all.

Z is

the

of all

integers where
are the
n

(that

is,

whole

numbers:

Q is the
m/n

set of all
set

rational

numbers

that

## positive, negative, and zero). can be expressed as quotients

of integers, of all
E+

0).

E is the
C is
Z*, the

## real numbers. sets of positive members of Z, Q, and

sets E,

Z+, Q+,and
set Q*,

respectively.

of all

complex numbers.

E*, and C*

are the

of nonzero

members of Z, Q, E, and
that

C, respectively.

0.6 Example

The set E
draw

xE

is

the

familiar

Euclidean

plane

we

use in

graphs

of functions.

first-semester calculus to A

Relations
We which

Between
the notion might

Sets
of
an

introduce we

element
.^\302\276 b.

a of

set

being

related

denote by a

The notation

.y\302\243 exhibits b

left-to-right
the

following
relation

between

.^\302\276 as

element

in

0.7 Definition

related to
0.8

b\"

and

write

## sets A and a ,yH,b.

B is a

subset J?

of A

B. We

a set
the

e J?

as

\"a is
\342\226\240

Example

(Equality
consider

Relation)
every set

There is one familiar relation between in this text to possess: namely, S mentioned
=

and itself
equality

that

we

relation

defined on a set S by
is the

and

S] of
y

S x

S.
elements of

Thus

for

any x
=

e S, to

we have
relation

x = x,

are different

S, then
A

(x,

y)
We

\302\242.and

we write x
any

^ y.
between a set

will refer

and

itself,

as in

as a
0.9 Example

## the preceding example,

relation

on S.

Thegraph
of E

of the

x E. Thus

it is a

where f(x) = x3 for all x e E, isthesqbset{(x,x3) \\x e E} function/ is completely relation on E. The function determined by its graph. A

Section0

Setsand
The

Relations

be a \"rule\"

example suggests that to each x e E exactly assigns certain type of subset of E x E, that is, as and deal with any sets X and Y.
preceding
that function
\302\242) mapping

rather one

than

## define a \"function\" e E, we can easily y

free

y = describe

f(x)

to

it as a

a type

of relation. We

ourselves

from E

0.10 Definition

x function
each
The \302\242.

between X and Y with the property that one ordered pair (x, y) in \302\242. Such a appears : X Y and express is also calleda map or mapping of X into Y. We write \302\247 \342\200\224>\342\200\242 (x, y) \342\202\254 4>{x) = y. The domain of 4> is the set X and the set Y is the codomain of 0 by
X into
first Y

is a

relation

&

as the

member

of exactly

range

of
the

is 0[X] \302\242)

{<j>(x)

\\x

e X}.
: (E
on

\342\226\240

0.11

Example

We can view
function

of real

mapping of E

x E into

Cardinality

For example,

set

(2,

## x E) \342\200\224>\342\200\242as a E, that is, in 3) e E x E is given

notation

we write

((2, 3),5) e

+.

Of

course
\342\226\262

of X and is often denoted of elementsin a set X is the cardinality by \\X\\. we have |{2, 5,7} | = 3. It will be important for us to know whether two sets count have the same cardinality. If both sets are finite there is no problem; we can simply the same the elements in each set. But do Z, Q, and E have cardinality? To convince ourselvesthat two sets X and Y have the same cardinality, we try to exhibit a pairing of each x in X with only one )' in Y in such a way that each element of Y is also used only once in this pairing. For the sets X = {2, 5, 7} and Y = {?, !, #}, the pairing

2<*V?,
shows

5o#,
Notice

7o!
that

they

have

the same

cardinality.

we could

also exhibit

this
X

## {(2, ?), (5, #), (7, !)}which, pairing 1

as

a subset

of

F, is a

relation between

and

as pairing F. The

23

45

67
the same cardinality. is a special

89
-5

10--a pairing,
<->

0-11-22-33-44
shows sets

that

the sets

Z
the

and

Z+

have

Such
type

showing

that

X and F

have

same

cardinality,

of relation

between

X and

F called a

once in
domain

pairing

one-to-one correspondence. Sinceeach element x of X appears precisely we can regard this one-to-one as a function with relation, correspondence X. The range of the function is F because each y in F also appears in some x \342\226\240*+ formalize this discussion in a definition. y. We
this : X \302\242)
\342\200\224>\342\200\242 F is

0.12 Definition

*A

function

Exercise 37).

The

function
another

## one to one if 4>{x\\) F if the range is \302\247onto

0(\302\276) only

when

x\\ =

X2

(see
\342\226\240

of 0 is F.

We should

mention

elsewhere. In
map that is

Bourbaki's

both

used by the disciples of N. Bourbaki, in case you encounter it terminology, terminology, a one-to-one map is an injection, an onto map is a surjection, and a one to one and onto is a bijection.

Sets and

Relations

If

a subset

of X x
first

is a

one-to-one

appears

as the
second

member

of exactly

function <p mapping X onto Y, then one ordered pair in \302\242) also each y and

each e

&

Y appears

as

the

and second

we get
function \302\247 maps

of exactly one orderedpair in \302\242. member Thus if we interchange the first members of all orderedpairs (x, y) in <p to obtain a set of ordered pairs (y, x), a subset of Y x X, which gives a one-to-one function Y onto X. This mapping the inverse function of \302\242, is denoted by <j>~1. Summarizing, is called and if X one to one onto Y and <j>(x) = y, then 0\"1 maps Y one to one onto X, and
= x.

4>-\\y)

0.13 Definition

Two sets X
X

onto

## same cardinality if there exists exists a one-to-onecorrespondence

f(x)

a one-to-one
between

function mapping
X and Y.
\342\226\240

0.14

Example

because /(2) = /(-2) = 4 the is the proper subset of all nonnegative but 2 ^ \342\200\2242. it is not onto E because Also, range in E. However, g : E \342\200\224>\342\200\242by g(x) = x3 is both one to one and onto E defined numbers
The function
E where / : E ->\342\200\242

= x2 is not

one

to one

E.
We
by

showed so that

that Z

and

Z+

have
Ko.

the same

Ko,

|Z| =

|Z+| =

cardinality.

It is

fascinating

## may have the same as a set having this

A

number
property.

of elements
whether and

as the

We denote this cardinal number that a proper subset of an infinite set whole set; an infinite set can be defined

set

we set

sets have
elements

the

same

cardinality
in that

as the
an infinite this

set Z.
row,

if all
using

of its
Z+.

could

be listed
to the

downward,

could

\"number

them\"

## of fractions Q. The square array and contains all members of

Figure extends

0.15 indicates
infinitely

is possible
infinitely

right and

Q. We

have

shown

through

of
out

the

string

and

this array. Imagine the fractions to be glued to this and pulling to the left in the direction of the all elements of Q appearon it in an infinite row as

|Q|

= K0 also.

winding its way string. Taking the beginning the string straightens arrow, \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242. Thus 0, \\,\342\200\224 ^,1,-1, |,

a string

0.15Figure

Section

Sets and

Relations
= {x e

If

the

set S

## E | 0 < x < 1} has

extending

cardinality infinitely

Ko, all

as unending

decimals

in a column

downward,

## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242

in S. Surely S contains a such array must omit some number nth digit after the decimal point a number different from 0, from 9, having \342\200\242 r from the nth digit of the nth number in this list. For example, might start .5637and \342\200\242. 5 rather than 3 after shows r cannot The the decimal be the first number in S point r cannot be the The 6 rather than 1 in the second digit shows listed in the array shown. we second number listed, and so on. Because could make this argument with any list, 15 indicates we see that S has too many elements to be paired with those in Z+. Exercise the cardinality of E by E has the same number of elementsas S. We just denote that

We now

argue

that

any

number r

as its

|E|.

Exercise
than

19 indicates
|E|.

that

there

are infinitely

## many different cardinal numbers

even

greater
Partitions

and
disjoint

Equivalence

Relations

Sets are
occasion disjoint
section

if no two of them have have any element in common. Later we will to break up a set having an algebraic structure a notion of addition) into (e.g., subsets that become elements in a related algebraic structure. We concludethis with a study of a set
exactly

of

sets.

0.16 Definition

partition
in

of S is

one of

## S is a collection of nonempty subsets the subsets. The subsetsare the

a partition

of S cells

such

that partition.

every

element
\342\226\240

of the

When

discussing

of a set S, we denote

by x

the cell

containing

the

element

x of

S.
Z+

0.17 Example

Splitting

of odd positive
a partition

subset of even positive integers (thosedivisible by divided integers (those leaving a remainder of 1 when of Z+ into two cells. For example, we can write
into the
14

2) and by

## the subset we obtain 2),

= (2,4,6.8,10,12,

cells,

We

could

also partition
another

Z+

into

three

one consisting

of the

positive

integers

divisible
divided

divided

all positive
positive

## integers leaving a remainder of 1 when integers leaving a remainder of 2 when

Z+ into n cells according Generalizing, for each positive integer n, we can partition \342\200\242 \342\200\242 1 when the remainder is 0, 1, 2, \342\200\242 \342\200\224 n a positive integer is divided by n. , These cells are the residue us classes modulo n in Z+. Exercise 35 asks to display these for the cases n =2,3, and 5. \342\226\262 partitions
to

whether

Sets

and

Relations

Each x,
y

partition

of

a set
if and

S yields a relation
only if x
and

.M on
in the

S in

a natural

e S,

let x

.M

y are

same cell of

we would write x \342\226\240>\342\202\254 e ,^\302\276 Definition y as (x, y) (see shows that this relation .^\302\276 S satisfies the three properties of an on in the following definition.
notation,

## way: namely, for In set partition. 0.7). A bit of thought

the equivalence

relation

0.18

Definition

An equivalence

relation .^\302\276 on

a set

S is one that

satisfies

these

## three properties for all

x,

y,

z e

S.

1.

(Reflexive) x .Mx.
(Symmetric)

2.
3.
To symmetric

If x

-jfcy,

then

.^

x.
then

illustrate

y ,3%z

x.J?z.

\342\226\240

condition

## why the relation in the definition,

x is the

to ,>? corresponding

a partition
that

we

need

only observe
(that

if y

We

as x

in the
reflexive

same cell as y
and transitive
= defined

is, y

..M x).
to

leave

the

properties

Exercise

28.

0.19 Example

## set For any nonempty S x S is an equivalence

S, the

equality

relation

by the subset

{(x, x) \\ x

e S]

of
\342\226\262

relation.

0.20

Example

The equivalence relation on Z+ corresponding modulo n, discussed in Example 0.17, is denoted by =\342\200\236. Rather than write a=\342\200\236b, we congruence modulo n. It is sometimes write a = b (mod n), read, \"a is congruent to b modulo n.\" For example, we usually have 15 = 27 (mod 4) because both 15 and 27 have remainder 3 when divided by 4. \342\226\262 (Congruence
to

the

partition

Modulo n) of Z+ into

Let n

e Z+.

residue

classes

0.21

Example

Let a relation

,^/B on the set Z be defined by n .^\302\276 if m ^\302\276 an equivalence is determine whether relation. Reflexive a .M a, because a2 > 0 for all a e Z. Symmetric

and only if

nm

>

0, and

let us

If a

.M b,

then

ab

> 0,

Transitive
If

we

knew b =

b2

moment

## > 0 and b > 0 and be then ab

so ba

.Ma. > 0.

> 0 whence

case

0 separately. A
\342\200\22435. ,^2

We
show

Thus the

## of thought shows that relation c/Z, is not transitive,

Thus ab2c = acb2 > 0. ,M c. We have to examine the \342\200\2243,^0 and 0 .M 5, but we do and hence is not an equivalence
\342\226\262

observed

yields a natural
natural

equivalence

relation.

We now

that

an equivalence

that

follows

## relation on a set yieldsa states both results for reference.

Relations

partition

of the

set. Thetheorem

0.22Theorem

(Equivalence

and

equivalence

relation

on

S. Then ~ yields a

Partitions)

Let S
partition

be a
a}.

nonempty

set

and let

~ be

an

of S,

where

a=

\\x

S \\x ~

Section0

Setsand

Relations

Also,
only

if a

rise

## to an equivalence relation cell of the partition.

~ on S where

a ~

b if

and

Proof

eSdo give a partition cells a = {x eSU~a)fora We must show that the different of S is in some cell and so that if a e b, then a =b. Let of S, so that every element a e S. Then a e a by the reflexive condition (1), soa is in at least one cell. Supposenow that a were in a cell b also. We need to show that a = b as sets; this that is a standard show that a cannot be in more than one cell. There will way to show
two

sets are

the

same:

Show

that each

set is a subsetof

the

other.
the
y

x ~ a. But aefc,soa~i>. We show that a c.b. Let x e a. Then Then,by ~ b, sox \342\202\254 ocj. c we show that \302\243 a. Let Now condition (3), x b. Thus ~ fc. But aefc,sofl~fc and, by symmetry (2), b ~- a. Then by transitivity y = so >' e a. HenceKq also, so \302\243 a and our proof is complete. Each

transitive
Then e \302\243. ~

(3),

a,
\342\231\246

cell

in the

partition

arising

from

an equivalence relation is

an

equivalence

class.

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

0
4, describe

In Exercises 1 through

the set by

listing

its elements.

1. {x e 3. {m e

M Z

\\x2 = 3}
| mn

2. {m e for some n
10, decide e Z}

m2

= 3}

= 60

4. {m e Z | m2

<

115}

a set

## (is well defined).

Give an

alternate

set.

5.
6.

{n {n {n

e Z+

|n

is a large number}
< 57} an integer}

e Z | n2 e Z

7.

< 0} | 39 < n3

8. {x 9. {x
10.

## e Q | x is almost &Q\\x may e Q | x may

the

be written be written

## with denominator greater with positive

denominator

than

100}

{x

less

than 4}

11. List

elements

in {a,

b, c} x

{1,2, c}.
between 4, 6}. For eachrelation A into S. If it is a function,

12.

Let

A = {1,
it

2, 3} and

B = {2,

A and
decide

given

as a

subset of
one

whether
onto

is a

function mapping

whether

it is

one to

B.

a. {(1,4),

c. {(1,

geometrically

f.

6), (3,4)}

6), (3,4)}

{(1,2),

(2, 6),

(2,4)}
the

13.

Illustrate by

## that two line

indicating

in Fig.

0.23

what

point

segments AB and CD of different length have y of CD might be paired with point x of AB.

same

number

of points

Exercises

p
A

/
X

,B

c*-

0.23 Figure
14.

Recall
Show

that for
that the
interval

a, b e R
onto the

and

a <
have

b, the

closed

interval

[a,

fc]

in R

is denned

given intervals
[0, 2]

the same

cardinality

by giving

a formula

## = {* e R | a < * < \302\243>}. by [a, fc] for a one-to-onefunction / mapping

the

first

second.
b. [1,

a. [0,1]and
15. Show
that

3] and

[5, 25]

c. [a, b]

and

[c, d]

S = maps

{x

< \342\202\254'R\\0 x

## calculusthat the set S.]

For

an interval

Find an elementary function of < 1} has the same cardinality as R. [Hint: and scale appropriately to make the domain one to one onto R, and then translate

any

set A,

we denote

by

SP (A)

the collection

of

all

subsets

of A.

{a, b,

d] e

-5^(A).The set
elements of the

SP(A)

is the

given

Exercises

16 through

of the

## = {a, b, c, d}, then notion of the power

set of a set A.
16.

List the

power

set of

set and

give the

cardinality

power set.

a. 0
17. Let
A

b. {a}
be

c. {a,b}
oh
the

d.

{a,

b, c}

a finite
try finite

set,

and

let

\\A\\

s. Based

preceding

exercise,

make a conjecture
A into Each

the

value

of

\\.3^(A)\\. Then

to prove

your conjecture. let BA be the set of all functions mapping of the set d^(A). [Hint: same as the cardinality
finite

18.

For

any

set A,

or infinite,
BA

the set
element

B = {0,1}.how S

that

the cardinality

of

is the

of BA determines a

subset of A 19.
Show

in a

natural way.]

to be able to be put in a one-to-one are an infinite number of infinite cardinal A into .5s(A) to be given. Show that \302\247 numbers. be cannot [Hint: Imagine a one-to-onefunction \302\242) mapping onto d?(A) by considering, for each x & A, whether x e (j>(x) and using this idea to define a subset S of A that is not in the range of \302\242.] the set of everything Is a logically acceptable concept? Why or why not?
that

the power

set of a set A,
A. Explain

or infinite,
intuitively

## has too many

means

elements

correspondencewith

why this

that there

20. LetA a.

= {1,2} and
using

lets

= {3,4,5}.

Illustrate,

A and
what

B,
you

why

we

consider

that 2

+ 3 = 5. Usesimilar
value

reasoning

with

sets of

your

own

choice

to decide
K0,

would

consider to

be the

of
ii. K0

i. 3 +

+ K0.

b.
21.

Illustrate

why

we consider
in

that

3 = 6 2 \342\200\242

by plotting
what

the

points

reasoning

with a figure
numbers
\342\200\242 How \342\200\242 9? \342\200\242,

the

text to

decide

you be

would

How
0, 1, you

many

in the interval

0 <x
of the

< 1 can

expressed
Following 12N\"

in the
this
2N'\302\260?

form

2, 3,
would

many are
the

there

form .#####?

idea,

blanks
in

value

of

How 10K\302\260.

and

22.

Continuing

preceding

cardinal

Exercises

18 and
which

the

three

to give a

list of five

numbers,

each of

is greater

## to fill in notation 19, use exponential than the preceding one.

K0.|R|, _,_,_.

10
In

Section

Sets

and Relations

Exercises

23 through

27,

find

the

number
24. 27.

of different partitions
2 elements 5 elements
following
if

of a set having

the

given

number of

elements.

## 23. 1 element 26. 4 elements

28. Considera partition
of a

25. 3 elements
0.18 explained
the

set S.

The paragraph
.^\302\276if y

Definition

why

the

relation

and only

x and
relation.

y are

in

same similar

cell explanations
relation

satisfies
Exercises

the

symmetric

condition

for an equivalence

Write

of

why

the

reflexive

## and transitive properties are

In

also satisifed.
whether relation.

29 through arising

34, determine
> 0

the

given

relation is

an

equivalence

on the

## partition 29. 31.

from each
if

equivalence

n M m in Z x.rfymRif\\x\\
in

nm

30. x .M y
32.
the the

in M if inMif base

x >
\\x

y y\\

=
Z+

\\y\\

x JZ

<

33. n J% m

if n
if

and m have
m have
of the
the

same same

number

of digits in

the

usual

ten notation

34. 35.

,>8

m in Z+

n and

final digit in

the usual

base

ten notation

Using

set notation

in Example

0.17 for

\342\200\242 form {#,#. #. \342\200\242 an infinite set, write for \342\200\242} value of n. indicated

the residue

classes modulo

in Z+

discussed

a.

= 2

b. n

= 3
if

c.
and

## and let ~ be defined for some q e Z.

~ is an

on

Z by

r ~ s
on Z.

only

if r

- s is divisible
modulo

by

n, that

is,
was

if

and

only

if

a.

Show part

that b.)

equivalence
to

relation

(It is

called \"congruence
this

n\" just

as it

for Z+.

See
n,

b. Show that,

cells
in

the

subset

Z+ of Z,

is vhe

equivalence

relation,

congruence

modulo

c. The
37.
Students

of this

partition of Z

are

residue
the

classes modulo
notation

in Z.

modulo

Z rather

than in Z+ using

#.

## Repeat Exercise 35 for the residue infinite sets.

classes

the concept of a one-to-onefunction I think I know the reason. You (mapping). from A to B. It seems a direction associated with to expect a reasonable it, one-to-one mapping to be a mapping that carries one point of A into one point of B, in the direction simply But of course, every mapping of A into B does this, and Definition indicated by the arrow. 0.12 did not say in mind, make as good a pedagogical that at all. With this unfortunate situation caseas you can for calling the in Definition 0.12 two-to-two it is almost impossible to functions described instead. (Unfortunately, functions get widely used terminology changed.)
often

misunderstand

see, a mapping

B <p : A\342\200\224>has

part

Groups

and

Subgroups

Section

Introduction
Binary

and Examples

Section 2
Section Section

Operations
Binary

3 4

Isomorphic Groups
Subgroups

Structures

Section 5
Section

Cyclic Groups
Generating

Section 7

Sets

and Cayley

Digraphs

section

Introduction
In

and Examples

an algebra of a binary operation on a set as giving operations. We think of that algebra. To illustrate are interested in the structural properties with note what we mean by a structural property our familiar set E of real numbers, x = a/2. that the equation x + x = a has a solution x in E for each a e E, namely, x = a However, the corresponding multiplicative equation x \342\226\240 does not have a solution structure than E with in E if a < 0. Thus, E with addition has a different algebraic
or

of abstract algebra. we attempt to give you a little idea of the nature Both addition with addition and multiplication of real numbers. For example, addition combine two numbers to obtain one number. and multiplication to be binary 2 and 3 to obtain addition and multiplication combines 5. We consider sets in which we have one and examine operations. In this text, we abstract this notion,
this

section,

We are all

familiar

more

binary

on the

set, and

we

multiplication.

Sometimes two different sets with what we naturally regard as very different binary structure. For example, we will see in operations turn out to have the same algebraic structure as the set E+ of Section 3 that the set E with addition has the same algebraic
with multiplication! positive real numbers We will This section is designed to get you thinking about such things informally. some examples. in Sections 2 and 3. We now turn to make everything precise of complex numbers of magnitude 1 provides us with several examples that will Multiplication and with a review of complex numbers be useful and illuminating in our work. We start

their

multiplication.

11

## Groups and Subgroups

bi

a +

bi

\342\226\240\342\200\224T I I i i ( \\a

-4

-3

-2

-1

0
\342\200\224i

-2i

1.1 Figure

Complex
A

Numbers
can be

real

number
x-axis. in Fig.

as an
shown

A complex

1.1. and label the point >'-axis, coordinates (a. Cartesian is defined by

visualized geometrically as a point on number can be regarded as a point that we label the vertical axis as the Note
one

a line that

we often regard

in the
yi-axis

Euclidean plane, as

unit

above the

origin

with

i rather

## rather than just the with than 1. The point

complex

b) is labeleda
C:

+ bi
bi

in Fig.

1.1. The

set C of

numbers

{a +

a.

b e numbers we write

We consider
with

ffi to be a subset of the complex the complex number r + Qi.For example, we write 0 + \\i and 0 + 0; as 0. Similarly, Complex

3+

r
\342\200\224 it

as i and

0 +

si as si.
of real

numbers
i

was

## developed after the invented to provide a solution

were

development to the

## numbers. The equation x2 = -1,

that

(1)

Unfortunately,
numbers.

has

been

generations of students
Actually,

to view

and

this

terminology

more

skepticism

## has led than the real

such as 1,3, it, \342\200\224and i are inventions of our minds. a/3, is the number 1. If there were, it would There is no physical entity that surely be in a place of honor in some great scientific museum, and past it would file a steady stream of at 1 in wonder and awe. A basic goal of this text is to show how mathematicians, gazing we can invent solutions of polynomial when the coefficients of the polynomial equations may not even be real numbers!
all numbers, Multiplication

of Complex
{a +

Numbers
the

The product

bi){c +

di) is defined in
arithmetic

way

it must

be if we are
1,

to

enjoy

the

familiar properties

of real

and require

that i2

\342\200\224 in

(1).

Section 1
Namely, we

Introduction

and

Examples

13

see that

we

want

to have

(a +

## bi){c+ di) = ac+ adi + bci + bdi2 = ac + adi + bci + bd(\342\200\224l)

=

(ac

\342\200\224

bd)

+ bc)i.

Consequently, we define
Z\\zi
which that

multiplication

of z\\

\342\200\224 a +

be and

zi = c + di as bc)i,
is routine

= (a

+ bi)(c
with

## + di) = (ac\342\200\224+ bd)

ac
\342\200\224 bd and

(2)
to check
+
Z1Z2

is of the

the form r

+ si

r =

s =

be. It
+

(2

usual

ZiZ\\. Zifez3)

(z\\Z2)z3

andz!(z2

Z3) =

Z1Z3

1.2 Example
Solution

Compute

50(8 +

30rather

We

don't

memorize

that equation.

## Eq. (2), but We have

we compute

the product as
15 =

we did to

motivate

(2 - 5i)(8+ 30 =
To

16 6;+

40/

31

\342\200\224 34r.

\342\226\262

establish
value

absolute

## the geometric meaning \\a + bi\\ of a + bi by

\\a

of complexmultiplication,
bi\\ =

we

first define

the

-Ja1 +

b2.
bi

(3)
to the

This

absolute

value

origin in Fig.

1.1. We

and is the distance from a + is a nonnegative real number can now describe a complex number z in the polar-coordinate

form
(4)

z =
where 6 is the angle z, as shown in Fig.
measured

|z|(cos# +

sin#).

1.3. A

famous

from the ;t-axis to the vector counterclockwise formula due to Leonard Euler statesthat
e'6
\342\200\224 cosO

from 0 to

+ i

sin#.

Euler's Formula
We

you

e6, cos 6

## to derive Euler's and sin 6 in Exercise

formula

formally

41. Using

from the power series expansions for this formula, we can express in Eq. (4) as z

y
,,

z = |z|(cos0 +
;'

sin 9)

|c| sin 9

^r^
y^
Z\\ 1 V

i 0

1 1 1 1

>

|z| cos 9

1.3 Figure

14

Part

Groups and

Subgroups
set zi =
i6\\ \\zi\\e'

Me

.Letus

and

Zl

\\z2\\e\"

and

compute
with

their product
number
Z\\Zi

in

this

form,

assuming

that the

usual

laws

of exponentiation

hold

complex

exponents.
=

We

obtain

## ,,1(01+02) = |z, \\z,\\e^ \\Zi\\e '\\z2\\e'\"' = |Zi||Z2|e\"

+ i sin(0!

= |zil|z2|[cos(0i 82) +
Note
that

+ 82)].
\\z\\Zi\\

(5)
=
\\zi\\\\z2\\

Eq.

5 concludes

in the

8\\ polar angle 8 for ziz2 is the sum numbers by multiplying their absolute in Fig. 1.4. Exercise 39 indicateshow to Euler's formula and without recourse

polar

form

of

Eq.

4 where

and

the

8 =

geometrically, we multiply complex values and adding their polar angles, as shown this can be derived via trigonometric identities about complex exponentiation. assumptions
+

82. Thus,

N7T/2

1.4Figure
Note that
i

1.5 Figure

has

polar

1.6 Example

=u

angle n/2
and

and

absolute

value
that

1, as

shown

in Fig.

1.5. Thus i2

|1

\342\200\242 =

1|

1, so

i2 =

\342\200\224 1.

## Find all solutions

in

C of

the equation z2
i

= i.
using

Solution

Writing

the equation

z2 =

in polar

form and

Eq.

(5), we

obtain

|z|2(cos2<9+
Thus

;sin2<9)=1(0+0-

|z|2

Consequently, n yielding
solutions

must

satisfy +

cos
8 =

28 =

and

sin2#

\342\200\224 1.

values 8 where 0

It 4

(tt/4)

rnt for an

are

0 and

1, yielding
.

## of integer n. The values tt/4 or 8 = 5n/4. Our

are
\342\200\224 1 cos TC . . sin \342\200\224l-1 \342\200\224

Z\\

and

= \302\2432

5tt
cos
4
1- i

sin

\342\200\224

5rt
4

or
z\\

-7=(1

V2

+ 0

and

Z2 =

+ \342\200\224p(l

0-

V2

Section 1

15

1.7

Example

Find

all solutions

of z =

\342\200\22416.

Solution

As in

## Example 1.6 we write

the

equation + i

in polar
sin46\302\273)

form, obtaining
16(-1

|z|4(cos4<9

+ Or).
and

40 = n
obtained

Consequently, |z|4 =

16,so
6 =
2tt

+ n(2n), so
0 <

where

6 <

-16 is

= 2 while cos 46 = -I + n(7t/2) for integers n. (n/4) are tt/4, 3tt/4, 5tt/4, and In/4.
\\z\\

= sin46\302\273

0. We find that
values

The different
Thus

of 6

one solution

of z4 =

2(cos^
In

+
three

isin^=2(-L
more

+ -L;-)=V2(l i).
A

a similar

way, we

find

solutions,
and

by two

+ 0,
illustrate

72(-1-0-

72(1-0-

examples

writing

a +

bi

We will

## 1 / 0. Exercises 6through or not use addition

that

the equation

in polar

that we can find solutions of an equation z\" = a + bi form. There will always be n solutions, provided that 21 ask you to solve equations of this type. of complex numbers,
but

division

we

probably

should

mention

is given by

(a +
and

## bi) + (c+ di)

c +

(a +

c) + (b +

d)i.
the device

(6)

division

of a

+ bi

by

nonzero

di can be performed
+ bd)

using

a + bi c + di

d2

c2 +

(7)

Algebra

on Circles
{z

Let U =
the origin
multiplication.

and

U is
in

the

circle

in the

Fig.
again

1.8. The
a number in

## the product of two

Thus,

numbers

is

we can

view

multiplication

Euclidean plane with center at relation \\z\\Zi\\ = IZ1IIZ2I shows that in U; we say that U is closed under U as providing algebra on the circle
z =

in Fig.

1.8.
in that

As illustrated number 6 e R
interval

by

we associate

with

each where

half-open
[0, 2tt),

interval

0 <

in U a
half-open

real

## is usually that will be apparent complex

denoted
later.
the

Recall
6\\

numbers is

sum

but we prefer to denote it by 11\302\276^ reasons for that the angle associated with the product Z1Z2 of two if 6\\ + 62 > 2it + 62 of the associated angles.Of course

16

Part I

Groups

and

Subgroups

1.8 Figure

then

the

angle
on

modulo 2-7T

in R2jr associated with z\\Z2 is 8\\ + 62 \342\200\224This gives us an 2it. here by +2n \342\226\240 E2jr. We denote this addition

1.9

Example

In R2w, we have

3-f

+2n

5-f

lJ\302\243-

- 2n

3f.
2tc that enabled us to define
interval

There

was nothing

special
R2ir

the

number
half-open

on

the half-open

interval

\342\200\242 We can

use

any

Rc = {x

e ffi|0

## < * < c}.

5.5.
\342\226\262

1.10

Example

InR23,wehave

16 +23

19 =

35 - 23=

12.InE8.5,wehave6+8.5

8 =

14-8.5

multiplication on the circle U where |z| = 1 and addition ffi2.T algebraic properties. We have the natural one-to-one *> 0 between in Fig. 1.8. Moreover, we z e U and 6 e ffi2^ indicated correspondence z
Now

complex

number
have

modulo

2tt on

the same

deliberately

defined

+2n

so that

if

z\\

<+ 0\\

and

zi +>

02,

then

z\\-

zi\302\261* (0\\

+2n

02).

(8)

isomorphism
shows that if we rename each z e U by its corresponding angle 0 then the product of two elements in U is renamed by the sum of the 1.8, for those two elements. Thus U with number and ffi2ir angles multiplication complex with modulo 2it must have the same algebraic properties. They differ addition only in the names of the elements and the names of the operations. Such a one-to-one correspondence the relation of elements and names of Names (8) is called an isomorphism. satisfying
(8)
shown

The relation
in Fig.

binary

operations are

not

important

in abstract

algebra; we

are interested

in

algebraic

Section

17

properties.

We

illustrate

what we

mean by

saying

that the

## algebraic properties of U and

of R2;r

are the

same.
such

1.11Example In U

there is exactly one element e The element 0 in R2;r that corresponds e +2n x = x for all x e R23r. z \342\226\240 z= z \342\226\240 lint/ z \342\226\240

that

\342\226\240 z =

z for all z
only

e U, namely,

e =
that

1.
^

to 1 e U is the

element

e in R2;r such

1.12 Example

The equation
Now

has
to

and has exactly four solutions, 1, i, \342\200\2241, \342\200\224i. namely, and 0 e ffi2;r correspond, and the equation x +2jT x +2;r * +2jr x = 0 in R2;r exactly four solutions, namely, 0. tt/2, tt, and 3tt/2, which, of course, correspond

let/

\342\200\224 1, i, 1, and

\342\200\224i, respectively.

\342\226\262

Because
an

our circle

U has
length

1, it

has circumference
the

2it
*-axis

and

the

up

measure
half-open

of
the

angle

6 is
ffi2jT,

equal to
put

the

of the
interval

arc
down

angle

subtends.

If we

pick

our

interval
circle

the 0 in

the

on the 1
the

on

the

and wind it

around

to 1. Moreover, each number way in the interval will fall on the point of the circle that number as the value of the having on in Fig. central angle 6 shown 1.8. This shows that we could also think of addition arcs counterclockwise, starting as being of subtended ffi2;r computed by adding lengths is lit or greater. at z = 1, and 2it if the sum of the lengths subtracting
U counterclockwise,

## it will reach all

back

a starting of addition on a circle in terms of adding lengths of arcs from P on the circle and proceeding counterclockwise, we can use a circle of radius point our has circumference of radius 1. We can take 2, which 4tt, just as well as a circle interval BL^ and wrap it around counterclockwise, starting at P; it will just half-open on cover the whole circle. Addition of arcs lengths us a notion of algebra for points gives this circle of radius is surely isomorphic to ~M^n with addition 2, which However, +4^. if we take as the circle \\z\\ = 2 in Fig. 1.8, multiplication of complex numbers does not circle. The relation \\z\\Z2\\ = \\z\\\\|z21 shows that the product of give us an algebra on this such 4 rather two numbers has absolute value than 2. Thus complex number complex is not closed on this circle. multiplication The preceding paragraphs indicate that a little geometry can sometimes be of help

If we think

to convince ourselves that ffi2;r and BL^ are algebra. We can use geometry stretch out the interval R2;r uniformly to cover the interval E4^, or, isomorphic. Simply if you prefer, use a magnifier of power 2. Thus we set up the one-to-one correspondence a *>2a between a e E2t and 2a e E4JT. The relation (8) for isomorphism becomes

in abstract

if

a \302\261+ 2a

and

\302\261* 2b

then

{a

+\302\276 ) b

\302\261* (2a

+4^

2b).

(9)

isomorphism

This is obvious
final

if a

+ b

< 2tt.

If

a + b

= 2jt

+ c, then

2a

+ 2b

An

2c,

and the

pairing

in the

## displayed relation becomes c *> 2c, which

has 1\302\276^

is true.

1.13 Example

x +4^ x
which
1.12. Example

+4^ x +4^x = 0 in
times
the

are two

solutions

## four solutions, exactly found for the analogous

namely, 0, n,

2jt, and
in

3tt,

equation

in

ffi2jr

\342\226\262

18

Part

Groups and

Subgroups
about the numbers to E^ with
2n
+j

There

is nothing
with

special

and An

in

the

previous
need

Surely, Ec * e Ec with
Roots

+c

(d/c)x

is isomorphic e Erf.

for all

c, d

e E+. We

## argument. only pair

of Unity
of the

Theelements
technique

set

Un

=
and

{z e
1.7,

C | z\"

of Examples
2jt\\ ( m\342\200\224

1.6

1} are called the nth roots of unity. Using the we see that the elements of this set are the numbers
=

cos

\\

n J

i sin

(
\\

2n\\
m\342\200\224

for

m =

## \342\200\236 \342\200\242\342\200\224 , \342\200\236 \342\200\242 1. n \342\200\242,

0. 1, 2,

J If we

They all have absolute value of unity can be written nth roots

C U. 1, so U\342\200\236 as

let

\302\243 cos

^ +

sin

^-,

then these

1 = = Because\302\243\" 1, n
\342\200\224

^,^,^,^,---,^-1.

do)
under multiplication.
w For example, ith

these n powers

of \302\243 are

closed

10,

we have

## t6ts = Thus we see that

ofE\342\200\236.

tH = tl0t4 = 1\342\200\242 t4 t4 =
\302\243' by computing \302\243-7

-^
i

we

can compute

i +,,

j,

viewing

and

j as

elements modulo

Let
n

Z\342\200\236 {0,

1. 2,

see that

## and c E\342\200\236 clearly Z\342\200\236

is closed

on

Z\342\200\236.

1.14

Example

The solution

of the

equation

x +

5 = 3 in

Zg

is x

= 6, because5+86

= 11

\342\200\224 =

3.
\342\226\262

If we

rename

each of thenth
of
This Z\342\200\236.

roots

of unity in a one-to-one

all

the

elements

gives

(10) by its exponent, we use for names and correspondence between U\342\200\236 Z\342\200\236.

Clearly,

if

CJ *+

J-

*en

(f'

## \342\200\242 ^) \302\261> +\342\200\236 (i j).

(11)

isomorphism

Thus

with [/\342\200\236

complex

number

multiplication

and

with Z\342\200\236

have +\342\200\236

the same

algebraic properties.

1.15Example

It

can

be shown
this

that there

is

an

isomorphism

of

U%

with

Z8 in

Under

isomorphism,

we must

then have
the

Exercise

which

you to
each

continue

elements

of Z8 to

of the

## in Example 1.15, finding six elements of U% correspond. remaining

computation

the

Section

Exercises

19

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

1
9 compute

In Exercises 1
a,b\342\202\254R.

through

the given 2. /4 5. (4

arithmetic

expression

and give

the

in

the form

a+

bi

for

1. 4.

/3 (-035
(2

3.

/23

r)(5

3r)

6. (8 +
9.

2/)(3 - /)
binomial

7.

30(4 +

/) +

(6- 5/)
15 write

8. (1+
11. Find
the given
/

/)3

(1

## - /)5 (Use the

theorem.)

10. Find

|3-4/|. 12 through
16 through

|6 +

4/|.
z in

In Exercises 12.3-4/
In

complexnumber
in C

the polar + 5/

form

n < 0, q

< 0

\342\200\224|-

qm

(q +

\\)m

2m

6.2 Figure

6.3 Division

Algorithm

for

If m
that

n

is any

## integer, then there

0 <

exist unique

integers

and r such

mq

+ r

and

r <

Proof

6.2. On the real x-axis of Fig. diagrammatic explanation, using the of m and the position of n. Now n falls either multiples analytic geometry, on a multiple qm of m and r can be taken as 0, or n falls between two multiples of m. If the latter is the case, let qm be the first multiple of m to the left of n. Then r is as in Fig. 6.2. Note that shown 0 < r < m. Uniqueness q and r follows since if n is not of a multiple of m so that we can take r = 0, then there is a unique multiple qm of m to the in Fig. 6.2. left of n and at distance less than m from n, as illustrated \342\231\
We

give

an intuitive

mark off

In nonnegative

of

the

division

algorithm,

we regard q
m.

as the

quotient

and r

as

the

when n is

divided by
when

6.4 Example

Find

the

quotient

q and

remainder r

38

is divided

by 7

according to the

division

algorithm.

Solution

of 7

less

## are 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42,---. Choosing than 7, we write

38

the

multiple

to leave

= 35

+ 3=
is

so the

quotient

is q = 5
q and

and

the

remainder

7(5) + 3 r = 3.
by 7

\342\226\

6.5

Example

Find the
algorithm.

quotient

remainder

when

is divided \342\200\22438

according to the

division

Solution

The negative multiples of 7 are -7, -14, -21, to leave a nonnegative remainder less than tiple

-28,-35,-42,
7, we

. Choosing the

mul-

write + 4

-38 = -42 + 4
so the
We

7(-6)

quotient is q
will

-6
for

and

the

remainder

is r

= 4.
that a subgroup Hofa to do to prove this.

use the
Think

division

algorithm

to show

cyclicgroup
We

is also

cyclic.

a moment

what we will

have

will have

to

Section 6

Cyclic Groups

61

use

of a cyclic group we have proved little since about cyclic groups yet. have to use the fact that G has a generating a. We must then element in terms of this generator some generator c = am for H in order to show that exhibit, a, H is cyclic. There is really only m of a to try. Can you one natural choice for the power what it is before you read the proof of the theorem? guess
the
That

## definition is, we will

6.6 Theorem

subgroup

of a cyclic group
If
that

group is cyclic.
generated
H ^
am

Proof

integer

by a
a\"

and

let

{e},
e H.

then

e H

= {e},
the

then

smallest

in Z+ such

We claim that

c =

am generates

H;
H =

that

is,

(am) =

(c).
Since b
&

We

must

show

b =

a\" for

n =

power
that

of c.

and

H <

G, we have

mq + r

for

0<r

<m

in

accord

an

Then
amq+r

= {am)qar,

so ar =
Now
{amyqan.

since

a\"

&

H.am

& H,

and H is a
ff;

group,

both that

(am)~q

and

a\"

are

in H.

Thus

(am)\"V e

is,
that

ar e
am

ff.
and 0

Since m
have r

was

the

smallest
n =

= 0. Thus

= a\302\273

e H

< r < m,

we

must

(am)i

=cq,
\342\231\246

so

fc

is a As

power of
noted

c.
5.22,

integer

ft,

the

## subgroup generated by ft. Theorem of Z under We addition. subgroups

addition is cyclic and for a positive the cyclic addition, subgroup of Z under 6.6 shows that these cyclic subgroups are the only state this as a corollary.
Z under

of ft

is a

6.7Corollary

The

subgroups

of Z

under

are precisely

the groups
define
that

ftZ

under

for n e

Z.

This corollary
two

gives

us an

elegant

way

to

positive

subgroup
which

## integers of the group may

r and

s. Exercise45 shows
Thus

have

we

choose to

H must

be cyclicand

a generator

d,

62

Part I

Groups

and

Subgroups

6.8 Definition

Let r

and

5 be

two positive

H

generator

d of

= {nr

+ ms

\\

n,m

e Z}
r and

under
d =

is the

greatest

s. We

write

gcd(r, s).
Note

\342\22

from

and 5

= Or +

Is are

## the definition that d is a divisor of both in H. Since d e H, we can write

d =

r and

5 since

both r =

\\r

Os

nr + ms
the
must
d in

n and m. We see that for someintegers every integer dividing both r and 5 divides d and hence must be a divisor of d also.Thus right-hand side of the equation, accounts for the name given to both r and s; this be the largest number dividing

Definition

6.8.
gcd of

6.9 Example
Solution

Find

the

42

and

72.

The positive divisors of 42 are 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 14, 21, and 42. The positive divisors of 72 is 6. Note are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 36, and 72. The greatest common divisor 24, is an algorithm for expressing the greatest that 6 = (3)(72)+ There common divisor d of r and 5 in the form d = nr + ms, but we will not need to make use of it

18, (-5)(42).

here.
Two positive integers are relatively prime. Note

\342\22

are relatively
that

prime if
no prime

their

gcd is
the

they

have

factors in

common.

## 1. For example,12and 25 In our discussion

of subgroups of cyclic

groups,

we will

need to

know

following:

If r

ands arerelatively

prime

andifr

divides sm,

then

r must

divide m.

(1)

Let's prove

this.

If r

## and 5 are relatively 1=

prime, for

then some

we may write a, b

ar + bs

e Z.

Multiplying

by

m, we

obtain m = arm

+ bsm.
sm.

Nowr

side

divides both arm and bsm sincer divides of this equation, so r must divide m.

Thus

r is a divisor of the

right-hand

The
We

Structure
can

of Cyclic

Groups
up

now

describe

## all cyclic groups,

to an

isomorphism.

Section 6

CyclicGroups

63

6.10

Theorem

G be a cyclic group with generator a. If the order of Gis infinite, then G is isomorphic to (Z, +}. If G has finite order ft, then G is isomorphic to (Z\342\200\236, +\342\200\236).
Let

Proof

Case

distinct

m,am and

/
h

e.
>

In

this

case

we claim
and

that

no

two

exponents
aA =

k can

## give equal elementsah

k. Then

ak of

G.

Suppose that

a* and say

\342\200\236h-k = a a

a h-k =

e,

contrary

to our

## expressed as am (j>(a') = i is thus

Case I assumption. Hence every elementof G can be The map \302\242) \342\200\224> for a unique meZ. : G Z given by one to one, and onto Z. Also, well defined,

0(a!V)
so the
Case

= 4>{ai+i)= i +

j=

+ \302\242(0.1)

0(aJ'),
an

homomorphism property

is satisfied

and 0 is

isomorphism.

II

efor some positive integer m. Let n be the smallest positive integer such that a\" = e.lf s e Z and 5 = nq + r for 0 < r < ft, then </ = a\"<7+r = (a\<V") = e<7ar = ar. AsinCase 1, if 0 < k < h < n and 0 < h - fc < n, contradicting our choice of aA = a*, then aA_* = e and
am

n. Thus

the

elements

a0 =
are

e, a, a

,a ,
map well
\\j/

all

given

one, k = i +n j-

and comprise all elements of G. The \342\200\242\342\200\242 1 is thus n \342\200\242, by i/f(a') = i for *' = 0, 1, 2, = e, we see that a1 a' and Because a\" onto Z\342\200\236.
distinct
Thus

: G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 Z\342\200\236

defined,

one to

= ak where

f(alaj)

= i
property

+\342\200\236 j

= f(a')

+\342\200\236 f(aJ),

so the

homomorphism

is satisfied

and

\\j/

is an

isomorphism.

n- 1

6.11Figure
6.13 Example

6.12

Figure

Motivated by
an~'

our

work

with Un,

it

is nice

of ordern
h

as being

a2,

## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240, The

6.11).

of these
a0

from the
start

bottom where e =
ah and

from

go k

equal units counterclockwise along the circle, measured is located. To multiply ah and ak diagrammatically, we units around counterclockwise. To see arithmetically

64

Part

Groups and

Subgroups
q and
h +

where

we end

up,

find

r such
k =
around
nq

that

for

0 < r

< n.
we

The

nq

takes

us all the

way

on

## q times, and 6.11

these
but

then

wind up

at

ar.
with

A
the

Figure 6.12 is essentially the same on the generator. The operation exponents Subgroups
We

with

the points

labeled
modulo

exponents

is

n.

of Finite

Cyclic Groups
and

have

completed
us complete

6.7gives
the

turn to

of infinite

cyclic

basic

theorem

regarding
group
cyclic

## generators of subgroups for the

finite

groups.
let

6.14Theorem

Let G be a
greatest

cyclic

Then b generatesa
common
Proof

## with n elements and generated H of G containing subgroup

by a.
n/d

Let b e
elements,

G and
n)

b =

as.
the

where

d is

divisor ofnands.

Also, (as) =

(ar)ifandonlyifgcd(5,

= gcd(t,n).

from Theorem That b generates a cyclicsubgroup H of G is known 5.17. We need show that H has n/d elements. of Case II of Theorem we the argument 6.10, Following only see that H has as many elements as the smallest positive powerm of b that gives the if (as)m = e, or if and if n divides Now b = as, and bm = e if and only only identity. ms. What is the smallest positive integer m such that n divides ms? Let d be the gcd of n and s. Then there exists u and v such that integers d =

un +

vs.

Sinced divides
where
find

both

n and

s, we may
1 =

write

u(n/d)

+ v(s/d)
equation

both

n/d

and

s/d
any

are integers.
integer

This last

shows

that n/d

and

s/d

are

relatively
the

prime, for
smallest

dividing
that

## both of them must

also divide

1. We

wish to

positive

m such

m(s/d)

is an integer.

(n/d)

From
smallest

the

boxed

division the

property

(1), we
order

concludethat

n/d

must

divide

m, so

the

such
for

m is
then

of order n, we see that if d is had subgroup (d) of Z\342\200\236n/d elements, and contains all the m less than n such that gcd(m, n) = d. Thus there is only one subgroup positive integers of Z\342\200\236 of order the preceding this shows at once that if n/d. Taken with paragraph, a is a generator of the cyclic group G, then (as) = (a'} if and only if gcd(s, n) =
Taking

of H the cyclic

a divisor

of n,

gcd(f.n).
6.15

\342\231\2

Example

For an example
the

using

notation,

consider
12 is

greatest

common comm

divisor

of 3

and

## Z^, with the 3 = 3 \342\200\242 1 generates 3,

a generator a subgroup

= 1. Since of y = 4

elements,

namely
(3)

{0,3,6,9}.

Section

Cyclic Groups

65

Sincethe
Since the

gcd

of 8 and

12 is 4, 8 generatesa
(8}

subgroup

of

-j

= 3 elements, namely,

= {0,4,

8}.
of

gcd

of 12

and 5 is 1, 5 generatesa
group

subgroup

= 12 elements;that

is,

5 is

a generator

of the

whole

Z^. immediately

the

The following

corollary

follows

6.16Corollary
6.17 Example

If a

is a generator
elements

of a finite

Starting

of the

other

generators

of G

to n.

find

all subgroups

of

\"L\\%

and

give

their subgroup

diagram.
17 are

All

subgroups

are

cyclic. By

2,

elements

1, 5,

all generators

of 7L\\%.

with

(2) =

## {0,2,4,6,8, 10,12,14, 6}. 1

is

of the form h2, where h is relatively has as generators elements prime and 16. The element 6 of so h2 = 2,4, 8, 10,14,and to 9, namely, 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, of this subgroup. (2) generates {0, 6, 12}, and 12 alsois a generator We have thus far found all subgroups generated by 0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10,11,12, 15 to consider. and 17. This leaves just 3, 9, and
of

order

9 and

h =

1 1 13, 4, 6,
15 also

(3) ={0,3,6,9,
and Finally,

12,15},
15 =
5 \342\200\242 3, and

generates

this

group

of order

6, since

the gcd

of 5 and

6 is

1.

(9}

= {0,

9}.
is given

The subgroup

diagram

for these

subgroups of Zig
(1)

in Fig.

6.18.

zlg

6.18 Figure

Subgroup

diagram

for Z18.

we are afraid we wrote it out in such detail This example is straightforward; some look complicated. The exercises may give practice along these lines.

that

it
\342\226\262

66

Part

Groups and

Subgroups

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

Computations
In

Exercises

1 through

4,

find

the

quotient

## and remainder, according to 2. n =

the

division

algorithm,

when n is

divided

by m.

1. n = 3. n =

42, m -50,

=
m

9
=

-42, 50, m

8
7, find

4. n = the greatest

In Exercises 5

through

commondivisor
and 88

of the

two integers.

5. 32 and
8. 5

24 11, find

6. 48

7.
of a

360

and

420

In Exercises 8 through

the number of

generators

cyclic group

having

the

given

order.

9. 8
is an group. be the must
14.
find

10. 12
automorphism

11. 60
Exercises

of the group. In
under

12 through

16, find

the

[Hint: Make

## 44. use ofExercise What

13.
17 through
subgroup
subgroup subgroup Z6

image of a generator
15. Z
in

an automorphism?]

12. Z2
In

Z8

16. Z12
indicated

Exercises

21,

the

number
by by

of elements
25 30

the

cyclic group.

18. 19.

of Z30
of Z42 (;') of

generated
generated

the group

## 20. The cyclic 21. Thecyclic

In Exercises

subgroup subgroup

of the of the

## C* of nonzero complex C* ofExercise generated 19 group 19 group C* of Exercise generated

all subgroups

numbers
by by

under multiplication

(1 +
1 + ;'

i)/V2

22 through

24, find
29,

of the given

group,

and draw
24.

the subgroup

diagram

for the

subgroups.

22. Z,2
In Exercises

23. Z36
25 through
26.

Z8

find all

orders of subgroups
27. Z12

of the

given group.
29.

25.

Z6

Z8

28.

Z20

Z,7

Concepts In Exercises

30 and
it is

31,

correct

the definition of

the

italicized

term

without reference

to

the

text, if

correction is

needed, so that
30.

in a form
group

acceptablefor publication.
G has

An element

a of a
common

order n e Z+ if

and

only

if a\" =

e.
integer

## 31. Thegreatest 32.

Mark

divisor

of two positive
true

integers

is the

largest positive

that

divides

both of them.

each

of the

following abelian

a. Every
b. Every

cyclic group
group

c. Q

under

d.

Every

e. Thereis at
f. Every
group

of order

the group.
finite

order

>0.

Section6

Exercises

67

g.
h. j.
In

All

generators

of Z20 are

prime

numbers. group.

If G

^f

then

G n G' is a

i. If

H and

are

subgroups

of a group

G, then
of a

D K

isa

group.

Every

cyclic

either

at least

group

Exercises

33 through

37,

give

an example

with

the property

described, or

explain

why

no

example exists.

33.
34.

finite
infinite

group

that is not
that is

cyclic

An

35. A
36.

cyclic

group

An infinite
A

having

four generators
generators

37.

finite

cyclic

## group having four

of all of the cyclic multiplicative The generators U\342\200\236 nth roots of unity group of unity for the 41, find the primitive nth roots unity. In Exercises 38 through

in C given

## are the primitive value of n.

nth

roots

of

38.

= 4

39. n =

6
8

40.

n =

41. n =

12

ProofSynopsis

42. Give

a one-sentence most

synopsis of

the

proof

of Theorem
proof

6.1. 6.6.

## 43. Give at Theory

a three-sentence

synopsis of the

of Theorem

44. Let
G

be a cyclic
show xff

isomorphism,
\342\200\224> G' and and and and

to G. If <f>: G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 G' is an with a, and let G' be a group generator isomorphic for every x \342\202\254 determined by the value 4>{a). That is, if \302\242): G, <j){x) is completely = if (a), then (f>{x) = ir{x) for all x & G. : G \342\200\224>\342\200\242isomophisms such G' are two that 0(a)

group
that,

45.

Let r

5 be b be s be

## positive integers. elements of a

group

Show

that G. Show

{nr +

ms

\\

n, m
has

e Z} is a
finite

subgroup

of Z.

46. Let

that if ab

order

n, then

ba alsohas

order

n.

47. Let r

positive integers.
least

a. Define the
b. Under what

common

multiple
least
that

of r
common

and

5 as a

generator of a

certain

cyclic

group.

condition is the
part

c.

Generalizing

(b), show

the product

multiple of r and 5 their product, rsi of the greatest commondivisor and of the least commonmultiple
must

of r

and 5 is

rs.
has
only that

48. Show
49.
Show such

that by that

a group that

a finite the

number of

subgroups

be a finite

group.
a theorem:
\"If

a counterexample every
group

following

\"converse\" of
G is

## Theorem 6.6is not 2 and

cyclic

a group

G is

proper subgroup is

cyclic, then

is the

50. Let
Show

G be a
that

ax =
q be

xa

## a e G generates G. [Hint: Consider

Find

a cyclic

unique such

element.

(xax'])2.] number

51. Let

and

the

of the

group

7Lpq.

68

Part

Groups and

Subgroups
number
G of

52. Let
53.
Show

p be a that

prime number.
in a finite

Find

the

of generators of

the

cyclic

group

Zpr, where r is
xm

an

integer

> 1.
m

cyclic
each

group

solutions

x in

for

positive

is the

## the equation m does

e has

exactly

54.
55. 56.

With

reference

to Exercise
has

53, what
and let
relatively that

situation if 1 < m

<

and number.

not

divide

n?

## Show that 1p Let G be an a. Show

that

no proper

nontrivial

subgroups if p is a prime
and

abelian if r

group

K be

finite cyclic
a cyclic

subgroups

with

\\H\\

= r

and

\\K\\

= s.

and 5 are

prime, G contains

then

G contains a

cyclic subgroup
least

of order

rs. multiple of r
and

b.

Generalizing

part

(a), show

common

s.

section

Generating
Let

Sets

## And Cayley Digraphs

G be a group, and let a e G. We have described the cyclic subgroup (a) of G, which the element a. Suppose we want to find as of G that contains is the smallest subgroup that contains both a and b for another element b in G. By as possible small a subgroup Theorem 5.17, we see that any subgroup containing a and b must contain a\" and bm for all finite products of such powers ofa and b. all m, n e Z, and consequently must contain For example, such an expression might be a2b4a~3b2a5. Note that we cannot \"simplify\" this expression by writing first all powers of a followed by the powers of b, since G may are of the same not be abelian. However, products of such expressions again expressions e = a0 and the of such an expression is again of the same inverse type. Furthermore, of a2fo4a~3fo2a5 is a~5b~2a3b~4a~2. By Theorem5.14, type. For example,the inverse of a and b form a subgroup of G, this shows that all such products of integral powers which surely must be the smallest containing both a and b. We call a and b subgroup If this subgroup should be all of G, then we say that {a, b) generators of this subgroup. generates G.Of course, there is nothing sacred about taking just two elements a, b e G. We could of elements of G, have made similar arguments for three, four, or any number

The It

as we

take only V = by

finite

products

of their

integral powers.
5.9 is

Klein is also

4-group

generated

Example

{a, b, c}. If a

## then every subsetof

7.2Example

G containing

S generates

G.
+ 3 = be Z6- It by {2,

\342\226

The group

Z6 is generated by
subgroup

{1}

so that
also

any

containing
contains

and {5}. It is also generated {2,3}since2 by and 3 must contain 5 and must therefore
{3,

5,
is

since (2) =
We

generated

by {3,

## a 4}, {2, 3, 4}, {1,3},nd

5}, but it is

not

generated

4}

{0,2, 4}

2 and

4.

\342\226

of a group G generated by given an intuitive explanation of the subgroup follows in of G. What is a detailed exposition of the same idea approached of subgroups. After we get an intuitive grasp of via intersections another way, namely as possible. We give a set-theoretic a concept,it is nice to try to write it up as neatly a theorem that was in Exercise definition and generalize 54 of Section 5. have
a subset

Section7
Let {5,-| i
o DieISif

Generating Setsand

Cayley

Digraphs

69

7.3 Definition

e the

1} be a collection of sets.Here may be any set sets St is the set of all elements that are in all n ielS{

## of indices. Theintersection the sets St; that is,

= {x\\x
may
Si

e Si for all;

e /}.

If

I is

finite, I

= {1,2, ...,

n],

we

denote n,-e/S,- by
\342\226\240

ns2n---0\302\276.
//,

7.4

Theorem

The intersection

of somesubgroups
Let a

of a group

G for

/ is

again a subgroup

of

G.

Proof

Let us
fo

show

closure.

e n,-e///,
e

## //, for all; e /. Thenafo Since //, is a subgroup

for
that

so that a e //, for all 2 e I and and fo e n,-e///,-, for all 2 e /, since //, is a group. Thus afo e n,-e///,-. //,all 2 e /, and hence all i e /, we have e e for for

//,

e e n,-e///,-.
Finally,

a e
a-1

n,-e///,-, we
e n,e///,-.
and

have

e //,

for all

e /,

so a-1

## for all //,\342\226\240

/,
\342\231\246

which implies
Let
containing

G be a
all

group

let

a,- e

G for

the elements of G.

at for i
subgroup

e /,
H

if we

take the
// e /.
2'

intersection of all
This

subgroups

a
a,-

subgroup

There is at least one subgroup of G itself. Theorem 7.4 assuresus that namely of G containing all a,- for z' e /, we will obtain is the smallest subgroup of G containing all the
i

e /.

G is

for

7.5 Definition

Let G

of G containing be a group and let a,- e G for 2 e /. The smallest subgroup is all of G, then e /}. If this subgroup e /} is the subgroup {a,- 12 by {a,- 12 generated of G. If there is a finite set {a,- 12 e /} e /} generates G and the a,- are generators {a,- 12 \342\226\240 that generates G, then G is finitely generated. Note

w definition is consistent ith our previous definition of a generator for also that the statement a is a generator of G may mean either that G = {a} or that a is a member of a subset of G that generates G. The context in which the statement is made should indicate which is intended. Our next theorem gives the into the subgroup of G generatedby {a,- 12 e /} that we discussed for structural insight two before Example 7.1. generators

that this

a cyclicgroup.

Note

7.6 Theorem

If G is a group and a,- e G for 2 e /, then the subgroup // of G generated by {a,- 12 e /} has as elementspreciselythose elements of integral powers of G that are finite products of the a,-, where powers of a fixed a,- may occur several times in the product.

Proof

We

set

of all

finite

products

of integral
and

powers of
since H is
a product

the the

a,-.

Then

K c
subgroup

H.

need

only

observe

the

then,

smallest

Observethat
For every

e, we have
product

e & K.

element fc
a,-

product

giving k a

new

with

the order

of the

## of elements in K is if we form from and the opposite reversed

in ^T,

Part I

Groups

and

Subgroups

sign on all

exponents, we have

1, which

is

thus

in K.

For example,

which

is again

in K.

\342\2

Cayley

Digraphs
set
the

## For each generating group in terms of

S of a

finite

group

generators representations

in S.

## digraph. These visual referred to as Cayley

the G, there is a directed graph representing The term directedgraph is usually abbreviated as and are also of groups were devised by Cayley,

diagrams in the literature. consists of a finite number of points, called vertices of the a digraph Intuitively, a direction denoted by an arrowhead) joining and some arcs (each with vertices. digraph, a generating G using set S we have one vertex, represented by In a digraph for a group a dot, for each elementof G. Each generator in S is denotedby one type of arc. We and paperwork. colors for different arc types in pencil Since different coulduse different are not available in our text, we use different colors arcs, like solid, dashed, and style
dotted,

to denote

bby---*

S = {a,b,

c] we

might denote

a
With xa

by

\342\226\240

and

cby

\342\200\242

this = y.

notation,

## of the group to that type we are in a direction oppositeto

an occurrence of x\302\273*y in a Cayley digraph means that an arc in the direction of the arrow indicates that multiplication at the start of the arc on the right by the generator corresponding element at the end of the arc. Of course, since element of arc yields the group = x. Thus traveling we know immediately that ya~l an arc in the group,
the

arrow

of the
denote

corresponding

generator.
the

this by

omitting
b2 =

corresponds to multiplication If a generator in S is its own arrowhead from the arc, rather
denote

on

the right by

the inverse

inverse,
than

## it is customary to using a double arrow.

For example,if
7.7Example

e, we

might

b by

Neither

= {1} BothofthedigraphsshowninFig.7.8representthegroupZ6withgeneratingset5 and shape of an arc nor the angle between arcs has any significance the length

(b)

7.8 Figure

Ze with

S =

(1}using

\342\226\240

Section

Generating

Sets and

Cayley Digraphs

71

(a)

(b) for Z6

7.9 Figure

Two digraphs

with S

= (2, 3}using

## \342\226\240 *\342\200\224 and-

7.10

Example

Both of

the

digraphs 3 is

{2,3}.
Notice
group.

Since how

its

different

7.9 representthe group Z& with generating set S = own inverse, there is no arrowhead on the dashed arcs representing 3. in Fig. 7.8 for the same those these Cayley diagrams look from
shown

in Fig.

digraph

to

the

different
satisfy

choice for
these

the

set

of generators.

\342\226\262

Every

## for a group must

four properties

for

the

reasons

indicated.

Property

Reason
is connected, from

## 1. The digraph we can get

any

that is,

Every
in a

equation

gx

= h

has a

solution

vertex

g to by traveling along
any vertex
at g

group.

2.

and
The

g has

a vertex

solution

of gx
each

is unique.

3. Each vertex

of each

type

starting
ending

at g.

arc
one

For g

e G and

generator
{gb~l)b

b we = g. =

If gq ug~lh

sequences from

the
It

starting

vertex

and

gr

= h,

then

uq

= ur.

same

vertex

h, then
arc

those
starting
to

samesequences of
any

types

vertex

u will

same

vertex v.

can

be shown
for

digraph

some

the

satisfying

these
digraph,

of such a

## four properties is a Cayley we can choose labels

like a, b, c for

various

arc types,
a product from digraphs.

## name each other vertex by to attain that vertex starting

name any vertex e to represent the identity, and of arc labels and their inverses that we can travel the one that we named e. Some finite were first groups

constructed (found)

using

72

Part I

Groups

and

Subgroups

,, //
/
;
\\ \\ \\

\342\226\240

(a)

7.11 Figure

7.12 Example

digraph

satisfying

the four
the

properties on page 71 is
labels

shown

in Fig.

## 7.11 (a). To obtain

Fig.

7.11

(b), we selected

>
named

and
b

a vertex e, and then the other vertices as shown. We have a group named we named of eight elements. Note that the vertex that {e,a,a2,a3,b,ab,a2b,a3b} well be named ba~l, the vertex that we named a3 couldbenamed ab could equally a~l, etc. It is not hard to compute products of elements this group. To compute (a3b)(a2b), in we just start at the vertex labeled a3b and then travel in succession two solid arcs and = one dashed arc, arriving at the vertex a, so (a3b)(a2b) a. In this fashion, we could write out the table for this \342\226 eight-element group.

EXERCISES

Computations
In

Exercises

1 through

6, list
Z12

the

elements

of the

3. The 5.

4. The 6.

group

products,

7. For

described

in Example

using

Fig. 7.11(b).
c.

a. (a2b)a3

b.

(ab)(a3b)

b(a2b)

-Ta

'

bid

f
(b)

(a)

(c)

7.13 Figure

Section 7

Exercises

73
e as that

In

Exercises

identity

element.

will

the

table e first

for the

group

having and

the list

indicated

digraph. In each

digraph,

take so

the remaining

elements

alphabetically,

be

easy to

check.

## 8. Thedigraph 9. The digraph

10. The digraph Concepts

11.
12.

How

can

we tell

## from a Cayley digraph

11, determine

whether
whether

or not group

the

corresponding

group

is commutative? digraph

Referring

to Exercise

the

corresponding
or not

to the

Cayley

in Fig. 7.11(b) is
at

commutative.

13. Is it
triangle

obvious

from
outside

a Cayley
triangle

digraph of a
in Fig.

group

whether

the

group

is cyclic?

[Hint: Look
Z6.

Fig.

7.9(b).]

## 14. The large

similarly

exhibit
set

a cyclic

the cyclic subgroup {0, 2, 4} of 7.9(b) exhibits subgroup of Zg? Why or why not? Zg

Does

## 15. The generating

group.

S =

{1, 2} for
draw

contains

Nevertheless,

we can

a Cayley

since 1 is a generator for the more generators than necessary, such a Cayley digraph for Z6 with this generating set S. Draw

digraph.

16.

Draw A

a Cayley

digraph for
to

Z8

taking

as generating
of a

set S =
an

{2,5}.
that equates some product G is commutative so
of generators
that

17.

relation

on a set
the

S of generators
identity

group G is
example,

equation

and

their inverses

## one relationisaba~lb~l= e.If,

e of

G. For
moreover,

if S

= {a, b} and
inverse,

ab

= ba,

then

b is

its

own

then another
of G.

relation is

b2

e.

a. Explain how we can find some relations on S from a Cayley digraph = {a,b}of generators b. Find three relations on the set S for the group 18. Draw
digraphs in

describedby 4, taking

Fig.

of the each

possible
Theory

## two possible case. You need not

structurally

different

groups

of order

as small

set as

label

vertices.

19.

Show

that

for n

> 3, there

exists

a nonabelian

group

with

2n

elements

that is generated

by

two

elements

of

order 2.

part

Permutations,

Cosets,

IJ

and

Direct
8

Products

Section

Groups
Orbits,

of Permutations
Cycles,
the

Section 9
Section

and the
Theorem

Alternating

Groups

10

Cosets and
Direct fPlane

of Lagrange

Section 11
Section

Products Isometries

and Finitely

Generated

Abelian

Groups

12

section

Groups
We

of Permutations
seen

have

examples

of groups of

numbers,

like

## We have also introduced

groups

of matrices,

of the element A of GL(2, E) yields a transformation column vector. x as a 2-componentolumn then Ax is also a 2-component c vector, regard in that its elements is typical of the most useful The group GL(2, E) of many groups act on things to transform them. Often, an action produced by a group element can be can be regarded of the group ^function binary operation whose we construct some finite elements, called section, groups composition. us with examples of finite permutations, act on finite sets. These groups will provide the same as some nonabelian shall show that any finite group is structurally We groups.
regarded

groups Z, Q, and E under like the group GL(2, E). Each plane E2 into itself; namely, if we
the

as a function,
In

and

the

this

group

turn

Unfortunately,
useful

this

result,

which

sounds

very powerful,

does not

to us.

elements

the notion
the

of a permutation

of a

## set as a rearrangement of the

set

{1,2,3,4,5},

a rearrangement

of the

elements

could

8.1, resulting in the new arrangement Fig. {4, 2, 5, 3, 1}. Letus think of this schematic diagram in Fig. 8.1 as a function mapping of eachelement element from the same in the left column into a single listed (not necessarily different) set listedat the right. Thus 1 is carried into 4,2 is mapped into 2, and so on. Furthermore, each element of the set, this mapping must be such that to be a permutation appears in

be given

schematically as in

the

right

column

once

and only

diagram
at

in Fig.
all in

## 8.2 does not

give

1 does a permutation, for 3 appears twice while to be such a mapping. now define a permutation
'

not appear

the right

column. We

Section

12 is not used

in

the remainder

of

the text.

75

76

Part II

Permutations,

Cosets,

and

Direct

Products

l->4

l->3

2^2

2^2

3^5 4^3
5->l

3^4

4^5

5^3
8.2 Figure
: A \302\247 \342\200\224>\342\200\242 A that

8.1Figure
8.3

Definition

A permutation

of a set A

is a

function

is both

one to

one

and onto.

Permutation
We

Groups
that function composition o is of a set A. We call this operation
and a

now

show

binary

operation

on the

collection of all
Let
A

permutations

set,

and let a

x be

permutations

of

so

mapping

A\\A^A,

## multiplication. that a and x are both one-to-one a ox defined schematically by

permutation

be

functions

o for permutation gives a mapping of A into A. Rather than keep the symbol we multiplication, will denote a o x by the juxtaposition ax, as we have done for general groups. ax will be a permutation if it is one to one and Now onto A. Remember that the action of ax on A must be read ax is one to one. If
in

right-to-left

order:

## first apply x and

then

a.

Let us

show

that

(ax)(ai)
then

= (ax)(a2),

a(x(ai))

= a(x(a2)),
x is
let A,

since a is given to be one to one, we know and that x{a\\) = x{a2). But then, since one to one, this gives a\\ \342\200\224 ax is one to one. To show that ax is onto A, a2. Hence a e A. Since a is onto exists a' & A such that a(a') = a. Sincex is onto A, there

there

exists

a\"

A such that
a =

x(a\") =
a{a')

= a{x{a\

so

ax

is onto

A.

8.4 Example

that Suppose

A =
and

{1,2, 3,4,

5}
a

that

a is

the

permutation

given
in

by Fig.
parentheses

8.1. We write
and omitting

changing

the columns

to rows

## in a more standard the arrows, as

notation,

Section8

Groupsof

Permutations

77

\342\226\240 Historical

Note
earliest

of the
One
permutations

recorded in the
by

studies
Yetsirah,

of
or

occurs
written

Sefer
century.

Book
author

of Creation,
sometime

an unknown the

Jewish
The

ibn al-Banna a mathematician (1256-1321), from Marrakech in what is now Morocco, and Levi ben Gerson, a French rabbi, philosopher, and
Abbas mathematician,

before
in

the eighth
Hebrew

author
in

was

interested
the letters

counting
the

various

ways
can be

which

number

of

alphabet

arranged.

n!,

were able to give rigorous proofs that the of permutations of any set of n elements is as well as prove various results about counting

sense a mystical one. It was that the letters had magical believed could suitable powers; therefore, arrangements the forces of nature. The actual text of the subjugate letters build Sefer Yetsirah is very sparse: \"Two four build 24 six words, two words, three build words, five build 120, six build 720, seven build 5040.\" enough, the idea of counting Interestingly also the arrangements of the letters of the alphabet occurred in Islamic mathematics in the eighth and in both ninth centuries. By the thirteenth century, idea the Islamic and Hebrew cultures, the abstract root so that both Abu-1-' of a permutation had taken

The question

was

in some

combinations.

concerned

## predecessors, however, were

as simply arrangements of solutions of and others
to

with

permutations

a given finite set. It was the search for polynomial equations that led Lagrange
in

the

late

the set of a given equation. And it being was Augustin-Louis Cauchy (1789-1857) who in detail the basic theorems of permutation developed and who introduced the standard notation theory used in this text.
permutations as

functions
of

the roots

think set

of

to itself,

that

so that

a (I)

= 4,

cr(2) = 2, and

so on.

Let

T=

'12
,3

3 4
5

Then

ax
For

1 2
4

5 1

12
3

4 order,

2 1
=

example,

multiplying

in right-to-left

## = (crr)(l) = cr(T(l)) cr(3)

We
now

5.
of

A
a nonempty

show
this

that

the collection

of all permutations

set

forms

permutation

multiplication.
and

a nonempty
under shown

set,

let

SA be

permutations

of A.

Then Sa

permutation that

multiplication.

Proof

composition
permutation
multiplication

of

two

permutations

of A

yields a

permutation

of

A,

## so Sa is closed under Now permutation

multiplication. is defined as

in Section

2,

we showed that
satisfied.

function

composition
that

## The permutation i such

i(a)

is associative. Hence S^J is satisfied. \342\200\224 a, for all a e A acts as identity. Therefore

^ is

78

Part

II

Permutations,

For

a permutation
mapping

a,
one

direction of the

a, that

existenceof
a

exactly

is both

## one to one and

that reverses the a~l, is the permutation function, -1 a' of A such that a = a (a'). The is, a (a)is the element such element a' is a consequence the fact that, as a function, of onto. For each a e A we have
the

inverse

## i(a) = and also

a=

cr(a')= cr(a~l(a))

(crcr~l)(a)

L(a') =a'
so that
Warning:
that <7_1<7

= a~\\a) = a~\\a{a'))
the

(CT_1o-)(a'),
is (\302\276

and

crcr-1

are both

permutation

i. Thus

satisfied.

\342\231\24

Some

## texts compute a product

a \\\302\261permutations of
they

{o\\L){a)

= /x(cr(a)).
Exercise \\\302\261o.
another

Thus
text

the

permutation

get for
check

a\\i

by computing

If you

refer to

## us to check in two material, be sure to

ways

in left-to-right order, so is the one we would get that we still get a group. its order for permutation

multiplication.

was nothing in our definition of a permutation to require that the set A be will be concerned with most of our examples of permutation groups of finite sets. Note that the structure of the group Sa is concerned only permutations of elements in the set A, and not what the elements in A are. If setsA and with the number
There
finite.

However,

B have the same cardinality, then SbSa Sb , we Sa \342\200\224To define an isomorphism \302\242: \342\200\224>\342\200\242 B be let f : A \342\200\224> a one-to-one function mapping A onto B, which establishes that A and B have the same cardinality. For a e Sa, we let 4>{a) be the permutation a e Sbsuch that = f(a(a)) for all a e A. To illustrate this for A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {#, $, %} a(f(a)) and the function / :A \342\200\224>\342\200\242 B defined as /(1) =#, \302\242) maps /(2) =$,

/(3) =
$%, /1 3\\ /# %\\ (,3 We the ij11110^ of A$ #J-

simply renaming

rename
\342\200\242 to \342\200\242 \342\200\242, n}

function

{1,

2, 3,

in B using in our two-row notation by elements thus renaming elements of Sa to be those of Sb- We can take f, be a prototype for a finite set A of n elements.

the elements

8.6Deflnition

Note

finite set
letters,
n\\

{1,2,

,n}.

Sn.

of A

is the

symmetric

and is
elements,

denoted
where

by

\342\226\24

that

Sn has

nl=n(n-

\\){n

-2)---

(3)(2)(1).

Two

Important
the

Examples
group

8.7Example

An

interesting

We list

## example for us is the of A and permutations

63 of

3!

\342\200\224 6 elements.

Let the

set A

be

{1,2,3}.

assign to

each

a subscripted

Section8
The reasons for

Groupsof

Permutations

79

the

choice

of names

will be
3

Mo

1 1 1

2 2
3

## clear later. Let 2 Ml 1 3

M2

2 3
1 3
3
2

Mi

2 3

2 2

3 1

92 =

M3

2 3 1 3

8.8 Table
Po Po Pi P2
Mi M2 M3

Pa

Pi
Pi

P2

Mi

M2

M3

Pi

Pi
Pi

Po

M3

Mi

M2

Pi
Mi

Po

Pi

M2

M3

Mi

Mi

M2

M3

Po

Pi Po
P2

P2

M2 M3

M2 M3

/U-3

Mi M2

P2

Pi Po
this

Mi

Pi

We

The multiplication table for 53 is shown in Table 8.8. Note that have seen that any group of at most 4 elementsis abelian. a group of 5 elements is also abelian. Thus S3 has minimum
group.
There

group

is not
we will
any

abelian!
see
that

Later

order for

nonabelian
\342\226\262

8.9Figure

of S3 in Example 8.7 and the correspondence between the elements of an equilateral triangle with vertices 1,2, and 3 (see Fig. 8.9 can be placed, one covering the other with vertices on top of vertices. For this reason, we used p, 53 is also the group D3 of symmetries of an equilateral triangle. Naively, for rotations and jxt for mirror images in bisectors of angles. The notation for D3 stands the third dihedral group. The nth dihedral group Dn is the group of symmetries of the See Exercise 44.' regular n-gon. Note that we can consider the elements of S3 to act on the triangle in Fig. 8.9. See the discussion at the start of this section. is a natural
two

ways

in which

copies

8.10

Example

copies

dihedral
with

group
vertices

of a square

vertices
of

on
square.

top

of

vertices

the

It is

## also called the

to the ways that two D4 of permutations corresponding 4 can be placed, one covering the other and with 1, 2, 3, will then be the group of symmetries (see Fig. 8.11). D4
octic

group.

Again,

Many

group

## since by D2,, rather than by D\342\200\236the order of the group is 2n.

80

Part II

a Permutations, Cosets,nd

Direct

Products

notation

## that we shall explain later.

in

Naively,

we
and

are using pt
<5,

for

rotations,

/x,- for

mirror
eight

images
permutations

perpendicular

bisectors

of sides,

for

diagonal

flips.

There are

involved

here. Let

Po
8.11

12
12

12
Mi

4
3

2 14
12 3
3

Figure

12
Pi

3 4
3

4
1 4

2
12
3

pi 2

P2 =

3 4
4

12
3

Si =

12
3

14
3

Pi

12
4

12
14

12

8.12'Table
Po Po
P\\

Pi

Pi

Mi

M2

\302\253i

Si

Po

Pi

Pi Pi Po
Pi

Pi Po
P\\

Mi

M2

\302\253i

Si
Mi

Pi

Pi
Pi

Pi

\302\253i

Si

M2

Pi

Pi Po

M2

Mi

Si

s,

Pi
Mi

Pi

Pi

Si

s,

Mi

M2

Mi

Si
Si

M2

\302\253i

Po

Pi Po

Pi
P\\

Pi

M2

M2

Mi

Si

Pl
Pi

Pi Pi Po

\302\253i \302\253i Mi

Si

M2

Pi
Pi

Po

Si

Si

M2

\302\253i

Mi

Pi

Pi

{PO'^ll

{Po-

8.13 Figure

Subgroup

diagram

for D4.

Section 8

Groups of

Permutations

81

in Table 8.12. Note that D4 is again nonabelian. This group The table for D4 is given is simply beautiful. It will provide us with nice for many concepts we will examples in that table! Finally, introduce in group theory. Look at the lovely symmetries we give in Fig. 8.13 the subgroup for the subgroups of D4. Look at the lovely symmetries diagram in that

diagram!
Theorem

\342\226\262

Cayley's

Look at any group table in the text. Note how each row of the table gives a permutation as listed at the top of the table. Similarly, each column of the set of elements of the group, of the group set, as listed at the left of the table. In view of the table gives a permutation that at least every finite G is isomorphic of these observations, it is not surprising group for infinite of G. The same is true to a subgroup of the group So of all permutations consisting Cayley's theorem statesthat every group is isomorphic to some group groups; This is a nice and intriguing of permutations under permutation result, multiplication. At first glance, the theorem and is a classic of group theory. might seem to be a tool to of groups of shows is the generality answer all questions about groups. What it really of all permutation groups Sa for sets A of all sizes subgroups permutations. Examining exists theorem does show that if a counterexample would be a tremendous task. Cayley's will then some group of permutations to some we have made about groups, conjecture
provide
then

We now
a

the counterexample. to the proof of Cayley's theorem, proceed in its own right. lemma that is important

starting

with

a definition

and

* Historical

Note
(1821-1895) definition

Arthur
1854:\"A
different

Cayley

sounding

gave an of a group in a

abstractpaper of

set
and

\342\226\240 of symbols, all 1, a, f), \342\226\240 of them \342\226\240, of such that the product of any two

table that multiplication by any group the group elements. However, he of wrote, \"this does not in any wise show that the best group table and note that every line and column \" \342\226\240 \342\226\240. the table \"will contain all the symbols 1, a, /3, \342\226\240 or the easiest mode of treating the general problem is thus to however, always represented [of finding all groups of a given order] Cayley's symbols, operations on sets; it does not seem that he was aware regard it as a problem of [permutations]. It seems of any other kind of group. He noted, for instance, clear that the better course is to consider the general
the

them (no matter in what order) or the product of one of them into itself, belongs to the set, is any said to be a group.\" He then proceeded to define a

unable to find a suitable teaching post. In 1863, he In 1878, finally became a professor at Cambridge. he returned to the theory of groups by publishing four papers, in one of which he stated Theorem 8.16 of this text; his \"proof was simply to notice from
group
element

permuted

that

the

four

matrix
group
went

= /S
the

transposition,
non-cyclic

his definition
century.

operations 1, a = inversion, and y = a/S, form, abstractly, of four elements. In any case, unnoticed for a quarter of a
300

problem
The

in

itself.\"

paper of 1854 was one of about the 14 yearsCayley was practicing during
This

written

the earlier one, papers of 1878, unlike found a receptive audience;in fact, they were an on Walter Van Dyck's 1882 important influence axiomatic definition of an abstract group, the definitionthat led to the development of abstract group

law, being

theory.

82

Part II

a Permutations, Cosets,nd

Direct

Products

8.14 Definition

Let f : A

B be a

{f(h) | h
8.15

let

H be a

subset of

A.

The

image

of H

under f is
=

/[#].
G

\342\2

Lemma

Let G
of G

and

be groups
y

<f> :

0(x)0(y)forallx,
with0[G].

e G. Then0[G]

that 0(xy)
isomorphism

Proof

We

show

the conditions

for a

subgroup

given

in Theorem

Let

x', y' e

exist

ijeG

such
that

that

\302\242^)

0[G] is

hypothesis, <j>(xy) = <j>(x)<j>(y) = x'y', showing closed under the operation of G'. Let e' be the identity of G'. Then e'$(e) = x'y' 8.14 are satisfied by 0[G]. = x and 4>{y) = y'. By shown that e 0[G]. We have ## 0(e) = 0(ee)= 4>{e)$(e).

e 0[G].
)

Cancellation
For

x'

shows that e' = 0(e) so e' 0[G] where x' = 0(x), we have
in G' e' =

4>{e)=

= 4>{xx~l)
e 0[G].

<j>(x)(j>(x~

12
by

Let

be

a set and

let a

&

SA. For

a fixed

A,

the

set

Oa.a =

{a\"(a)\\n&Z}
13, find
the

## is the orbit of Exercise 1.

a under

a.

In

Exercises

11 through

orbit

of 1 under

the

permutation

defined

prior to

11. a
14. In Table
Verify

12.
8.8, we usedpo:Pi. P2,
p4>, p24> for geometrically reference the the

13.

/x

## e, p, p2, 4>, 15. 16. 17.

With Find Find

of S3. Some authors use the notations Mi, M2, M3 as the names of the 6 elements these elements, where their e is our identity po, their P is our pi, and their 0 is our/^. that their six expressionsdo give all of S3.

## 14, give a similar

in the set in the

alternative
S4 S51 |

in Table

8.12.

number number
group

{a e

cr(3) a{2)

set {a e
8.7

S3 of Example

a.
b. 19.

Find Find

cyclic

subgroups

improper,

(/xi) of S3

of S3.

proper and
all

and give

the

subgroup

diagram

for them.

Verify by

subgroups

one the

element,

then

generated
the

## in Fig. 8.13 is correctby finding by two elements, etc.

all (cyclic)

subgroups generated

20. Give

multiplication

table for

cyclic P =

subgroup

of S5 generated

by

12

3
5

4 5
13
and

2 4
p3, p4,

There
21.

will

be

six elements.

Let

them

be p, p2,

p3

p\302\260

p6. Is

this

group

isomorphic

to S3?

a. Verify that

## the six matrices

1 0
0 1

0\"

\"0

0\"

\"0

\"1

0\"

\"0

1 0

0
Don't

0
form

1 0

1 0

, 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
1

a group

under matrix
column

multiplication.

[Hint:

try to computeall it on
of six

products

of these by each

matrices.\"

think b. What

how the

vector

is transformed
section

by multiplying

the

left

of the

group discussedin

this

is isomorphic to

this

group

matrices?

Section 8

Exercises

85

(a)

(b)

(c)

(Consider this

part to

continue infinitely
(d)

8.21

22. After
In this

working

Exercise D4.

21, write

down

eight

matrices

group

under

matrix

multiplication

that is
23
the

isomorphicto

that want

group

## through 26, give a group indicated figure. You may

to symmetries,

we have to

of symmetries of an equilateral triangle and of a square. In Exercises discussed in the text that is isomorphic to the group of symmetries of on the figure, write some permutations label some special points corresponding
of permutations.

## and compute some products

in Fig. in Fig. the

23. The

figure

In

the

in Fig. in Fig.

the notation

left regular

## representation of Z4. Compute

right regular

representation of S3 using

of Example

8.7.

Exercises

28 and
that

## 29, correct the

in a form

definition

of the

italicized term
S to
map

without

reference

to the

text,

if

correction

is

needed, so

acceptablefor publication. of a set S is a one-to-oneap from 28. A permutation m 29. The left regular representation of a group G is the of G that carries each ieG into gx.
it is

S.
of G

is a

at g

e G is

the

permutation

In Exercises

30 through
-> ->

34,
by by

determine
fl(x) f2(x)

## whether the given

function

permutation

of R.

30. /1 : R 31. /2 : R
32. /3 : R

R defined R defined
defined

= x = x2

+ l

-> R
->

by f2(x)
by

= -x3
= ex

33. /4 : R
34. /5 : R

R defined

fA{x)

by following

f5(x)

= x3
true or

x2

- 2x

false. function.
if

## is a one-to-one is a permutation from

if and only
onto

it is

one to

one.

c. Every d. Every

G is

## a finite set isomorphic to a

itself

must

be one to one.

subgroup

of Sq \342\226\240

86

Part

II

Permutations,

e.

Every

subgroup

f. Every g. The

group

is abelian.

a cyclic

subgroup of the

group.

symmetric

S10 has S3 is

10 elements.

h. The symmetric
i.
j.
Sn

group

cyclic.
some

## cyclic for any n. Every group is isomorphicto

is not

group

of permutations.
group

36.

Show

by an

example

that

every

proper

subgroup of a nonabelian

may be
previously

abelian.
in the

37. Let A be a nonempty set. What type of algebraic structure mentioned of all functions A into itself under function mapping composition?
38. Indicate schematically a Cayley radians and a reflection (mirror
Proof

text is given
through

by the

set

## 44. image). SeeExercise

proof of

digraph

for Dn

using a

generating

set

consisting

of a rotation

2jt/n

Synopsis

39.

Give a two-sentence

synopsis

of the

Cayley's theorem.
let b be

Theory

In Exercises
whether

40
| |

through

43,

let A

be a set, B a subset of A,
of SA under

and

one

particular

the

a(b) a[B]

be a subgroup

the induced

operation.

Here

element

40. {a

SA

= b} c B}

41. {a

SA SA

| |

a{b) a[B]

e B} = B}

such

8.10,

with Examples

an n-gon

can be

## The set of these the order of this

as the 45.

a regular plane n-gon for n > 3. Each way that two copies of of the vertices. the other, correspondsto a certain permutation in a group, the nth dihedral Find group Dn, under permutation multiplication. permutations elements Dn. Argue geometrically that this group has a subgroup having group just half as many consider

placed, with

one

covering

whole

group that

has. exactly

8.10, the ways in which the of the vertices of the cube. This is the group of rigid motions (or rotations) of the cube. (It should not be confused with the group of group of Section 12.) How many elements the figure, which will be discussedin the exercises does this symmetries of this group has at least three of order 4 and at least have? that different group Argue geometrically subgroups four different subgroups of order 3. 46. Show that Sn is a nonabelian group for n > 3.
Consider a cube
fills a certain
in Examples

into

the box

## cubical box. As correspond to a certain group

8.7 and

of permutations

47.

Strengthening

Exercise

46, show
identity

that

if n

> 3,

then

the

only

element of

a of S\342\200\236 satisfying

cry = ycr

for

all

e 5,, is cr

= 1, the

permutation.

before OaM

Exercise = Ob.a-

11. Let

a, b e

and

## and Ob.a have

exists subgroup

an element

49. If

cr(a)

H of SA is transitive on A if for each a, b set, then a subgroup = b. Show that if A is a nonempty finite set, then there exists a finite IHI = \\A\\ that is transitive on A.
A

is a

there

cyclic

a e H such H of SA

that with

50.
51.

Referring

to the
only

if and
define

if Oa,a
warning

to Exercise

49, show

that

for

a e

## Sa, (o) is transitive

on A

(See the

a binary

a.

(Intuitive

of

transparent

on page 78). Let G be a group with binary operation *. Let G' be the same set as G, and operation *' on G' by x *' y = y * x for all x, y e G'. that G' under *' is a group.) the front wall of your room were made class argument Suppose and that all possible a * b = c and all possible instances a * (b * c) = glass, products

Section 9

a Orbits, Cycles,nd

the

Alternating

Groups

87

(a * b) * c of
would

the

a person
from

b.

Show

the

* were written on the wall with for G under other side of the wall from the next room in looking mathematical definition of *' that G' is a group under *'.

associative

property

see when

at the

What

52. Let
a

G be a and

the

permutations

pa:G

## -> G, where from

and an identity C = PA,

pa{x)

= iaforaeG

and x e

G, do form

53. A

same

is one

that

can
any

be obtained
n x

matrix
rows

by reordering

A is

n matrix
as the

then C can

be obtained
ofnxn

precisely the
a.

reordering
finite

of the

rows of A

reordering

of the

which

## its rows. If P is an from A by making produced P from /\342\200\236.

permutation

Show
under

that every
matrix

group

of order n

is isomorphicto a group
the

consisting

matrices
matrix

multiplication.
four

b. For
that

each of the
corresponds

elements

e,a,b,
such

and c in

Table

5.11 for

the

group

V, give a

specific 4x4

to it under

an isomorphism.

section

Orbits,

Cycles,

## and the Alternating

set
A

Groups
partition of A into cells with the if b = an{a) for some n e Z. We

Orbits
Each property

permutation that
this

a of a a, b e
partition

determines

a natural

A are in
using

establish

## the same cell if and only an appropriate equivalence relation:

For

a,

b e

A, let a

~ b if
by

and

only

if b
(1) is

cr\"(a)

for

some

n e

Z.
relation.

(1)

We

now

check

that ~ defined

Condition

indeed

an

equivalence

Reflexive
Symmetric

Clearly a If a ~ b,
and

## ~ a sincea = i(a)= cr\302\260(a).

then

b =

\342\200\224 n

e Z,

so b ~ a.
~

an{a)

for some

e Z.

But then
c =

a =

a~n(b)
some

Transitive

Supposes~ foandfo
n,
m

c, thenfo

= an(a)
that

and

crm(b) for

e Z.

Substituting,

we

find

c =

am(a\"(a)) =

a\"+m(a),

so a

~ c. classes in A

9.1

Definition

Let

cr

be

a permutation

equivalence

relation

## of a set A. (1) are the orbits

A

The

equivalence of a. each

determined

by

the
\342\226\240

9.2 Example

Since
the

the identity
one-element

subsets

permutation i of of A.
permutation

leaves

element

of

fixed,

the orbits

of i are
\342\226\262

9.3 Example

Find

the orbits

of

the

~ \302\260

_/l
\\h

234567
867415

8\\

2)

inS8.
Solution To

find

the orbit

containing 1, we apply

repeatedly,

obtaining

symbolically

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 1\342\200\224> o \342\200\224> i \342\200\224> L \342\200\224> \342\226\240 i \342\200\224> L \342\200\224> o \342\200\224> i \342\200\224> .

88

Part

II

Permutations,

## Cosets, and Direct Products

Sincea'1
the

would

simply

reverse

the directions
now

of the

orbit
and

containing
similarly

1 is
find

{1, 3, 6}.We
that the list of
orbit

choose

say 2,
orbit

containing three

containing the

4 is

{4, 7,

we see that

5}. Sincethese
orbits

in this chain, we see that arrows an integer from 1 to 8 not in {1, 3, 6}, 2 is {2, 8}. Finally, we find that the orbits include all integers from 1 to 8,

complete

of a

is

{1,3,6},

{2,8},

{4,5,7}.

Cycles
For

the

remainder of the

elements.
elements

of this section, we considerjust permutations of a finite set A of \342\200\242 A = {1, 2, 3, \342\226\240 and that we are dealing with We may as well suppose that \342\200\242, n)

symmetric

group

Sn. orbits

Refer

back to

## Example 9.3. The

12
3

of

3
8

4
7

5 6 7 4 15

(2)

1 to 8 on in Fig. 9.4. That is, a acts on each integer from on the circle traveled it into the next integer one of the circles by carrying For example, the leftmost circleindicates that in the direction of the arrows. counterclockwise, = 3, (7(3) = 6, and cr(6) = 1. Figure 9.4 is a nice way to visualize the structure of cr(l)
are

indicated

graphically

the

permutation

a.

9.4 Figure
Each example,

circle in Fig.

## 9.4 also defines,

the

by

itself,

a permutation

in

S%

For

circle corresponds to
12
M

permutation

3
2

4
4
leaves

5 6 7
5

8 8

17

(3)

## that acts on 1, 3, and fixed. In summary,

6 just
/x has

as a

does, but

the remaining

integers 2, 4, 5, 7, and
five

one three-element

orbit {1,

3, 6}

and

one-element

orbits

9.5 Figure

Such {2}, {4}, {5}, {7},and {8}. a permutation, described graphically by a single circle, is called a cycle (for circle). We consider the identity to be a cycle since it permutation can be represented a circle having the integer 1, as shown in Fig. 9.5. We now by only

define

the term

cycle

in

a mathematically

precise

way.

Section 9

## a Orbits, Cycles, nd the

cycle if it has
number as in the
at

Alternating

Groups

89

9.6 Definition

permutation

element.
To

a e The length

is a S\342\200\236

most

one

of a cycleis the

of elements

than

one
\342\226\240

avoid

=

a single-row

/x

We understand
the into

by

this

notation
the

that
next

/x

carries

number 1 into
finally

the

second the

## number first number

3 into

number

6, etc.,

until

the last

be left
our

fixed

by /x.

example,
within

1. An integer for not appearing in this notation Of course, the set on which /x acts, which is {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}in must be made clearby the context.
S5, we

9.7 Example

Working

see

that

12
(1,3,5,4)
that

14
= (4,

Observe

(1, 3,
Of

5, 4)

## = (3, 5, 4, 1)= (5,

4,

1, 3)

1,3, 5).

as any

since cycles are special types of permutations, course, they can be multiplied just two permutations. The product of two cycles need not again be a cycle,however. a in Eq. (2) can be written as a Using cyclic notation, we see that the permutation

product

of cycles:

12
3
These cycles

8
2

6 7 4
in

15
that the is a

(1,3,6)(2,8)(4,7,5).

(4)
at most cycles.

## are disjoint, meaning

one number of
terms

cycles;thus

no
in

one-line description of Fig. 9.4. Every permutation in Sn can be expressed in a similar fashion as a product of the disjoint to its orbits. We state this as a theorem and write out the proof. corresponding

exhibits a

by

one of
Equation

these
(4)

cycles

9.8 Theorem

Every

permutation

of a finite

cycles.

Proof

Let B\\,

B?,

the orbits

of a,

and

let

/x,- be

## the cycle defined

by

a{x)
/x,(x)

for* e
otherwise.

S,

Clearly
distinct

a =
equivalence While

mm

## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 Since

Mr-

classes,

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 the equivalence-class orbits B, being B\\, B2, \342\226\240, \342\200\242 are \342\226\240 are disjoint, the cycles \342\200\242, /xj, /x2, /xr disjoint also.

\342\231\246

in general is not commutative, it is readily seen is commutative. Since the orbits of a permutation multiplication cycles the representation none of are unique, of a permutation as a product of disjoint cycles, which is the identity is unique up to the order of the factors. permutation,
permutation

multiplication

that

of disjoint

90

Part

II

## Permutations, Cosets,and DirectProducts

9.9

Example

Consider

the

permutation

12

3
5

4
4

5
3

6
1
1, giving

6
Let us
write

it as a

the cycle

(1, 6).
This

Then

(2, 5, 3).

takes

First, 1 is moved to 6 and then 6 to product of disjoint cycles. to 3, which 2 is moved to 5, which is moved is moved care of all elements but 4, which is left fixed. Thus

to 2, or

12
6
Multiplication (2, 5, 3) is not
You
may

5
3

6
1

5
cycles

2 4

(1,6)(2,5,3).

of

disjoint

is commutative,

so

the

order

of the

factors (1,6)

and

important.

\342\226\2

should

or may 9.

multiplying
We

permutations
and

in

cyclic

notation further

give an example

provide

## where the cycles practice in Exercises

7 through
9.10

Example

Consider

the

cycles

(1,4,5,6)

and (2,1,5)

in

S6. Multiplying,

we find that
5

(1,4,5,6)(2,
and

1,5) =

12
6

3 4
4

(2,

1,5)(1,4,5,6)
is a

12
4

6
5

13

2 6

Neither of thesepermutations
Even
It

cycle.

and

Odd

Permutations
that every
sequence

seems

by

reasonable

1,

numbers.

## 2,..., n can We discuss this

be achieved
a bit

more

formally.

9.11 Definition

cycle Thus

of length

2 is a transposition.

\342\226\2

the

other.

{a\\,a2,

elements but

two

fixed,

and maps

## \342\200\242 \342\226\240 = \342\200\242\342\200\242-,\302\253\342\200\236) (ai,a\342\200\236)(ai,a\342\200\236_i)- (a\\, a3)(ai,

a2).
the

Therefore

any

cycle

is a product

of transpositions. We

then

have

following

as a

corollary to Theorem9.8.

9.12

Corollary

Any

permutation

of a finite set

of at

least

two

elements

is a product of transpositions.
of n objects

Naively, by

this

corollary interchanging

successively

## just states that any rearrangement pairs of them.

canbe achieved

Section9 9.13Example
9.14

Orbits,Cycles,
the

and

the

Alternating

Groups

91

Following

the

remarks

prior to
transpositions.

corollary,

we see that

(1, 6)

(2, 5, 3) is the

product
\342\226\262

(1, 6) Example

(2, 3) (2,5) of
n

In Sn for

>

2, the identity

permutation is

the

product

(1, 2)

(1, 2)

of transpositions.
\342\226\262

of a finite set with at least two elements is a We have seen that every permutation not be disjoint, and a representation product of transpositions. The transpositions may of the permutation in this way is not For example, we can always insert at the unique. (1,2) twice, because (1, 2) (1,2) is the identity beginning the transposition permutation. to represent a given permutation used What is true is that the number of transpositions be odd. This is an important fact. We will give must either always be even or always of determinants from linear algebra. The second two The first uses a property proofs. M. Bloom. orbits and was suggested by David involves counting

9.15 Theorem

No permutation
transpositions and

in

can be S\342\200\236

expressed
odd

as a product

of

an

number
SA

SB if A and

even

number

of

## Proof 1 (From linear algebra)

We
work

remarked
with

matrix 1. Interchanging has determinant numbers 1, 2, ..., n. Theidentity any two rows of the determinant. of a square matrix the sign Let C be a matrix obtained by a changes could be obtained from /\342\200\236 by both an even number permutation a of the rows of I\342\200\236.lfC to be both 1 and of rows, its determinant would have an odd number of transpositions \342\200\224 Thus a cannot be expressed of an even and is impossible. both as a product 1, which of transpositions. number and an odd number

## in Section 8 that of the permutations

B have

the

same

rows

of the n

identity

matrix

rather /\342\200\236,

## We cardinality. than of the

Proof 2
(Counting orbits)

Let a e Sn of a and of

and

let r

xa

= (z, j) differ by 1.

be a
j

transposition

in Sn.

We claim that

the

number

of orbits

Case I

i Suppose and
disjoint

## are in the first

cycles,

contains

i, symbolized

different orbits of a. Write a as a product of of which contains j and the second of which in Fig. 9.16. We may write by the two circles
symbolically

the

product

of these two

cycles

as

(b, j,
where

x, x, x)(a,i, x, x)
elements

the symbols

x denote possibleother

in these

orbits.

9.16 Figure

92

Part

II

Permutations,

## Cosets, and Direct Products =

Computing

the

product

of the

first

three

cycles

in xa

(2,

j)a,

we

obtain

(2, j)(b,
The

j, x, x, x)(a,i, x, x)
2 orbits
in

(a, j,

x, x,

x,b,i, x, x).

have been joined to form just one in xa as the computation Exercise 28 asks us to repeat symbolized Fig. to show that the same thing happens if either one or both of i and j of their orbit in a. should be only element
original

9.16.

Case

II

Suppose 2 and j are in the same orbit of a. We can with the first cycle of the product of disjoint cycles
(a, i,
shown the

then

write

a as a

form

x, x,

x, b, j, x, x)
the product of
x, x).
in

symbolically first

by the circle in Fig. 9.17. Computing we obtain two cycles in xa = (2, j)a,
2,

(2, j)(a,

x, single

x,

x, b,
orbit

j, x,

x) = (a,j, x, x)(b,
split

i, x,

The original
Fig.

has been

into

two

as symbolized

9.17.
shown

of of xa differs from the number 1has n orbits, because each element is identity permutation the of orbits of a given member of its orbit. Now the number only permutation but not both. Thus it is a e Sn differs from n by either an even or an odd number, to write impossible

We have orbits of a by

that

the number

of

orbits

1. The

a =
where odd.
9.18

X\\X2xi

## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240

xmL

the

are 7\302\276

transpositions

in two ways,

once with

m even

and once

with

\342\231

Definition

A permutation

of a

finite

set

is even

or odd
transpositions

as a
9.19

accordingto
or

whether

it can

be expressed
number

product

of an

even number of

the product

of

an

odd

of

transpositions, respectively.
Example

\342\22

## The identity permutation 1 in Sn is an even If n = 1 so that we cannot form this product,

permutation

since

we have 1 =
the

(1,2)(1, 2).
other

we define 1 to

be even.On

hand,

the

permutation

(1,

4, 5,

6) (2,

1,5) in

S6 can =

be written

as

(1, 4, 5, 6)(2,1,5)
which

(1, 6)(1,

## 5)(1, 4)(2, 5)(2, 1)

has

five transpositions,

so

this

is an

odd permutation.

\342\226

The

Alternating
for

Groups
n >

We claim that
of odd let
for
what

2,

the

## number is split S\342\200\236

of even

is, permutation; !)/2. To show this, be the set of even permutations in S\342\200\236let B\342\200\236 and be the set of odd permutations A\342\200\236 n > 2. We proceedto define function from A\342\200\236 Bn. This is exactly onto a one-to-one is needed to show that A\342\200\236 Bn have the same number and of elements.
that

is the

same as the

number

are (n

Section

## Orbits, Cycles,and the

Alternating

Groups

93

Let x be any
that

fixed

transposition
function

in

it exists S\342\200\236;

since n >

2. We

may

as well

suppose

x =

(1,2). We define a

XT : An

->\342\200\242 Bn

by

XT{a) =
thatis,

xa,
that since
even

a
2)cT

e
can

is mapped A\342\200\236

is

XT. Observe

a is even,the
or odd

permutation

(1,

be

expressed
so (1, 2)<7

transpositions,

## as a product of a (1 + indeed in Bn. If for a and

number),

number, of
= Ar(/x),

it is true /x in A\342\200\236

that

T{a)

then

(1,2)ct =
and

(1.2)//,
XT

since

Sn is a

group, we have

= /x. Thus

is a

one-to-one

function.

Finally,

T =

(1,2)

= T_1,

so if

then B\342\200\236,

and

A.r(T\"V)
Thus

= x{x~lp)

= p.

is the the number of elements in A\342\200\236 same as the number in onto B\342\200\236. Hence between the elements of the sets. there is a one-to-one correspondence is again even. Also sincen > 2, S\342\200\236 Note that the product of two even permutations and i = (1, 2)(1, 2) is an even has the transposition permutation. (1,2) Finally, note that the product of the same transpositions if a is expressed as a product of transpositions, if a is an even permutation, a^1 taken in just the opposite orderis a _1. hus T must also be even. Referring statement. to Theorem 5.14, we see that we have proved the following Ar is

Bn since

9.20

Theorem

If n >

2, then

the
of

collection
the

## of all even group

of the

permutations S\342\200\236.

of {1,2,3,\342\200\242\342\226\240-,\302\253} forms a

subgroup

of order nl/2
9.21

symmetric

Definition

The subgroup
group
Both on n A\342\200\236

of

Sn

consisting

even

permutations

of

n letters

is

the

alternating
\342\226\240

letters. important

groups. Cayley's theorem shows that every finite for n subgroup of S\342\200\236 = \\G\\. It can be shown structurally for solution of polynomial that there are no formulas involving radicals just equations of degree n for n > 5. This fact is actually due to the structure of A\342\200\236, as that surprising seem! may
and are S\342\200\236 A\342\200\236 very

group G is

identical

to some

94

Part II

Permutations,

Cosets,

and

Direct

Products

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

Computations
In

Exercises

1 through

6,

find 6\\ A)

all orbits

of the given

permutation.

12

/1234567
\\5

8 2

5
3-

13
3 5

6 2
1
where

17
+

(2

6 8 7)
a(n) =
n

= 4.CT:Z-.ZwhereCT(n) n
6.
product <r

5. a

:Z

-\302\273 Z

+ 2

: Z

-^ Z

where

a(n)

= n

\342\200\224 3

In Exercises

7 through

9, compute

the indicated

of cycles

## that are permutations

of {1,2,

3,4, 5,

6, 7, 8}.

7. (1,4,
9.

5)(7,

8)(2, 5,7)

8. (1, 3, 2, 7)(4,8, 6)

(1,2)(4,7,8)(2,1)(7,2,8,1,5)

In Exercises
then 1ft 10-

10 through
3

12, express

the permutation

of {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} as
/12

a product

of disjoint

cycles,

and

as a product /1

of transpositions.

4 5 6 7
3

8\\

5
8

6 7 8
2

(,8 2 6 ./12345678 *
^3

l)

6 4 1

14

7 is
the

2 5 8 6
a of a
identity.
group

13. Recall
power a.

that

element

G with

of a

Consider

ar

= e

## and no smaller positive

What is the order of the cycle (1,4, 5, 7)? b. State a theorem by part (a). suggested c. What is the order of a = (4,5)(2,3,7)? of

d. e.

## Find into State common

the

order

a product a theorem

(1,4)(3, 5,7, 8)? of the permutations given in Exercises 10 through of disjoint cycles. suggested by parts (c) and (d). [Hint: The important
of each

x =

12 by

looking at its
you

decomposition
for are least

words

are looking

multiple.]

In Exercises

14 through

18, find

the maximum

## possible order for an

=

element

of Sn for the

given value of n.

14. n

15. n =

16. n

7 group
with

17. n =

10
the

18. n
generating

15

19. Figure

9.22 shows

a Cayley labeling

Continue (1,2)(3,4)}.

## digraph for the alternating the other nine vertices

A4 using
elements

set S

the

of A4,

expressed as a

= {(1,2, 3),
product

of

disjoint cycles.

Concepts
In

Exercises

is needed, so that
20. 21.

italicized term
minimal

without

reference

to the

## text, if correction onto itself by

a.

For a permutation

a of a

set A, having

an orbit

of a is a
orbit.
even

nonempty

subset of

that

is mapped

A cycle is a permutation
group

only one

22. Thealternating

is the

group of all

permutations.

Section

Exercises

95

(1,2,3)

(1,)(3, 2

4) \342\226\240

9.22

Figure

23. Mark

each of the a.
Every

following permutation

true or

false.

is a cycle. even

## b. Every cycle c. The definition

Theorem9.15.

is a permutation.
of

and odd

permutations

could

have

been given

equally

well

before

d. Every nontrivial

subgroup H
any

of Sg

containing

some

odd permutation

contains

a transposition.

e. A 5 has

120 elements.
n >

f.
g. h.

is not S\342\200\236
A3 SV

is

## cyclic for a commutative

1.
of all of all

group.
subgroup subgroup

is isomorphic

to the to the

## those elements those elements

i. SV is isomorphic j. Theoddpermutations
24.

of S% of S%

that that

leave leave

in S$form a subgroup of S%. permutations? Which of the permutations in S3 of Example 8.7 areeven Give the table for the alternating group A3. Proof Synopsis 25. Give 26. Theory a one-sentence synopsis of synopsis Give a two-sentence of ## 9.15. Proof 1 of Theorem Proof 2 of Theorem 9.15. 27. Prove the following permutation about ## if n S\342\200\236 can be S\342\200\236 Sn that ## > 3. written as a product written as a product of at a. Every in in most as a n\342\200\224\\ transpositions. b. Every permutation is not a ## cycle can be written product of at most n and \342\200\224 2 transpositions. c. Every odd permutation of 2n in S\342\200\236 can be of 2n + 3 transpositions, every even permutation as a product + 8 transpositions. Part II Permutations, Cosets, and Direct Products 28. a. Draw a figure like Fig. 9.16 to illustrate less ## that if than the and number of orbits b. Repeat 29. part (a) if o(j) = Show that for every subgroup them are even. a be a of (i, j)o is one also. number of orbits all j are in different of a. orbits of a and a(i) = i, then the of Sn for n > 2, either \"a the permutations a e in are even or exactly half of 30. Let 31. elements ## permutation of a set A. We shall say are moved by a cycle cr e 5/1 of length set. Let Show moves A\" if a (a) ^ a. If A is a finite set, how many n? ## Let A be an infinite Exercise 30) is finite. Let A Is K a H be that H the set of all a e SA SA such that the ## number of elements moved by a (see is a subgroup set of S\342\200\236. 32. be an infinite set. Let SA1 K be the of all a e that move (see Exercise Show 30) at most 50 elements of A. subgroup of for a S\342\200\236 Why? 33. Consider a product Show Following fixed n > some 2 and let cr be a fixed odd permutation. that every odd permutation in Sn is of a and permutation in A\342\200\236. 34. that if a is a 35. r so that cycle ofoddlength, then a2 the line of thought opened by Exercise the resulting statement is a theorem: If a is a cycle is a cycle. 34, complete the following and with a condition involving n and of length n, then cr'' is also a cycle if that only if... given 36. Let G be a g e G, is a group and let permutation of the ## a be a fixed element set G. that of G. Show the map Xa : G -+ G, by Afl(g) = ag for of G. 37. Referring 38. Referring to Exercise to Exercise corollary 36, show 49 of of one {Afl a e G} is a subgroup of So, the group on of all permutations immediate 39. Show (1, 2, that of the ## Section 8, show that H of Exercise 37 is transitive theorems in Section 4.] the set G. [Hint: This is an Sn ## \342\200\242 \342\200\242, 3, \342\200\242 n)\"~r transposition \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 n)}. nj{\\, by {(1,2), (1,2, 3, \342\200\242,[Hint: Show that as r varies, (1,2, 3, \342\200\242, 2) \342\200\242 all the transpositions (1,2), (2,3),(3,4), \342\200\242 - 1, n), (n, 1). Then show that any \342\200\242, (n gives is a product of someof these transpositions and use Corollary 9.12] is generated section 10 ## Cosets and the You of Theorem Lagrange that the order may have noticed order of a This is cells, subgroup the H of a finite group to be a divisor of the exhibiting of G. theorem of Lagrange. such cells, we ## a partition of will have G into all having the same size as ## G seems always We shall prove it by H. Thus if there are r ## r(order from which the of H) (order of G) theorem follows cosetsof H, and they are important H satisfies a certain property, in a very natural way. We a feel for help you develop Cosets The cells in the partition will be called immediately. in their own right. In Section 14, we will see that if then each coset can be regardedas an element of a group in this section to give some indication of such coset groups the topic. Let H two be a subgroup of G by of a group G, which may be of finite or infinite and order. We exhibil partitions defining two equivalence relations, ~L ~8onG. Section 10 ## Cosets and the Theorem of Lagrange 97 10.1 Theorem Let H be a subgroup of G. a ~L Let b the relation ~L be only defined on G by a~lb if and if e H. Let ~jj be defined by a ~# if and only if ab~x e H. Then ~l Proof We and ~j? are both equivalence relations on G. and leave relation, how we must constantly the show that ~l is an equivalence proof make for use to ~\302\253 Exercise that 26. H ## When reading the a subgroup of G. proof, notice of the fact is Reflexive Leta e G.Then a ~L a. Supposes a~la = e and e e H since H is a subgroup. Thus Symmetric Transitive ~L and fe.Thena-1^ e H. Since His a H subgroup, (a~1b)~l ~l \302\253\342\200\242 is in H Let a {a~xb)~l and fe = b~la, ~l so fc_1a is in and fe ~-Lb c. Then a~lb e is H and in fe_1c e H. Since H \342\231\246 is a subgroup, The in {a~xb){b^c) ## = a~lc 10.1 defines H, so a ~l c. a partition of G, as described like. Suppose a e G. The partition a consists of all x e G such that a ~~l x, which cell containing means all x e G such that if a~xx e H. Now a~lx e H if and only if a-1* = h for some h & H, or equivalently, = a/jforsome/j e the cell containing a is {ah \\h e H], which andonlyif;t relation we denote by aH. If we go through the same reasoning for the equivalence ~j? defined by H, we find the cell in this partition containing a e G is Ha \\h e H}. {ha Since G need not be abelian, we have no reason to expectaH and Ha to be the same subsetof G. We give a formal definition. Theorem ## relation ~l in Theorem equivalence 0.22. Let's see what the cells in this look //.Therefore 10.2 Definition Let H coset containing be a of H a. subgroup of a group G. The subset aH = {ah Ha = {ha | /j e e H] the of G is right the left containing a, while the subset H] is coset of H \342\226\240 10.3 Example Exhibit the left cosets and the ## right cosets of the so the subgroup 3Z of Z. m Solution Our notation m here is additive, left coset of 3Z containing is m + 3Z. Taking = 0, we see that 3Z= {---,-9,-6, -3,0,3,6,9,---} is itself one of its left cosets, the coset containing 0. To find another left we select coset, an element of Z not in 3Z, say 1, and find the left coset containing it. We have 1+ These 3Z = and ## \342\200\242 \342\200\242, -8, {\342\200\242 -5, ## \342\200\242 -2, 1, 4, 7,10, \342\200\242 \342\200\242}. two left cosets, 3Z coset 1 + of them. The left containing 3Z, do 2 is not yet exhaust Z. For example, 2 is in neither 2+ ## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 3Z = {\342\200\242 -4, -1, 2, 5, 8, 11,\342\200\242 \342\200\242, -7, \342\200\242}. 98 Part II Permutations, ## Cosets, and Direct Products It is clear ## that these three left cosets we have found do exhaust Z, so they constitute the partition of Z into Since Z is so We the partition of 3Z. the left coset m + 3Z and abelian, of Z into right is the same. cosets left cosets the right coset 3Z are the same, \342\22 observe two things from Example10.3. For and a subgroup the partition ## H of an abelian group G, the into right cosets are the same. partition of G into left cosets of H relation ~j? 0.17 and 0.20, we see that the equivalence Also, looking back at Examples n. Recall for the subgroup modulo that nZ of Z is the same as the relation of congruence is h = k (mod n) in Z if h \342\200\224divisible by n. This is the same as saying that h + (\342\200\224k) k is the partition of in nZ, which is relation ~# of Theorem Thus 10.1 in additive notation. of Z into residue classesmodulo n. For that reason, Z into cosets of nZ is the partition as cosets modulo nL. Note that we do not have we often refer to the cells of this partition to specify or right cosets sincethey are the same for this abelian group Z. left 10.4 Example The group One Z6 is abelian. Find the partition of X(, into cosets of the subgroup H = {0, 3}. Solution coset 2 is containing are all We ## 2 + {0, 3} = the cosets. is {0, 3} itself. ## The coset containing Since 1 is 1 {2, }. 5 {0, 3}, {1, 4}, and ## + {0, 3} = {1, {2, 5} exhaust 4}. The coset all of Z6, these \342\226 back ## point out a fascinating to Example 10.4, Table thing that we will the develop in detail in Section 14. Referring with 10.5gives in the binary operation ## for 2,(, but 5}. elements listed in the order they these appear ## cosets {0, 3}, {1,4},(2, We shaded the table according to Suppose to according shownin cosets. their shading. the Table we obtain we denote thesecosets LT(light), and DK(dark) by MD(medium), Table 10.5 then defines a binary operation on these shadings, as 10.6. Note that if we replace LTby 0,MD by 1, and DK by 2 in Table 10.6, of shadings forms a group! We will see in table for Z3. Thus the table 10.5 Table +6 10.6Table 3 3 1 0 0 3 4 4 \"1 LT LT MD MD DK 5 ^ 2 0 LT DK 4 1 5 \342\200\224 MD MD DK DK LT LT \342\226\240 DK MD .1 2~ ' Section 10 Cosetsand abelian the Theorem of Lagrange 99 ## Section the group. 14 that for a partition of an group table according to the elements in the ## group into cosets cosets always of a gives ## subgroup, reordering rise to such a coset 10.7Example Table the the 10.8 again subgroup partition ## shows Table 8.8 for the symmetric the ## (mi) = into right ## {p0, /xj} of S3.Find cosets of H. left partitions ## group S3 on three letters. Let H be of S3 into left cosets of H, and Solution For the partition into cosets, we have H = P\\H {po,Ml), {P1P0, M1M1} = {p2po, {pi, /x3}, M2l- p2H = The partition into M2M1} = {P2, right cosets is H = Hpi Hpl {Mo,Mil, = = of H {poPu MiMi) = {Pi, M2}, {/02, {A)P2, M1M2} = M3l- ## partition into left example, the left coset The cosets is p\\ different from the partition the into coset right cosets. For containing surprise is {p\\, /13}, while S3 is right containing px is \342\226\262 ## {pi, Mil- This doesnot Referring listed us since the group not abelian. in S3. The 10.7, Table 10.9gives permutation multiplication order they appear in the left cosets {po,Mil, {p\\, /13}, {/\302\276. M2} and dark according found in that example. Again, we have shaded the table light, medium, between this table and to the coset to which the element belongs.Note the difference Table 10.5. This time, the body of the table does not split up into 2x2 blocks opposite under the shaded cosets at the left and the top, as in Table and 10.5 and we don't get a cosetgroup. The product of a light element and a dark one may be either dark or medium. = Table 10.8is shaded according to the two left cosets of the subgroup {p\\) \302\260f These is not abelian. are also the two right cosets, even though S3 {po, p\\, /\302\276} ^3- elementsare to Example in the 10.8 Table PO 10.9Table Pi Pi Mi M2 M3 M3 Po Mi Mi M3 Po Po Pi Pi Po M2 M3 Pi Po Pi Mi M3 M2 Mi MJ Po Mi Po Mi Mi Ms Pi Pi Mz Mi Po ^3 A\" P\\ Pl Pi Ml M2 Mi P2 Pi Pi M3 m Mi Po 11 ' >1 M2 M.i PO Pi Po P2 M3 Ml fli M3 Po M2 Ms Mi M2 Pi P\\ Pi Po mi jjjl iigsij Po M3 Mi Ml Ms Mr *1 Pi Mi Part II ## Permutations, Cosets,and Direct Products From We Table will 10.8 it see in group ## is clear that Section 14 that when we the ## do have left cosets ## a coset group of a subgroup isomorphic H to Z2 in this case. rise of a the partition of G into left cosets as the cosets of H. In such a case, we may simply speak of the cosets partition into right of H, left or right. We discusscosetgroups in detail in Section 14, but omitting the adjective them for you to understand then if you experiment a bit with we think it will be easier a coset precisely ## group G give of H is the same to them now. Some of the exercises in this ## section are designedfor such experimentation. The Theorem have of H of Lagrange of a same left ## Let H bea subgroup of H map the number coset onto a that coset group G. We claim that every left coset and every right of elements as H. We show this by exhibiting a one-to-one this order, gH of H for a fixed elementg of G. If H is of finite will show gH has the of such (See Our a map is taken 0.13.) as the ## same number of elementsas H. If for equality of the size definition is infinite, of H the existence size and the of gH. Definition one. Let <j>(h) = gh for a one-to-onemap 0:7/^ gH is the natural for each h e H. This map is onto gH by the definition of gH as {gh \\ h e H}. To show that <j>{h\\) = 4>{h2) for h\\ and h2 in H. Then gh\\ = gh2 that it is one to one, suppose and by the cancellation law in the group G, we have h\\ =/12. Thus 0 is one to one. the right coset Hg can be constructed. Of course, a similar one-to-one map of H onto choice (See Exercise 27.) We summarize as follows: Every coset (left or right) of a subgroup H of a group G has ## the same number of elementsas H. We can now prove the theorem of Lagrange. 10.10 Theorem ## of Lagrange) (Theorem H is a divisor of the order ## Let H bea subgroup of G. of a finite group G. Then the order of Proof Let n that of of G, and let H have order m. The preceding boxed statement Let r be the number coset of H also has m elements. of cells in the every G into left cosets of H. Then n = rm, so m is indeed a divisor of n. be the order shows partition \342\231 Note cosets ## that this elegant and important in and the number of elements to theorem. theorem each coset. ## comes from the simple Never underestimate results counting of that should count be ## We continue somethingl regarded as a counting 10.11 derive consequences of Theorem 10.10,which Corollary Every group of prime order is cyclic. a be an by Proof Let G be of the cyclic prime order {a) p, and let of G element a has subgroup generated ## of G different from at least two elements, the identity. Then But a and e. by Section 10 Exercises 101 Theorem 10.10,he t m = order and {a) = G, ## m > 2 of (a) so G is cyclic. must divide the prime p. Thus we must have \342\231\246 Since every one elegant group ## cyclic group of order p structure, up to isomorphism, follow easily is isomorphic of a given to Zp, we see that is only there order Now doesn't this p. prime result from the theorem of Lagrange, underestimate favorite a theorem that counts something. Proving ## a counting theorem? Never the preceding corollaryis examination question. 10.12 Theorem Proof The order of Remembering generated an element of a finite group divides the order of the group. is the same as the order of the cyclic subgroup that the order of an element the element, we see that this theorem follows directly from Theorem 10.10. by \342\231\246 10.13 Definition Let H be a subgroup of of a group G. The number of left cosets of H in is the index \342\226\240 (G :7/) The HinG. index (G : H) and just defined may be finite or infinite. If G defined is finite, then \\H\\ obviously elements. (G : H) Exercise is finite (G : H) \\G\\/\\H\\, since every coset of well H contains 35 shows the index (G : 77) could be equally cosets of 77 in G. We state a basictheorem concerning to the exercises (see Exercise38). the proof as the number indices of subgroups, and of right leave 10.14 Theorem Suppose 77 and (G (77: K) and : 77) ## K are subgroups of a are both finite. Then group such that K and < 77 < (G : K) is finite, (G : K) ## G, and suppose = (G : 77)(77:K). Theorem shows that if there is a subgroup 77 of a finite 10.10 G, then the group order of 77 divides the order of G. Is the converse of order true? That is, if G is a group a subgroup of order ml We will see in the next section n, andm divides n, is there always that this is true for abelian of groups. However, A4 can be shown to have no subgroup order 6, which gives a counterexample for nonabelian groups. \342\226\240 EXERCISES 10 Computations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ## Find Find Find Find Find Find all cosets all cosets all cosets all cosets all cosets all left the ## of the of the of the of the of the ## subgroup subgroup subgroup subgroup subgroup the 4Z 4Z of Z. of 2Z. (2) of Z12. ## (4) of Z^. (18) of Z36. {po, find M2} cosets of preceding subgroup of the group D4 given by Table they 8.12. the same 7. Repeat exercise, but the right cosets this time. Are as the left cosets? 102 Part II a Permutations, Cosets,nd Direct Products 8. Rewrite Table 8.12in the order exhibited by the left cosets order 4? If so, is it isomorphic to Z4 or to the Klein 4-group in Exercise 6. Do you ## seem to get a cosetgroup of V? ## 9. Repeat Exercise 6 for the subgroup {po, Pi\\ find of -D4. cosets this left ## 10. Repeat the preceding 11. Rewrite Table 8.12in order exercise, the but the right time. Are in Exercise they the same as the left coset? order exhibited by the to Z4 or cosets 9. Do you seem to get a coset group of 4? If so, is the it isomorphic to the Klein 4-group VI 12. 13. 14. Find index index index of (3) in of the ## group group group Z24S3, using D4 ## Find the Find the (/^) in the in the ## the notation in Table of Example 10.7 of (/x2) given 8.12 S5. 15. Let 16. a = (1, 2, 5, 4)(2,3) in S5. ## Find the index Find the index of (a) in of Let (1 = (1,2,4, 5)(3, 6) in S6. (/x) in S6. Concepts In Exercises that needed, so of the italicized 17 and 18, correct the definition for publication. it is in a form acceptable group term without reference to the text, if correction is 17. Let G be a 18. Let 19. and let and H c ## G be a group Mark each of the a. Every let H ## G. The left coset < G. The index of false. of every of H H in containing a is number aH = {ah of right \\h e H}. G. G is the cosets of H in following subgroup true or group has left cosets. of a subgroup of a finite divides the order of the group. b. The number of left cosets group c. Every group of prime order is abelian. . d. One cannot have left cosets of a finite subgroup of an infinite group. e. A subgroup of a group is a left coset of itself. f. Only subgroups of finite groups can have left cosets. for n g. An is of index 2 in S\342\200\236 > 1. of Lagrange is a nice result. . h. The theorem the order of the group. i. Every finite group contains an element of every order that divides order that divides the order of the j. Every finite cyclic group contains an element of every In Exercises it is group. 20 through 24, give an example of the G whose desired subgroup and group cosets if possible. If impossible, say why impossible. A 20. 22. ## subgroup subgroup subgroup subgroup subgroup of an of a of of abelian group left cosets and right ## give different partitions one cell of G 21. A A 23. A 24. A group G whose left cosets give a partition of G into just a group of order 6 whose of the left cosets give a partition a group of order 6 whoseleft cosets give a partition of the group of order 6 whoseleft synopsis of cosets group into group group 6 cells cells cells into 12 into 4 of a give a partition of the Proof Synopsis 25. Give Theory a one-sentence the proof of Theorem 10.10. 26. Prove that the relation ## ~/? of Theorem 10.1is an of a equivalence relation. map ## 27. Let H bea subgroup is one to one and ## group G and Hg. let g e G. Define a one-to-one of H ## onto Hg. Prove that your map is onto Section 10 Exercises 103 28. Let H be gH is the ## a subgroup of a group G such that g same as the right coset Hg. lhg e H for all g e G and of all /j e ff. ## Show that every left coset 29. Let be a into subgroup of right a group of H, then G. Prove g~lhg partition Let cosets ## that if the e H for all partition G into left all cosets of that H is the this same as the g e G and /j e Exercise 28.) H H. (Note is the converse of or give be a subgroup of a group and let a, b e G. In Exercises 30 through 33 prove the statement counterexample. 30. If aH Ha = bH, = Hb, = fcff, 31. 32. If ## = Hb. then b e Ha. then Ha then If aH Ha~l a2ff ## = Hb'1. = b2H. pq, where ## 33. If aH = bH, then 34. Let G be a group of order p of and q are prime numbers. Show that every proper subgroup of G is cyclic. 35. Show 36. ## that there are the a one-to-one map of the by same number collection left as right cosets of a the subgroup of left Your cosets proof onto collection any H of a group G; that is, exhibit of right cosets. (Note that this result is obvious counting for finite groups. that that must hold for group.) ## Exercise 29 of Section4 showed of Lagrange, show the theorem ## every finite if n is odd, then ## group of evenorder 2n contains an abelian group of order 2n with an element contains precisely ## of order 2. Using one element be of order 2. that 37. Show a group with at least two elements but no proper nontrivial subgroups left must finite and of G and prime order. \342\200\242 38. Prove Theorem10.14 Let {atH | i \342\200\224 \342\200\242, the collection of distinct 1, \342\200\242 be [Hint: r} = 1, \342\200\242be the collection of distinct \342\200\242 left cosets of K in H. Show that \342\200\242, s} {bjK | j cosets of H in {(aibj)K\\i = is 1,---,rj = l,---,s} every the collection that that that that of distinct left cosets of index of K in G.] group G, then left coset 39. 40. ## Show Show Show if H if a is a subgroup in a finite of H is alsoa right e G. coset of H. 41. x such group G with identity e has finite order n, then a'1 = Z of the additive group of every left coset of the subgroup 0 < x < 1. the function group e for all a real numbers contains exactly one element 42. Show of the value that additive of H sine assigns the same value to each elementof any fixed left coset of the subgroup (2jt) real numbers. (Thus sine induces a well-defined function on the set of cosets; the the function on a cosetis obtained we choose an element x of the coset and compute sin x.) when M of 43. Let some and K k e be subgroups of a group G. Define ~ on G by a ~ b if and only if a hbk for some h e and K. ~ is an on G. equivalence relation the elements in the equivalence class containing a a. Prove that b. Describe e G. (These equivalence classes are called double cosets.) 44. Let SA be the group of all \\ a{c) permutations of the set A, and let c be one particular element of A. b. Let not? ## a. Show that {a e SA d ^ c be another c. Characterize = c} is a subgroup element (b) in of A. Sc.c ofSA. particular Is Sc_d {a e SA I a (c) = Scx of d} a subgroup of SA ? Why or why ## the set Sc,d of part terms of the subgroup part (a). 104 Part II Permutations, Cosets, and Direct Products 45. Show that the a finite subgroups are all less ## cyclic group it has. n of order n has ## exactly one subgroup of each order d is the that dividing n, and that these ## 46. TheEuler phi-function than or is defined that for positive equal to are relatively ## integers n by ip(n) = s, where s prime to n. Use Exercise 45 to show d\\n number of positive integers Note that the number of generators sum being taken over all positive integers d dividing n. [Hint: <p(d)by Corollary 6.16.] of solutions x of the 47. Let G be a finite group. Show that if for each positive integer m the number 10.12 Exercise 46 to show that and xm = e in G is at most m, then G is cyclic. [Hint: Use Theorem contain an element of order n = | G |.] the of Zj is equation G must section 11 ## Abelian Groups Direct Products and Finitely Generated Direct Products ## Let us take a groups, for each A\342\200\236 moment to review the our present stockpile of groups. Starting with finite alternating group group the dihedral groups Dn of Section 8, and the that subgroups of these groups exist. Turning to Klein setsof numbers under the usual addition or infinite groups, we have groups consisting of elements as, for example, Z, ffi, and C under addition, and their nonzero multiplication, We have the group U of complexnumbers of magnitude 1 under under multiplication. cyclic we have group the Z\342\200\236,symmetric and S\342\200\236,the ## positive integer n. We also V. Of course we know 4-group have Ec under addition modulo c, groups have the group set A, as Sa of all permutations of an infinite formed from matrices. well as various groups as building blocks One purposeof this section is to show a way to use known groups to form more groups.The Klein 4-group will be recovered in this way from the cyclic this procedure with the cyclic groups gives us a largeclass abelian of groups.Employing to include all possible structure for a finite abelian group. groups that can be shown types Definition 0.4. We start by generalizing multiplication, where which is isomorphic to each of the c e ffi+. We also 11.1 Definition ## The Cartesian product (\302\253i, 02,---, by of sets S,- an), where a,- e for ## is the Si,S2,---.Sn \342\226\240 i = 1, 2, \342\226\240 The n. \342\226\240, S2 x set of all ordered n-tuples Cartesian product is denoted either Si x or by ## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 x S\342\200\236 n 1=1 s, \342\2 We could definition Now the we group can the Cartesian of an infinite number of sets, but the product more sophisticated and we shall not need it. \342\226\240 and let us use multiplicative let G\\, G%, \342\226\240 be groups, notation for all \342\226\240, Gn the G,- as sets, we can form Y[\"=i ^,- Let us show that Regarding operations. of multiplication make J~[\"=1 Gt into a group by means of a binary operation by also define is considerably Section 11 Direct Products and Finitely Generated Abelian Groups 105 ## components. Note again that group as for 11.2 the we are being sloppy when we use the same notation for set of elements of the group. Theorem \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 Let Gl5 G2, \342\226\240 be groups. For (^, a2, \342\226\240 and (b\\, ,G\342\200\236 \342\226\240, a\342\200\236) \342\226\240 \342\226\240 to be the element \342\226\240 define {a\\, a2, \342\226\240 \342\226\240, \342\226\240, a\342\200\236)(bi, b2, b\342\200\236) (a\\b\\, the direct product of the groups G;, under Yi\"=i Gi is a group, b2, ## \342\226\240 in \342\226\240 \342\200\242, b\342\200\236) YYi=i ^/, a2b2, this ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 Then \342\226\240, a\342\200\236b\342\200\236). binary operation. Proof Note that definition a,- e G,, bt e G,, and G,- is a group, we have a,-fc,- e G,. Thus the makes binary operation on ]~~[;=i Gt given in the statement of the theorem sense; that is, Yl'-=i Gi is closed under the binary operation. in each The associative law in \\Yl=i Gt is thrown back onto the associative law since of the component as follows: ## {ax,a2,\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240,b\342\200\236)(cuc2, \342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242,(:\342\200\236)] ,a\342\200\236)[(bi,b2,--\342\200\224 (a\\,a2, ## \342\226\240\342\226\240 \342\226\240, an)(bicu b2c2, ## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242, b\342\200\236c\342\200\236) = = = = ## (aiihci), {{a\\bi)ci, (aibua2b2, [(\302\2531,02, a2(b2c2), (a2b2)c2, ## \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240, a\342\200\236(b\342\200\236c\342\200\236)) \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240, (anb\342\200\236)cn) ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242, c\342\200\236) \342\226\240, c2, anbn)(cu \" - \" , a\342\200\236)(i>l, fc-2, ## \" \342\200\242 \" , fc\"n)](Cl, C2, ---,0,,). If a is {e\\, the identity element e2, ## \342\226\240 is \342\226\240 an \342\226\240, e\342\200\236) \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240, a~l); (aj-1, a^1, with multiplication in G,-, then by components, clearly, \342\226\240 an inverse of {a\\, a2, \342\226\240 is in YYI=i Gi- Finally, \342\226\240, an) identity Hence is a group. the product by components. compute n?=i Gj \342\231\246 we sometimes use additive G, is commutative, refer to ]~[\"=1 G, as the direct sum of the groups G,. The notation @\"=1 G,- is sometimes used in this case in place of YYi=i Gi, especially with \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 abelian groups with operation +. The direct sum of abeliangroups ,G\342\200\236 G2, Gj, may \342\226\240 \342\200\242 We leave be written G\\ @ G2 @ \342\226\240 to Exercise 46 the proof that a direct product @ G\342\200\236. is again abelian. of abeliangroups \342\200\242 seen It is quickly that if the 5; has r,- elements for i = 1, \342\200\242 then F]\"=1 5,- has \342\200\242, n, \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 for in an n-tuple, there are r\302\261 choices for the first component from rn elements, r\\ri are r2 choices for the next from S2, and so on. Si, and for each of thesethere component In the ## event that the J-[\"=1 operation of each notation in G, and 11.3 Example Consider the group Z2 x Z3, which has \342\200\242 3 = Z3 (1, 0), (1, 1), and (1, 2). We claim that Z2 x ## 6 elements, namely is cyclic. It is only Z2 ## (0, 0), (0, 1),(0,2), necessary to find a so generator. Let us try (1, 1). Here the operations in we do the same in the direct product Z2 x Z3. and Z3 are written additively, (1,1) = (1,1) 2(1,1) = (1,1) + (1,1) = (0,2) = + 3(1,1) = (1,1)+ (1,1) (1,1) (1,0) 4(1, 1) = 3(1, 1) + (1.1) = (1, 0) + (1, 1) = (0, 1) 1 5(1, )= 4(1, 1) + (1, 1) = (0, 1)+ (1,1) = (1, 2) 6(1, 1) = 5(1,1)+ (1,1)= (1, 2) + (1, 1) = (0,0) 106 Part II Permutations, Cosets, and Direct Products ## Thus (1, 1) generates all structure of a given group 11.4 of Z2 order, ## x Z3. Sincethere is, up to isomorphism, only we see that Z2 x Z3 is isomorphic to Zg. one cyclic \342\226 Example Consider Z3 x Z3. This is a group ofnine elements. We claim that Z3 x Z3 is not cyclic. Since the addition is by components, and since in Z3 every element addedto itself three the times gives the identity, the same is true in Z3 x Z3. Thus no element can generate could only give the identity after nine successively group, for a generator added to itself shows summands. Wehave found another argument group structure of order 9. A similar that Z2 The Z2 is not ## cyclic. Thus Z2 examples Z2 the must be isomorphic theorem: to the Klein 4-group. \342\226 preceding illustrate following 11.5 Theorem ThegroupZm x prime, that is, the ## is cyclic Z\342\200\236 gcd ## if and and is isomorphic to Zm\342\200\236 only if m and are relatively of m and of has is Zm 1. x Z\342\200\236 generated Proof Consider 5.17. the cyclic subgroup by (1, As our (1, will previous work 1) that involve shown, the order (0, 0). of this taking cyclic ## 1) as described Theorem by is the smallest subgroup of (1, addition powerof notation gives the identity Here a power 1) in our additive the first component adding 1 e Zm (1, 1) to ## itself repeatedly. nder U after by components, so on, yields 0 only Z\342\200\236 yields m summands, 2m summands, and and the second component 1 e them 0 simultaneously, The smallest number that is a multiple of both m and n will be mn if if the gcd of m and n is 1; in this case, (1, 1) generates a cyclic subgroup of and only is cyclic of order mn, which is the order of the whole group. This shows that Zm x Z\342\200\236 to Zm\342\200\236 and n are relatively if m order mn, and hence isomorphic prime. For the converse, suppose that the gcd of m and n is d > 1. The mn/d is divisible we have by both m and n. Consequently, for any (r, s) in Zm x Z\342\200\236, to yield so on. For both 2n summands, and 0 only after n summands, the number of summands must be a multiple of and n. (r, s) + (r, s) + , ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 (r, s) ' = (0, 0). mn/d summands x can Z\342\200\236 generate not cyclic This ## Hence no element(r, s) in Zm and therefore not isomorphic theorem the entire group, so Zm x is Z\342\200\236 to Zm\342\200\236. \342\231 can be ## extended to a product of more corollary and than two factors by similar the ## arguments. We state this 11.6 as a without to two going through the details of proof. Corollary The for group Y[l=i ^m, is cyclic isomorphic Zmim2...m;i if and ## only if the numbers mt i = 1, ## \342\200\242are \342\200\242 n \342\200\242, ## such that the gcd of any of them as a is 1. of powers of distinct prime 11.7Example The preceding corollary ## shows that if n is written n = product numbers, as in (Pir(P2)n2---(Pr)nr, X to then is isomorphic Z\342\200\236 to ^(f>l)\"' ^(Pl)\"2 X 7L% ## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 X ^{prf \342\226\240 In particular, Z72 is isomorphic Z9. \342\226 Section 11 Direct Products and Finitely Generated Abelian Groups 107 the order of the factors in a direct product yields a group one. The names of elements have simply been changedvia a isomorphic original of the components in the n-tuples. permutation Exercise 47 of Section6 askedyou to define the least common multiple of two r and 5 as a generatorof a certain cyclic group. It is straightforward to positive integers that of Z consisting of all integers that are multiples the subset of both r and 5 is prove a subgroup of Z, and hence is a cyclic group. Likewise, the set of all common multiples \342\226\240 of n positive integers r1; r2, \342\226\240 is a subgroup of Z, and hence is cyclic. rn \342\226\240, that We remark changing to the 11.8 Definition Let rl, r2, ## \342\226\240 be \342\226\240 \342\226\240, rn positive ## integers. Their least common multiple (abbreviated the ## is the positive the cyclic group FromDefinition is the r\342\200\236 ## of the generator of all integers cyclic group divisible by of each ## all common rt for i multiples of r;, that 1cm) is, \342\226\240 ## \342\200\242 = 1, 2, \342\200\242 n. \342\200\242, 11.8andourwork smallest positive integer multiple. that is a \342\226\240 on cyclic groups,we seethat the 1cm ofr1; r2, \342\226\240 \342\226\240, \342\200\242 of each r,- for i = 1, 2, \342\200\242 hence n, \342\200\242, multiple the name 11.9 least common Theorem \342\226\240 Let (ax, a2, \342\226\240 e YYi=i Gi- ^ \342\226\240, a\342\200\236) \342\226\240 in \342\226\240 \342\226\240, n?=i ^/ is e(3ual a2, (a\\, an) a< *s fimte \302\260f order r,- in G,, then the order rt. of t\302\260 the least common ## multiple of all the Proof in the proof of Theorem 11.5. or a This follows by a repetition of the argument used F \342\226\240 \342\226\240 of (flj, a2, \342\226\240 to give {e\\, e2, \342\226\240 the power must simultaneously be a \342\226\240, \342\226\240, an) en), power of r\\ so that this power of the first component will yield e\\, a multiple of r2, a\\ multiple so that this power of the second component2 will yield e2, and so on. \342\231\246 a 11.10 Example Find the ## order of (8,4, 10)in gcd we the group Z12 x Z60 Z24. Solution Since Similarly, the ## of 8andl2is4, find that 4 12 is of 3, Zm. 15, and we see that 8 is of order ^ = 3 in Zj2. (See Theorem 6.14.) is of order 15in Z60 and 10 is of order 12 in Z24. The 1cm 5 \342\200\242 3 \342\200\242 60, so (8, 4, 10)is of order 60 in the group 4 = Zj2 x Z60 x A by 11.11 Example The group Z x Z2 is generated the elements (1, 0) is and (0, 1). More Zm generally, some the ## of n cyclic groups, each integer m, is generated by the n n-tuples direct product of which either Z or for positive (1,0,0,---,0), (0,1,0,---,0), (0,0,1,---,0), \342\200\242\342\200\242-, (0,0,0,---,1). Such a direct product might also be generated by fewer the single element (1, 1, 1). Z4 x Z35 is generated by Note ## elements. For example,Z3 G,, then x \342\226\262 that if Yil-i Gi is the direct product of groups the subset ## Gi = {(<?i,e2, that is, the ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240, <?,_!, at, ei+i, ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240, en) \\ at e G,}, but set of all n-tuples It with the identity elements in all places the /th, is a ## subgroup of n^i just rename Gt. is also ## clear that this subgroup G,- is naturally isomorphic to G,-; (eue2, --/,-1,^,^1, ## \342\200\242 \342\226\240-,\302\243\342\200\236) by a,-. 108 Part II a Permutations, Cosets,nd Direct Products ## The group G,- is mirrored the other components just in the /th component We of the elements to product of these Yl1=i Gi The direct product given by Theorem 11.2 and external, external direct product of the groups The terms internal G,-. we are regarding the a direct product of groups, whether or not (respectively) just reflect We shall usually the words as subgroups of the product omit group. component groups and just say direct product.Which term we mean will be clear from external and internal be subgroups ride along. G,. consider ## of G,, and the the internal e,- in ## direct is called the as applied to the context. = Historical his Note various Indemonstrated theory number theory. Disquisitiones ## Carl Gauss Arithmeticae, in what is today the results the ## of abelian groups in Not only did he classes of quadratic equivalence context of with be developed out of the analogies. As could theory he wrote in 1870, \"these principles [from the work of Gauss and Kummer] belong to a more general, to free deal extensively forms, but he also ## considered residueclasses modulo he noted that results Although ## a given integer. in these two areas abstract realm of ideas.It is therefore appropriate their development from all unimportant so that one can spare oneself from restrictions, in of repeating the same argument This advantage already appears in the and the presentation gains in itself, if it the necessity different cases. development simplicity, were similar, attempt to develop an abstract of abelian groups. theory In the 1840s, Ernst Kummer in dealing with ideal numbers noted that his results were in complex he did not is given in the most ## manner, since the with most important ## general admissible features stand out develop many respects student in analogous to thoseof in Gauss. (See the clarity.\" and Kronecker was then proceeded to theory and Historical Note Leopold Section Section ## 26.) But it was Kronecker finally (see realized ## Kummer's the Historical Note that the basic principles of the able of finite prove groups to state a version abelian of 29) who an abstract Theorem 11.12restricted to finite groups. The Some Structure theorems of Finitely Generated of abstract Abelian Groups and use, although their This is one sectionin proofs the ## algebra are easy to time-consuming understand may be quite technical and to present. text and significance we explain the meaning of a theorem but omit its proof. The whose our understanding, and meaning of any theorem proof we omit is well within with it. It would we feel we should be acquainted be impossible for us to meet someof these to insist on wading through facts in a one-semester course if we were fascinating all theorems. The theorem that we now state gives us complete of complete proofs about all sufficiently small abelian groups, in particular, structural information about all where finite abelian groups. 11.12 Theorem generated Abelian Groups) Generated (Fundamental Theorem of Finitely abelian of cyclic group G is isomorphic to a directproduct Z(piyi Every finitely groups in the Z, form Z(p,)-2 ## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 X X Z Z(P(|)r\342\200\236 X Z ## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 X Section 11 ## Direct Products and Finitely Generated Abelian Groups 109 where number unique. the pt are primes, unique not necessarily except distinct, and the r,- are positive the integers. that The is, the direct product is (Betti for possible rearrangement of and factors; number of G) of factorsZ is unique the prime powers {pif are \342\231\246 Proof The proof is omitted here. up 11.13 Example ## Find all abelian groups, to isomorphism, of order be ## 360. The phrase structurally up to isomorphism ## signifies to one of the that any abelian of groups ## group of order 360should order 360 exhibited. groups shown identical (isomorphic) 360, no 11.12, Solution We make use will factors Z First ## of Theorem 11.12. Since our appear in the direct product product are to in the be of the finite order theorem. Theorem statement of the we get ## we express 360 as a as possibilities Z2 Z2 of prime powers 23325.Thenusing 1. 2. 3. x x Z2 x Z4 Z2 Z2 x x Z3 x x Z3 Z3 x x Z3 x Z5 Z5 Z2 x Z2 Z8 Z8 Z2 x Z9 x Z5 4. 5. 6. x x x Z4 x Z9 Z3 x Z5 x Z3 x Z5 Z5 abelian Z9 x ## Thus there are six different Applications groups (up to isomorphism) of order 360. \342\226\262 We conclude regarding ## this section with groups. a sampling of the many theorems we could now prove abelian 11.14 Definition group G is subgroups. 11.15 ## to a direct product of two decomposable if it is isomorphic Otherwise G is indecomposable. abelian proper nontrivial \342\226\240 Theorem The finite indecomposable prime. groups are exactly the cyclic groups with order a power of a Proof Let G be a finite indecomposable abelian group. Thenby Theorem 11.12, Gis isomorphic to a direct product of cyclicgroups of prime power order. Since G is indecomposable, this direct product must consist of just one cyclic group whose order is a power of prime number. Conversely, let p be a prime. Then Zpr is indecomposable, for if Zp>- were x ZpJ, where i + j = to then element would have an order at most isomorphic every Zpi \342\200\236max(rj) < r, ^ order 11.16 Theorem If m divides the of a finite can abelian of G group G, then G has a subgroup of order m. Proof w By Theorem11.12,e think Z0>,)\"> as being *\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\200\242 xZ0>\342\200\236)''\"> xZ(kP 110 Part II Permutations, ## Cosets, and Direct Products where then ## all primes m must be of the not pt need be distinct. form cyclic Since (piY1 (P2)Sl ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 ## {piY^iPiY1 where 0 (PnY\", ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 < st ## (pnY\" < r,-. the ## {Pi)r'~s> generatesa gcd of (pi f- and a cyclic generates of Z^.y,- of order equal subgroup But the gcd of (pt f' and (pt fsubgroup Z(Piy, of order (p, )r> ~s'. to the ~s- is ## order of G, 6.14, quotient of (Pi)ri by is the By Theorem Thus (pt f- ~s>. (pt f ~s> [(pi)r'i/[(piY'-Sii = (piyigenerated Recallingthat is 11.17 the {a) denotes the cyclic subgroup by a, we see that tors,)x((ftr-)x-xten required subgroup of order m. not \342\231\ Theorem If m that is, m is is a square free integer, of order m is cyclic. abelian group every abelian divisible by the square of any prime, then Proof Let G be an to isomorphic group of square ## free orderm. Then by Theorem 11.12, G is Z(piyi where Z(p2yi ## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 X \342\200\242 X , Z(pn)r\342\200\236 m = distinct {p\\)ri (P2Y2 ## \342\226\240 \342\200\242 \342\226\240 \342\200\242 Since (PnY\" m is square free, that we must have all r,- 1 and all pi primes. Corollary ## 11.6 then shows G is isomorphic to ZpiP2...Pa,so G is cyclic. \342\231\ EXERCISES 11 Computations 1. List the elements Exercise through of Z2 1 for x Z4. Find Z3 the order of each of the elements. Is this group cyclic? 2. 3. Repeat the group x Z4. the In Exercises 3 7, find the order of given (2* element of the direct x product. (2, 6) in Z4 x Zi2 Z4 4x Zi5 3)in Z6 x Z15 5. (8, 10)in x Z,2 Z20 Z12 x Z18 ## 6. (3, 10,9) in 8. What is the x Z12 7. (3, 6, 12, 16) in the Z4 x Z24 Z& largest order ## among the orders of all cyclic subgroups of x 7L%>. of Zj2 x Z15? 9. Find all proper all all nontrivial nontrivial of Z2 of Z2 order is ## 10. Find 11. Find proper subgroups subgroups of Z2 subgroups of Z2 x x x Z4 Z2 x Z2. Z2 x Z2. of order x Z4 4. 12. 13. Find ## all subgroups the product that are isomorphicto the Klein 4-group. Disregarding resulting ## direct of the factors, write products to Z60 in as many ways as isomorphic of two or more groups of the form so that Z\342\200\236 the possible. 14. Fill in the blanks. of Z24 ## a. The cyclicsubgroup b. Z3 x Z4 is of order generated by 18 has order Section 11 Exercises 111 c. e. The element Klein (4, 2) 4-group Z4 of Z12 x elements Z8 has order d. The is isomorphic to Z Z2 x Z x the the has of finite order. of Z4 15. 16. 17. 18. Find Are maximum groups ## possible order for some element isomorphic? x Z6. why Z2 x Zl2 and Z4 %& Why of Z8 or not? Z24. why ## Find the maximum Are the ## possible order for someelement x Z10 x Z10 x Z40 isomorphic? groups Z8 Why or 19. Find the maximum possible orderfor someelement of Z4 x Z18 x Z15. 20. Are the groups Z4 x Z18 x Z]5 and Z3 x 1^ x Z10 isomorphic?Why or x Z24 and Z4 x Zi2 not? why not? given In Exercises order. 21 through 25, proceed as in Example 11.13to find all abelian ## groups, up to isomorphism,of the 23- ## 21. Order 8 24. Order 26. 22- 0rder 16 0rder 32 720 abelian 25. Order groups (up to 1089 isomorphism) are there of order 24? of order 25? of order (24)(25)? the idea suggested in Exercise 26, let m and n be relatively 27. Following prime integers. Show that if positive r abelian groups of order m and 5 of order n, then there are (up to isomorphism) there are (up to isomorphism) rs abelian groups of order mn. How many 28. UseExercise 27 to determine the number Fill ## of abelian groups of the table (up to isomorphism) of order (10)5. of abelian 29. a. Let up p be a prime number. in the second row to give the number groups of order p\", to isomorphism. number of groups b. Let up p, q, and r be ## distinct prime numbers. Use the table you created to find the number of abelian groups, to isomorphism, of the given order. i. 30. p3q4r7 schematically Cayley the Figure ii. (qr)1 a Cayley regular digraph iii. for the Z\342\200\236 q5r4q3 Indicate Consider for Zm x generating with set S = ## {(1, ),(0, 1)}. 0 one with no 31. digraphs ## with two arc n-gons, n-gon with types, a solid one an arrow and a dashed arrow, and consisting joining and of two vertices 7.11(b) ## of the outer shows one digraph. counterclockwise)direction group a. as those > 3, with solid arc sides, one inside the other, with dashed arcs to the inner one. Figure shows such a Cayley digraph with n = 3, 7.9(b) n = 4. The arrows on the outer n-gon may the same (clockwise or have on the inner n-gon, or they may have the opposite direction. Let G be a for n with such a Cayley Under what circumstances will G be abelian? b. If G is abelian, to what familiar group is it isomorphic? under c. If G is abelian, what circumstances is it cyclic? d. If G is not abelian, to what group we have discussedis it isomorphic? 112 Part II ## Permutations, Cosets, and DirectProducts Concepts 32. ## Mark each of the following Gj ## true or are any in an false. then a. If Gi and groups, G\\ product x G2 is always isomorphic to G2 you b. Computation external direct of groups is easy if know ## x G]. how to compute in each component group. nontrivial c. Groups of finite order must be used to form an external direct product. d. A group of prime order could not be the internal direct product of two proper e. Z2 x Z4 is isomorphicto Zg. f. Z2 x Z4 is isomorphicto S%. to S4. g. Z3 x Zg is isomorphic h. Every element in Z4 x Zg has order 8. i. The order of Z12 x Zj5 is 60. has mn j. Zm x Z\342\200\236 elements whether m and n are relatively prime or not. 33. subgroups. Give an nontrivial ## example illustrating subgroups. many many example that ## not every nontrivial abelian to Z5 x Z x Z? group is the internal direct product of two proper 34. a. How subgroups subgroups of Z5 x of Z Zg are isomorphic Z6? and b. How 35. Give an nontrivial ## x Z are isomorphicto group or false. that of a nontrivial is not of prime order is not ## the internal direct product of two subgroups. of the 36. Mark each following abelian true a. Every group of prime order is cyclic. b. Every c. Z8 is d. f. g. Zg abelian group ## of prime power order is cyclic. ## generated abelian finitely by {4, by {4, ## is generated finite two e. All Any ## 6}. 5, 6}. groups are classifiedup generated abelian groups of order to isomorphism with by Theorem 11.12. are the same Betti number isomorphic. Every abelian Every Every Every group divisible divisible by 5 contains a cyclic a cyclic subgroup of order 5. subgroup h. i. ## abelian abelian finite ## group group abelian of order of order by 4 by contains a cyclic of 0. of order 4. divisible 6 contains subgroup of order 6. of order j. 37. Let ## group has a Betti number p and q be distinct prime numbers. How does the number (up to isomorphism)of abelian comparewith the number (up to isomorphism)of abelian groups of order qr ? G be groups pr 38. Let an abelian say group of order 72. or why ## a. Can you b. Can you how many ## say how many abelian ## subgroups of order 8 G has?Why, subgroups of order 4 G has? Why, that not? or why in G ## not? form a subgroup. This 39. LetGbe an the group. torsion subgroup Show of G. the elements of finite order subgroup is called ## Exercises40 through 40. Find 43 deal with ## the concept of the of Z4 torsion subgroup just defined. the order of the torsion subgroup x Z x Z3; of Zn x Z x Z12. Section 11 Exercises 113 41. 42. Find Find the the torsion torsion subgroup of the multiplicative group ## E* of nonzero real numbers. subgroup T of the multiplicative group C* of nonzero complexnumbers. 43. An abelian group is torsion free if e is the only element of finite order. Use Theorem 11.12 to show that abelian group is the internal and of a torsion-free direct product of its torsion every finitely generated subgroup that {e} may be the torsion subgroup, and is also torsion free.) (Note subgroup. 44. Thepart of the decomposition of G in Theorem to the subgroups of prime-power order 11.12 corresponding \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 where r \342\200\224 in the form Zm, x Zm, x \342\200\242 can also be written x Zmr, m, divides mi+\\ f or / = 1, 2, \342\200\242 1. The \342\200\242, to be unique, and are the torsion of G. numbers m; can be shown coefficients a. Find the torsion coefficients coefficients of Z4 x Z9. b. Find the torsion of Z6 x Z12 x Z20 coefficients an c. Describe algorithm to find the torsion of a direct product of cyclicgroups. Proof Synopsis 45. Give Theory a two-sentence synopsis of the proof of Theorem 11.5. 46. Prove is abelian. product of abelian groups the all elements subset of G consisting of the identity e together with of 47. Let G be an abelian group. Let H be G of order 2. Show that H is a subgroup of G. for every abelian group 48. Following whether H will always be a subgroup up the idea of Exercise47 determine G if H consists of the identity e together with all elements of G of order 3; of order 4. For what positive for every abelian group G, if H consists n will H always be a subgroup of the identity e together with integers all elements of G of order n? Compare with Exercise 48 of Section 5. that a direct 49. Find Let H a counterexample of Exercise 47 with the hypothesis that G is abelian omitted. necessary and K be subgroups of a group G. Exercises 50 and for G to appear as the internal direct product of H and K. 51 ask you to establish and sufficient criteria ## 50. Let H and way. K be Show ## groups and let that these subgroups of G all G= form H x K.Recall H x hk for that both H (actually {e})and h K (actually ## H and K appear as subgroups of G in a natural {e} x K) have the following properties. a. Every element = is of the H and k of a some e H and k e K. = {<?}. b. hk 51. kh for h e e K. c. H n K Let H exercise. Show the three properties listed in the preceding group G satisfying that for each g \342\202\254 expression g = hk for h e H and k e K is unique. Then let each g be renamed G, the (h, k). G becomes structurally identical (isomorphic)to H x K. Show that, under this renaming, Show and K be subgroups 52. 53. that a finite p. abelian group is not cyclic order if and only if it contains a subgroup isomorphic some prime to Zp x Zp the for ## Prove that if a finite abelian group is a power of p. Can the hypothesis has a power of commutativity abelian ## of a prime p, then be dropped?Why, Show the order or why of every element to in group not? H 54. Let G, H, and be finitely generated groups. that if G x K is isomorphic x K, then 114 Part II Permutations, Cosets, and Direct Products SECTION 12 ^PlANE IsOMETRIES of E2 is a permutation : E2 \342\200\224> E2 plane E2. An isometry \302\242) distance, so that the distance between points P and Q is the same as the points (f>(P)and 4>(Q) for all points P and Q in E2. If ij/ is the distance between also an isometry of E2, then the distance between i/f(0(P)) and VWK2)) must be the in turn is the distance P same as the distance between and \302\242(0), which between (f>(P) that the composition of two isometries is again an isometry. Since the and Q, showing of an isometry is an isometry, we see that the identity map is an isometry and the inverse isometries of E2 form a subgroup of the group of all permutations of E2. of E2 that carry S onto itself form a Given any subset S of E2, the isometries of isometries. This subgroup is the group of the group of symmetries of S in subgroup of symmetries of an equilateral the group E2. In Section 8 we gave tables for triangle and for the group of symmetries of a square in E2. we have defined in the two preceding paragraphs could equally well Everything but we will concern ourselves have been done for n-dimensional Euclideanspace E\", with chiefly plane isometries here. that every isometry of the plane is one of just four types (see Artin It can be proved that can be carried [5]). We will list the types and show, for each type, a labeled figure of that type. In each of Figs. 12.1, 12.3,nd 12.4, consider the a into itself by an isometry to the left and to the right. We also give line with spikes shown to be extended infinitely Consider the Euclidean that preserves an example of each type in terms of coordinates. point = (x, about ## r: Slide every 12.1.(Example:r(x, y) Fig. translation rotation the same distance P through in the same 3).) direction. See y) + (2, -3) = (x + 2,yan p: Rotate = the plane a point angle 6. See Fig. 12.2. about ## (Example:p(x, y) origin (0, 0).) reflection (\342\200\224y, is x) a rotation through 90\302\260 counterclockwise the /x: point L, each reflection. ## Map each point into of which is left fixed n(x, its mirror image ## (/x for mirror) line line x.) and a reflection across aline mapped glide reflection y: product into itself is a by the translation. See Fig. 12.4. (Example: y(x, y) = (x + 4, \342\200\224y) reflection along the a:-axis.) glide (Example: y) ## 12.3.The by = (y,x) is a reflectionacrossthe /x. See Fig. of a translation L is ## across a line the axis of y = The that is carried into another arrow in each of curved translation and rotation, the counterclockwise directions of the curved arrows remain the same, but for the reflection and glide reflection,the a clockwise counterclockwise arrow is mapped into arrow. We say that translations and while the reflection and glide reflectionreverse rotations preserve orientation, as any definite orientation. We do not classify the identity one of the four isometry types well be considered to be a translation it could equally listed; by the zero vector or a of 0\302\260. always consider a glide reflection to We rotation about any point through an angle be the product of a reflection and a translation that is different from the identity isometry. Notice ## the little curved 12.4. arrow ## Figs. 12.1 through For the ## This section is not used in the remainder of the text. Section 12 Plane Isometries 115 T(P) r(R) Q Translation r(R) r-\\Q) <G) x. P-KQ) 12.1Figure P > 12.2 Figure Rotation p. lAQ) i R \342\226\240 y-HP) s Y(P) y i IMP) \342\226\240 g \\KG) \\ y-2(P) 12.4 o. / P \\ y2(P) Q Reflection n(K> /x. 12.3 Figure Figure Glide reflection y. ## The theorem that full follows describes the possible structures of finite subgroups of the isometry finite group. plane 12.5 Theorem Every group ## group G of isometries of the for some positive integer n. D\342\200\236 show is isomorphic to either or to Z\342\200\236 a dihedral Proof Outline First in we G. G = P in the plane that is left fixed by every isometry that there is a point can be done in the following way, using coordinates in the plane. Suppose \342\200\242 \342\200\242. 0m} {0i. 02- \342\200\242 and let This (*;.)';) = Then 0/(0.0). h x\342\200\236,+ Ji the point Cc, J) ^ 'xi +x2-\\ m )'2 H )'\342\200\236 isometries in G permute then fa(Xj, >'j) = 0,-(0,-(0, )] = points 0 0,0j 0,(.(0. = (\302\276. It can be shown that the centroid of a set of points is uniquely 0) yk). and since each isometry the points, in G just permutes determined by its distances from fixed. Thus G consistsof the identity, rotations the set S, it must leave the centroid (x. y) across a line through P. about P, and reflections in G form a subgroup The orientation-preserving isometries H of G which is either in the same way that we showed that all of G or of order m /2. This can be shown the of S\342\200\236 are a subgroup half the elements of S\342\200\236. even permutations (See containing just in G. If we choose a Exercise 22.) Of course H consistsof the identity and the rotations as small an angle 0 > 0 as possible,it can be rotation in G that rotates the plane through shown to generate the subgroup H. (See Exercise 23.) This shows that if H = G, then to Z\342\200\236,. G is cyclic of order m and thus isomorphic H =\302\243 so that G contains G Suppose is the the the centroid of in S set S = {(Xj. }'i)\\i = ## \342\200\242 1. 2. \342\200\242 The \342\200\242. m}. ## among themselves, sinceif = fa 116 Part II Permutations, Cosets, and Direct Products \342\226\240 some reflections. et H = {i,\\, \342\226\240 L n = m /2. If /x is a reflection in G, then p \342\226\240, with p\342\200\236_i} coset Hfi consists of all n of the reflections in G. Consider now a regular n-gon in the plane having P as its center and a vertex with on the line through P left fixed by /x. The elements of H rotate this n-gon through lying the all positions, and the elements turning this the n-gon over, ## of H/x first reflect and then rotate through in an all axis through positions. ## a vertex, effectively Thus the action of G on n-gon The is the action of Dn, so G is isomorphic gives groups the to D\342\200\236. \342\231 isometries that arise naturally in decorating and art. Among these are the discrete frieze groups. A discrete friezeconsistsof a pattern of finite width and height that is repeated endlessly in both directions along its baseline a strip of infinite to form but finite height; think of it as a decorative border strip length to the ceiling on wallpaper. We consider that goes around a room next those isometries that carry each basic pattern onto instance itself or onto another of the pattern in the frieze. The set of all such isometriesis called the \"frieze All discrete frieze group.\" and have a subgroup groups are infinite isomorphic to Z generated by the translation that slides the frieze lengthwise until the basic pattern is superimposed on the position in that direction. of its next neighbor pattern As a simple exampleof a discrete frieze, consider integral distances apart and continuing signs spaced equal infinitely to the left and right, indicated schematically like this. now We turn ## theorem preceding to some infinite complete story about finite plane isometry groups. of plane \342\226\240\342\226\240///////////////////////////////////The symmetry group of this frieze integral signs to be one unit apart. the plane one unit to the right, and by a rotation p by a translation x sliding of 180\302\260 about a point in the center of some integral There are no horizontal or sign. vertical is nonabelian; we can T frieze reflections, and no glide reflections. his group Let us consider the is generated check that do not ## = px~l. The a rotation commute, xp n-th p\\ dihedral through group 360/n\302\260 Dn is of 2 satisfying /?i/x = /xp^1. Thus it is natural to use frieze group generated by x of infinite order and p As another consider the frieze given example, generated by two elements that n and a reflection /x of order the notation D^ for this nonabelian of order 2. by an infinite string of D's. order DDDDDDDDDDD Its group across group and is It by a translation x one stepto the right and by a vertical reflection /x line cutting the middle of all the D's. We can check that these through generators commute this time, that is, t/x = /xt, so this frieze group is abelian to Z x Z2. isomorphic can be shown that if we classify such discretefriezes only by whether or not their is generated a horizontal groups contain a horizontal rotation vertical then there group in axis glide reflection reflection axis reflection nontrivial is one that of seven possibilities. A nontrivial in a symmetry glide reflection that is not equal to a product of a translation in that group and a reflection The group for the string of D's above contains glide reflectionsacross group. are a total 12 Section the horizontal line through Plane Isometries 117 the centers group glidereflection that group. is also in the so they ## of the D's, but the translation are all considered trivial component glide of each in reflections ## The frieze group D for D contains the group. case, group. is not an element of component glide reflection whose translation exercises exhibit the seven possible cases, and ask you to tell, for each of the four types of isometriesdisplayed above in the symmetry which appear We do not obtain seven obtained different group structures. Each of the groups a nontrivial The can be shown to be isomorphic to one of \302\243>oo, Z, Equally x Z2, or Doo x Z2. a pattern in the shape of a square, when study of symmetries or hexagon is repeated by translations along two nonparallel that on wallpaper. These to fill the entire plane, like patterns vector directions appear or the plane crystallographic W groups groups. hile a groups are called the wallpaper itself frieze could not be carriedinto by a rotation through a positive angle less than it of 60\302\260, and for some of these to have rotations 180\302\260 90\302\260, 120\302\260, 180\302\260, is possible interesting is the parallelogram, rhombus, where the pattern consists of 12.6 provides an illustration of plane isometries that carry this square onto the group itself or onto another are given by two translations Generators for this group square. a square to the next neighbor to the right and one to the next (one sliding above), by a rotation through 90\302\260 about the center of a square, and by a reflection in a vertical (or line along the edges of the square. The one reflection is all that is needed to horizontal) the plane \"turn After over\"; a diagonal reflection can also be used. being turned over, plane-filling a patterns. Figure square. We are interested in the translations and rotations surely the can be used again. The isometry to ## in the pattern unit translations plane to contains a subgroup isomorphic Z x ## group for this periodic Z generated by the those isometries that If we consider all the types of isometries that get and upward, and a subgroup to \302\243)4 isomorphic generated by into itself. one square (it can be any square) carry to be filled with as in Fig. 12.7, we do not the plane parallelograms right we did for ## Fig. 12.6. The symmetry group this time is 12.6Figure 118 Part II Permutations, ## Cosets, and DirectProducts 12.7 Figure about translations indicated through 180\302\260 by the arrows and a rotation of a parallelogram. of wallpaper patterns when It can be shown that there are 17different they are types classified according to the types of rotations, reflections, and nontrivial glide reflections and that they admit. We refer you to Gallian [8] for pictures of these 17 possibilities a few of them. The situation a chart to help you them. The exercises illustrate identify is more complicated; it can be shown that there are 230 three-dimensional in space in space. The final exercise we give involves rotations crystallographic groups. was an artist whose work included plane-filling M. C. Escher (1898-1973) patterns. of his works of this The exercises include reproductions of four type. generated by the any vertex \342\226\240 EXERCISES 12 the group of symmetries of a certain which we consider the figure to lie. of a point in (translations, of a line of geometric ## 1. This exercise shows that of the space in dimension a. Describe all type ## figure may depend on the symmetries ## the real line R; that reflections, in in is, describe ## all isometries plane R2. of R that leave one point fixed. ## b. Describe all c. Describe all d. Describe e. Describe symmetries symmetries etc.) of a point in the segment segment R. R2. ## all symmetries of a line segment ## some symmetries of a line for in R3. isometry 2. Let P with stand an orientation the preserving plane preserving and R for an property orientation of a reversing one. Fill in the table P or R to denote orientation or reversing product. P p R Section 12 Exercises 119 3. of plane isometries given by a product table to give all possible types of two types. For example, a rotations may be a rotation, or it may be another Fill in the box corresponding to pp with product type. both letters. Use your answer to Exercise 2 to eliminate from consideration. some types. Eliminate the identity Fill in the of two T P M 4. Draw a plane figure that that that that has a one-element has has has group as its group ## of symmetries of symmetries of symmetries Z4 as the ## in R2. in R2. in R2. in 5. 6. 7. ## Draw Draw Draw ## a plane a plane a plane ## figure figure figure figure ## a two-element a three-element a four-element ## group as its group group as its group group isomorphicto group isomorphicto ## its group of symmetries 4-group V R2. 8. Draw a plane that has a four-element Klein as its group of symmetries of an inR2. isometries (other than the identity), give the possibilities for the order group of plane isometries. 10. A plane isometry cp has a fixed point if there exists a point P in the plane such that 4>{P) = P. Which four types of plane isometries (other than the identity) can have a fixed point? For 9. each of the four type types of plane isometry of that in the of the 11. 12. ## Referring to Exercise 10,which Referring ## types types types ## of plane of plane of plane that ## isometries, if isometries, isometries, leaves if if any, have exactly ## one fixed point? to Exercise 10, which that a plane any, any, ## have exactly have an infinite two fixed points? 13. ## Referring to Exercise 10,which Argue number fixed of fixed be the points? map. points, 14. 15. geometrically isometry three noncolinear and points and group must identity ## Using Exercise 14, show that is, if cj>(Pj) algebraically that if points if (Pi) together for noncolinear with the identity with the ## two plane isometriescp Pi, P2, and P3, thcncp form a subgroup form t/t agree on three noncolinear ^ are ## the same map. isometries? Why 16. Do the not? rotations, map, of the of of plane or why ## 17. Do the 18. Do the translations, together about Why identity map, a subgroup the group of plane isometries? of the of Why or why not? rotations plane isometries? ## one particular or why not? or why point P, together with the identity map, form a subgroup group of ## 19. Does the of plane reflection across Why isometries? not? ## one particular not? with line L, together with the identity map, form a subgroup the group 20. Do the or why glide reflections, together the identity map, form a subgroup of the group of plane isometries?Why 21. Which Completing of the 22. the IGI rotations =2\\H\\. subgroup of the group of plane isometries? of the proof of Theorem 12.5,let G be a finite group of plane isometries. Show that a detail in G, together H of G, and that H = G or with the identity isometry, form a subgroup either that we used to show that \\S\342\200\236\\ [Hint: Use the same method =2\\A\342\200\236\\.] four types of a finite ## of plane isometriescan be elements 120 Part II Permutations, ## Cosets, and Direct Products 23. in the proof of Theorem let G be a finite of the identity 12.5, group consisting isometry about one point P in the plane. Show that G is cyclic, generated by the rotation in G that turns the plane counterclockwise about P through the smallest angle 9 > 0. [Hint: Follow the idea of the proof that a subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic] Completing a detail and rotations Exercises symmetries. 24 through Imagine contains frieze always of the 30 illustrate the seven different the figure shown to be continued For each of these translations. types of friezes when these they are left. classified The infinitely to the right and symmetry ## according to their group of a symmetry exercises answer questions about the group frieze. contain contain contain ## a. Doesthe group b. Does the group c. Does ## a rotation? a reflection a reflection across a horizontal line? the group ## across a vertical line? ## d. Does the e. To which frieze group of the contain a nontrivial glide reflection? possible groups Z, D^, Z x Z2, or D^, x Z2 do you think the symmetry group of the is isomorphic? 24. FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF 25. TTTTTTTTTT 26.EEEEEEEEEEEE 12.8 Figure The Study ## of Regular Division Escher Foundation-Baarn-Holland. of the Plane with Horsemen 1946 (\302\251 M. C. All rights reserved.) Section 12 Exercises 121 27zzzzzzzzzzzz 28HHHHHHHHHH J J J 29. 11111 30. u 180\302\260? n symmetry u group n contain any u rotations? n the u plane by translation to be used to fill 37 describe a pattern 31 through in each case. these A the specifiedvectors. nswer questions Exercises in the two directions given 0 < by a. Doesthe If so, through what possible angles where 6\302\273 6 < r-.^su /i- -- '# i~m. \342\226\240-\"i \342\226\240 \342\226\240\342\226\240A ft i.', .'' '-\342\200\224 \"V-'\"~- ;*tT,-- . ji- 12.9 Figure The 1936 ## Study of Regular Division of M. C. Escher Foundation-Baarn-Holland. the Plane ## with Imaginary Human All rights Figures (\302\251 reserved.) 122 Part II Permutations, Cosets, and Direct Products 12.10Figure b. Does the c. Does The Study of Regular Division of the Plane with Reptiles 1939 (\302\251 M. C. Escher Foundation-Baarn-Holland. All rights reserved.) symmetry symmetry group group contain contain vertical any reflections? the any nontrivial edges glide reflections? directions given 31. A 32. A 33. A (0, square square square with horizontal as in as in and using translation by vectors (0, (1, 0) 1). and (0, 1). ## Exercise 31 Exercise 31 Exercise 31 Exercise 31 using with translation the directions given by vectors using ## (1, 1/2) and directions letter L at ## its center its center its center translation ## given by vectors given by vectors given by vectors (1,0) (1,0) (1,0) and 1). square 34. A (0, as in with the letter E at using translation directions and 1). square 35. A (0, as in with the letter H at using translation directions ## (1,0) and V3). centroid 1). hexagon 36. A regular with a vertex at the the top using translation directions given by with vectors and (1, top 37. regular hexagon with a vertex hexagon, 41 at ## at the center Exercises and of the through using ## top containing an equilateral triangle translation directions given by vectors with vertex and at the V3). and (1, 0) (1, 38 are concerned in assume the markings each ## invisible due to shading. 36, and also answer this Answer part C. Escher. Neglectthe shading in the figures or horseman are the same, even though they may be figure, reptile, the same questions were asked for Exercises 31 through (a), (b), and (c) that art works of M. human (d). equal coordinate axes with d. Assuming horizontal and vertical allel directions of vectors that generate the translation of these vectors. scales as usual, give vectors in yourself the subgroup. Do not concern ## two nonparwith the length Section 12 Exercises 123 12.11 38. The Figure The Study of Regular Division of the Escher Foundation-Baarn-Holland. with Horsemen with Imaginary with Reptiles in with Human form a group Plane All with Human ## 1936 Figures (\302\251 M. C. rights reserved.) Study Study of Regular of ## 39. The 41. The ## Division of the Regular Division of the Division of the Regular Division of the of a cube the in ## Plane Plane Plane Plane in Fig. 12.8. in ## Human Figures Fig. 12.10. in to Fig. 12.9. ## 40. The Study Study of Regular of Figures Fig. 12.11. ## 42. Show that the rotations the diagonals through space isomorphic S4. [Hint: A rotation of the cube permutes center of the cube.] PART Homomorphisms and III Factor Groups Homomorphisms Factor Section 13 Section Section 14 15 Groups and ## Factor-Group Computations -Group ^Applications Action Simple Groups Section 16 on a Set Section 17 of G-Sets to Counting section 13 Homomorphisms Structure-Relating Maps Let and G' be of G groups. We the are interested structure about to group structure ## in maps from of G'. Such a map to G' often ## relate the group gives us information that all one G -*'\342\226\240 \302\247 about the ## the group G and group structure of of the groups from known structural of the other. An isomorphism properties of such a structure-relating map. Ifwe know G', if one exists, is an example know that 0 is an isomorphism, G', for it maps, that we immediately know all consider about is structurally ## general structure-relating by no longer requiring the weakening ## just a copy the conditions onto. ## of G. We now from thoseof You see, more the maps ## be one to one and definition an isomorphism purely set-theoretic portion of of G our of an do with algebra property of the binary operations and of binary G'. The which is the focus of our those conditions are to isomorphism, and have nothing are what give us the binary operations now study the in this an isomorphism 0 of a related to into ## text. We keepjust the homomorphism for the definition we operations make. 13.1 Definition map group G a group G' is a homomorphism if the homomorphism property 4>{ab) = 4>{a)(j>{b) (1) ## holds for all a, b 1 e G. only for for the B Sections 17 and 36. remainder of the text. Section 16 is a prerequisite ## Section 17 is not required 125 Part III Homomorphisms and Factor Groups Let us product now examine the ## : G \342\200\224>\342\226\240(1), the G'. In Eq. \302\242) 4>{a)4>{b) ## idea behind the ab on the product and hence requirement left-hand side ## (1) for a homomorphism takes place in G, while the side takes place in G'. Thus Eq. (1) gives a relation between the two group structures. operations, at least one homomorphism <f> : G \342\200\224>\342 For any groups G and G', there is always G'', e' is the the trivial homomorphism dennedby 0(g) = e' for all g e G, where namely e' = e'e'. No information (1) then reduces to the true equation identity in G'. Equation from the other group this trivial the structure of G or G' can be gained about using on the right-hand betweenthesebinary ## homomorphism. We give onto G' may give structural 13.2 Example an example information ## how a illustrating about G'. homomorphism <f> mapping Let \302\247 : G then \342\200\224>\342\226\240 G' be a G' must ## group homomorphism be abelian. Let a!,b' of G onto We G'. We claim that if e G'. G is abelian, is Since\302\242 must show G', there exist a,b e G such that we have ab = ba. Using property (1), = b'a', so G' is indeedabelian? 4>{b)4>{a) onto Example ## 4>{a) = a' and we have a'b' ## that a'b' = b'a!. = b'. Since G <j>{b) <j>{d)<j>{b) is abelian, 4>{ab) = 4>{ba) = \342\226\ 13.16 about will give G via an illustration give information homomorphisms a homomorphism showing : G \302\242 \342\200\224>\342\226\240 G''. We ## how information about G' may now give examples of for specific groups. n 13.3 Example ## be the Let S\342\200\236 symmetric group on letters, and let even odd : Sn \302\242 \342\200\224>\342\226\240 Z2 be denned by _ JO if a is an 11 if a is an Show that 0 Solution permutation, permutation. is a homomorphism. that \302\242(0(/) ## show operation on the in the group Z2. We must + \302\242(0) for \302\242((/,) equation amounts all choices is written of a, (i additively Note S\342\200\236. that the right-hand side of this Verifying (i odd, (i even, (i odd, (i even. case, this equation to checking ## since it takes just four cases: place a odd and a odd a even a even Checking and and and the first then if a and /x can both be written product transpositions, cr/x can be written \302\242((/) as the 1 + of an in Thus \302\242(0(1) = similarly. 0 and + \302\242(0) 1 = Z2. as a product of an odd number of even number of transpositions. The other cases can be checked \342\226\ 13.4 Example (Evaluation ffi into ffi, let 0C : Recall value F ^that, at x Let F be the additive group of all functions mapping and let c be any real number. Let group of real numbers, ffi be the evaluation defined by 0C(/) = f(c) for f e F. homomorphism f + g whose by definition, the sum of two functions f and g is the function we have is f(x) + g(x). Thus Homomorphism) ffi be the additive ## 4>c(f + and Eq. 8) = ## (/ + 8)(c)= f(c)+ g(c) have \302\242,(/)$c{g),

(1) is satisfied,so we

a homomorphism.

\342\226\

Section

13

Homomorphisms

127

13.5 Example

Let E\"
group n

be is of

factors.)

0(v) = Av E\", matrix algebra shows that 0(v + w) = A(v + linear such a map computed by multiplying algebra, matrix A is known as a linear transformation.
13.6

with n real-number components. (This vectors group of column course isomorphic to the direct product of E under with itself for addition Let A be an m x n matrix of real numbers. : E\" \342\200\224>\342\226\240 Em be denned by Let \302\242) for each column vector v e E\". Then 0 is a homomorphism, since for v, w e
w)

Av +

a column

0(w).
left

In

by a
\342\226\262

Example

## Let GL(n, E) be the matrix A is invertible

for

multiplicative if and

group
have

of all invertible
det(A),

x n

matrices.

only if its

determinant,

is nonzero.

matrices

A, B

e GL(n. E) we

det(AB)

= det(A)

det(fi).

## Thismeans that det E* of nonzeroreal

Homomorphisms

is a homomorphism
numbers.

mapping GL(n,
are often

E) into

the

multiplicative

group
\342\226\262

of a group

into

itself

of G. 13.7 Example

a nontrivial

## useful for studying into of a group homomorphism

\302\242r(n)

the

structure

itself.

Let r e

Z and

let

: Z \302\247r
n)

->\342\226\240 Z be

denned
rm

by

rn for all n
4>r{n)

e Z. For all m,
and

e Z,

## wehave0r(m Note that 0O

Let G

r(m

n) =

rn = 4>T(m) +
<j>\\

so0,

is a homomorphism.
0_i

is the trivial
in

homomorphism,
is \302\242,. not

is the

identity

map,

maps

Z onto
\342\226\262

## Z. For all other r

13.8

Z,

the map

onto Z.

Example

direct product of groups.The projection map Ttj 7tj(gi. gi. gi is a homomorphism for each \342\226\240 i = n. 2. \342\200\242 This follows immediately from the fact that the binary operation of G \342\200\242. 1, coincidesin the i\\h component with the binary operation in G,\342\226\240. \342\226\262
x

= Gi
:

G2 x

## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 x \342\200\242 \342\226\240 \342\200\242 x G,\342\226\240 \342\200\242 be a x G\342\200\236

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 G, where

## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 = \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240, gn) gi-

13.9

Example

Let F

be the
group

group

of real

of continuous functions with domain [0, 1] and numbers. The map a : F \342\200\224>\342\226\240 a{f) = fQ E defined by

let

E be

the
for

f(x)dx

f efisa

homomorphism, for
+ \302\260U

8)=

Jo

(f +

8){x)dx = I
Jo

+ [f{x)

g(x)]dx

Jo

f(x)dx

+ /
Jo

## g(x)dx= o(f) + o(g)

= r,

for all f, g

e F.
Modulo
remainder

13.10 Example

(Reduction

n)

Let
given

be

the natural

map of Z
algorithm

into

Z\342\200\236 given

by y(m)
by

where r is the
that
y

by the division

when

m is

divided

n. Show

is a

homomorphism.
show

Solution

We need to

that

y(s+t)
for

= y(s)
we let
qxn

+ y(t)

s, t

e Z. Using

the

division

algorithm,

5=

ri

(2)

128

Part III

and

t =

q2n +

r2

(3)

where

0 < r,

<

for

i =

1, 2. If

n + for 0 < r3
<

r2

qin

+ r3

(4)

n, then

t

(2) and
=

(3)

we see that

(qi +

q2 +

+ qi)\302\253

r3,

r3.
(3)

(2) and

we see that

y(s) =
y(t),

r\\

and

y(t)

= r2.

Equation

(4)

shows

that

## the sum r\\

y(s Consequently + t) =
of the different
is,

r2 in

is equal Z\342\200\236

to r3
y(s)

also.
+

so we

do indeedhave

a homomorphism.

\342\226\2

Each
That

## homomorphisms in the points of the domain

the

three examples is a many-to-one map. preceding of the map may be carriedinto the same point. it\\ :
\"L2

Consider, for
have

illustration,

homomorphism

Z4

->\342\226\240 Z2 in

Example

13.8 We

7^(0,

0) =

7Tl(0, 1) =

7^(0,2) = 7Ti(0,
0 in

3)

= 0,

so

four

elements

Composition
: G \302\242)

X2 by

Tt\\.

is

again

y :

G'

both group

(y 0

: \302\242)G

## \342\200\224>\342\226\240 G\", where

(y 0 0)(^)

y{4>{g))

That is, if homomorphism. homomorphisms then their composition for g e G, is also a homomorphism.
a group

(See Exercise

49.)

Properties
We

turn

to

a

G'

that

when

we

apply

of a set X

13.11

Definition

Let 0
of

be a

mapping

into a set Y,

and

let A

c
the

and

BcF.
of 0.

in Y under

0_1[B]ofBinX is
The

0 is {0(a)| a
{.x e

e A}.

The

set 0[X]

is

range

## The image 0[A] The inverse image

X | 0(*)

e B}.

\342\226\2

first three properties of a homomorphism in the theorem that follows stated have been encountered for the special case of an isomorphism; namely, in Theorem already 28 of Section4, and Exercise 41 of Section 5. There they were 3.14, Exercise really obvious because the structures We will now see that of G and G' were identical. they if the maps are not one to one and onto. hold for structure-relating maps of groups, even We do not consider them obvious in this new context.

13.12 Theorem

Let 0 be a
1.
2.

homomorphism identity

of a group element

into

a group 0(e)

G'.

If e is the
If a

in G,

then

is the identity

element e'

in

G''.

e G,then0(a_1) = 0(a)\"1.

Section13
3. If H

Homomorphisms

129

is a

subgroup subgroup

of of

0[H] is a

subgroup

of

G'.
of

4. Loosely

If K' is a

element,

G.

speaking, 0
homomorphism

preservesthe
of G

identity

inverses,

and subgroups.

Proof

Let 0 be a

into G'.

Then

Multiplying

on
in

element e'

G'.

we see that

e' =

0(e). Thus

0(e)

must

be

the identity

e' =
shows

H be a
=

that
Turning

0(a_1)

= 4>{a)~x.
(3), let
Then
the 4>[H].
<j>(a)<j>(b)

to Statement

two elements in
completes

## under 0[H] is closed

operation
for Statement

of G, and let 0(a) and 0(fo) be any e 0[H]; thus, we see that 0(a)0(fo) of G'. The fact that e' = 0(e) and 0(a_1) = 0(a)-1
subgroup

<j>(ab), so
of

the

proof

that 0[H] is a
way

subgroup

G'.

of G'. Suppose a and b are subgroup = The equation <j>{ab) e K' sinceK'is a subgroup. in0_1[.Sr'].Then0(a)0(fo) 0(a)0(fo) shows that ab e 0~' [\302\243']. Thus in G. Also, 0~' [.ST'] is closed under the binary operation

(4), let

K' be a

Let {e'}

contain
7T,

so

Hence0_1[K1]
0 : G

## element e' e Z'. But 0(a)-1 subgroup of G.

homomorphism to the
study

## = 0(e), so e e 0_1[^']. a If = 0(a_1),so we must have

and let e'

e 0_1[.Sr'],

a-1

then e 0_1[^'].
\342\231\246

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 G' be a

be the

identity

element

of G'.

Now

is a subgroup

of G',

## 13.12. This subgroup

13.13 Definition

so 0_1[{e'}] a is

subgroup

H of

G by

Statement

(4) in

Theorem

is critical

of homomorphisms.

Let

(f> : G |

G'
= e'} 13.5

be a
is
the

homomorphism

of

{x e
where

groups.
by

The

subgroup

0_1[{e'}] =
\342\226\240

(j){x)

kernel

of 0,

denoted

Ker(0).

the homomorphism 0 : E\" \342\200\224>\342\226\240by 0(v) = A\\ Em given In this context, Ker(0) is called the null space of A. It consists of all v e ffi\" such that Av = 0, the zero vector. Let H = Ker(0) for a homomorphism G''. We think of 0 as \"collapsing\" 0 : G ->\342\200\242 onto e'. Theorem 13.15 that follows H down shows that for g e G, the cosets gH and Hg are the same, and are collapsed onto the single element is 0(g) by 0. That = ,?# = Hg. (Besure that you understand the reason for the uses of (), [], 4>~l [{0(g)}] and to symbolize We have attempted this collapsing in Fig. 13.14, {} in 0_1[{0fe)}]-) where the shaded rectanglerepresents G, the solid vertical line segments representthe of H = Ker(0), and the horizontal cosets line at the bottom represents G'. We view of G, which are in the shaded 0 as projecting the elements rectangle, straight down of G', which onto elements are on the horizontal line segment at the bottom. Notice the downward arrow labeled at G and ending at G'. Elements of 0 at the left, starting H = Ker(0) thus lie on the solid vertical line segment in the shaded box lying over e', as labeled at the top of the figure.
Example

discussed
n

A is an m

matrix.

130

Part

III

Homomorphisms

-'[(\"'ll

l,H

Hx

<*>-%'}]

G'

a'

\302\242(6)

e'

ftx)

y'
\302\242.

13.14 Figure

Cosets

of H

collapsed by
let

13.15

Theorem

Let

G'

be a group

homomorphism,

and

\342\200\224

Ker(0).

Let a

e G.

Then the

set
0-1[{0(a)}]

= {*eG|0(x) also
into

= 0(fl)}
Consequently,
same.

is the
partitions

left

coset
of

aH

G into

## the right coset Ha of H. right cosets of H are the

the two

Proof

We want to

show

that

{x e

G | <f>{x)

0(a)}

= aH.

There is a standard

way

to show that

## two sets are equal;

show

that each

is a subset

of the

other.

Suppose

that

<j>(x)

\342\200\224

4>{a).

Then

0(a)~V(*)

= e',

where e' is
so we

the

identity

of G'.

By Theorem

13.12, we = e.

know

that

4>{a)~x

\342\200\224

4>{a~x),

have

0(0-1)^)

Since0 is a

homomorphism,

we have

4>{a~l)(p{x) =
But this shows that a~lx ah e aH. This shows that
is in

4>{a~lx),
H =

so

4>{a~lx)

e'.

Ker(0), so a~lx = h
00)

for

some

h e

H,

and

x \342\200

{x

&G\\

= 0(a)}

c aH.

Section

13

Homomorphisms

131

To
h

show

containment

in the

## other direction, let

e aH,

so that

ah

for some

& H.

Then

(p(y)
so that

\342\200\224

(p(ah)

= 0(a)0(/j)

= 4>{a)e'=

4>{a),

y e {x We leave

e G | \302\242^)=
the

similar

0(a)}. demonstration

that {ieG

4>{x)=

4>{a)}

Ha

to Exercise
\342\231\246

52.
13.16

Example

Equation

## 5 of Section 1 shows This means that the absolute numbers of nonzerocomplex

under
that

that

\\z\\Z2\\

IZ1HZ2I

f\302\260r complex

numbers
of

value function |
under

| is a homomorphism onto
the

## z\\ and the group

z2. C*

multiplication

group

M+ of

numbers

multiplication. complex

Since

{1} is a

subgroup

of

M+, Theorem
that

## positive real 13.12 shows

that

again

the

numbers

of magnitude

1 form

a subgroup

U of C*.Recall
and

the

the coordinate plane, as filling complex numbers can be viewed from the origin. Consequently, of a complex number is its distance

the magnitude

the cosets

of U are
onto its
\342\226\262

circles with
point

center

at the

of intersection

by origin. Each circleis collapsed with the positive real axis. from of Theorem13.15

this

homomorphism

We

give

an illustration

calculus.

13.17

Example

Let D be the

be the

group of all

of all differentiable

## : D map \302\242) for \302\242(/+

\342\200\224*F, where

## functions mapping \342\200\224 \302\242(/) /'for / e F.

\342\200\224

g)

\342\200\224

(/

+ g)'

/'

+ g'

\302\242(/)+

R, and let F differentiation gives us a see that 0 is a homomorphism, We easily the derivative of a sum is the sum 0(g);
functions

mapping

M into

into

M. Then

of

the

derivatives.

/' = 0, the zero constant function. Thus Ker(0) consistsof all constant functions, which form a subgroup C of F. Let us find in G mapped into x2 by \302\242, is, all functions whose derivative all functions that is x2. Now we know that x3/3 is one such function. 13.15, all such functions By Theorem
Now

Ker(0) consists

of all functions

/ such that

form

x^/3 +

C. Doesn'tthis
the

look

familiar?

\342\226\262

We

often use

following

corollary

of Theorem

13.15.
if Ker(0)
\342\200\224

13.18Corollary
Proof

group

homomorphism

0 :

G ^-

G' is

a one-to-one

map if and

only

{e}.

If Ker(0)

## = {e},then elements of the left

the into

a e G, the elements into \302\242(0) precisely are the mapped shows that \302\242 one to one. is a{e] = {a}, which Conversely, suppose is one to one. Now by Theorem 13.12, we know that 0(e) = e', \302\242 element is of G'. Since \302\242one to one, we see that e is the only element mapped identity = {e}. so e' by \302\242, Ker(0) \342\231\246
for

every

coset

In showing

view that
and

of Corollary a map 0 is
G'.

13.18, we modify
an

the

outline

given prior to
when

structures

isomorphism

of binary

structures

the

are

groups G

132

Part

III

## Homomorphisms and Factor Groups

To Show

<f>:

G ->

G' Is an Isomorphism

Stepl
Step

Show 0 is a

Show
\302\242) maps

Step

G onto

G'.

Theorem

13.15

shows
left

that the

subgroup
We

H of
see in

G whose

will

Section 14 that

## kernel of a group homomorphism coincide, so that gH = right cosets coincide,we

: G \302\247

\342\200\224*G' is

Hg for all g
can see

e G.

form that

group, as
way.

discussedintuitively in Section 10. Furthermore, we will of G onto this coset group appears as the kernel of a homomorphism
Such
and

a coset H then

subgroups
are

a group,

given

H whose left and right cosets coincide are very a special name. We will work with them a lot

useful
in

## in a very natural in studying

Section

14.

\342\226\240 Historical

Note
subgroups

Normal Galois in
a given

1831

polynomial
Galois

noted

by Evariste for deciding whether equation was solvable by that a subgroup H of a group
were

introduced

of

permutations

of

the roots
then

of
one

an

equation

has

as a tool

proper decomposition,

can solve

the given

equation if one
corresponding

can first
subgroup
the

solve

to the

and

## an equation then an equation

of permutations induced two decompositions G into what we call left cosets and cosets. right If the two decompositions coincide,that is, if the left cosets are the same as the right cosets, Galois G of

corresponding to
Camille

cosets.

Jordan,
1865

## Galois'sworkin ideas considerably.

subgroups,

called the
giving

decomposition

proper.

Thus a subgroup

although this

a proper

decomposition

is

what

we if

call

as on

page
group

his commentaries on elaborated on these He also defined normal without using the term, essentially and likewise gave the first definition
in
and 1869,
(page

normal

## subgroup. Galois stated

that

the

group

of a simple

149).

13.19 Definition

subgroup

of a group

G is normal if of abeliangroups

its

left

and right

cosets coincide,that

is,

if

gH =

tfgforallg
that

eG.
are

\342\226

Note

all subgroups
a group

normal.

13.20 Corollary

If
This

: G \302\242)

->\342\200\242 G' is

homomorphism,
from the last

then

Ker(0)

is a normal

subgroup of

G.

Proof

follows

Definition

immediately 13.19.

sentence in

the

statement

of Theorem

13.15 and

\342\231\

For any group homomorphism <f> : G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 G'', two things the kernel of \302\242, the image 0[G] of G in G'. We have and

## are of primary indicated the

importance: importance

of

Section

13

Exercises

133

S Ker(0).ection to

14 will

show

that

if

\\G\\

is finite,

of the
and

## 0[G]. image is a divisor of

Exercise
\\G\\.

EXERCISES

13

Computations
In

The straightforward 1 through the given map 0 is a homomorphism. [Hint: 15, determine whether if we should to proceed is to check whether <p{ab) = <p{a)cp{b) for all a and b in the domain of 0. However, way happen to notice that 0_1 [{e'}] is not a subgroup whose left and right cosets coincide, or that 0 does not satisfy the properties given in Exercise 44 or 45 for finite groups, then we can say at once that 0 is not a homomorphism.] Exercises

1. Let0

\342\200\224y R under

given given

by

cp(ri) =

n.
integer

2. Let0 R

\342\200\224>\342\200\242 Z under

3. Let0 R*

\342\200\224>\342\200\242 R* under

multiplication
by

< x.

4.
5.

Let0

## \"Lb \342\200\224y 1j be Zg \342\200\224y 7Li be

given

cp{x)

= the
the

remainder of x when
remainder

divided
divided

by 2,
by by

as in

the

division
division

algorithm.
algorithm.

Let0

given by R is x

<p(x) =

of x

when

2, as in

the

6. Let0

## \342\200\224y R*, where

and

R* is

multiplicative, be given
by

<p{x) = 2J'.

given by 10. Let
numbers, the

x Gi

G, x

G, be given
injection
<f>{g)

0;(g,)

= (ex.

ei....,

13.8.

gt

e G,

## element and let group

<f>

of Gj. This is an
G be : G ->\342\200\242

map.
=

Compare
for g

with

Example

given by
of /.

g~'

&G,

= \302\242(/)

group

mapping

R into

## R having derivatives mapping R

into

of all

orders.

Let

cp

F be : F \342\200\224>\342\200\242

F be the
and

of

all

continuous

functions

R.

Let R

be

the

group

of real

let

cp

R be : F \342\200\224y

given by
=

\302\242(/)

f/ /o
Jo with for

f(x)dx.
and

12. Let
13.

group

of

all

functions n x

mapping

R into R,
real

## let <p : F \342\200\224>\342\200\242 by \302\242(/)= F be given

3/.

be the M\342\200\236

of all
the

## numbers. Let 0(A)

Let
and M\342\200\236 R elements

det(A),

n matrices determinant of A,

entries,

and let R

be the

group

of real

A e M\342\200\236.
tr(A)

## be as in Exercise on the main diagonal

12. Let <p{A) = tr(A) the trace for A & Mn, where of A, from the upper-left to the lower-right corner.

is the

sum of

the

14. Let GL(n, R) be the multiplicative group of invertible n x n matrices, and let R be the additive group R be numbers. Let cp : GL(n, R) \342\200\224y given by cp{A) = tr(A), where tr(A) is defined in Exercise 13.

of real

15. Let

F be

the multiplicative
multiplicative 24, -+

group of all

continuous

functions

mapping R
Let

into

R that

are nonzero
by

at

every =

x &R.

Let R* be the
In Exercises

## group of nonzero compute

real numbers.
quantities

R* be cp : F \342\200\224y

given

\302\242(/)

f0 f(x)dx.

16 through

the indicated

for

the given

homomorphism

cp.

(See

Exercise

46.)

: S3

Z2 in
<j>

Example 13.3
-+
Z7 Zi0

and and

0(25) 0(18)

for

: Z

such such

= 4 = 6

for 0

: Z -+

134

Part III

Homomorphisms

and

Factor

Groups

0(20)

for 0 for 0 :

: Z -+ Zl0

S&

such

that 0(1)

= (1, 4,2,

6)(2,5, 7)

20. Ker(0)
21. Ker(0)

and and

0(3) 0(14)

## -\342\226\272 such Z20

that 0(1)

= 8
= -5
and and

Z24 -\342\226\272 Sg where 0(1) = (2, 5)(1,4, 6, 7) 22. Ker(0) and 0(-3, 2) for 0 : Z x Z -* Z where 0(1, 0) = 3 and 0(0,1) 23. Ker(0) and 0(4, 6) for 0 : Z x Z -* Z x Z where 0(1, 0) = (2, -3)
for 0 : Ker(0)

0(0,

1) =

(\342\200\2241,5)

24.

and 0(3,
many
many many

10) for 0 : Z x Z ^
are there
are there are there

Sw

where onto
into into

0(1, 0) = (3, Z?
Z? Z2 ?

5)(2,4)

0(0,1)

= (1,

## 7)(6, 10, 8,9)

25. How
26. How
27.

homomorphisms
homomorphisms homomorphisms

of Z
of Z of Z

How

G. Let G be defined G be a group, and let g \342\202\254 0g : G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 a homomorphism? 0g G be 29. Let G be a group, and let g & G. Let 0g : G ->\342\200\242 defined is 0g a homomorphism?

28. Let

by

<pg(x)

= gx

for x e

G. For

which

g e

G is

by

<j)g{x)

= gxg~l

for x e

G. For

which

geG

Concepts
In

Exercises
that

30 and
it is

## 31, correct the

in a form

definition

of the

italicized term

without

reference

to the

text,

if

correction

is

needed, so
30.

acceptablefor publication.
that

A homomorphism

is a map such

<p(xy) =

0(*)0(;y).
The

31. Let0
inG'.

:G

\342\200\224y G' be

a homomorphism true or

of false.

groups.

kernel

o/ 0 is

{* e

G\\

<j>{x)

= e'}

## where e' is the

identity

32. Mark

each of the a.

following

subgroup of S\342\200\236. G and G', there exists a homomorphism of G into b. For any two groups G'. c. Every homomorphism is a one-to-onemap. is one to one if and only if the kernel consists of the identity element alone. d. A homomorphism e. The image of a group of 6 elements under some homomorphism have 4 elements. (See Exercise may
is a normal A\342\200\236

## 44.) f. The image h.

i.
There A It

of a group

of 6 elements
of some

under

a homomorphism
elements

may

have

12 elements.

g. There is a homomorphism
is a

into some group of 12 elements. group of 6 of 6 elements into some group of 10 elements. homomorphism of some groups homomorphism may have an empty kernel.

j.
In Exercises

is not

## possible to have a nontrivial

43,

homomorphism

of some

finite

group

into some

infinite

group.

33
such

through

give an

example of a nontrivial
why <P <P

homomorphism

exists. If
33.
<j> <P <P

no

homomorphism

exists, explain

that Z12

is so. You

may

use

if an

example

Z12

34.

-+ z4
*

35.

Z2 x Z4 Z3^S3

36.

z3-

37.

38.

z^

S3

39. <P

Z x

Z^

Section 14

Factor Groups

135

Theory

44.

Let

<p

: G

-+ G'

be a group

homomorphism.

Show

that if that

\\G\\

is finite,

then |0[G]| is

finite

and

is a divisor

of|G|.

## 45. Let <f> :

of|G'|.

G -+

G' be a group

homomorphism.

Show

if

|G'|

is finite,

then,

\\cp[G]\\

is finite

and is a

divisor

46.

Let a group G be generated set and a,- e Gforalh' e /.Let</> : G \342\200\224y G' some indexing by {a,- \\i e /}, where/is = G' be two homomorphisms from G into and /x : G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 a group G', such that </>(\302\253,) /x(a,) for every i \342\202\254 I. Prove that cp = /x. [Thus, for example, a homomorphism of a cyclic group is completely determined by its value on a of the group.] [Hint: Use Theorem7.6 of course, Definition 13.1.] and, generator
Show that any group homomorphism or a one-to-one map. cp :

47.

G -+

the

must

either

be the
is

trivial

homomorphism

## 48. The sign of

an

even

permutation
by

is +1

and

sign

of an

odd

permutation

\342\200\224 1. Observe

that the

map

## \342\200\224>\342\200\242 defined : 5\342\200\236 \342\200\2241} {1, sgn\342\200\236

sgnn(ff) = is a homomorphism
13.3.

sign

of a

## of S\342\200\236 the onto

G\"

multiplicative and if

is the

are

Example

49. Show

that

if G,

G', and

are

groups

<f>

: G

-+ G'

and

y : G'

-+

G\"

homomorphisms,

## then the e G, we have

that

compositemap y<p : G -+ G\" is a homomorphism. H be a group 50. Let cp : G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 homomorphism. Show *)a_1;y_1 e Ker(0).

that

0[G]

is abelian

if

and

only if

for

all

x, y

51. Let
52.

of G. Let <f> : Z -+ G be defined any group and let a be any element by homomorphism. Describe the image and the possibilities for the kernel of \302\242.
G be
(j) :

0(\302\253)

= a\".

Show

0 is a

Let

<t>{a)}

G -+ = Ha.

G' be a homomorphism
Let h,k

with

kernel

H and

let a

e G. Prove

the

set equality

{x e

G | (j>{x)

53. Let
54.

e G and let <f> : Z x Z ->\342\200\242 defined by 0(m, n) = /jmfc\". Give a necessary and G be h and k, for 0 to be a homomorphism. Prove your condition. condition, involving Find a necessary and sufficient condition on G such that the map \302\242) described in the preceding exerciseis a for all choices of h, k e G. homomorphism

G be a

group,

sufficient

55. Let
your

G be a

0<i

< n. Give

group,

h an

element of

a necessary

: Z\342\200\236 G, and n a positive integer. Let \302\247 -+ G be defined by 0(i) = h' for and sufficient condition (in terms of h and n) for 0 to be a homomorphism. Prove

assertion.

section

14

Factor

Groups
subgroup element

Let H be a
of G,
listing

## of a finite heads this

group G. Supposewe
and

write

a table
they

for

the

group

operation

at the top

at the

left as
of

occur

in the left

cosets of

table may break up into blocks to the cosets (Table 10.5), giving a group on the cosets, or they corresponding operation not break up that way (Table 10.9). We start this section by showing that if H is the may kernel of a group homomorphism that left G', then the cosets of H (remember 0 : G ->\342\200\242 and right cosets then coincide) are indeed elements of a group whose binary operation
We

H.

illustrated

in Section

## 10. The body

the

is derived from

the

group

operation

of G.

136

Part III

Homomorphisms

and

Factor

Groups

from Homomorphisms Let G be a group and let S be a set having the same cardinality *> to-onecorrespondence between S and G. We can use *> to
Factor

Groups

as G. define

## Then there is a onea binary

operation

on S, making

S into

to renameeach
if x

a group isomorphic to G. Naively, use the correspondence we simply of G by the name of its corresponding element in S. element (under \302\253\302\273)
the

We can describeexplicitly
\302\261* gi

computation

of xy for
and

x,y e

S as
then

follows: xy

and

y *>

g2

z *>

g\\g2,

= z.

(1)

The direction
gives

\342\200\224\302\273\342\200\242 of the

one-to-one
/x

us

a one-to-one
inverse

function
function

gives us the
for

s & S and g e G correspondence s -^ g between ^- of *> S onto G. (Of course,the direction /x_1). Expressed in terms of /x, the computation (1) of xy mapping

ijei

becomes
and

if/i(x) = gi

/x(;y)

= g2

and

(i(z) =

gig2,

then

*;y

= z.

(2)
onto the
required

an isomorphism mapping the group S The map /x : S \342\200\224*G now becomes = /x(z) = g\\g2 = /x(*)/x(;y), the (2), we obtain ^{xy) groupG. Noticethatfrom property. G' be and let H = Let G and G' be groups, let <j> : G ->\342\200\242 a homomorphism, = aH = Ha. We Theorem 13.15 shows that for a e G, we have 0_1[{0(a)}] of H in G and elements cosets one-to-one correspondence aH *> 0(a) between
homomorphism

Ker(0).
have

of the

x = ah for some h & H, then that if x e aH, so that subgroup 0[G] of G'. Remember = = of 0[G] 0(;t) = 0(a/j) = 0(a)0(/j) 0(a)e' 0(a), so the computation of the element corresponding to the coset aH = xH is the same whether we compute it as 0(a) or as Let us denotethe set of all cosets of H by G/H. (We read G/H as \"G over H\" or (j>{x). as \"G modulo H\" or as \"G mod H\" but never as \"G divided by H\ In the preceding a homomorphism G' having with : G \302\242) \342\200\224*paragraph, we started kernel H, and we finished with the set G/H of cosets in one-to-one correspondence with the elements of the group In our work above that, we had a set S with elements 0[G]. in one-to-one correspondence with a those of a group G, and we made S into a group isomorphic

to G with
that

0[G]
that

in

construction,

isomorphism

## an isomorphism /x. we can consider /x. In terms of G/H and

Replacing

S by
be

G/H
0[G],

to

a group

the

G by G/H and replacing isomorphic to 0[G] with (2) of the product computation

(xH)(yH)

for xH,
if fi(xH)
then

yH e

G/H becomes
and

= (j>(x)
(xH)(yH)

ix(y

H)

(j>(y)

and

fi(zH)

= (j>(x)(j>(y),

= zH. we
in

(3)
can easily
find

But because
4>(x)4>(y)\\

0 is

homomorphism,

z e

G such

that

ii{zH)

namely,

we take

z = xy

G,

ftxy)

fiizH) =
This shows
that

n(xyH) =

= cosets

0W0(y). is the

the

product
and

of x

y in

## of two (xH)(yH) G. While this

and

coset (xy)H

that

contains
to

computation

of (xH)(yH)

may seem

choices x from xH
again

## We demonstrate it xh\\ is an element

here
and

of xH

our work above shows it does not. because it is such an important e H so that point. lfhi,h2 there exists hj, e H such yh2 is an element of yH, then
y from

yH,

Section 14

Factor Groups

137

that

h\\y

= yh3

because Hy =

yH by
=

Theorem

13.15.

Thus we have
\342\202\254 (xy)H,

(xhl)(yh2) =
so we

x(Iny)h2

x(yh3)h2

= (xy)(h3h2)
product

cosets is accomplished of the cosets, the coset in G of the choices. that contains the product Any time we define something (like a to show that it is well defined, which in terms of choices, it is important means product) that it is independent of the choices made. This is precisely what we have just done. We this work in a theorem. summarize
the

obtain

same

coset.

Computation

of

the

of two

by

choosing

an element

## from each coset and

taking,

as product

14.1 Theorem

Let

: G \302\242)

\342\200\224*G' be

a group

a factor

group,

G/H.

with

kernel

H. Then
the

/x
:

{ab)H.Also,

map

G/H and

## -*- 0[G] /x are

= 4>{a) is an isomorphism. Both cosetmultiplication defined by /i(aH) a and b from the cosets. defined, independent of the choices

well

14.2Example

## 13.10 considered the Example m is divided by n in accordance

map

where Z\342\200\236, y : Z \342\200\224>\342\226\240 y{m) is the remainder when with the division algorithm. We know that y is a

= nZ. By Theorem 14.1, homomorphism. Of course, Ker(y) to The group Z/nZ is isomorphic Z\342\200\236. cosets of nL are the residue example,taking n = 5, we see the cosets of 5Z are

we see that
classes

the

factor

modulo n.

For

5Z=
1+5Z={---

-10,-5,0,5, {\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242

10

-9,-4,

1,6, 11,

2 +

5Z=
5Z=
/x :

-8,-3,2,7, 12,

3+5Z=
4 +
Note

-7,-2,3,8, 13,
Theorem
=

-6,-1,4,9,14,
/x(5Z)

that
its

Z/5Z

5Z

smallest

element.

That is,

0,

## 14.1 assigns to each /x(l + 5Z) = 1, etc.

coset

of
\342\226\262

them

two
and

very important that we learn how to compute in a factor group. We can multiply cosets by choosing any two representative elements, multiplying (adding) the resulting product (sum) lies. finding the coset in which
factor

14.3

Example

Considerthe
(4

group

Z/5Z
and

with the

5Z)

by

choosing 2

4,

2+4

1 +
in 4

The

the

## above. noticing choosing

We can that 27 in

6 is
in

5Z) +
coset
\342\200\22416 \342\226\262

the

2+

5Z and

= 11is alsoin

coset

1 +

5Z.

factor groups L/nL in the preceding example are classics. Recallthat we refer n. Two integers cosets of nL as residue classesmodulo in the same coset are is carried over to other factor groups. A factor congruent modulo n. This terminology called the factor group of G modulo in the same H. Elements group G/H is often H. By abuse of notation, coset of H are often said to be congruent modulo we may as the and of sometimes write Z/nZ = Z\342\200\236 think of Z\342\200\236 additive group of residueclasses

to the

Z modulo

(n), or

abusing

notation

further,

modulo

n.

138

Part III

Homomorphisms

and

Factor

Groups

Factor

Groups

## from Normal Subgroups

So far, we have obtained factor groups from homomorphisms. Let G be a group and only let H be a subgroup of G. Now H has both left cosets and right cosets, and in general, a left coset aH need not be the same set as the right coset Ha. Suppose we try to define

a binary

operation on

left

cosets

by defining

(aH)(bH)

= (ab)H
4 attempts

(4)
to define left

as in
by
it

the

statement

of Theorem

14.1Equation
and

coset multiplication
meaningless
elements

## choosing representatives a well-defined gives operation,

the

b from

the cosets.
the

Equation

4 is

unless
a and b

independent of
that

representative

chosen from
binary

cosets. if and

The theorem

follows

shows

that Eq.
of G.

4 gives a well-defined

operation

left

subgroup

14A Theorem

Let H be a
equation

subgroup

of a group

coset

multiplication

is well defined

by

the

(aH)(bH)

= (ab)H
G. on left
use

if and
Proof

only

if H
that

is a normal
(aH)(bH)
want

subgroup

of

## Suppose first cosets. Let

standard

a e G. We

we have Let x&aH. a^&a^H, Choosing representatives x e aH and (xH)(a~lH) = (xa~1)H.On the other hand, choosing representatives a e aH and = eH = H. Using our assumption a'1 e a~lH, we see that (aHXa^H) that left coset = h e H. Then is well defined, we must have xa~l by representatives multiplication x = ha, sox & Ha and aH c Ha. We leave the symmetric proof that Ha c aH to Exercise 25. turn now to the converse:If H is a normal We then left coset multiplication subgroup, is well-defined. Due to our hypothesis, we can simply say cosets, by representatives to compute (aH)(bH). omitting left and right. Suppose we wish Choosing a e aH and
b e bh2

technique of showing

= (ab)H does give a well-defined binary to show that aH and Ha are the same that each is a subset of the other.

operation

set.

We

the

bH, we
h\\b

obtain

the

coset

{ab)H.
=

Choosing
We

different

representatives

ah\\

e aH
same

and

\342\202\254 we bH,

## obtain the bH, so

coset ahibh2H.
h\\b

must
hj,

show
e

Now

= \342\202\254 Hb

bhj, for
a(h\\V)hi

some
=

## that these H. Thus = {ab){h^hi)

are the

coset.

(ahi)(bh2)
and

a(bh3)h2

(ab)(h3h2) Theorem

\342\202\254 (ab)H.

Therefore,

ah\\bh2

is

in

(ab)H.

\342\231\24

14.4
binary

well-defined
with

of H
whether

coincide,
the

then

cosets

## Eq. 4 gives a do form a group

such

coset multiplication.

the

14.5 Corollary

Let

be a normal

binary

subgroup of

cosets

of H form a

group

G/H

under

the

\342\226\26

Section

14

Factor

Groups

139

Proof

Computing,

(aH)[(bH)(cH)]

= (aH)[(bc)H]

[(aH)(bH)](cH)
G.
the

Because
identity

element
shows

= [a(bc)]H,
in

and

similarly,

we

have

G/H
=

(ea)H

in G/H.
thata^H
the

Finally,

(a~lH)(aH)

## from associativity in we see that eH = H is (eH)(aH), = (a~la)H = eH = (aa^)H =

follows
\342\231\246

(aH)(a~lH)

= {aHTx. corollary

14.6

Definition

The group

G/H

in

preceding

is

the

factor

group

(or quotient

group) of
\342\226\240

G by
14.7

H.

Example

nZ is a normal subgroup. Corollary 14.5allows us to Since Z is an abelian group, construct the factor group with no reference to a homomorphism. As we observed Z/nZ \342\226\262 in Example 14.2, Z/nZ is isomorphic to Z\342\200\236.

14.8

Example

## Consider the abelian group of E contains as elements

under

and let

c e

E+. The
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242.

cyclic

subgroup

(c)

2c, 3c,

Every

coset

their

one elementof
the

x such

that 0
in

<x <
E/(c),

c. If

we

choose

these

cosets

when computing
the

we find that

we are
1.

sum

modulo

c as
the

discussedfor
sum

For example, if

c=

computation

in Ec

in

Section

5.37,then

of the

is

the

coset

8.07
with

Working

these

## contains 8.07 + (5.37), which coset elements x where 0 <

cosets 4.65 + (5.37)nd 3.42 + (5.37) a - 5.37 = 2.7,which is 4.65 +5.37 3.42.

x < c, we

thus

see that

the

group

Ec

of

Example

to 4.2 is isomorphic

E/ (c)

under

an

isomorphism

all x e
numbers

Ec. Of
have

course,

of magnitude We

= x

+ (c) for

U of

complex
\342\226\262

1, 3,

4,

## group \342\200\242\342\200\224 \342\200\242 n \342\200\242,1}, the

Z/(\302\253)

is

isomorphic

to the
integers

group

and Z\342\200\236,

as a set,

set of

nonnegative

less

than n.

Example 14.8

E/(c) is isomorphic to the group Ec. In Section 1, we choosethe than the conventional [0, c) for the half-open interval of nonnegative less than c. We did that to bring out now the comparison real numbers of these factor groups of Z with these factor groups of E.
that

the group

notation

Ec rather

The Fundamental
We

Homomorphism Theorem
factor G/H

have

seen

(Theorem

to a

natural

G' gives rise to a natural : G homomorphism \302\242) \342\200\224*We now show that each factor group 14.1), namely, G/Ker(0). H as kernel. homomorphism having

that every

group

gives

rise

14.9Theorem Let H be a
homomorphism

normal

subgroup

of G. Then

: G

G/H

given

by

y(x)

= xH is a

with kernel

H.

Proof

Let x, y

G. Then

y(xy) =

(xy)H = (xH)(yH)

y(x)y(y),

Part

III

## Homomorphisms and Factor Groups

G/H

14.10 Figure

so

is a

y is indeed

homomorphism. H.
in

Since xH

= H if

an

only

if x

\342\202\254 H, we

## see that the

kernel of

\342\231\2

We
then

have seen

Theorem

14.1 that if

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 where n(gH) G/H 0[G] that defined by y{g) y : G -*- G/H these groups and maps. We see that

/j,:

## where y is a homomorphism as a theorem.

and

jx

is

with kernel H, G' is a homomorphism 0 : G \342\200\224>\342\226\240 = 4>{g)is an isomorphism. 14.9 shows Theorem = gH is a homomorphism. Figure 14.10 shows the homomorphism \302\247 be factored, 0 = fiy, can an isomorphism of G/H with 0[G]. We state this

14.11

Theorem

(The Fundamental
homomorphism

Homomorphism

Theorem)

Let

<f>

G' be : G \342\200\224*-

a group

with

kernel

H. Then
isomorphism.

The

is an
0(g)

= /xy(g)

/x : G/H

## \342\200\224>\342\226\240 0[G] given given

by
by

the homomorphism

to as a natural 14.11 is referred or canonical are used to describethe homomorphism y. There isomorphism, but the maps be other isomorphisms and homomorphisms for these same groups, may with are uniquely determined by Theorem 14.11. /x and <f> and y have a special status In summary, every homomorphism with domain G gives rise to a factor group G/H, and every factor group G into gives rise to a homomorphism mapping G/H G/H. isomorphism
and

the

## /x in Theorem same adjectives

Homomorphisms
how

and

factor

groups

are closely

related. We

give

an example

indicating

useful

this relationship
the

can be.
to the

14.12Example Solution

Classify

generated
The Z4 group

group abelian

(Z4 x groups

## Z2)/({0} x Z2)according (Theorem 11.12). x

Z2 \342\200\224>\342\200\242 Z4 given

fundamental

theorem of finitely

projection x Z2

map

it\\ : Z4
kernel

by

it\\{x,

y)

= x

onto Z4 with

{0} x

we Z2. By Theorem14.11,

know

## is a homomorphism of that the given factor

is isomorphic

to Z4. and

\342\226\2

Normal
We

Subgroups some
an

Inner

Automorphisms
subgroups,

derive
with

alternative way to

characterizations of normal

which
and

us

easier

check normality

than

finding

the

decompositions.

Section 14

Factor Groups
e H for all g
claim & H.

141
and

Suppose

that

is a subgroup

of G
e H}
obtain
and

such

that

heH.

Then gHg~l

gHg~l
g-1

= H. We
/i

= {ghg~l\\ h
show

ghg~l

e G
that

all

c H for all g
for

e G. We

must

that H

c gHg~l

all g

in the

relation ghg~l
=
that

e H, we

Consequently,
Suppose
and

ghig~l = Hg gH

e gHg~l,

## g-'/iC?-1)-1 we are done.

=

e G. Let h = g~lhg

hi

all g

for all g e

G. Theng/j
G,

/ii g,
that

so ghg^1
gHg^1 so
that

e H for
h\\g

e G
&

all

A e

Conversely,

But

preceding

paragraph,

this means
then
g~'/jg

= H g/j =
/jg

for all g
e

G.

gH c

Hg.

also,

## = H for all g & = H giving g~lHg

ghg~1 = hi = h2, so

Hg,

and

= gh2

and Hg

gH.
We

summarize

our work

as a theorem.

14.13Theorem

The

following
subgroup

are three
of

equivalent

conditions

for a subgroup

H of a

group

to be a

normal
1.

G.

ghg~l e
3.

all all

g e g

G
&

and

A e

H.

G.

of Theorem

Condition

(2)

14.13 is

often

taken

as the

definition of a

normal

subgroup

H of a group

G.
abelian
so, of

14.14Example

Every

subgroup

H of an
and

group

is normal.
h

We need
e H

only

note

that

for

all h

e H

all g & G,

course, ghg^1 =

gh =
all

hg

for all g

e G and

&

H.
\342\226\262

Exercise

29 of

## Section 13 shows that

the

map

is a homomorphism of G into itself. We see that is one to one. Since g(g~lyg)g~1 = y, we see that ig of G with itself.

^ :
ig

by and

^(x)

= gxg-1

is onto

G, so it

## only ifa = b, so is an isomorphism

14.15

Definition

An isomorphism 0
automorphism
automorphismof

:G

\342\200\224*G of

a group

ig : G G by

\342\200\224*G, where

g. Performing ^ on x is calledconjugation
of conditions

^(x)

## G with itself is an automorphism = gxg-1 for all x e G, is the inner

of x

of G. The
\342\226\240

by g.

(1) and (2) in Theorem 14.13 shows that gH = Hg = Hforallg e G, that is, if and only if His invariant for all g e G if andonly if ig[H] = H is an all inner automorphisms of G. It is important to realize that ig[H] under = h for all h e H. That is ^ may perform in sets; we need not have a equation ig{h) G are nontrivial permutation of the set H. We see that the normal subgroups of a group K of G is under all inner automorphisms. A subgroup precisely those that are invariant = ig[H] for someg & G. a conjugate subgroup of H if K
The

equivalence

142

Part

III

## Homomorphisms and Factor Groups

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

14

Computations
In

Exercises

1 through

8, find

## the order of the

given

factor

group.
2.

1.
3.

Zfi/<3)

(Z4 x
(Z3

Z12)/\302\2532)

<2\302\273

(Z4 x Z2)/<(2,
(Z2 (Z2

1))
1)) A))

4.

x Z5)/({0}

x Z5)

5.

x Z4)/((l, x 53)/<(l,

7.
In

the

## Z18)/((4, 3)) Z15)/<(1, 1))

Exercises

9 through
Z12/(4)

order

of the

element

in

the

factor

group.

9. 5 + (4) in
11.

(2, 1) +

((1,1)) in

(Z3

x Z6)/((l,

1))

13. (3, 1)+ ((0,2))in (Z4 x Z8)/((0, 2)) 15. (2, 0) + ((4,4)) in (Z6 x Z8)/((4,4)) = 16. Compute iP] [H] for the subgroup H

26 + (12) in Z60/(12) 12. (3,1) + ((1, )) in (Z4 1 14. (3, 3) + ((1, 2)) in (Z4
10. of the

x Z4)/((l,
x Z8)/((l,

1))
2))

{po,

/xi}

group S3 of Example

8.7.

Concepts

In Exercises

17 through
it is
subgroup

19, correct

the definition of
for

the

italicized

term without

reference

to

the

text, if correction

is needed, so that
17.

in a form
H

A normal
A An What

normal

subgroup

## acceptable of G is one satisfying of G is one satisfying

of a normal

publication. hG g~lhg

= Gh

for

all all

h e

H. H and G.
all

e H

for

h e

g e

G.

## automorphism is the often

of a group

G is a homomorphismmapping
subgroup

G into

importance
to one

of a

group G?
factor

Students

write

to call attention

## nonsense when first proving basic type of error.

subgroup

groups.

The next

two

exercises

are designed

21. A

student

proof show does should

to

show

that

if H

is a

normal

of an

abelian

group

G, then

G/H

is abelian. The

student's

starts

as follows:

We must

## is abelian. Let a reading have written?

this

and

b be

two elements to
find

of G/H.
from

a. Why
b.
c.
What

proof

expect

nonsense

here on

in

the

student's

paper?

the student

Complete
torsion

the proof.

22.

A group is torsion order. group is a group all of whose elements have finite the only element of finite order. A student is asked to prove that if G is a torsion group, H of G. The student writes every normal subgroup We must show that each element of G/H is of finite Let x e G/H. order. Answer the same questions as in Exercise 21.
A

free if
then

the

identity

is

so is

G/H for

23. Mark

each of the a. b.
It

following

true or

false.

makes

sense

to speak
of an

of the

factor

group
G is a
group

## G/N if and only

if N

is a normal

subgroup

of the

group

G.
Every

subgroup inner

abelian

group

normal subgroup
must

of G.
map.

c. An

automorphism

of an abelian

be just

the identity

Section

14

Exercises

143

d. Every
e. Every

factor

group
group

of a
of a

finite

group

is again

of

finite

order.

factor
factor factor
factor

torsion group is a
group

torsion

group.

(See Exercise

22.)

f.

Every

group group
group

of a torsion-free of an abelian
group

is torsion is abelian.
nonabelian.

free. (See

Exercise 22.)

g. Every
h. Every
i.

of a nonabelian

group is
nR =

Z/nZ
R/nR

is cyclic
is cyclic

of ordern.
of order
n,

j.
Theory

where

{nr | r e

R] and

R is

24. Show

that

is a A\342\200\236

normal subgroup of
of Theorem

## that is, S\342\200\236/A\342\200\236;

find a known
of

group

to which

is S\342\200\236/A\342\200\236

isomorphic.

25. Complete

the

proof

14.4

multiplication (aH)(bH)

26. Prove

that

the torsion

K of a
group

by

showing

that

if if

is a

subgroup

a group of G,

G
that

and

if left

coset

subgroup

and

G/

T is

torsion such

27.

A that

subgroup ig[H]

the

G if
relation

there exists
on the

an

inner

automorphism

equivalence
terms

collection
they

of

subgroups

of

ig of G G.

28. Characterize

normal

subgroups
in find

by the conjugacy

relation
27,
subgroup

the all

subgroups of 53
and

of the

cells where
are

appear

in the

partition

given

29.
30.

Referring

to Exercise

## (Example 8.7) that

m = (G

conjugate
that

to {p0, /x2}-

Let H
Show

be a normal
that any

of a group

G,

let

: H). Show
again

am e

for

every

a e

G.

31.

an intersection subset
[Hint:

of normal
group

subgroups G,

of a group

G is

a normal

subgroup of G.
smallest

32. Given
33. Let

S of a
Use

show

that it makes

normal

subgroup

that

contains S.

Exercise

31.]

G be a

group.
in

An element
G.

commutator
containing

## The preceding in G; all commutators

of G that can be expressed in the form aba~lb~l for somea, b e G is a exercise shows that there is a smallest normal C of a group G subgroup the C is the commutator subgroup of G. Show that G/C is an subgroup
exactly

abelian
34.

group. if

Show
Show

that
that

a finite

group G has
N

one

subgroup

H of a
N is

given

order,
in

then H

is a normal
N

subgroup

of G.
Show

35.

if H

and
that

are

by

an example

HON

of a group

G,
in G.

and

normal

G, then

H n

is normal

in H.

be

normal

36. Let

G be a
for

group

containing

at least
normal

one subgroup
subgroup

of a

fixed

finite

order fact

s. Show that if

that

the

intersection
then

of

all

subgroups

of G
all

of order 5 is a
G.]

of G.

## [Hint: Use the under

to

H has order s,

so does

x~lHx

x e

37. a.

Show

that

all automorphisms

of a group

G form

a group

function

composition.

b. Show that

the inner
function

automorphisms

of a group

under

composition.

## G form a [Warning: Be sure

ig : G
\342\200\224*G is

normal
show

subgroup of the group of all automorphisms that the inner automorphisms do form a ie is

subgroup.]
the

set of all

g e

G such

that

the

identity

inner

automorphism

a normal

subgroup

of a group

G.
G'

homomorphism

## H'. (This fact

be groups, and let H and H' be normal of G into G'. Show that 0 induces a natural is used constantly in algebraic topology.)

subgroups of G
homomorphism

and

G',

respectively.

Let 0

be a
c

: (G/H) 0\342\200\236

Part

III

## Homomorphisms and Factor Groups

= det(A)
determinant

Use

the

properties

det(AB)

\342\200\242

det(S)

and

det(7\342\200\236) 1 normal

for n

matrices

to show

the

following:

a.

The n

matrices

with determinant
with

1 form a
\302\2611 form

subgroup

b. Then
Let

x n

matrices
and

a normal
subsets

any

of GL(n,

Show

let

dP{G)

e A,b

## be the set e B}.

of all

of G.

A, B

e 3?{G), let us

define

the

product

a. b.

c.

this multiplication of subsets is associativeand has an identity element, but that i/\\ G) is not a under this operation. group of G, then the set of cosetsof N is closed under the above Show that if N is a normal subgroup operation on 2P(G), and that this operation agrees with the multiplication given by the formula in Corollary 14.5. Is Show (without using Corollary 14.5) that the cosets of N in G form a group under the above operation. its identity element the same as the identity element of 3\\ G)?
that

section

15

Factor-Group
Factor computation

## Computations and SimpleGroups

tough topic for students
in

groups

can be a

to grasp.

There is

nothing

like

a bit
to

of

understanding improve attempting concerning factor groups. Sincewe will be dealing with normal subgroups a subgroup of a group this section, we often denote G by N rather than throughout by H. the subgroup N acts as Let N be a normal of G. In the factor group subgroup G/N, element. We may regard N as being collapsedto a single element, either to 0 in identity additive notation or to e in multiplicative notation. This collapsing of N together with the algebraic structure of G require that other subsets of G, namely, the cosets of N, also collapse into a single element in the factor group. A visualization of this collapsing is providedby Fig. 15.1. Recall from Theorem 14.9 that y : G \342\200\224>\342\226\240 by defined G/N = aN for a e G is a homomorphism of G onto G/N. Figure 15.1 is very similar to y(a) the homomorphism under is actually formed Fig. 13.14, but in Fig. 15.1 the image group at the bottom of the figure as obtained by collapsing from G. We can view the \"line\" G/N each coset of N in another to a point of G/N thus corresponds copy of G. Each point to a whole vertical line segment in the shaded portion, representing a coset of N in G. It is crucial to remember that multiplication of cosets in G/N can be computed by in G, using any representative of the cosets as shown elements in the figure. multiplying
mathematics.

to strengthen

We start by

our intuition

i'

I I /~</\\T

I I

I I

aN

bN

(ab)N

cN

=(aN)(bN)

15.1

Section

15

## Factor-Group Computations and Simple Groups

145

two elements of G will collapse into the same element of G/N if they an element of N. Multiplicatively, a and b collapse by together if ab~v is in N. The degree of collapsing can vary from nonexistent to catastrophic. We illustrate the two extreme cases by examples.

Example
Solution

The

trivial

subgroup

N =

{0} of

is,

of course,

a normal subgroup.
one all,

Compute Z/{0}.
element.

Since N =
the

{0}has

only

one Z is

cosets

are of

Z/{0}
15.3

~ Z. Each m

e

## element, every coset of N has only for m e Z. There is no collapsing at

{m}

That is,
\342\226\262

and consequently,

simply renamed

in

Z/{0}.
.

Example

Let and

n be a it is

shows

\\ r

is a subgroup

of E under

E/nl
x

Solution

A bit

of

thought

that actually

nE =

each E, because

e E nE.

## and x/n e E. Thus E/nE a trivial group consisting

has only
only

one element,the
identity element.

subgroup

## is of the form The factor

n{x/n)
group

is
\342\226\262

of the

G As illustrated in Examples 15.2 and 15.3 for any group G, we have G/{e] of the identity e. where is the trivial element and G/ G ~ {e}, {e} group consisting only We would like knowledge These two extremes of factor groups are of little importance. about the structure of G. If N = {e}, of a factor group G/N to give someinformation G the factor has the same structure as G and we might as well have tried to study group structure to supply information If N = G, the factor has no significant directly. group about of G, then is a G. If G is a finite and N / {e}is a normal group subgroup G/N have a more simple structure than smaller group than G, and consequently G. The may multiplication of cosetsin G/N reflects the multiplication in G, since products of cosets can be computed in G representative elementsof the cosets. by multiplying We give two examples that even when has order 2, we may be able to G/N showing If G is a finite deduce some useful results. and G/N has just two elements, then group H containing we must have \\G\\ =2\\N\\. Note that every subgroup half the elements just of a finite group G must be a normal subgroup, since for each element a in G but not in both the left coset aH and the right coset Ha must consist of all elements in G that H, are not in H. Thus the left and right of H coincide and H is a normal subgroup cosets

of G.

15.4Example

Because

\\Sn\\

\\A\342\200\236 |, we

Let a be
An
\"even\"

an

## odd permutation and the element

see that An is a normal subgroup of Sn, and Sn/An = in S\342\200\236, so that S\342\200\236/A\342\200\236 A\342\200\236}. {An, a Renaming

has order

2.

the element

A\342\200\236 \"odd,\"

the multiplication

in

shown in S\342\200\236/A\342\200\236

Table 15.5

becomes

15.5Table
(even)(even)

= even

(odd)(even)

odd

An
An

aAn

(even)(odd) = odd

(odd)(odd)
properties

= even.
for all

An

oAn
An

Thus the
Sn.

factor

aAn

oAn

group

reflects these

multiplicative

the

permutations

in

146

Part III

and Homomorphisms

Factor

Groups

that while knowing the product of two cosets in G/N does Example 15.4 illustrates us what the product of two elements of G is, it may tell us that the product in G of two types of elements itself is of a certain type.
not

tell

15.6 Example

(Falsity

of

the

Converse
of

of the Theorem
a finite

of Lagrange)

The

theorem

of Lagrange

## states if 77 is a subgroup We show that it is false

H of G having
subgroup

order

group G, then the order of 77 divides the order of G. there must exist a subgroup that if d divides the order of G, then no that d. Namely, we show A4, which has order 12, contains

of order
15.4,
have

6.

Supposethat
Example
would

of order
(crH)(crH)

2,

77 were a subgroup of A4 having order 6. As observed before in of A4. Then A4/H it would follow that H would be a normal subgroup only two elements, H and crH for some a e A4 not in H. Since in a group we would have 7777 = 77 and the of each element is the identity, square = H. Now in a factor group can be achieved by computing computation
in

with representatives

the

original

a e H we

must

have

a2 e

H
A4

and

square of

every elementin
(1,2,3)

group. Thus, computing in A4, we find that for each each P e oH we must have is, the P2 e H. That must be in H. But in A4, we have
for
and

= (1,3.2)2
in and

(1,3,2)

= (1,2,3)2

so (1, 2, 3) and

(1, 3),

3, 2) (2, 3,

are 4),

H. (2,

A similar 4, 3)
the

(1,3,4), (1,4,
least

8 elements
We

in H,

computation shows that (1, 2, 4), (1, 4, 2), are all in H. This shows that there must be at 6. \342\226 order fact that H was supposed to have
compute
its

now

turn to
generated

several examplesthat
and abelian,

factor group

then

factor

## groups. If the group will be also. Computing

we

start
such

means classifying it

according

to the

15.7

Example

Let

us compute
Z4

H of

Z(,

((0, 1))is

the

cyclic

subgroup

H = {(0.), 0
Since

(0,

1), (0.
H have

## 2), (0, 3), (0, 4),(0,5)}.

6 elements, all cosets 4. Since Z4 x Zg
group

Z4

x Zg

6 elements,

// =

## has 24 elements and and (Z4 x Z(,)/H must

we

has

of H
is

must

have

order

abelian,

so is

compute

in a factor
notation,

by

means

of representatives

the

cosets
(2,0)

are
+ 7/,

(0,0) + 7/,

(1,0)+

7/,

(3,0) +

7/.

we Since can compute by choosing the representatives (0, 0), (1, 0), (2,0), and (3, 0), it is clear that (Z4 x Zg)/7/ is isomorphic to Z4. Note that this is what we would expect, since in a factor group modulo 7/, everything in 7/ becomes the identity that is, element; in 7/ equal to zero. we are essentiallysetting Thus the whole second factor everything \342\226 the first factor Z4. Zg of Z4 x Zg is collapsed, leaving just

Example

15.7 is a
acquire

We

should

an intuitive
element.

## special case of a general feeling for this

theorem
theorem

that we
in terms

now

state

and prove.
the

of collapsing one of

factors

to the

identity

Section

15

Factor-Group

## Computations and Simple Groups

147

15.8

Theorem

Let G

= HxK
~ H
in

be

the direct

is a
G/K

normal

subgroup a natural

of G. way.

H

and

K. to

Then

K in a

## H = {{h, e)\\h e 7/} natural way. Similarly,

Proof

Consider
13.8). n2

the

homomorphism

7t2 : H

->\342\200\242 where K,

Because

Ker(7T2) = H,

we see that
us

is a normal

is onto
We

K, Theorem

14.11tells

that

(H x

K)/H ~

Jt2(h, k)

K.

\342\231\246

continue
it

how easy

is to

compute

## with additional computations of abelianfactor if we can compute in a factor group

theorem.

groups.
in

To illustrate

the

whole

group, we

prove the
15.9 Theorem Proof
A

following

factor

group

of a cyclic
with

group

is cyclic.

Let G
the

be cyclic
aN
in

generator

a, and let N

be a

normal

subgroup

coset

generates
G,

computing,
in

all

G/N

G.

Hence

the powers
factor

of aN
group

certainly

give

of N
(0,

and

is cyclic.

\342\231\246

15.10

Example

Let us

compute the

(Z4 x
7/

## Z6)/((0, 2)). Now

2) generates

the

subgroup

= ((0,0),(0,2),(0,4)}

of Z4 x Z(, of order 3. Here the first factor Z4 of Z4 x Z(, is left alone. The Z(, factor, on the other hand, is essentially collapsed by a subgroup of order 3, giving a factor group in the second factor of order 2 that must be isomorphic Z2. Thus (Z4 x Zg)/((0, 2)) to to Z4 x Z2. \342\226\262 is isomorphic
15.11

Example

Let us
temptation

compute the
to

factor

group

say that

we are setting

the

to Z2 Z3.

3)). Becarefull
the

There

is a great
to

3 of Zg

both equal
isomorphic
that

zero,

so that

7/ = is of

to one Note

to Z3, giving

((2, 3)) =
3)) has
to zero

{(0,

0),

(2,

3)}
6.

order 2, so (Z4
make

Z6)/((2.

individually,

Setting

doesnot

(2, 0)

groups

so

the

factors

Z2

separately.

must

of order
factor

12 are

Z4

Z3 and

Z2 x
two

Z3,

and we
are most

decide

to which that

one

our

easily

distinguished

not. We
To find must,
the
by

claim the

## group is isomorphic. These has an element of order 4, and

groups

Z2

x Z2
(Z4

x Z3 does
x Ze)/H. 7/, we that is in

7/ is

of

order

smallest

power of a
representatives,

coset giving
find the

the

## 4 in the factor group in a factor group identity

modulo

choosing

smallest powerof
+ (1, 0) +

a representative

subgroup

7/. Now,

4(1. 0) =

(1,

0)

(1, 0)

(1,

0)

(0, 0)
(Z4

is the first time that (1, 0) addedto itself gives an element of 7/. Thus of order 4 and is isomorphic has an element to Z4 x Z3 or Zj2.

x Z6)/((2,

3))
\342\226\262

148

Part

III

Homomorphisms

## and Factor Groups

15.12

Example

11.12 the group (Z x Z)/((l, We (that is, classify as in Theorem may Z x Z as the points in the plane with both coordinates as indicated integers, of those points that lie on the the dots in Fig. 15.13. The subgroup ((1, 1)) consists by 45\302\260 line through the origin, indicated in the figure. The coset (1, 0) + of 1)) consists those dots on the 45\302\260 through the point (1, 0), also shown line in the figure. Continuing, lines we see that each coset consists of those dots lying on one of the 45\302\260 in the figure.
Letus

compute

1)).

visualize

((1,

We may

choose

the representatives
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242, (-3,

0), (-2,

## 0), (-1,0), (0, 0), (1,0), *-axis, we seethat

the

(2,

0), (3,

0),--correspond

of these cosetsto
precisely
is

compute of Z

in the

factor

to the

points

on the

group (Z x

Z)/((l, 1))
A

isomorphic

to Z.

15.13Figure

Simple

Groups

As we

may

## section, preceding the structure of the

one feature of a factor group is that it gives whole Of course, sometimes there group.
10.10
any

be

no nontrivial

a group

of prime

order

Theorem proper normal subgroups. For example, can have no nontrivial of proper subgroups

shows

that

sort.

Section

15

Factor-Group

149

15,14

Definition
Theorem

group

is simple

if it is
An

nontrivial

and

has no
>

proper

nontrivial

normal

subgroups.

\342\226\240

15.15

The alternating

group

is simple

for

5.

Proof

There

\342\231\246

order 60 and
The

## are many simple A& is of order

orders.

168, betweenthese
complete

groups other than those given above. For example,Ag is of of nonprime 360, and there is a simple group order, namely

determination and classification of all finite were simple groups Hundreds of mathematicians worked on this task from 1950 to 1980. completed. recently It can be shown that a finite has a sort of factorization into group simple groups, where are unique up to order. the factors The situation is similar to the factorization of positive The new knowledge of all finite integers into primes. simple groups can now be used to some problems of finite solve group theory. We have seen in this text that a finite abelian simple group is isomorphic to %p for some prime p. In 1963, Thompson and Feit [21] published their proof of a longstanding that is of even every finite nonabelian simple group conjecture of Burnside, showing strides toward the complete classification were made order. Further great by Aschbacher in the 1970s. Early in 1980, Griess announced that he had constructed a predicted \"monster\" simple group of order

## 808, 017,424, 794, 512,875,886,459,

904,

961,

710, 757,

005, 754,368,

000,000, 000.
of the classification in August 1980. The research entire classification fill roughly 5000 journal pages. paperscontributing We turn to the characterization of those normal Nofa subgroups group G for which is a simple group. First we state an addendum to Theorem 13.12 on properties of G/N
Aschbacher

the

final details

to the

## a group 15.16 Theorem

homomorphism.

The

proof is left

to

Exercises

35 and

36.
G, then 0LV] then 0_1 [N']

Let \302\247 : G
is a normal

->\342\200\242 G' be

subgroup

## a group homomorphism. If N is of 0[G]. Also, if N' is a normal

a normal
subgroup

subgroup

of

of 0[G],

is a

normal

subgroup

of G.

be viewed as saying that a homomorphism G' : G \342\200\224*\302\247 subgroups between G and 0[G]. It is important to note that 0[iV] may in G', even though N is normal in G. For example, not be normal : Z2 \342\200\224*S3, where \302\242) = 0(0) = po and \302\242(1) /xi is a homomorphism, and Z2 is a normal subgroup of itself, but of 53. {p0, /xi} is not a normal subgroup We can now characterize when G/N is a simple group.

normal

preserves

15.17Definition

A maximal

such

## normal subgroup that there is no proper normal

of a group G is a
subgroup

normal

subgroup
containing

M not
M.

equal

to

G
\342\226\240

N of

G properly

150

Part

III

Homomorphisms

15.18

Theorem

is a maximal

normal

subgroup

of

G if

and

only

if G/M

is simple.

Proof

Let M be a
y :

maximal

\342\200\224*G/M

given

## normal subgroup of by Theorem 14.9. Now

G. Considerthe
y~l

subgroup

of

G/M

maximal,

so

this

Conversely,

containing M,

is a proper normal subgroup of can not happen. Thus G/M is simple. Theorem 15.16 shows that if N is a normal subgroup If also N / G, then then y [N] is normal in G/M.
y[N]

is

of

G properly

G/M
no

and

y|W]

{M}.

maximal.
The
Every

such

y[N]

is

\342\23

Center
nonabelian

and

Commutator
G has
subgroup two

Subgroups
important

group

normal is denned

subgroups, by
all

the center
the

Z(G) of
word

and

the commutator

of G.
Z(G)

g e

German

## zentrum, meaning center.) The center Z(G) =

{z&G\\zg = gz for

G}.

Exercise 52 of

Section we

Gandz e Z(G)
subgroup

of

G. If

Z(G) is an abelian subgroup of G. Since for eachg e = zgg-1 = ze = z, we see at once that Z(G) is a normal = G; in this case, the center is not useful. G is abelian, then Z(G)
5 shows that have

gzg-1

15.19

Example

for

that

the

group
Exercise

shows ,\302\276

case of

Turning

## us that Z(&) = which shows that 38, q is trivial.) Consequently,

= {e}, It may be that Z(G) examination of Table 8.8 example, so the center of ,\302\276trivial. is (This is a special {/?oK of every nonabelian group of order pq the center elements.
For
the

center

of S3

Zg

must

be

x {/\302\276}

^5,

\342\22

modulo

equal

to

to the commutator subgroup, recall that in forming a factor group a normal subgroup element in G that N, we are essentially putting every in the factor group. This indicates another e, for N forms our new identity

of is in use

N
for

the structure of a nonabelian information about the structure of all 11.12 group G. Since Theorem gives complete sufficiently small abelian groups, it might be of interest to try to form an abelian group as much like G as possible,an abelianized of G, by starting with G and then version that ab = ba for all a and b in our new group To require that ab = ba structure. requiring is to say that aba~lb~l = e in our new group. An element aba~lb~l in a group is a commutator of the group.Thus we wish to attempt to form an abelianized version of G of G by e. By the first observation of this paragraph, we by replacing every commutator to form the factor group of G modulo the smallest normal should then attempt subgroup we can find that contains all commutators of G.
factor groups.
we

## Suppose, for example,that

are studying

15.20

Theorem

LetGbeagroup.Thesetofallcomrnutatorsafca-1^1

## commutator subgroup) of if N is a normal subgroup Furthermore,

C

(the

G. This
of

G,

G generates a subgroup normal subgroup of subgroup then G/N is abelianif and only if C <
fora, b e C is a

G.

N.

Section15 Exercises
The

151

Proof

commutators
that

G. Note
bab~la~l.

precisely

for all g
inserting

it is normal in C; we must show that certainly generate a subgroup of a commutator is again a commutator, (aba~lb~l)~l namely, Also e = eee~1e~lis a commutator. Theorem 7.6 then shows that C consists of all finite products For x e C, we must show that g~lxg e C of commutators. so is g~lxg e G, or that if x is a product of commutators, for all g e G. By the

inverse

e =

gg~l
show

is sufficient

to

occurring
that

in x,

g~1(cdc~1d~l)g

## we see that it is in C. But

g-\\cdc-ld-l)g

= (g-lcdc-l)(e)(d-lg)

= (g-lcdc-l)(gd-ldg-l)(d-lg)
=

[(g-1c)d(g-lc)-ld~l][dg-1d-1g],

which

## is in C. Thus The rest

C is normal
theorem

in

G.

of the

is obvious
in this

v groups. Onedoesn'tisualize

acquired the
out

that G/

(aC){bC)

= abC

= ab{b~la~lba)C
=

## = = (abb~l Tl)baC baC c

Furthermore, (b-lN)(a-lN); C < N, then if N is a normal subgroup that is, aba~lb~lN
of G

(bC){aC).
(a~1N)(b~lN)

= N, so

and G/N
aba~lb~l

is abelian,then
e N,

=
if

## and C < N. Finally,

(aN)(bN)

= abN

= ab{b~laTlba)N
=

= (abb~la~l)baN= baN
15.21 Example

(bN)(aN).

For the

commutator S3/A3

## subgroup is abelian, Theorem

that one commutator is /?i/xi/?j~'/x^' = = M2M3 = Pi- Thus the find that paMiP^Vi\"1 = P2M1P1M1 C of S3 contains A3. Since A3 is a normal subgroup of S3 and

8.8, we find

Pi^iPi^i
\342\226\262

## 15.20 shows that

= A3.

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

15

Computations
In

Exercises

1 through

12, classify

the

given

group

according 2. (Z2

to

the

fundamental

theorem

of

finitely

generated

abelian

groups.
Z4)/((0,1)) Z4)/((l, 2))

1.
3. 5.

x (\302\276 x (\302\276

4.

(Z

(Z4 x

6.
8.

x Z)/((0,

1))

(Z x Z x
x Z

9.

(Z

x Z

x Z4)/((3,

0, 0))

10. (Z
12.

x Z8)/((0,4,

## Z)/((l, 1, 1)) 0))

11. (Z x Z)/((2,)) 2

(Z x Z

x Z)/((3,

3, 3))

152
13.

Part III

Homomorphisms

and

Factor

Groups

Find

both

the center

## Z{D^) and and

the the

and

the

commutator

subgroup of Z3 x of S3 x

C of the

group

D4 of

symmetries of the

square

in

Table 8.12.

14.

Find

both both

## the center the center

all

commutator commutator

subgroup subgroup

53.

15. Find

D4.

16. Describe
the the

subgroup subgroup

of order < 4 of Z4 x Z4, and in each case classify the factor group of Z4 x Z4 modulo subgroups of Z4 x Z4 modulo by Theorem 11.12. That is, describe the subgroup and say that the factor group is isomorphic to Z2 x Z4, or whatever the case may be. [Hint: Z4 x Z4 has six different cyclic

by giving
Klein

((1, 0)).
of order

2.]

Concepts
In

Exercises

17 and
it is

## 18, correct the

in a form
group

definition

of the

italicized term
commute
\\a,b

without

reference

to the

text,

if

correction

is

needed, so that
17.

acceptablefor publication.
all elements

The center

of a

G contains

of G that

with every

element of G.

18. The

commutator

subgroup
following factor

## of a group true group

19. Mark

each of the a.
Every

G is {a~lb~lab or false.
group

e G}.

of a cyclic
a noncyclic
has

is cyclic.

b. A

c. R/Z

## factor group of under addition

d. R/Z under addition e. M/Z under addition f. If the commutator g. If G/H is abelian,
h. The commutator i. The commutator

group is again noncyclic. of order 2. has elements of order n for all n e Z+. has an infinite number of elements of order 4. G is {e}, then G is abelian. subgroup C of a group
no element
then

j.
In

All

nontrivial

subgroup of C of G contains H. subgroup group G must be G itself. G must be G itself. of a nonabelian simple group subgroup finite simple groups have prime order.
the commutator of a simple

Exercises

23, let F
all

be the
of F
consisting

that

group

multiplicative

of

elements

do not of

into

R, and let

F* be the
F/K

of R.
of F

20. Let
21. Let

subgroup of F

the constant

functions.

Find

a subgroup

to

which

is

isomorphic.
K*

be

F*/K*

## the subgroup of is isomorphic.

F* consisting

of the

nonzero constant
in F.

functions.

Find

a subgroup

of F*
order

to

which

22. Let K
or why
23.

be the not?

subgroup of
subgroup

continuous

functions

Can

you

find

an element

of F/K
find

having

2? Why

Let K*
having

be the
order

of F*

consisting of the
not?

continuous

functions

in F*.

Can you

an element

of F*/K*

2? Why

or why
let U

In Exercises

24 through
U. Show \342\202\254 group

26,

be

the

multiplicative
\\ z \342\202\254 U) is in

group a subgroup

{z

C \342\202\254 | \\z\\
and

1}. U/zoU.

## 24. Let zo 25. To what 26. Let

27.

that

zqU =

{zqz

of U,

compute

we have

mentioned

the

text is
n e

U/{\342\200\224 1) isomorphic?

= f\342\200\236

cos(2jr/n)

+ i sin(2jr/n)
in the

where the

Z+. To what
group

group

we have

mentioned is

isomorphic? U/{!;\342\200\236}

To what group

mentioned

text is

R/Z isomorphic?

Section 15

Exercises

153

28.
29.

Give

an

example
elements

of a group
are of
finite

G having
order.

no

elements

of finite

showing

having

a factor

whose

Let H
G/H

## and K be normal subgroups of a is not isomorphic to G/K.

group

G.

Give an

example

that

we may

while

30.

Describe the
a. abelian

center of every
group.
commutator

simple

group
subgroup

b.
31.

nonabelian

Describe the

of every

simple

a. abelian group
b.

nonabelian

group.

Proof Synopsis

32. Give

a one-sentence most

synopsis of

the

proof

of Theorem
proof

15.9. 15.18.

## 33. Give at Theory

a two-sentence

synopsis of the

of Theorem

34. Show
35.

that
cj> :

if a finite

group G contains
group

a nontrivial

subgroup of

index

2 in subgroup

G, then G is not
of G.

simple.
that

Let

G ->

G' be a

homomorphism,

and let N

be a normal

Show

cj>[N]

is normal

subgroup of 0[G].

36. Let

homomorphism,

and let

N' be a normal

subgroup

of G'.

Show

that

<j>\"1

[N1]

is a

37. Show
positive,

that

if G

is nonabelian,
37, show
that

then

## namely, that if G/Z{G) is

Exercise
that

38.
39.

Using

group G/Z{G) is not cyclic. [Hint: Show the equivalent G is abelian (and hence Z(G) = G).] cyclic nonabelian p and q are primes has a trivial group G of order pq where
the factor
then

contra-

center.

Prove

the

steps

## and hints given. 3. [Hint:

that

a.

b.

every 3-cycle if n > 3. Show is generated A\342\200\236 by the 3-cycles for {a, c){a, b) = {a, b, c).]
Show

n >

Note

{a, b)(c,

d) =

(a, c, b){a,c, d)
by the
n

and

c. Let
by

r and

5 be of the

3-cycles

\342\200\242 is generated fixed elements of {1,2, \342\200\242 for n > 3. Show that A\342\200\236 \342\200\242, n} form (r, s, i) for 1 < i < n [Hint: Show every 3-cycle is the product

\"special\"

of \"special\"

3-cycles

computing

## (r, s,if, and

(r,

(r,s, j)(r,s,i)2,

(r. s, jf(r,

s,i),

5. i)2{r,

s, k)(r,

s, j)2(r,s, i).
N =
A\342\200\236. [Hint:

Observe that these products give all possible types of 3-cycles.] for n d. Let N be a normal subgroup of A\342\200\236 > 3. Show that if N contains a 3-cycle,then \342\200\242 n by that (r, s, i) e N implies that (r, s, j) e N for j = 1, 2, \342\200\242 computing \342\200\242,

Show

((r,s)(i,mr,s,i)2((r,s)(ij))-1.]

e. Let N

be a

and conclude

## nontrivial normal in each case that

subgroup

of A\342\200\236 for n
A\342\200\236.

> 5.

Show

that

one of the

hold,

154

Part

III

Homomorphisms

## and Factor Groups

Case

N contains
Af

a 3-cycle.
[Hint: ShowCT-1(ai,

Casell

containsaproductofdisjointcycles,atleastoneofwhichhaslengthgreaterthan3.
the

Suppose

N contains
and

disjoint

product

a =

/x(\302\253i, 02,---,0.,.).

02, a3)o{a\\,a.2,
Show

02, aA)
2-cycles.

compute
contains

it.]
a disjoint

Caselll

product of the
N,

former

= (1(04,0$, = (i(a\\, ## 0^)(01,02, a3). [Hint: (i is a o~l(a\\, a(a\\, a.2,a4)_1 is in and compute ## it.] a2, a3) where product of disjoint CaselV Case V contains [Hint: number a disjoint product of the former Show a2 e N and compute it.] a disjoint of disjoint product a of the former = (i(a3, 04)(01,02), where /x is a product of an even a 2-cycles. [Hint: Show that o~Y(ai, C12, 3)a(a\\, ai, a3)~lis in N, and compute it to deduce that a = (02, 04)(01, a3) is in N. Using n > 5 for the first time, find i ^ a\\, a.2, a3, a4 \342\200\242 in {1, 2, \342\200\242 Let /J = (ai,a3, 0- Show that j}~xafia e A7, and compute it.] \342\200\242, \302\253}. N contains ## 40. Let N be HN is a normal 42. Show and fc a normal subgroup of G. Let HN = {hn subgroup of G and let H be any subgroup of G, and is the smallest subgroup containing both N and H. the \\h e H,n that & N}. Show that ## 41. With reference to subgroup preceding exercise, let M also be a group normal subgroup of G. Show NM is again a e ff of G. that if H e K. ## and ^f are normal [Hint: Consider the subgroups of a commutator G such hkh~lk~x ## t that H n K = {e},hen M = kh for = (hkh~l)k~l = h{kh'lk~1).] all /z section 16 tGROup Action seen on a Set of how the We have examples or of a and section groups of a triangle ## acting on ffi\", set. The next The Definition into 52 so on. In ## square, group this section, we give will give an application to ## may act on of rotations the things, like the group general group of symmetries linear action of a cube, the general group on a notion of counting. Notion 2.1 of a defines ## Group Action set S to be S. The in S function ## a binary operation * on a * gives us a rule for \"multiplying\" si * any a function mapping S and xS an element si in S an element ## to yield an element generally, for defining a \"multiplication,\" More value 52 in S. sets where A, B, and C, we can a of A view times a map * :A \342\200\224>\342\20 C as any element any element some element c of ## section, we will be a map *:GxX->I concerned C. Of course, we write a * b = c, or simply with the case where X is a set, G is a group, We shall write *(g, x) as g * x or gx. action of G on X is a map b of B has as ab = c. In this and we have 16.1 Definition Let X be a set and G a group. An *:GxI^I such that \342\226 1. ex = x for all x e X, for = 2. (gig2)(x) gi(g2x) Under these all x X and \342\202\254 all gu g2 G. conditions, X is a G-set. This section is a prerequisite only for Sections 17 and 36. Section 16 Group Action on a Set 155 16.2 Example Let X be any Then X is an Sx, so that set, and let H be a the subgroup of the group X Sx of all is permutations of element X. of //-set, where = o{x) action of a e H on its action as an for all x e X. Condition 2 is a consequence of the of definition as function and Condition 1 is immediate from permutation multiplication composition, the definition of the identity as the identity function. Note that, in particular, permutation \342\200\242 is an \342\200\242 \342\226\262 set. Sn {1, 2, 3, \342\200\242, n} ax that for every G-set X and each g e G, the map = gx is a permutation of X, and that there is a homomorby ag{x) the action the Example 16.2action : G -+ Sx such that of G on X is essentially phism \302\242) of Sx on X of the image subgroup H = 0[G] of Sx on X. So actions of subgroups all possible actions on X. When the set X, actions using describe studying subgroups group G via a group action of G on X. a of Sx suffice. However, sometimes set X is used to study 16.1. Thus we need the more general concept given by Definition Our next X theorem will show ag : X -+ defined 16.3 Theorem For each g e G, the function ag : X -+ X defined for x \342\202\254 a permutation of X. Also, the map 0 : G -+ Sx defined by X is with the property that <j>{g){x) = gx. homomorphism Let be a G-set. by og{x) 0(g) = gx is a crg Proof To show of show that it is a one-to-one map ag is a permutation of X, we must X. Then itself. Suppose that ag{x\\) = ag(xi) for x\\, X2 \342\202\254 gx\\ = gX2= g~1(gX2)- Using Condition 2 in Definition 16.1, we see that g~l(gx\\) Consequently, = (g~1g)x2, so ex\\ = ex2- Condition 1 of the definition then yields x\\ \342\200\224 xi, (g_1g)xi so ag is one to one. The two conditions of the definition show that for x e X, we have = g(g~l)x = (gg~l)x = ex = x, soag maps X onto X. Thus ag is indeed a ag(g~Xx) that X onto permutation. To show show that that$ 4>{g\\g2) =
in

: G -+ Sx defined
4>{g\\)4>{gi)

by

4>{g) =

for

all gi,

g2
carry

&

G.

permutations
Using obtain

Sx

by showing

they both

ag is a homomorphism, we must the equality of these two into the same element. anieX
We show for
rule

the

two

conditions

in Definition

16.1 and

the

function

composition, we

0(gig2)(*)

agig2(x)

= (gig2)x
=

= gi(g2x) gi(Tg2(x) =
=

agt(ag2(x))

(\302\2760\302\276)^)

(\302\276\302\276)\302\276 (0(\302\243l)0(,g2))(*).

## Thus 0 is a homomorphism. The stated = we have 4>{g){x) og{x) definitions,

It follows

= gx.

property

of

follows \302\242)

at once

since

by

our
\342\231\246

from the preceding theorem and Theorem13.15 that if X is G-set, then of G leaving every element of X fixed is a normal subgroup NofG, we and of a coset gN on X is given by (gN)x = gx can regard X as a G/N-set where the action for eachx e X. If N = {e}, then the identity element of G is the only element that leaves every x & X fixed; we then say that G acts faithfully on X. A group G is transitive on
the

subset

a G-setX if
transitive

for

each

x\\,X2

\342\202\254 X, there

exists g & G

on

Exercise
We

49

X if with

if the

subgroup

X2-

Note

that

G is
in

on

X, as

defined

continue

more examples

of G-sets.

Part III
16.4 Example

Homomorphisms

and

Factor

Groups

Every

group

G is where

the

action If H

multiplication.

That is,

as
16.5

an

//-set,

## *(gi, g2) = *(/i, g) = hg.

gig2-

on g2 e G by is a subgroup of

gi

e G

is given
also

by

left

G, we can

regard

G
A

Example

Let//be
for

a subgroup
and

g e G

/j e

of G. Then G is an //-set under conjugation //. Condition 1 is obvious, and for Condition
(hih2)g(hih2r1

where

*(h,
that

g) =

hgh~x

2 note
*(hu*(h2,

*(hih2,

g) = this

hx{h2gh~^)h~x

g)).
abbreviation

We

always

write

action of
definition

H on G by
would

conjugation

as hgh\"x.

The
the

hg

described

before the

cause

terrible

confusion

with

group

operation

ofG.
16.6

\342\2

Example

For students who have studied vector spaces with real (or complex) scalars, we mention that the axioms (rs)\\ = r(s\\) and lv = v for scalars r and 5 and a vector v show that for the multiplicative group of nonzero the set of vectors is an R*-set (or a C*-set) \342\2 scalars. Let H
a G-set,

16.7

Example

be a
that

subgroup the

of action

where

Observe shows
G-sets
that

this

action

and g{yH)

= (gy)H
every

= = (gxh)H (gx)(hH)
is isomorphic to

let L# be the set of all left cosets of H. Then LH is = (gx)H. e G on the left coset xH is given by g(xH) = xh for some h e //, is well defined: if yH = xH, then y
G, and of g
=

(gx)H
may

= g(xH).
be formed
17.)

series

of exercises
left

G-set

one that

as building

## 1 blocks. (SeeExercises 4through

Z)4 =

using these

coset

\342\2

16.8

Example

Let G
described
in

be

the

group

{p0, p\\,
Fig.

p2,

Fig.

horizontal
that

pi

1, 2, 3, 4 as sides the and d2, vertical and si, 52, s3, s4, d\\ diagonals axes m\\ center point C, and midpoints P,- of the sides 5,-. Recall to rotating the square counterclockwise corresponds through ni/2 radians, /x,in Example 8.11. We also

h\\, the

S2]

## of of symmetries with vertices square

the

square,

16.9

Figure

Section

16

Group

Action

on

a Set

157

16.10 Table
1
Po

2 2 3

Si \342\200\24251
S\\ S2 S3

S3

m\\ \342\200\24254 S4

m2 tn2

di

di di di d2 di di
dx

Pi

Pi Pi P3 P4
Pi

P3

P4 P4

Pi

4 1 2

4 1
2

S3

mi m2

Si
S3

## \342\226\24054 S\\ S2 \342\200\242Si

Pi
P-i

Mi M2 Si S2

4 2 4 3 1

4 1 1 3 2

S4 Si S4

S4 Si s3

mi \342\200\24252 mi \342\200\242S3
Si \342\200\242S3

3 1

mi

2 1 3

Si Si S3

## \342\200\242S4 \342\200\24251 m\\

Si
S4

S4 Si

ffjT \342\200\242S3

mi m2 mi mi m2 mi
nil

di d2

Pi

p3

Pi

P4

di di

di
di

P3 P4
Pi

P4

Pi Pi P3
Pi

di

di

P3

Pi

mi \342\200\24251

di

di

Pi P4

Pi

P4

Pi Pi P3 Pi P4 P3
Pi

p3

Pi

corresponds

to flipping
X

on

the

axis

53, 54,

flipping

on di.

the diagonal

di. We let

{1, 2,

3, 4, si,
as a

52,

mi, mi,

d\\,

C, P\\,

## P2, P3, Pn).

the

ThenX can
action

be regarded
X

in \302\243>4-set

a natural

way. Table

## 16.10 describes completely

of D4 on
be

and

We should

sure

is given to provide geometric illustrations of ideas to be introduced. this table is formed before continuing. \342\226\262 that we understand how

Isotropy

Subgroups
be

Let let

a G-set.

Let x

&

X and

g e

G. It

will

be important

to

know

when

gx =

x.We

{x e 16.11 Example

gx

= x]

and

GA

{g e

gx

= x}.

For the

Z)4-set

X in

## Example 16.8, we have

XPI={C],

Xpo=X,

XIM={sl,S3,mum2,C,PuP3}

Also,

with

= D4,

Gi = We leave the
Note
subgroups

lp0,S2},
of the

GJ3={po,Mi}other Xa
in and

Gdl Gx

= {p0,p2,Si,S2}.

computation

to Exercises

1 and

2.
in

\342\226\262

that
of

## the subsets Gx given

the

preceding

example

were,

each

case,

G. This

is

true

in general.

16.12 Theorem

Let X

be

a G-set.

Then Gx is a
g\\,

subgroup

of

G for

each ieX,

Proof

Let x

&

g\\{g2x) =

courseex
g~lx,
16.13
and

= Then g\\x = x and g2x = x. Consequently, (gig2)* e Gx, and Gx is closed under the induced of G. Of x,sogig2 g\\x operation = = = If g e Gx,then gx = x, sox Gx. (g~lg)x g~l(gx) e Gx. Thus Gx is a subgroup of G. \342\231\246 g~l consequently and

let

g2

e Gx.

x, soe e
and

= ex =
isotropy

Definition

Let X be a

G-set

let

&

X.

The

subgroup

Gx is

the

subgroup

of x.

\342\226\240

158

Part

III

Homomorphisms

Orbits
For

the

ZVset

X of

Example 16.8with
carried
the

action

table

in Table
same

16.10, the
under

elements

in the
by

subset {1,
Furthermore,

2, 3, 4} are
each of
the

into

elements
1, 2,

of

this

subset

action

Z)4.

elements

3,

and

the subset by
be partitioned

various

elements

of D4. We
type.

4 is

elements

of
can

G-set

16.14

Theorem

Let
gX\\

be
X2-

a G-set.
Then

For

x\\,

~ is an

X2 & X,

let

x\\

only

if there

exists geG

such

that

Proof

For

each

x e

X, we have
x\\ ex\\

(g~lg)xl =
Finally,

Suppose
if*

~ =
1

and

is reflexive.
Then

^2 ~

X3

g~lX2

= g~~l(gxi)

X3,

thengi*i =

Then

(g2gi)xi

= g2(gixi)

\302\2432*2

*3, so *i

## ~ xi for some g{, g2 transitive.

relation

\342\202\254 G.

\342\231\2

16.15

Definition

Let X be a G-set. Each cell in the partition in X under G. Theorem 16.14 is an orbit of x. We let this cell be Gx. between
that that

of the

equivalence
cell

described

in
orbit

If x e

X, the

containing

x is

the

\342\226\2

The

relationship

the
appear

orbits

in

X and

heart

of the

applications
of a

in Section

the

of G
theorem

lies
gives
in

at

the

this
and

for

a set

number

of elements

X,

Let X be a
divisor of

G-set

and let

leX.

Then

\\Gx\\

(G

Gx).

If

\\G\\

is finite,

then

\\Gx\\

is a

\\G\\.

Proof

We define

Let
left choice

x\\

Gx.

Gx e

onto

the collection

of left cosetsof
define

Gx

in G,
the

G such that

gi* =

*i. We

i/{x\\)

to be

coset

g\\ Gx

of g\\

## of Gx. We e G such that

from

must g\\x

show =

and giGA = g\\'Gx. = To show the map -f is one to one, suppose & Gx, and \\jr(x\\) x\\,X2 = = ft^, and ,\302\276 gi Gx. Then there exist g\\, g2 e G such that x 1 e gi x. *2 some g e Gx, so ^2 = ^2-^ = gi(gx) = g\\x = x\\. Thus \342\226\240f to one. is one

8i\\gix)

so g\\

= gil(gi'x),

which

e giG.r,

map ty is well defined, independent of the = g\\x, so xi. Suppose also that g\\x = xi.Then, g\\x = (gilgi')x. Therefore we deduce x g^x g{ e Gx, Thus the map ^ is well defined.
that this
^(\302\276). ,\302\276

Then

^1 g

for

Finally,

we

show

that each

left

coset

of Gx in
=

a'i e

Gx. Let giG* be a left coset. Then if g\\x maps Ga:one to one onto the collection of right
If \\G\\

is finite,

then the

equation

\\G\\

in

l/\\Gx\\

has the

## same value for all x

the

same

orbit, and if

we let O be any

orbit,

then

y z_^ xeO
Substituting

\342\200\224 = Irj-v-1 X] I

\\n\\ x<=0 ^1

y \302\243-j

\342\200\224 =

i-

(4) w

(4)

in

(3),

we obtain
of orbits

N = | G | (number
Comparison
17.2

in X under

r. G) = |G \\ \342\226\240

(5)

of Eq.
group

2 and

Eq.

5 gives

Eq. 1.
G-set,

\342\231\2

Corollary

If G

is a finite

and X

is a finite of
orbits

then

(number

in X

under G)

Proof

## The proof of this

Let example.

corollary

follows

immediately
the

from

the

preceding

theorem.

\342\231\2

us continue

our computation of

number

of distinguishable

17.3

Example

We let
number

be

the set

of 720

different

markings

For g
element

group

of 24

rotations of the
number =

e G where

## of distinguishable dice is the g ^= e, we have \\Xg\\

changes
identity

0,

any one
element

of the

720

markings

of a cube using from one to six above. We saw that the = 24. of orbits in X under G. Now \\G\\ because any rotation other than the identity into a different one. However, | Xe | = 720
of faces
cube

as discussed

sincethe

fixed. Thenby
30,

Corollary

17.2,

of orbits) =

## so there are 30 distinguishable

dice.

\342\226\26

Section

17

Applications

of G-Sets to Counting

163

Of

course

the number

of

distinguishable

dice

could

be counted

without

using

the

by

rotation

if necessary,

assume

the

face

for
the

the top
remaining

## (opposite) face. By rotating

as using elementary combinatorics often marking a cube to make a die, we can, marked 1 is down. There are five choices the die as we look down on it, any one of

choices

are3

four faces could be brought to the front position, so there are no different involved for the front face. But with respect to the number on the front face, there \342\200\242 2 \342\226\240 1 possibilities forthe remaining three side faces.Thus there are 5 \342\200\242 1 = 30 3 \342\200\242 2 \342\200\242
in

possibilities
The
elementary

all.

next two
means.

## examples appearin some finite We use Corollary 17.2so that

math texts and are easy to solve we have more practice thinking

by

in

terms

of orbits.

17.4 Example

seven people be seated at a round table, where table? Of course there are 7! ways to assign peopleto the different chairs. We take X to be the 7! possible assignments. A rotation of each person to move one placeto the right results in the same people achieved by asking Such a rotation generates a cyclicgroup G of order 7, which we consider arrangement.
How

many

distinguishable

ways can

there is no

distinguishable

to the

to act on X in the obvious way. Again, only the identity e leaves and it leaves all 7! arrangements fixed. 17.2 By Corollary

any

arrangement

fixed,

(number of orbits)
17.5

\342\200\242 7! =

6! =

720.

\342\226\262

Example

no clasp) How many distinguishable necklaces (with can be made using seven differentcolored beads of the same size? Unlike the table in Example the necklace can be 17.4, turned over as well as rotated. Thus we considerthe full dihedral group Dq of order 2 \342\200\242 as acting on the set X of 7! possibilities.hen the number of distinguishable 7 = 14 T

necklaces is
of orbits)

(number

\342\200\224 = \342\200\242 7!

360,

\342\226\262

17.2, we have to compute using Corollary and the exercises, | G | will pose no real examples
In

\\Xg | is

not as trivial

to compute elementary

as in

knowledge of very
17.6 Example

\\Xg\\ for each g e G. In the Let us give an example where problem. the preceding examples. e will continue to assume W
\\G\\

and

combinatorics.

Let us find
be painted

of distinguishable ways the edges of an equilateral triangle can colors of paint are available, assuming one color is used only on each edge,and the same color may be used on different edges. Of course there are 43 = 64 ways of painting the edges in all, since each of the three be any one of four colors. We considerX to be the set of these 64 edges may The group G acting on X is the group of symmetries of the possible painted triangles. which is isomorphic to .\302\276 which we consider to be .\302\276. use the notation for and We triangle,
the

number

if four

different

164

Part III

Homomorphisms

and

Factor

Groups

elements
inS3. -^ Pol

in

53 given

in Section

8. We

need

to compute

\\Xg

for

each

of the

six elements(

= 64

xPl\\

=4
=

triangle is left fixed by p0. To be invariant under p\\, all edges must be the same colors. color, and there are 4 possible
Every

painted

Xpi\\

Same

reason

as for

p\\.

xM,l = 16

The

edges

## that are interchanged must

be the

same

(4 possibilities) and the other edge may also be any of the colors (times 4 possibilities).
color

xMJ =
Then

\\x,

= 16

Same

reason

as for

\\i\\.

^2\\Xg\\
g\342\202\254S3

= 64 +

4 + 4+16+16+16=

120.

Thus
(number
and

of orbits)

\342\226\240 120 =

20,

there

are 20

17.7 Example

We The

repeat number

## the assumption that of painting the edges

triangles.

the set
to

of 24 possiblepainted
53. Since

Again,
color,

be

are a

different

color is used on each edge. 4 \342\200\242 24, and we let X be 3 \342\200\242 2 = on X can be considered the group acting = 0 for we see |ZW| = 24 while \\Xg\\
a different

is then

/ p0. Thus
(number

of orbits) triangles.

\342\200\242 24 =

4,

distinguishable

\342\22

EXERCISES

17

Computations
In

each

of the

by more

elementary
the the the

## following exercisesuseCorollary methods.

of orbits of orbits
in in

17.2

to work

the problem,eventhough
the the can

might be obtained

1. 3. 4.

Find

## number number number

{1,2, {1,

2. Find
Find

2,

of distinguishable
tetrahedron,

3,4,

5, 6,

cyclic

subgroup

((1,3,5,6))
by

of 58.
(1,

of 58 generated

3) and

three,

and four

## (2,4,7). dots on the

faces
Wooden many

of a

regular

rather

than a

cube.
make

cubes

of the

distinguishable

same size areto be painted a different color on eachface to blocks can be made if eight colors of paint are available?

children's

blocks. How

Section 17 Exercises

165

5.

Exercise identity,

4 if 9 that

of the
and

colors may be repeated different on faces at will. [Hint: The 24 rotations leave a pair of opposite faces invariant, 8 that leave a pair of opposite
edges invariant.]
be tipped with one of distinguishable the

6 leaving

a pair

of opposite

6. Each of the
one to
all

eight

corners corners.

eight

ways

of four

colors,

each of

## which may be usedon

hint

from

markings possible.
of cardboard

(See the
painted

in Exercise
if six

7.

Find

the

number

of distinguishable

edges

of a

square

can be

are

available

and

b. the

wires

number

of edges.
with

## 8. Considersix straight Either a 50-ohm or

100-ohm resistor
2
ft

of equal

lengths
is to
many

ends

soldered
in

be inserted
essentially

the

middle

together to form edges ofa regular of each wire. Assume there wirings are

tetrahedron. are

at least

six

of eachtype

of resistor

available. How
long

different

9.

rectangular

colors.How a. no color
b. each

prism
many

with

distinguishable

faces,

one of

six possible

## is to be repeated on different color may be usedon any number

of faces?

PART

Rings

and

Fields

IV

Section

18

Rings

and

Fields

Section

19

Integral Domains

Section 20

Fermat'sand
The
Rings Field

Euler's

Theorems of an Integral

Section 21
Section

of Quotients

Domain

22

of Polynomials

Section

23

Factorization

of

## Polynomials Examples Fields

over

a Field

Section 24

!Noncommutative
fOrdered

Section25

Rings and

section

18

Rings
All

and Fields
work

thus far has been concernedwith sets on which a single binary operation defined. Our yearsof work with the integers and real numbers show that a study of sets on which two binary operations have been defined should be of great importance. t Algebraic structures of this type are introduced in this section. In one sense,his section more intutive than those that precede seems for the structures studied are closely it, related to those we have worked with for many years. However, we will be continuing with our axiomatic approach. o,from another this study is more complicated S viewpoint than to deal with. group theory, for we now have two binary operations and more axioms
our

has been

Definitions

and
general

Basic

Properties
structure with two
binary

The most
called
with

algebraic

operations

that

a ring.
rings

## As Example 18.2following since grade school.

is a \342\226\240}

Definition

18.1 indicates,

## we shall study is we have all worked

18.1 Definition

ring

{R. +,
and

set R together
defined

with

two

binary
that

operations
the

and

which \342\200\242,

we call

multiplication,

on R such

following

axioms

are satisfied:

^\302\276). {R,

+} is an

abelian group.
is associative.

J%2. Multiplication
For \342\226\240M3. all

the right

## c e R, the left distributive law (a +

a, b,
for the

distributive
b) \342\226\240 c =

law, a
\342\226\240

\342\226\240

(b + c)

c) =

(a

\342\226\240

b) +

(a

\342\226\240 and

c)

(a

c) +

(b

\342\226\240 hold.

\342\226\240

Sections

remainder of the

text.

167

168

Part IV
18.2 Example

Rings

and

Fields

We

are

well

that

under

## for \302\253^83 and

a ring

complex

numbers

is a group
(Q, +, \342\200\242>,

that is

## hold in closed under

any

subset

of the

multiplication.

For example,

(Z, +,

(ffi, +, \342\200\242>,

+,

## are rings. \342\200\242}

\342\226

\342\226\240 Historical

Note invited
secure
of

of two of rings grew out of the study theory The particular classes of rings, polynomial rings in n variables over the real or complex numbers
(Section 22)

her to

Gottingen

in

1915,

but his

efforts

to

of

an

algebraic

number
first

field. It was
introduced
latter

in connection
not

example,
the

## the term ring, but it was

with the

until

the second
fully

her candidate is an argument against [to the faculty]. After all, we are a not a bathing establishment.\" Noether was, university, however, able to lecture under Hilbert's name.

## the sex of the

of

twentieth appeared.

definition

## that a century The theory of

abstract

commutative rings

was given a firm axiomatic foundation by Emmy Noether (1882-1935) in her monumental paper \"Ideal Theory in Rings,\" which appeared in 1921. A

chain of this paper is the ascending concept condition for ideals. Noether provedthat in any ring in which every ascending chain of ideals has a maximal element, every ideal is finitely generated. the Emmy Noether received her doctorate from of Erlangen, Germany, in 1907. Hilbert University
major

the political changes accompanying First World War reached Gottingen, she was given in 1923 a paid positionat the For the next decade, she was very influential University. in the development of the basic concepts of modern with other lewish faculty members, algebra. Along however, shewas forced to leave Gottingen in 1933. She spent the final two years of her life at Bryn Mawr College near Philadelphia.
Ultimately, the

after

end

of the

It is customary of a
\342\226\240 b. We

in a ring to denote multiplication shall also observe the usual convention in the absence of parentheses, so the

by

using ab in place juxtaposition, that multiplication is performed left distributive law, for example,

a(b + c) = ab

ac,

without the parentheses on the right side of the equation. Also, as a convenience analogous to our notation in group theory, we shall somewhat incorrectly refer to a ring R in place of a ring {R, +, \342\200\242}, that no confusion will result. on Z In particular, from now provided and will always be (Z, +, \342\200\242},Q, ffi, and C will also be the rings in Example 18.2. We on occasion refer to (/?,+) as the additive may group of the ring R.
18.3

Example

Let

be as

of R
and

## any ring and entries. The matrices

multiply

let M\342\200\236(R) the collection of all n x n matrices having elements be and in R allow us to add operations of addition multiplication in the usual in the appendix. We can quickly fashion, explained
an

## check that {Mn(R), and the two distributive

straightforward

+} is

abelian

laws

The associativity of matrix group. in Mn{R) are more tedious to demonstrate, that they follow

multiplication

but

calculations

indicate

from

the

same

properties

in R.

We will

Section

18

Rings and

Fields

169

assume rings

from

now

on that we

know

that

Mn{R)

## and Af\342\200\236(Z), Af\342\200\236(Q), Af\342\200\236(R),

Note M\342\200\236(\302\243).that
n

we have
a commutative

the
\342\226\262

operation
18.4

in
the usual

any

of these

rings for

>

2.

Example

## Let F be under the

set

of all
function

functions f

E. We : E \342\200\224*-

+} is an

abelian

group

if +
We

8)(x) =

f(x) + g(x).

define

multiplication

on F

by

(fg){x)

= f{x)g{x).

ring;

function

whose

value at x is
cr(p,(x))

f(x)g(x).
have

It

checked

that F is a
notation

we

leave

## the demonstration to Exercise 34.We

function

used

this juxtaposition

a/x

for the

composite
both

when

we were

to use
notation

function

multiplication
the

## If discussing permutation multiplication. and function composition in F, we would

use
Greek

the

f o g

for
usual

composite
with

function.

However,

we

will

be

using
by

compositionof

functions

almost

exclusively
product

homomorphisms,

which

we will denote
when

letters,

and the

defined
confusion

in this

example chiefly
result.

multiplying
\342\226\262

polynomial
18.5

function f{x)g{x),
theory,

so no
is the

should

Example

of Z under addition consisting of cyclic subgroup n. Since {nr){ns)= n{nrs),e see that nL, is closed w integer assure under The associative and distributive laws which hold in Z then multiplication. on in the text, we will consider us that {nL, +, \342\200\242} is as ring. From now nL to be this ring.

nZ

## all integer multiples

of the

\342\226\262

18.6

Example

remainder

the cyclic group the product ab as the (Z\342\200\236, If we define for a,b e Ln +}. of the usual product of integers when that divided by n, it can be shown is a ring. We shall feel free to use this For example, in L\\q we have fact. +, (Z\342\200\236,\342\200\242} is multiplication on modulo n. We do not check the ring (3)(7) = 1. This operation Z\342\200\236 axioms here, for they will follow in Section 26 from some of the theory we develop will there. From now on, Z\342\200\236 always be the ring \342\226\262 (Z\342\200\236 ,+,\342\200\242}.
Consider
If Rx,

18.7

Example

\342\226\240 \342\200\242 of all ordered \342\200\242 x Rn Rn the set R\\ x R2 x \342\200\242 \342\200\242. R2, \342\226\240 are rings, we can form \342\200\242 where \342\200\242 addition and multiplication of n-tuples e Rt. Defining rt r\342\200\236), n-tuples (rj, r2. \342\200\242, as for groups), we seeat once from the ring axioms in each by components (just component that the set of all these n -tuples forms a ring under addition and multiplication by \342\200\242 \342\200\242 The ring R\\ x R2 x \342\200\242 is the direct product of the rings /?,-. x R\342\200\236 \342\226\262 components.

Continuing

matters
inverse a sum

ring. The

## of notation, we shall of an element a

always

let 0 is

be

the

identity

of a

of a
+

ring

\342\200\224a. We

shall

frequently

have

occasion to refer to

a +

a+

\342\200\242 \342\226\240 \342\200\242 a \342\226\240 n a using the dot. However, \342\226\240 the ring, for the integer n may

having n summands. We shall let this sum is not to be constructed a multiplication as not be in the ring at all. If n < 0, we let
n \342\226\240 a =

be n
ofn

a,

always

and

in

(-a)

+ (-a)

\\-

(-a)

170

Part IV

Rings and

Fields

for

\\n\\

summands.

Finally,

we define

Q-a = 0
left side of the equations and 0 e R on the right side. Actually, the holds also for 0 e R on both sides. The following theorem this proves and various other elementary but important facts. Note the strong use of the distributive laws in the proof of this theorem. Axiom for a ring concerns only and addition, c%j This shows that in order to prove axiom ^%2 concerns only multiplication. that anything to have to use axiom between these two operations, we are going gives a relationship For show in Theorem 18.8 is that 0a = 0 for the first thing that we will ,^B3. example, element a in a ring R. Now this relation and multiplication. involves both addition any The multiplication 0a stares us in the face, and 0 is an additive Thus we will concept. law to prove this. have to come up with an argument that uses a distributive
for

0 e

Z on
0a

the

equation

= 0

18.8 Theorem

If

R is a

identity

0,

then

for

any

a,b

e R

we have

1. 0a
2.

= aO

0,

a(-b)

= (-a)b
=

= -(ab),
by

3. (-a)(-b)
Proof

ab.

For Property

1, note that

axioms

&x

and

\302\253>g2, aO

aO +

aO =
the

a(0 + 0) =

0 +

aO. we have aO =

Then by

the

cancellation

law for
0a

group

(/?,+},

0. Likewise,

+ 0a

= (0 +

0)a = 0a = 0 + 0a
remember
to

0. This provesProperty 1. to understand the proof of Property 2, we must is that when added to ab gives 0. Thus \342\200\224(ab) the element = 0. By the left we must show precisely that + a(\342\200\224b) ab
implies

that

0a =

In order

that, by that

definition,
=

show

a(\342\200\224b) \342\200\224(ab),

distributive

law,

a(-b)

+ ab

aO =

0,

since aO= 0 by

Property

1. Likewise,

(-a)b

+ ab

0b =

0.

## For Property 3, note

that

(-a)(-b)
by

= -(a(-b))

Property

2. Again

by Property

2,

-(a(-b)) = -(-(ab)),
and

## is the \342\200\224(\342\200\224(ab)) and \342\200\224(ab) It is

of

element that when added to \342\200\224(ab) 0. This is ab by definition gives = ab. the uniqueness of an inverse in a group. Thus, (\342\200\224a)(\342\200\224b) by that you understand rules for signs.
the

\342\231\

important

preceding

proof. The

theorem allows us

to

use

our usual

Section 18

Rings

and

Fields

171

Homomorphisms
From

and Isomorphisms
theory,

our

work

into

a ring

## in group R' should be

it is

quite clear

how

a structure-relating

map of a ring

defined.
: R \302\242)
->\342\226\240 R' is

18.9Definition

For

rings
are

R and

R', a map

a homomorphism

if the

following

two

conditions

satisfied b) =
=

for alla,b
+

e R:
0(fe),
\342\226\240

1.
2.

<t>(a <j>{ab)

<t>(a)

(p(a)(f>{b).

that 0 is a definition, Condition 1 is the statement relate group {R, +} into (/?', +}. Condition 2 requires that \302\242) is the multiplicative structures of the rings R and R' in the same way. Since \302\242) also a group homomorphism, all the results concerning group homomorphisms are valid is structure of the rings. In particular, \302\247 one to one if and only if its for the additive kernel Ker(0) = {a e R | 0(a) = 0'} is just the subset {0} of R. The homomorphism of {R, +} gives rise to a factor group. We expect that a ring \302\242) the group This is indeed the case. We delay of will discussion give rise to a factor ring. homomorphism this to Section our treatment of factor groups in will 26, where the treatment parallel
In

the

preceding

homomorphism mapping

the abelian

Section

14.

18.10 Example

Let F be the ring of all functions mapping E into E defined in Example 18.4. For each : a e E, we have the evaluation homomorphism \302\247aF ->\342\200\242 E, where 0a(/) = /(\302\253)for e F. We definedthis homomorphism for the group (F, +) in Example 13.4, but we f
did not rest of
precisely
with

do
this

much
text,

for finding

## with it in group a real

theory. solution

We of

will

be working a great

a polynomial

to finding

ael

such that
equations.

4>a{p)

= 0.

Much of the
the

deal with it in the equation p(x) = 0 amounts remainder of this text deals
of the

solving

polynomial

We leave

demonstration

multiplicative
\342\226\262

homomorphism property
18.11

## 2 for 4>a to Exercise

35.

Example

n is a ring is the remainder of a modulo n. We know + b) = 4>{a)+ <j>{b) by group theory. <j>(a positive integer To show the multiplicative property, write a =qxn + r\\ and b = qin + r2 according to the division algorithm. Then ab = n(qiq2n Thus + r\\q2 + q\\ri) + r\\r2. (j>{ab) is the remainder of rxr2 when divided by n. Since 4>{a) = n and 4>{b)= r2, Example 18.6 indicates that 0(a)0(fo) is also this same remainder, so (f>{ab) = 0(a)0(fo). From group to a factor ring Z/nZ. This theory, we anticipate that the ring Z\342\200\236 be isomorphic might in Section 26. is indeed the case; factor rings will be discussed \342\226\262

The map

for homomorphism

each

We

realize

that in the
concept

study

of

any sort

of mathematical

structure,

an

idea

except

of two

identical,
always

that is,
called

## of basic one being

isomorphism.

172

Part IV

Rings and

Fields
things being just alike exceptfor
the

The

concept

of two
to

names

of elements

just

as

it did

for groups,

following

definition.

18.12 Definition

An to

isomorphism one

: R \302\242)

\342\200\224*R' from

a ring R

to a ring

R'

is a homomorphism

that is

one

and onto

R and

R' are
we

then

isomorphic.

\342\226

From

our work in

theory,

expect

relation

on

any

collection

of rings.
the

We need to

check

## that isomorphism gives an equivalence that the multiplicative property of an

isomorphism

is satisfied for
Similarly,

inverse

argument).
multiplicative
transitivity

we

check

that if
the

R (to map 0_1 : R' \342\200\224*- complete the symmetry : R' \342\200\224*- also a ring ismorphism, then R\" is the \\i composite

requirement
argument).

## holds for you

to

map

: \\l\302\247R

\342\200\224*R\" (to

complete

the

do

this in

Exercise 36.
0 :Z
=

18.13Example

As

## (Z, +} groups, with $(x) = 2x for ieZ. = 4>{x)4>{y) 2x2y = Axy. abelian and (2Z, +} are isomorphic a ring under the map ->\342\200\242 Z, Here is \302\242)not isomorphism, for 4>{xy) 2xy, while A Multiplicative Many Questions: Fields of the rings we have mentioned, such as Z,Q, and R, have a multiplicative identity Note also element 1. However, Z does not have an identity element for multiplication. 2 in the matrix rings in Example 18.3. that multiplication is not commutative described the zero It is evident that {0}, with 0 + 0 = 0 and (0)(0) = 0, gives a ring, ring. Here 0 acts as multiplicative as well as additive identity element. 18.8, By Theorem this is the only case in which 0 could act as a multiplicative for from element, identity 0a = 0, we can then deduce that a = 0. Theorem 3.13 shows that if a ring has a it is unique. a multiplicative We denote element, multiplicative identity identity element in a ring by 1. 18.14 Definition ring in which the multiplication is commutative with is a commutative the multiplicative ring. ring with multiplicative ## identity element is a ring unity; identity element 1 is called \"unity.\" In \342\226 a ring with unity 1 the distributive laws show that (1 + ## \342\226\240 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\226\240 1 + \342\226\240 (1 + 1 + \342\226\240 = (1 + + 1) + 1) n summands m summands nm 1+ ## \342\200\242 \342\226\240 \342\200\242 1), summands that is, observation. (n \342\226\240\342\226\240 = l)(m 1) (nm) \342\226\240 1. The next example gives an application of this 18.15 Example We claim that for integers they ## isomorphic.Additively, 1 and (1, 1) respectively. additive group ## r and 5 where gcd(r, s) = the are both cyclic abelian groups 1, rings Zrs and Zr x Zs rs with are of order <j>{n Thus <f> : Zrs \342\200\224>\342\226\240 Zr x Zs denned by isomorphism. To check the multiplicative Condition ## generators \342\226\240n \342\226\240 is an 1) = (1, 1) 2 of Definition 18.9, Section 18 we use the observation and compute. = Rings and Fields 173 preceding ## this example for the unity (1, 1) in the ring Zr x Zs, 4>{nm) (nm) \342\226\240 (1, 1) = [n \342\226\240 (1, l)][m \342\200\242 (1, 1)] = 0(n)0(m). \342\226\262 Note if and that a direct product unity Ri R2 x ## \342\226\240 of \342\200\242 \342\200\242 x R\342\200\236 rings unity, is commutative or has unity R* of nonzero if closed under elements, 1/0, if multiplicative will be a multiplicative inverses exist. ring multiplication, group A multiplicative 1 / 0 is an element inverse of an element a in a ring R with unity = 1. Precisely as for groups, a~l e R such that aa~l a multiplicative =a\"la inverse for the an ## only if each Rj In a ring R with is commutative ## or has the set respectively. element a in R is unique, have if it ## exists at all (see ## Exercise 43). Theorem the 18.8 shows that it would ## 0 + 0 = 0 and We are thus led in be hopelessto (0)(0) a multiplicative ## inverse for 0 exceptfor and = 0, with to discuss unity. ## 0 as both additive the existence of multiplicative There multiplicative inverses for ## ring {0}, where identity element. nonzero elements to be a ring with nonzero section is unavoidably a lot done. of terminology defined in this introductory on rings. We are almost 18.16 Definition Let be inverse in ## a ring with unity 1/0. R. If every nonzero field skew An element in R element of R division ring. is a A field).A a \"strictly 18.17 is a commutative field.\" is a unit of R if it has a multiplicative unit, then R is a division ring (or skew noncommutative division ring is called \342\226\240 Example Let us see find the units in Z14. Of course, 1 and = 11 \342\200\2243 = 13 \342\200\2241 ## are units; elements of Z14 remaining be one more than a multiple that 3 and 5 therefore can and = 9 \342\200\2245 multiple ## are units. Since are also units. of (3)(5)= 1 we None or of the 10 be units, they since no all of 14; that have a common 14. Section 20 will show \\. the units in gcd(m, ri) = ## are Z\342\200\236 precisely ## 6, 7, 8, factor, either 2 or 7, those m e Z\342\200\236 such 2, 4, can with that A 18.18 Example Z is in Z. strictly not a field, because units The only skew in Z ## 2, for example, has no multiplicative are 1 and \342\200\224 1. However, Q and in inverse, ffi are fields. ## so 2 is not a unit An example of a \342\226\262 field is given Section 24. of a ring; for a of this set, field, integral domain, vectorspace,nd so on), then any subset a natural an algebraic structure induced algebraic structure that yields of the same type, is a substructure. If K and L are both we shall let K < L denote structures, K is a substructure of L and that K < L denote that K < L but K / Exercise 48 of R. gives criteria for a subset S of a ring R to form a subring have the natural concepts of a subring of a ring and subfield of a field.A subring induced from the whole ring is a subset of the ring that is a ring under operations a subfield for a subset of a field. In fact, let us say here once and is defined similarly all that if we have a set, together with a certain specified type of algebraic structure We (group, ring, with together L. 174 Part IV Rings and Fields Finally, the be careful not to confuse our use unit of the is any words element unit and unity. Unity is multiplicative inverse. unity. Thus For ## element, identity the multiplicative identity element -1 is a unit in Z, but -1 is example, while a having a but multiplicative or unity not is a unit, that is, unity, -1 / 1. ## not every unit is \342\226\240 Historical Note ## fields were implict Although the on Galois, who first in the early work and solvability of equations by Abel it was in connection published Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891) with his own work on this subject he called in 1881 a definition of what \"The a \"domain (/?', rationality quantities quantities of rationality\": which domain every of of those R\", R'\", ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 contains \342\200\242) ## \342\226\240 \342\200\242 one \342\200\242 are rational \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 with functions of the integral R', R\", R'\", coefficients.\" that ## Kronecker, however, who mathematical insisted any in subject must not ## many steps, as a complete took did ## be constructible the domain of view finitely rationality entity, but merely as a regionin which place various operations on its elements. Richard Dedekind (1831-1916), the inventor of a real number, of the Dedekind cut definition ## considered a field as a completedentity. In 1871, in his definition edition of Dirichlet's text on of number theory: \"By a field we mean any system which in infinitely many real or complex numbers, that the addition, itself is so closed and complete, and division of any two subtraction, multiplication, numbers always produces a number of the same system.\" Both Kronecker and Dedekind had, however, dealt with their varying ideas of this notion as early as the 1850s in their university lectures. A more abstract definition of a field, similar to the one in the text, was given by Heinrich Weber (1842-1913)in apaper of 1893. Weber's definition, that of Dedekind, specifically included fields unlike with finitely many elements as well as other fields, such as function of fields, which were not subfields the field of complexnumbers. he published supplement to the following the second EXERCISES 18 Computations In Exercises 1. 1 through 6, compute the product in the given ring. (12)(16) in Z24 in 2. (16)(3)n i 4. (20)(-8) x Z9 13, Z32 3. (11)(-4) Zis Z5 through in Z26 in 5. (2,3)(3,5) in In Exercises 7 (closed) on state the 6. (-3,5)(2,-4) decide Z4 x Zn whether structure. the If a indicated ## operations formed, and of addition and the multiplication are defined set, and give a ring and whether nZ ## the ring the usual the with is commutative, addition addition and whether multiplication multiplication ## ring is not it has unity, ## tell why this is whether it is a field. case. If a ring is formed, 7. 9. with with 8. Z+ usual addition Z x Z ## and multiplication and multiplication by components by components 10. 2Z x Z with addition Section 18 Exercises 175 11. 12. 13. [a + b*/2 b\\fl \\a,b e Z} with | the the usual usual ## addition and addition and ## multiplication multiplication for [a + a, b e pure Q} with The set of all imaginary ## complex numbers ri all units Z in reR ## with the usual addition and multiplication In Exercises 14 through 19, describe the given ring 16. Z5 ## 14. Z 17. Q 20. Consider the a. Find 15. matrix x Z x Z 18. Z x Q ring M2(Z2). that 19. Z4 the all order units b. List ## of the ring, in the ring. an example is, the number of elements in it. 21. If possible,ive g 1' / 0', and where 0(1) / 0' and ## of a homomorphism 0(1) / 1'. ## R R' where \302\242): \342\200\224> R and ## R' are rings determinant with unity 1/0 A and ## 22. (Linearalgebra) Considerhe t A e M\342\200\236 (M). Is ## map det of det a ring homomorphism? ## M\342\200\236 (M) into Why M where det(A) is the of the matrix for or why not? ## 23. Describe all ## ring ring ring ## homomorphisms homomorphisms homomorphisms of Z into Z. x Z. Z. x Z Z into ## 24. Describe all 25. Describe all 26. of Z into Z of Z x Z How many homomorphisms solution ## are there of the X2 of Z x X2 into Z? ring 27. Considerhis t whence Is this equation /3 I3 in the M3(R). X2 = 73 implies either \342\200\224 = 0, the = zero matrix, error, so factoring, we have (X \342\200\224 h)(X + 73) = X = /3 or \342\200\224/3. reasoning solutions correct? If not, of the point out the and if possible, give a counterexample to the conclusion. 28. Find with all equations2 +x \342\200\224 6 = OintheringZubyfactoringthequadraticpolynomial.Compare Exercise 27. Concepts 29 and 30, correct the definition of the italicized term without reference to the needed, so that it is in a from acceptablefor publication. 29. A field F is a ring with nonzero unity such that the set of nonzero elementsofF is a group In Exercises text, if correction is under multiplication. 30. unit in a ring example is an element of magnitude 1. b such subring 31. Give an of a ring having with ## two elements a and unity that ab with = 0 but nonzero neither a nor b is zero. Consider 32. Give ## an example of a ring direct product, or a subring 1/0 that has a unity 1' / 1. [Hint: of 1^.] 33. Mark each of the a. b. c. d. Every Every Every Every ## following field ring ring ring true or false. is also a ring. at at ## has a multiplicative with unity with ## has unity has least ## identity. two units. two units. most 176 Part IV Rings and Fields e. g. f. The distributive h. i. j. Theory to be a ring but not a subfield, under are not very important. Multiplication in a field is commutative. Thenonzero elements of a field form a group in under the multiplication Addition in every ring is commutative. element in a ring has an additive inverse. Every It is possible for a subset laws of some field the induced operations. for a ring the field. 34. 35. Show that ## the multiplication the evaluation defined on the set F of functions in Example 18.4 satisfies ## axioms .M2 and ,i%3 for a ring. Show that map 0fl outlined of Example ## 18.10 satisfies the multiplicative requirement for a homomorphism. equivalence ## 36. Completethe argument on a collection of rings. 37. after Definitions units 18.12to show that isomorphism gives an relation Show sure that if U is to show that ## the collection of that U is closed under + b)(a all in a ring (R, +, ## with unity, \342\200\242) then (U, is a \342\226\240) group. [Warning: Be multiplication.] b) 38. Show a2 \342\200\224 (a b2 = ## \342\200\224 for Show all a and b in a ring R ring that if if and only if R is commutative. ## 39. Let (R, 40. 41. 42. Show (Freshman +) that ## be anabelian the rings group. and that (R,+, is a \342\226\240) we define ab = 0 for all C are a, b e R. 2Z 3Z are not a, b e Zp. [Hint: ## exponentiation) Observe element ## Let p that the ## isomorphic. Show be a prime. Show that usual binomial expansion of a field must the fields and not isomorphic. ## in the ring Zp we have (a + b)p = ap + bp for (a + b)\" is valid in a commutative ring.] unity for all Show that the unity in a subfield be the of the whole field, in contrast to Exercise 32 for 43. rings. Show An that the multiplicative inverse of a unit a ring if with unity is unique. 44. element Show Find a of a ring R that is idempotent idempotent a2 = a. a. the set of all elements of a commutative ring is closed under multiplication. b. ## all idempotents algebra) ## in the ring 2,(, x Z12. column 45. (Linear P = Recall AT is the j'th row of A. A(ATA)~] that for an m x n matrix A, the transpose AT of A is the matrix whose jth that if A is an m x n matrix such that ATA is invertible, then the projection is an idempotent in the ring ofnxn matrices. Show matrix 46. 47. An element a of a ring R then is nilpotent if a\" = 0 for element some n if and R e Z+. Show if 0 that if a and b solution hold: are nilpotent of x2 elements of a commutative 48. ring, Show that a ring R has no nonzero Show that a subset S of a ring R a + b is also nilpotent nilpotent. only is the only = 0 in R. gives a subring of if and only if the OeS; following (a-fe)e 5 for all a, fee 5; e S. of R. of F. = 0}. ab e S for all a, b ## 49. a. Show b. Show 50. Let R be that that an intersection an intersection of of subrings sub of a fields ## ring R is again of a field F is again of R. a subring a subfield R \\ ax a ring, and let a be a fixed element Let Ia = [x e Show that Ia is a subring of R. Section 19 IntegralDomains 51. 177 and let a be a fixed element of R. Let Ra be the subring of R that is the intersection of all of R generated 49). The ring Ra is the subring by a. Show that the containing a (seeExercise abelian group {Ra, +} is generated (in the sense of Section 7) by [an \\ n e Z+}. 52. (Chinese Remainder for two congruences) Let r and .s be positive integers such that gcd(r, s) = 1. Theorem the 18.15 to show that for m, n e Z, there exists an integer x such that x = m Use isomorphism in Example (mod r) and x = n (mod s). Let fibea subrings ring, of R 53. a. State 54. 18.15 n factors. for a direct product with prove the generalization of Example \342\200\242 n Let a,, bt e Z+ for i = 1,2, \342\200\242and let gcA{bt, bj) the Chinese Remainder Theorem: \342\200\242, \342\200\242 i / j. Then there such that x = a; (mod b{) for i = 1,2, \342\200\242 n. exists ieZ+ \342\200\242, \342\200\242 Consider (S, +, \342\200\242), S is a set and + and are binary operations on S such that where and b. Prove = 1 for (S, +) (S*, is a group, group where + (ac) of S* consists is a \342\200\242) all elements of S for except the all a,b,c additive \342\202\254 S. identity element, a(b Show that tativity + c) = (ab) {S, +, and ## (a + b)c = (ac)+ (be) [Hint: is a \342\200\242) division ring. a2 Apply the distributive laws to (1 + \\){a + b) to prove the commu- of addition.] ## 55. A ring R is a Boolean ring if Boolean ring is commutative. = a for all a e R, so that every element is idempotent. SP(S) Show that every 56. (For students subsets of S.Let having binary some knowledge of the laws of set theory) For a on SP{S) be defined by + and \342\200\242 operations B = set S, let be the collection of all A + {A\\JB)-{AC\\B) = {x\\x&Aovx =ADB \302\243Bbu\\.xi{AC\\B)} and A-B for A,B& SP{S). tables for + for any has four elements.] and \342\200\242 for SP{S), where S = [a, b). [Hint: SP{S) is a Boolean ring (see Exercise 55). set S, {^(S), +, \342\200\242) a. Give b. Show the that section 19 Integral Domains While motivation a careful we shall ## treatment of polynomials is not make intuitive use of them given in this ## until Section section. ## 22, for purposes of Divisors One of Zero the and Cancellation most important algebraic propertiesof our usual number system is that a is 0. We have used of two numbers can only be 0 if at least one of the factors product times in solving equations, perhaps without that we were using this fact many realizing for example, we are askedto solve the equation it. Suppose, of x2 The - 5x + 6 = 0. side: first thing we do is to factorthe x2 left - 5x + 6 = (x 2)(x - 3). Part IV Rings and Fields Then we conclude that the only possible values for* are 2){a 2 and 3) 3. Why? if x is replaced and ## is 0 if 19.1 Example Solve only ## a, the product (a by any if either a \342\200\224 0 or a \342\200\224 0. 2 = 3 = number x2 \342\200\224 \342\200\224 \342\200\224 of ## The reason is that the resulting numbers the equation 5x + 6 = 0 in Z12. Solution The factorization x2 \342\200\224 5x + 6 in = (x Zj2, \342\200\224 \342\200\224 is 2)(x 3) for any number in Zi2. (2)(6) But not only is 0a ## still valid if we think = 0 for all a e aO = = of x as standing also Zj2, but = (6)(2) = ## = (3)(4)= (4)(6) = (6)(4) = ## (4)(3)= (3)(8) (4)(9)= (9)(4) (10)(6) (8)(3) (6)(6) = (6)(8) = (8)(6) = We = (6)(10) (8)(9) = (9)(8) = 0. 6 and for (6 - find, 2)(6- in fact, that 3) our equation has not only 2 and 3 as solutions, but also - 3) = (9)(8) 0in Z12. = 2)(11 (4)(3) = 0 and (11 importance 11, A ## These ideas 19.2 Definition are of such that we formalize them R such that in a definition. If a and b are divisors of Example 0 (or ## two nonzero 0 divisors). elements of a ring ab \342\200\224 0, then a and b are \342\226 19.1 that ## shows that in Z12 are exactly not the elements in 2, 3, Zn 4, 6, that 8, 9, and relatively this 10 are divisors of 0. Note that these the numbers 1. Our that are not is, whose gcd with 12 is ## next theorem shows is an to 12, example of a prime generalsituation. 19.3 Theorem In the relatively ring ## the Z\342\200\236, divisors of 0 are preciselythose nonzero elements that are not prime to n. Proof Let m e Z\342\200\236, where m ^ 0, and let the gcd of m and nbed 1. Then -(2)-(^)and (m/d)n is 0, so m is On the ms = gives a divisor other 0 as a multiple of n. Thus m{n/d) = 0 in while Z\342\200\236, neither m nor n/d of 0. is relatively suppose m e Z\342\200\236 prime to the product ms of m and s as elements 1 following hand, n. If for s in we e Z\342\200\236have 0, then n divides the ring that Z. Since n divides is relatively so s 19.4 = 0 in prime to m, boxedProperty Z\342\200\236. Example 6.9 shows s, \342\231\ Corollary If p is a prime, then corollary Zp has no divisors of 0. Proof This is immediate indication from Theorem 19.3. shown \342\231\ Another of the be ## following theorem. R if ab = ac with Let R a ^ of 0 divisors is importance of the concept and let a,b,c e R. The cancellation implies b = c, and ba = ca with a ^ 0 implies a ring, in the laws b hold in = c. These Section 19 Integral Domains laws hold 179 are multiplicative cancellation laws. Of course, the additive cancellation in R, since {R, +) is a group. cancellation 19.5 Theorem The laws hold in a ring if and only if R has no divisors of 0. Proof a ring in which the cancellation laws hold, and R. We a or b is 0. If a 0,thenafo a, b \342\202\254 must show that either cancellation laws. Similarly, b ^0 implies that a = 0, so by Let be suppose ab = = 0 for divisors some a0 implies that b = 0 of there can be no that 0 if the a ^ ## cancellation laws hold. suppose Conversely, that R has no divisors of 0, and a(b \342\200\224 = suppose ab = ac with 0. Then ab Since a A \342\200\224 ac = c) 0. \342\200\224 = ^ 0, and that R at since i? has similar argument shows that ## no divisors of 0, we must have b = ca with a ^ 0 implies b = c. ba no divisors 0, so b = c. \342\231\246 Suppose is a ring x\\ with of 0. Then an for if ax\\ equation and ax fc, = b, then with in i? can have and most one solution = in i?, fo ax2 = R has a ^ 0, = a^2, ax\\ and by Theorem 19.5 X2, since R in has no divisors of 0. If the ## a unit in R with case that i? is and ## multiplicative inverse a ~1,then particular solution of ax = b is a ~1 In b. unity 1^0 a is the commutative, if R are equal by commutativity) notation must not be used in the event that know whether denotes a~lb or ba-1. In b/a element a nonzero a of a field may be written ba~l (they is a field, it is customary to denote a~lb This quotient by the formal quotient b/a. R is not commutative, for then we do not the multiplicative inverse a-1 of particular, I/a. Integral Domains The integers are really our most familiar number system. In terms of the algebraic we are discussing, Z is a commutative with unity and no divisors of 0. ring properties this is responsible for the name that the next definition to such a structure. Surely gives 19.6 Definition An integral domain D is a commutative ring with unity 1^0 and containing no divisors \342\226\240 ofO. Thus, a polynomial if the are from an integral domain, one can solve coefficients of a polynomial in which the polynomial can befactored in the into linear factors equation usual fashion by setting each factor equal to 0. In our hierarchy of algebraic structures, an integral domain commutative with unity and a field, as we shall show. Theorem ring cancellation laws for multiplication hold in an integral domain. ## belongs between a 19.5 shows that the 19.7Example have seen that Z and Zp for any prime p areintegral is not but Z\342\200\236 an integral domains, domain if n is not prime. A moment of thought shows that the direct product R x S of two nonzero rings R and S is not an integral domain. Just observe that for r e R and s & S both nonzero, we have (r, 0)(0,s) = (0,0). \342\226\262 We Part IV Rings and Fields 19.8Example Solution Show that although Z2 is an integral domain, the matrix ring M2(%2) has divisors of zero. We need only observe that 0 field is 0 0 Our next richest) theorem one we is, the ## shows that the have defined. domain. structure of a still the most restrictive (that 19.9Theorem Proof Every field F is an integral Let a,b e F, and suppose that a ^ 0. Then if ab -W) = 0, we = 0. have (-)0) \\a But then 0= (ab) = \\a lb b = unity, a ^ 0 implies that We have shown that ab = 0 with of 0 in F. Of course,F is a commutative ring with Figure having 0 in F, so our theorem ## so there are no divisors is proved. algebraic structures In Exercise of the \342\231\24 19.10 gives a Venn diagram view of containment for the concerned. we ask will It which we will two binary operations with this figure to include strictly to redraw you far be chiefly 20 skew fields ## as well. next theorem Thus exhibit is done the only some ## fields we fields of finite Counting know are order! is one ## Q, M, and C. The corollary The proof of this theorem by counting. of the most powerful ## is a personal favorite. in mathematics. techniques 19.10 Figure A collection of rings. Section 19 Integral Domains 181 19.11 Theorem Every finite integral domain is a field. Proof Let 0, l,ax, be all the elements of a finite domain D. We need to show that for a e D, where a ^ 0, there exists b e D such that ab = 1. Now a\\, aa.\\. consider \342\200\242 \342\200\242 aan. \342\200\242, ## We claim that all ## these elements of D are hold distinct, for acn that is, ## the cancellationlaws that in an ## integral domain. Also, sinceD has of these elements 1, a\\, is 0. ## \342\226\240 in some \342\200\242 \342\226\240, a\342\200\236 ## Hence by counting, order, so that either al inverse. we find = 1, that aj, by divisors, none \342\226\240 al, aa\\, \342\226\240 are elements aan \342\226\240, a = 1, or act; = 1 for some i. at no 0 \342\231\246 ## = aaj implies that ## Thus a has a multiplicative 19.12 Corollary If p is a prime, then a 7LP is field. from Proof ## This corollary follows immediately Theorem The ## the fact that 7LP is an integral domain and from \342\231\246 19.11. preceding about talking a ring the ## corollary shows that when of matrices over afield. In we the consider typical the ring Mn(Lp), we are undergraduate linear algebra much course,only rule, a matrix ## work. Such notions eigenvalues ## field properties of the real or complex as matrix reduction to solve linear ## numbers are usedin of the systems, determinants, to try Cramer's to diagonalize the ## and eigenvectors, and using similarity any transformations they are valid matrices over solutions field; depend involving only on notions arithmetic magnitude, ## of a field. properties such as least-squares fields Considerations of linear approximate an algebra or orthonormal of bases, only make senseusing where we have idea of magnitude. p.1=1+ The 1 + relation ... + 1 = 0 of magnitude in p indicates summands that there can be no very natural notion the field Zp. The Let Characteristic R be of a Ring any ring. 18. For for all a We might ask whether there is a positive integer n such that n \342\226\240 a \342\200\224 0 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 a means a + a + \342\200\242 for n summands, as explainedin e R, where n \342\226\240 + a example, the Section integer m has this property for ## the ring Zm. 19.13 Definition If for a ring R a positive integer n exists such positive integer is the characteristic exists,then R is of characteristic 0. We us such that n of the ## 0 for all a e R, then the least R. If no such positive integer ring \342\226\240 a = \342\226\240 shall to show of a characteristic be using the concept chiefly for that the characteristic of an integral domain is either ## fields. Exercise29 asks 0 or a prime p. \342\226\262 19.14 Example The ring is of Z\342\200\236 characteristic n, while Z, Q, M, ## and C all have characteristic 0. 182 Part IV Rings and Fields At unless of that the if first glance, of a ring seems to be a tough determination of the characteristic job, the ring is obviously of characteristic Do we have to examine every element a 0. Definition theorem 19.13? Our final of this section shows ring in accordance with it suffices the ring has unity, to examine only a = 1. 19.15 Theorem Let R n be a ring with unity. 1 ^ 0 If n \342\226\240 for all e Z+, \342\226\240 1 = 0 for some n n e Z+, then the ## smallest such integer n we cannot R ## then R has characteristic is the characteristic of \342\226\240 a = 0. If R. Proof If n \342\200\242 1 ^ 0 for all e Z+, then surely have positive ## integer n, Suppose that so by n is a Defimtion 19.13, has that characteristic n \342\200\242 1 = 0, \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 + 0 for all 0. any a e a for some ## positive integer such ## Then for a(n 1) e R, we have n-a = a + a + ---+a Our theorem followsdirectly. = a(l + 1+ 1) = \342\200\242 = aO = 0, \342\231\246 \342\226\240 EXERCISES 19 Computations 1. Find ## all solutions equation solutions of the 3x = of the x2 equation ## x3 \342\200\224\342\200\224 0 in Zn2x2 3x \342\200\224 the 2. Solve the 3. Find 4. all 2 in field Z7; in the field Z23. Find all solutions of equation x2 + 2x + 2 + 2x + 4 = 0 in Z&. the characteristic of \342\200\224Z&, 0 in In Exercises 5 through 10, find the given ring. 5. 2Z 6. x Z3 R x Z 7. Z3 x 3Z b)4 for a, b + b)g for a, b for 8. Z3 9. Z3 x Z4 commutative commutative 1 10. 4. Compute and 3. Compute and 3. Compute Z6 x Zi5 11. Let be a ring ring ring with with unity unity of characteristic of characteristic simplify simplify simplify (a + (a 12. Let 13. R be a e R. e R. R. Let R be a commutative Show with unity of characteristic of zero in and (a + b)6 a, b e 14. that the matrix 2 4 is a divisor M2(Z). Concepts In Exercises 15 and it is ## 16, correct the in a form a and b definition of the italicized term without reference to the text, if correction is needed, so that 15. ## acceptablefor publication. of zero. R, then n is the in If ab = 0, then are divisors 16. If n \342\200\242 a = 0 ## for all elementsa following a ring characteristic of R. ## 17. Mark each of the true or false. a. nZ has zero divisors if n is not prime. b. Every field is an integral domain. c. Thecharacteristic of nZ isn. Section 19 Exercises 183 d. e. As The a ring, Z is isomorphicto law holds in nZ for all n > 1. to cancellation ## . f. Every integral domain g. The direct product of h. A divisor of . i. . ## any ring that is isomorphic of characteristic 0 is infinite. integral an integral domain. two domains is again unity an integral domain. zero in a commutative of Z. ring with can have no multiplicative inverse. nZ is a subdomain j. ZisasubfieldofQ. six 18. Each ring the of the numbered circle), ## in each commutative students of the six who have to regions in Fig. 19.10 corresponds a certain type of a ring. Give an cells. For example, a ring in the region numbered 3 must be commutative ## example of a (it is inside have unity, but not be an 19. (For ## had a semesterof linear are divisors ## integral domain. Let F be a field. Give five algebra) to strictly different characterizations of the elements A Fig. of M\342\200\236(F) that of 0. skew fields. 20. Redraw 19.10 to include a subset corresponding Proof Synopsis 21. Give a one-sentence synopsis of the proof of the \"if\" part of Theorem 19.5, ## 22. Givea one-sentence synopsis Theory of the ## proof of Theorem 19.11, 23. An element a of a ring R is idempotent subdomains if a2 = a. Show that a division ring contains a subdomain exactly two idempotent elements. 24. 25. Show that an intersection of of an integral domain D is again of D, Show that a finite ring R with unity 1/0 and no divisors of 0 is a division a field, although ring. (It is actually In your proof, to show that a / 0 is a unit, commutativity is not easy to prove. See Theorem 24.10.)[Note: inverse\" of a / 0 in R is also a \"right you must show that a \"left multiplicative inverse,\"] multiplicative R R 26. Let be such be ## a ring that that aba R has bab contains at least = a. no divisors of 0. unity. division ## two elements. Suppose for each nonzero \342\202\254 R, there exists a unique a. c. d. Show ## that that that b. Show Show = b. R has Show that R is a ring. of a 27. ## Show that the Show characteristic subdomain of an integral domain D is equal to the characteristic in every If the of D. subdomain 28. 29. that if D is an integral domain, then [n \342\226\240 n 11 e Z} is a subdomain of D contained ofD. Show that the characteristic (m that of D is mn, characteristic consider \342\226\240 \342\226\240 in \\){n ## of an integral domain 1) D.] R D must be either 0 or a prime to a ring if R Z\342\200\236 p. [Hint: ## characteristic the same ## 30. This exercise shows as R. usual every Let S x Z ## ring R can be enlarged (if if R has characteristic necessary) 0, and with unity, having R x has characteristic n. Let addition in S be the addition by components, ## and let multiplication = be defined \342\226\240 + by ## (n, ni)(r2, n2) where (r\\r2 + 18. n\\ r2 n2 \342\226\240 n,n\\n2) \342\226\240 r has ## the meaning explained in Section Part IV Rings and Fields a. Show b. c. Show that that S is a S has and ring. unity. Show Show that S that R have ## the same characteristic. \342\200\224>\342\200\242 5 given d. the map 0 : /? by 0(r) (r, 0) for r e maps R isomorphically onto a subring of S. SECTION 20 FERMAT'SAND Fermat's EuLER's THEOREMS Theorem that are naturally isomorphic, with the coset in Z/nZ of cosets Zn. Furthermore, addition them in Z, and finding the be performedby choosing may any representatives, adding can be made into a ring by coset of nZ containing their sum. It is easy to see that Z/nZ cosets in the same fashion, that is, by multiplying any chosen representatives. multiplying While we will be showing this later in a more general situation, we do this special case is well defined, because the now. We need only show that such coset multiplication of multiplication and the distributive laws will follow immediately from associativity of the chosen representatives Z. To this end, choose representatives in those properties a + rn and b + sn, rather than a and b, from the cosets a + nZ and b + nZ. Then as additive We know groups, for ## and Z\342\200\236 Z/nZ a + nZ corresponding to a each a e which is also an ## (a + rn){b+ sn) = ab element of ab + nZ. Thus + the (as +rb + rsn)n, is well-defined, 18. and multiplication Section our cosets form a ring The following ## isomorphic to the ring Z\342\200\236. is a special case of Exercise in 37 For any field, the nonzero ## elements form a group under the field multiplication. In particular, for Zp, the elements 1,2,3,---,/7form ## element in have bp~l form we must under multiplication modulo p. Since the order of any we see that for b ^ 0 and b e Zp, we divides the order of the group, = 1 in Zp. Using the fact that Zp is isomorphic to the ring of cosets of the a + pZ described above,we see at once that for any a e Z not in the coset 0 + pZ, a group of order \342\200\224 1 a group have ap~l = 1 (mod p). Fermat. This gives 20.1 us at once ## the so-called Little Theoremof If a Theorem (Little Theorem ap~l 20.2 - 1,that then of Fermat) = a e Z and p is a prime not p). dividing a, then p divides is, ap~l = 1 (mod p) for a any # 0 (mod p. Corollary If a e Z, ap (mod p) for prime Section 20 ## Fermat's and Euler's Theorems 185 Proof ## The corollary follows from Theorem 20.1if #0 (mod p). If a = 0 (mod p), then both \342\231\246 ## sides reduce to 0 modulo p. \342\226\240 Historical Note of Theorem statement 20.1 occurs in a letter this correspondence that Fermat's of interest perfect in this to Bernard The from Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665) 18 October 1640. Fermat's Frenicle de Bessy,dated was that for any prime version of the theorem p and any result the came from his study numbers. geometric progression a, a2, ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 there \342\226\240, \342\226\240, a', is a least ## number aT of the 1. Furthermore, divides aT \342\200\224 p also divides all numbers (It is progression ## such that p T divides p \342\200\224 1 and of the form aKT \342\200\224 1. curious that that Fermat failed to note the it was fails in that case.) Fermat did not in the letter or elsewhere of the result and, in fact, never indicate a proof But we can infer from other parts of mentioned it again. conditionthat p not divide a; result perhapshe felt that obvious the is a positive (A perfect number integer m that is sum of all of its divisors less than m; for 6=1 Euclid + 2 + 3 is a perfectnumber.) example, if 2\" - 1 is had shown that 2n~x(2n - 1) is perfect prime. The question then was to find methods for whether 2\" \342\200\224 prime. Fermat noted 1 was determining \342\200\224 1 was composite if n is composite, and that 2\" from his theorem the result that if n then derived 1 are is prime, the only possible divisors of 2\" \342\200\224 those of the form 2kn + 1. From this result he was 1 was to show, for example, that 237 \342\200\224 able quickly \342\200\242 = 2 \342\200\242 + 1. 3 37 divisible by 223 20.3 Example Let us compute have the remainder of 8103 when divided by 13. ## Using Fermat's theorem, we gl03 s (812)8(37) s = e87e (1^)(87) (-5)7 (25)3(-5)s divisible (-l)3(-5)EE5(modl3). by 11. 20.4 Example Solution Show that 211213 - 1 is not By Fermat'stheorem, 210 10 = 1 (mod 11), 10-.1,121 [(21U) 23 so 23]-l _ 211.213 l = [lU21 11). 23]- 1 -1 8- 1 = 7 (mod Thus is prime, 2P 20.5 \342\200\224 the remainder of 211-213 1 when divided by 11 is 7, not 0. (The number 11,213 1 is and it has been shown that 21L213 \342\200\224 a prime number. Primes of the form \342\200\224 1 where p is prime areknown the as Mersenne primes.) \342\200\224 n is \342\226\262 Example ## Show that for every integer n, an number n33 divisible by 15. 233 \342\200\224 333 \342\200\224 \342\200\224 433 Solution ## This seems like etc. incredible result. It means shall that 15 divides 2, 3, 4, Now 15 by both 3 and = 3-5, 5 for and we use Fermat's n33 theorem to show n(nn \342\200\224 that n33 \342\200\224 n is divisible every n. Note that \342\200\224 n = 1). Part IV Rings and Fields If 3 divides n, then = n32 surely 3 divides n(n \342\200\224 If 1). 3 does not divide n, then by Fermat's theorem, n2 1 (mod 3) so 1 ee (n2)16 \342\200\224 n = 1 = 116 0 (mod 0 (mod 3), and hence 3 divides n32 \342\200\224 1. If n = 0 (mod 5), then n33 theorem, n4 = 1 (mod 5), so n32 \342\200\224 n = 5). If 1 0 (mod 5), then by Fermat's 1 = (n4)8 - 1= 18 s 0 (mod 5). ^ Thus n33 0 (mod 5) for every n also. ## Euler's from our as in Generalization theorem. by ## Euler gave a generalization of Fermat's next ## His generalization using will follow at once theorem, which is proved counting, essentially ## the same argument Theorem 19.11. elements 20.6 Theorem The set of nonzero G\342\200\236 of that Z\342\200\236 are not 0 divisors forms a group under multiplication modulo n. Proof under multiplication modulo n. Let a, b \342\202\254 is closed Gn. If G\342\200\236 would exist c ^ 0 in Z\342\200\236 that (ab)c = 0. Now (ab)c = 0 implies such = 0. Since b e G\342\200\236 c ^ 0, we have be ^ 0 by definition But and of G\342\200\236. then that a{bc) that a ^ Gn contrary to assumption. Note that we have shown that a{bc) = 0 would imply for any ring the set of elements that are not divisors ofO is closed under multiplication. other so far. No structure of Z\342\200\236 than ring structure has been involved n is associative, We now show that Gn is a group. Of course,multiplication modulo and 1 e G\342\200\236. It remains to show that for a e G\342\200\236, is b e G\342\200\236 that ab = 1. Let there such First we must show that ab Gn, \302\242. then there 1,a.\\, be the ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240, ar elements of The G\342\200\236. elements a\\, aa\\, are all ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240, aar ## different, for if aat have aa,- ## a divisor of 0, we must either a 1 = 1, or some = aaj, then a,\342\200\224 = a,- ## = a (a,- \342\200\224 a,) 0 or a,- = has must be 1, so a and 0, and since a & G\342\200\236thus is not Therefore by counting, we find that a;-. \342\231\2 inverse. multiplicative Note that the only property of Z\342\200\236 in this last theorem, other than used the fact that it was a ring with unity, was that it was finite. In both Theorem 19.11 and Theorem 20.6 a counting argument. we have (in essentially the same construction) employed Counting are often simple, but they are among the most powerful toolsof mathematics. arguments Let n be a positive integer. Let <p(n) be defined as the number of positive integers less than or equal to n and relatively to n. Note that q>(\\) = 1. prime 20.7 Example Let n = 12. The positive integers less than 1,5, 7, and 11, so \302\242)(12)= 4. or equal to 12 and relatively prime to 12 are \342\226\2 Section 20 Fermat's and Euler's Theorems 187 are now By Theorem 19.3, function <p(n) q> is the divisors of describe 0. This : Z+ ## number of -> Z+ is the nonzero elements of Euler that Z\342\200\236 not phi-function. We can Euler's generalization a is of Fermat's an integer theorem. prime 20.8Theorem Proof (Euler'sTheorem) If by n, If that relatively to n, then av{n) \342\200\224 1 is divisible is, avin) = 1 (mod to n). the coset a is relatively prime modulo n, then a + nL of the nZ containing a contains an integer b < n and relatively prime to n. Using fact that multiplication have of these cosets by multiplication n of w representatives is well-defined,e a<p(n) ^ bVln) (mod ny But by Theorems group 19.3 and <p(ri) 20.6, b can of the be viewed <p{ri) as an of element Z\342\200\236 relatively of the of order G\342\200\236 consisting elements n), prime multiplicative to n. Thus b^ and our 20.9 = 1 (mod theorem follows. \342\231\246 Example Let n = relatively 74 (mod 12. We saw (49)2= 2, 401= 12), so \342\200\2245 ## prime to 12, then 12(200) without in Example a4 = + 20.7 that \302\242)(12) 4. Thus if we take way In any integer 1 (mod 1, so Euler's ## 12). For example,with 74 = 1 (mod 12).Of course, the theorem, a = 7, we have 74 to compute Z12, easy using is to compute it in Z12. 1. we have 7 = 72 = (-5)2 = (5)2 = and 74 12 = Application Using to ax = b 20.6, we work (mod all m) Theorem can find solutions We prefer to with an equation and in a e Zm and interpret ## of a linear congruence ax = b (mod m). the results for congruences. prime to 20.10Theorem Let m the be a positive integer a unit let Zm equation ax = b has a unique in Zm solution and be relatively in Zm. m. For eachb e Zm, Proof By Theorem20.6,a is Multiplying 5 = the a~lb is by certainly a solution is both sides of ax = b on left ## a~l, we see this the ## of the equation. only solution. \342\231\246 Interpreting this theorem ## for congruences, we obtain intergers, in at once the following b, the corollary. 20.11 Corollary If a and m are m) relatively prime then for precisely any integer b (mod has as ## solutions all integers as a ## one residue case. ## congruence ax class modulo m. Theorem20.10serves 20.12 Theorem lemma for the general Let m ax = b has a has integer and let a, b e Zm. Let d be the gcd of a and m. The equation solution in Zm if and only if d divides b. When d divides b, the equation exactly d solutions in Zm. be a positive Part IV Rings and Fields = b in Zm unless d divides b. Suppose e Zm is 5 so b = as \342\200\224 Since d divides both a and m, we qm. the right-hand side of the equation b = as \342\200\224 and hence divides qm, 5 can exist only if d divides b. that d does divide b. Let solution Proof First we show there is no b of ax a solution. Then as \342\200\224 = qm in Z, ## see that d divides b. Thus a solution n Supposeow a = aid, Then bid, and mid. as d{a\\s \342\200\224 = b\\) dqmi. We see of m^. Thus the solutions 5 of ax = b in Zm are precisely the elements that, read modulo mi, yield solutions of = = bi in be the unique solution of a\\x \302\2531* fci in Zmi. Now let 5 e Zm, given by Zmi in Zm that reduce to 5 modulo mi Theorem 20.10. The numbers those that are precisely can be computed in Zm as the thatas \342\200\224 as equation Ms a multiple \342\200\224 = qm in Z can be rewritten \\fais of m if and only \342\200\224 bi is a multiple Thus there Theorem ## + mi, s + 2m 1, s are exactly d solutions of the s, s 20.12 ## \342\226\240 s + + 3m 1, \342\226\240 (d \342\226\240, \342\200\224 l)mi. equation in Zm. \342\23 gives us at once this classical result on the solutions of a linear congruence. 20.13 Corollary Let d be the solution exactly d Actually, gcd if and distinct of positive integers a and m. The congruence ax = b (mod m) has a if d divides b. When this is the case, the solutions are the integers in only residue classes modulo m. more our proof of Theorem ## 20.12 shows a bit about stated in this corollary; namely, it shows that are precisely all elementsof the residue where mi = m/d and k runs through the integers from 0 to d can find such an 5 by finding a\\ = aid and b\\ = b/d, and solving a\\x To solve this congruence, we may consider a\\ and b\\ to be replaced by modulo mi and solve the equation a\\x = b\\ in Zmi. (mod then ## m) than we the solutions the solutions of ax = b if any solution 5 is found, classes (s + km\\) + (mZ) \342\200\224 1. It also tells us that we = their b\\ (mod mi). remainders 20.14 Example Find all solutions of the 18 is congruence 6, and 6 is Ylx 27 (mod 18). by Solution 20.15 The gcd of 12 and not a divisor ## of 27. Thus (mod 18). the preceding corollary, there are no Example Solution solutions. of the 18 is congruence \342\226 ## Find all solutions The 15* = 27 divide as explained before 27. Proceeding consider the congruence 5ih9 Example everything by (mod 6), which amounts to solving the equation 5x = 3 in Ze- Now the units in Zs are 1 and Thus in this group of units. the solution in Z(, is 5, and 5 is clearly its own inverse x = (5_1)(3)= the solutions of 15* a 27 (mod Consequently, 18) are the in the three residue classes. integers gcd and of 15 3, and 3 does 20.14, we divide 3 and = (5)(3) 3. 3 + 9 + 15 18Z = 18Z = 18Z = \342\200\242 -33. \342\200\242, {\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242, -27, {\342\200\242 \342\200\242 -21, \342\200\242, {\342\200\242 -15, -9, 3, 21, 9, 27, ## \342\200\242 39, \342\200\242 \342\200\242}, \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242}. \342\200\242}, 45, -3, ## 15, 33, 51,-- Section 20 Exercises 189 illustrating Corollary in the three 3+ 6Z modulo ## 20.13. Note the d = m displayed residueclassesodulo 6, for solutions 18 can ## they came from the solution ## 3,9, and 15 in be collected in * = 3 of 5* = Zi8 the 3 ## \342\200\242 All the solutions one residue class A in 1,(,. \342\226\240 EXERCISES 20 Computations We will see later that the multiplicative for the group of nonzero field. elements of a finite field is cyclic. Illustrate this by finding a generator 1. Z7 4. for this group given finite 2. Zn Fermat's 3. of 347 when it Z17 Using theorem, find the remainder is divided by 23. 5. Use Fermat's theorem the to find ## the remainder of 3749 when + 1 when it is [Hint: divided by 7. You 6. Compute remainder of 2(2' * of divided by 19. will need to compute the remainder of 217 modulo 18.] of values <p{n) 7. Makea table 8. Compute Compute for n < 30. <p{p2) <f>(pq) where where p is a prime. both p and 9. q are primes. find ## 10. Use Euler'sgeneralization In of Fermat's theorem to of the the remainder of 71000 when did divided by 24. Exercises 11 through ## 18, describe all solutions given congruence,as we 12. in Examples 20.14 and 20.15. 11. 2* = = 6 (mod 4) 22* = 5 (mod 15) 24) 9) 130) \342\200\224 13. 36* 15. 17. 19. 15 (mod 24) 9) 65) >3. 14. 45* = 16. 18. Use Exercise find find find 15(mod 125 (mod 52 (mod of (p 39* = ## 125 (mod be a prime Exercise Exercise Exercise 41* = 39* = ## 155* = 75 (mod Let p Using 28 below to remainder remainder remainder find the remainder 2)! modulo p. 20. ## 28 below, 28 below, 28 below, ## the the the of 34! modulo of of ## 21. Using 22. Using Concepts ## 37. 49! modulo 53. 24! modulo 29. 23. Mark each of the following true or false. a. ap~l b. ap~l = 1 (mod s 1 (mod < n for p) for all p) for all integers a integers a and such primes that p. a ^ 0 (mod p) for a prime p. c. <p(ri) all n e ## Z+. Z+. less than a unit. a unit. a unit. n and d. (p{n) e. The f. The ## < n \342\200\224 1 for units all n e units in ## are the Z\342\200\236 positive integers in is always Z\342\200\236 in relatively prime to n. product of two of two of a ## g. The product h. The product nonunits Z\342\200\236 be may ## unit and a nonunit in Z\342\200\236 is never 190 Part IV Rings and Fields i. j. Every congruence Let d has be the exactly multiplication ## b (mod p), where gcd integers a and d incongruent solutions. ax = of positive table p is a m. If ## prime, has a solution. d divides b, then the congruence in Zi2. ax = b (mod m) 4 is it 24. Give the isomorphic? group for the multiplicative group of units To which group of order Proof Synopsis of the ## 25. Give a one-sentence synopsis ## proof of Theorem 20.1. proof 26. Give Theory a one-sentence synopsis of the of Theorem 20.8. 27. Show 28. Using that 1 and \342\200\224 1 are Consider the Exercise equation x2 \342\200\224 1 = ## the only elements 0.] of the field Zp that are their own multiplicative inverse. [Hint: 1 theorem that states that if p is a prime, then (/? \342\200\224 \342\200\22 27, deduce the half of Wilson's 1)! = \342\200\224 1 (mod n), then n is a prime. >1 such that (n half states that if n is an integer (mod p). [The other think what the remainder of (n \342\200\224 Just 1)! would be modulo n if n is not a prime.] 1)!s 29. UseFermat's 383838 ## to show that theorem = (37)(19)(13)(7)(3)(2).] to Exercise for any positive integer n, the integer n37 \342\200\224 n is ## divisible by 383838. all positive [Hint: 30. Referring 29, find a number ## larger than 383838 that divides n37 \342\200\224 n for integers n. section 21 The If Field integral of Quotients domain of an Integral every integral It Domain an is such that then it is a ## field. However, many is not ## field. This dilemma domain too serious. element has a multiplicative inverse, such as the integers domains, Z, do not form a to show that every is the purpose of this section nonzero in integral regarded as being contained a certain field, afield of quotients the integral domain the integral domain. This field will be a minimal field containing of in a sense that we shall describe. For example, the integers are contained in the field can all be expressed as quotients of integers. Our construction of a Q, whoseelements field of quotients of an integral domain is exactly the same as the construction of the can be rational from the integers, which often in a course in foundations numbers or appears advanced calculus. Tofollow this construction is such a good exercise the use in through of definitions and the concept of isomorphism that we discuss it in some detail, although to write out, or to read, be tedious. We can be motivated at every every last detail would step by the way Q can be formed from Z. The Construction Let D be an integral outline of the ## domain that steps we take is as the binary we desire to enlarge to a field of quotients F. coarse follows: of F 1. 2. Define what Define the elements operations are to be. of addition and multiplication on F. Section 21 The Field of Quotients of an Integral Domain 191 3. 4. Check all that the field F axioms to show that F is a field D under these operations. Show can be viewed as containing and as an integral subdomain. ## Steps 1,2, and proceed with ## 4 are very interesting, the construction. Step 3 is largely a mechanical chore. We Step 1 Let D be a given integral domain, ## and form the Cartesian product DxD We = {{a,b)\\a,b pair e D] quotient for are going to think of an pair ordered will (a, b) that is, if D = Z, subset as representing a formal represent we a/b, the (2, 0) representsno Let S (2, 3) element of Q of D eventually ## and suggests that by ## the number cut the set D x D down us. ## The pair a bit. be the x D given S = {{a,b)\\a,b \342\202\254 D,b ^0}. Now S is different number. element going to be our field as is indicated by the fact that, with D = Z, of integers such as (2, 3) and (4, 6) can represent the same rational pairs the same We next define when two elements of S will eventually represent of or, as we shall say, when two elements of S are equivalent. still not F, 21.1 Definition Two elements (a, b) and (c, d) in only if ad = be. that this ## S are equivalent, denoted by (a, b) (c, d), if and \342\226\240 definition is reasonable, sincethe criterion for (a,b) ~ (c, d) is an ad = be involving elements in D and concerning the known in multiplication equation of equality of definition D. Note also that for D = Z, the criterion gives us our usual | = since (2)(6) = (3)(4).The rational that we usually with f\302\260r number example, 2-, \302\247 f of as the collection of all quotients of integers that reduce denote by | can be thought Observe ## to, or 21.2 Lemma Proof are equivalent to, |. elements Therelation ~ between of the set S as just described is an relation. equivalence relation. ## We must check the three properties of an equivalence in D is commutative. Reflexive(a, b) ~ {a,b) since ab = ba, for multiplication If {a,b) ~ (c,d), then ad = be. Since multiplication in D is Symmetric ~ {a, b). that cb = da, and consequently we deduce commutative, (c, d) Transitive If {a, b) and ~ (c, the d) and (c, d) ~ (r, 5), then in ad foe and cs = these relations fact that multiplication is commutative, ## dr. Using we have asd = Now in ## sad = sbc = foes bdr = ford. d the ^0, and Z) argument. is an integral domain, so cancellation valid; is this is a crucial step Hence from asd = brd we obtain as = br, so that (a, b) ~ (r, s). \342\231\246 192 Part IV Rings and Fields t of Theorem 0.22,hat ~ gives a partition of S into equivalence To avoid long bars over extended classes. we shall let [(a, b)], rather than expressions, class of (a, b) in S under the relation ~. We now finish Step 1 (a, b), be the equivalence by defining F to be the set of all equivalence classes[(a,b)] for (a, b) e S. We now know, in view ## Step 2 Observe that Q give 21.3 Lemma the The next lemma serves to define addition and multiplication in F. applied if D = Z and operations. d)] in ## [(a, b)] is viewed as (a/b) e Q, these definitions to usual ## For [(a, b)] and [(c, F, the equations [(a, b)] and + [(c, d)] ## = [(ad + be, bd)] = [(ac,bd)] [(a,b)][(c,d)] operations give well-defined of addition and multiplication on F. (c, d) Proof Observe first that if integral domain, bd ^ 0, soboth (ad + be, bd) and (ac, bd) shows are in 5. (Note the crucial use here of the fact that D has no divisors of 0.)This are at least in F. that the right-hand sides of the defining equations It remains for us to show and multiplication that these operations of addition are in S of elementsof well defined. That is, they were defined by means of representatives that if different representatives in S are chosen, the same element F, so we must show of F will result. To this end, suppose that (a\\, b\\) \342\202\254b)] and (ci, d{) \342\202\254d)]. We [(c, [(a, and d Z ^0. Because) [(a, b)] is an and [(c, d)] are in F, then (a, b) and are in S, so fo ^ must show that (a\\di and + b\\Ci, b\\di) e [(ad + be, bd)] (axci,bidx) Now e [(ac,bd)]. b\\) b\\) (\302\253i, e [(a, b)] means that (a\\, ~ (a, b\\a. b); that is, a\\b = Similarly, (c\\, d\\) ## e [(c, d)] implies that c\\d = d\\c. ## To get a \"common denominator\" (a\\,b\\), (common second (c, d), and (c\\, d\\), we multiply by b\\b. Adding the resulting a\\bd\\d ## the first equations, we obtain + ## member) for the equation by d\\d and the the + that four pairs (a, b), second equation following d\\cb\\b. equation in D: c\\db\\b b\\ad\\d Using various axioms for an integral domain, we see (a\\d\\ + b\\C\\)bd b\\d\$$ad be), Section 21 The Field of Quotients of an Integral Domain 193 so (a\\d\\ + b\\C\\, b\\d\$$ ~ {ad + be,bd), care and giving {axd\\ in + b\\Cx, b\\d\\) F, on multiplication ## T e [{ad + be, bd)].his takes the a\\b = b\\a equations multiplying of addition c\\d = d\\c, in F. For we obtain a\\bc\\d = b\\ad\\C, so, using axioms of D, we get a\\C\\bd b\\d\\ac, which implies that (aiCi, b\\d\\) ~ (ac, M). proof. \342\231\246 ## Thus (aiCi, fci^i) It is [(ac, M)], ## which completes the the Step but ## important to understand our it. This completes proving Step 3 meaning of the last lemma and the necessity for 2. it is we Step 3 is routine, reason good for us details.The what for this is that cannot we have this construction. Therest are 1. Proof Now ## done. Thus working We list the things left to the exercises. in through to work a few of these through work through them unless we understand them will contribute to our understanding of that must be provedand prove a couple of them. Addition F is commutative. [{ad + be, bd)]. Also to show that {ad + be, bd [{a, definition is true, ## [{c, d)] is by definition [{cb + da, db)].We need ad + be = cb + da and since b)] + Addition = db, by the ## [{c,d)] + [{a,)] b bd) ~ {cb + da, db). axioms of D. is by \342\231\246 This 2. is associative. an 3. 4. 5. [(0, 1)]is [(\342\200\224a, b)] identity element for addition in F. F. is an ## additive inverse for in F is in F [{a,b)] in Multiplication Multiplication associative. 6. is commutative. 7. The distributive laws hold in F. 8. [(1, 1)]is a multiplicative identity element in F. 9. If [{a, b)] e F is not the additive identity element, [{b, a)] is a multiplicative inverse for [{a,b)]. then ^ 0 in and Proof Let [{a, b)] e F. If a = 0, then a\\ =^0 = 0, so ## {a,b) ~ (0, 1). 194 Part IV Rings and Fields that is, [(a, b)] the Now = [(0, 1)].But identity b)][(b, [(0, 1)] is the ^ additive identity is not in F. additive [(a, a)] ## we have a = [(ab, ba)]. But in F, 0, so it makes in D we have by Part sense to ## 3. Thus talk about (ab)l if [(a, [(b, b)] a)] ab = ba, so = (ba)l, and (ab,ba)~(l, Thus 1). = [(a,fe)][(fe,a)] and [(l, 1)], [(1, This 1)] is the multiplicative identity by Part 8. \342\23 completes It Step 3. D. To do to show that F can be regarded as containing of F. Then if we is an isomorphism i of D with a subdomain of D, we will be done. of D under i using the names of the elements We use the letter i for this isomorphism to us this isomorphism. gives D into F. the footnote on page 4); we will inject (see Step 4 this, we The next show remains for us that image there renamethe lemma ## suggest injection 21.4 Lemma The map i : D \342\200\224>\342\226\240 F given by i{a) = [(a, 1)]is an isomorphism of D with a subring off. Proof For a Also, and b in D, we have ## i{a + b) i(a) + i(b) = [(a.1)] so *'(a while + fe) = z'(a) + [{a + b, 1)]. [{b. 1)] = [(al lfe, 1)] [(a + b, 1)]. + i{b). Furthermore, i(ab)= [(ab. 1)], i(a)itf>) = so j'(afc) = [(a, l)][(fe, that i is 1)] [(ab, 1)], = i(b), i(a)i(b). to It remains for us show only one to one. If [(ft, i(a) then [(a, 1)] = so (a. 1)], 1) ~ (b, 1) giving al lfo; that is, a = Thus i b. of course, is an isomorphism of D with ;'[\302\243>], and, i[D] is then a subdomain off. Since \342\23 [(a. now b)] = proved [(a, 1)][(1,&)] the following [(a. l)]/[(fc. 1)] = i(a)/i(b) clearly holds in F, we have theorem. (or 21.5 Theorem Any integral domain element of F ## D can be enlargedto can be expressed a quotient as D.) embedded of two ## in) a field F such that elements of D. (Such a field every F is a field of quotients of Section 21 The Field of Quotients of an Integral Domain 195 Uniqueness We said in the D. beginning This that could evident, containing is intuitively ## be regarded in some sense since every field containing theorem b ^ 0. The next which is a field of quotients all elements ## a/b for every a,b D with field two containing contains a subfield as a minimal field D must contain will show that every of D, and that any fields of quotients field of D are isomorphic. 21.6 Theorem Let F map be a of quotients of D and let L be any field with containing a subfield ty : F \342\200\224> L that for a e D. subring gives an isomorphism of F ## D. Then there exists a of L such that \\jf(a) = a Proof The and mapping diagram in Fig. 21.7 may help you to visualize the situation for b e /l this theorem. An element of F is of the form a /F b where /f denotesthe quotient of a e D by to map a /r b onto a /i b where D regarded as elementsof F. We of course want the quotient of elementsin L. The main job will be to show that such a map denotes We is well defined. must define ir : \342\200\224>\342\226\240 L, and we start by defining \\jf{a) = a Every for two a e elements D. a and e F to is a quotient /r b of some b, b ^ 0, of D. Let us attempt define ty by if (a /F b) = ^ (a) /L if(b). ## We must first onZ), forfo sense. If a the identity show that this map if is sensible and well-defined. of ir (a /F ^ Owe have i/{b) ^ 0, so our definition b = c /f d in F, then ad = be in D, so ir{ad) /F on D, Since ir is /i the identity b) as i/r(a) = \\jr{bc). ## ir (b) makes But since \\jr is ir{ad) = ir{a)ir{d) Thus and ir{bc) ir{b)ir{c). ir{a) in /L ir(b) = f{c) /l f{d) L, so ir is well-defined. The equations ir(xy) = ir{x)ir{y) 21.7 Figure 196 Part IV Rings and Fields and follow easily If \\jf{a /f ## from the definition of ty on F b) = \\j/(c If d), we have and from ## the fact that ty is the identity on D. t(a)/l so ## t(b) = t(c)/L t(d) i/{a)i/{d) = deduce i/r(b)i/r(c). that ad Since ty is one to is the one. identity on D, we then a = be, soa /p b = c /p d. Thus By definition, i/r(a) = a for e D. \342\231 21.8 Corollary Every field containing an integral domain element ## D contains a field of quotients of the of D. Proof ## In the proof of Theorem of elements of D. Any two fields Suppose be 21.6 every subfield ty [F] of L is a quotient in L \342\231 21.9 Corollary of quotients of an integral domain D are isomorphic. of D, Proof in Theorem 21.6 that L is a field of quotients in the form a /L b for a,b e D. expressed of Theorem 21.6 and is thus isomorphic to F. can so that every field ThenL is the ## element x of L i/r[F] of the proof \342\231 \342\226\240 EXERCISES 21 Computations 1. Describe the field F of quotients of the integral subdomain {n D = + mi \\ n, m e Z} up the field of C. \"Describe\" means D are ## give the of Exercise ## elements of C that 1) the field make of quotients subdomain of D in C. (The elementsof \\n,m&Z} the Gaussian the sense integers.) F of 2. Describe(in ofR. quotients of the integral D = {n + m-j2 Concepts 3. Correct the definition of the italicized term without reference to the text, if correction is needed, so that it is in a form A field acceptablefor publication. domain ## of quotients of an integral element of D is a unit in F. D is a field in which ## D can be embedded that so every nonzero Section 21 Exercises 197 4. Mark each of the following field true or false. a. Q is a ## of quotients of quotients of quotients of Z. of Z. of E. of E. to b. c. d. e. R is a field R is a field C is a field of If D is a field, fact that quotients then D times in the construction domain D. integral quotients of D. g. Every element of an integral domain D is a unit in a field F of quotients D is a unit in a field F of quotients of of an integral domain h. Every nonzero element D' of an integral domain D can be regarded i. A field of quotients F' of a subdomain of some field of quotients of D. j. Every field of quotients of Z is isomorphicto Q. f. The of D is isomorphic any field of quotients has no divisors of 0 was used strongly several D. of a field F of of the D. as a subfield 5. Show by an example that a field F' of quotients of a proper subdomain D' of an integral domain D may also be a field Theory of quotients for D. 6. Prove Part 2 of 3 of 4 of 5 of 6 of 7 of 7. Prove Part 8. Prove Part 9. Prove Part 10. Prove Part 11. Prove Part 12. Let R this this ## Step 3. You Step 3. You Step 3. Step 3. Step 3. Step 3. You You You You ## may may may may may may ## assume assume assume assume assume assume any preceding any preceding any preceding any preceding any preceding any preceding ## part part part part part part ## of Step of Step of Step of Step of Step of Step 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. be a nonzero containing for section, 15 and subset of R closed under commutative ring, and let T be a nonempty multiplication the construction in neither 0 nor divisors of 0. Starting with R x T and otherwise following exactly we can show that the ring R can be enlarged to a partial ring of quotients T). Think about Q{R, and see why things still work. In particular, show the minutes or so; lookbackover the construction if R following: a. Q(R, b. 13. T) has unity even does not. In Q(R, Prove ## T), every nonzero from Exercise 12 that to Exercise to Exercise element every of T is a unit. a that is ring containing an element 30 of Section 19. Compare with Exercise are there in the ring Q(Z^, {1,3})? {2n | n not nonzero ring commutative elements ring a divisor of 0 ## can be enlargedto a commutative with unity. ## 14. 15. 16. 17. With With reference reference 12, how many ## 12, describe the 12, describe the g(Z, e Z+}), by describing a subring of R of R to which it is isomorphic. With reference to Exercise ring <2(3Z, {6\" n e Z+}) by describing a subring to which it is isomorphic. the condition that T have no divisors of zero and just require reference to Exercise 12, suppose we drop that nonempty T not containing The attempt to enlarge R to a commutative 0 be closed under multiplication. of T is a unit must fail if T contains an element element a that is a ring with unity in which every nonzero of 0, for a divisor of 0 cannot where a construction parallel to that in the divisor also be a unit. Try to discover text but starting with R x T first runs into trouble. In particular, for R = Z6 and T = {1, 2, 4},illustrate the With first difficulty encountered. [Hint: It is in Step 1.] 198 Part IV Rings and Fields section 22 Rings of Polynomials in an Polynomials We in Indeterminate a pretty workable idea of what constitutes a polynomial in x with coefficients R. We can guesshow to add and multiply such polynomials and know what is with meant by the degree of a polynomial. We expectthat the set R [x] of all polynomials in the ring R is itself a ring with the usual operations of polynomial addition coefficients and that R is a subring of R[x]. with and multiplication, However, we will be working different than the approach in high school algebra from a slightly viewpoint polynomials or calculus, and there are a few things that we want to say. rather than a variable. Suppose, for In the first place, we will call x an indeterminate in the ring Z[x] is Ix, our ring of coefficients is Z. One of the polynomials that example which we shall write simply as x. Now x is not 1 or 2 or any of the other elements of Z[x]. Thus from now on we will never write such things as \"x = 1\" or \"x = 2,\" as we have all have a ring done change. in other Also, \342\200\224 4 is courses. We callx an we will indeterminate never write an expression such in our ring not the zero polynomial and will be a polynomial equation,\" \"solving refer to it as \"finding a zero of a polynomial.\" our text discussing this, but we will always of algebraic structures not to say in In summary, we try to be careful in our discussion context that they are not equal. one context that things are equal and in another x2 than a variable to emphasize this 4 = as \"x2 \342\200\224 0,\" simply because to speaking of Z[x], We are accustomed a lot of time in the remainder of spending rather \342\226\240 Historical Note x use of and ## other letters near the end of false everything it The the alphabet to represent an \"indeterminate\" is due to Rene Descartes (1596-1650). Earlier, Francois Viete (1540-1603) had used vowelsfor indeterminates since was ## of which he had that he who necessary therefore I am.\" the least was doubt; thinking of but, was ## \"something,\" he conceived his first philosophy: principle The \"I think, most and consonants for known the quantities. Descartes is also responsible for appeared first ## of the factor theorem The Geometry, which (Corollary23.3)in as an This ## publication his work appendix to work ## his Discourse on Method contained the first publication (1637). of the also of analytic geometric geometry; curves Descartes to ## basic concepts showed how family Discourse on Method, however, The Optics, The Geometry, appendices: It was here that Descartes and The Meteorology. provided examples of how he actually applied his method. Among the important ideas Descartes discovered and published in these works were the sine law of refraction of light, the basics of the theory enlighteningparts of the arethe three can be described algebraically. born Descartes was La Haye, a wealthy in of delicate France; since he was always health, he formed the habit of spending his mornings in bed. It was at these times that he accomplished his most productive work. The Discourse onMethod was Descartes' to show the proper attempt procedures for \"searching for truth in the sciences.\"The first step in this process was to reject as absolutely of equations, and a geometric explanation of the rainbow. In 1649, Descartes was invited by Queen Christina of Sweden to come to Stockholm to tutor her. Unfortunately, the Queen required him, contrary hour. to his He soon long-established contracted habits, a lung to rise at an early in disease and died 1650. Section 22 Rings of Polynomials 199 If a person knows nothing about polynomials, it is not precisely the nature such a polynomial ## of a polynomial in to be a finite formal n x with sum + coefficients ## an easy task to describe in a ring R. If we just define 22aix' = ao a\\x ## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 + anx\", where a,- e R, we get ourselves into a bit of trouble. For surely 0 + a\\x and 0 + a\\x but we want to regard them Ox2 are different as formal as the same polynomial. sums, as an infinite formal sum solution to this problem is to define a polynomial practical + A oo 2^ajXl (=0 flo + a\\x + ' '' + anx\" ' ' ' where more a,- than there is no problem of having number of values of i. Now 0 for all but a finite one formal sum representwhat we wish to consider a single polynomial. 22.1 Definition Let R be a ring. polynomial oo f{x) = ao with coefficients in R is an infinite formal sum 2_\\ciix' (=0 a.\\x ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 + a\342\200\236x\" \342\226\240 + \342\226\240 \342\226\240, at e R and a,- = 0 for all but a finite number of values of i. The a,- are coefficients of f{x). If for somei > 0 it is true that a,- ^ 0, the largest such value of i is the degree J of f{x). If all a,- = 0, then the degree of f{x) is undefined where To \342\226\240 simplify ## \342\226\240\342\226\240 has + \342\226\240 at a\342\200\236xn working with polynomials, let us agree that = 0 for i > n, then we may denote f(x) 1 ^ if f{x) by = ao + Q\\x + + a\\x ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 a0 1- a\342\200\236xn. lxk in such a sum as xk. For example, Ix as 2 + x. Finally, we shall agree that we may omit altogether from the formal sum any term Ox', or a0 if ao = 0 but not all at = 0. Thus 0, 2, x, and 2 + x2 are polynomials with coefficients in Z. An element of R is a Also, in if R has unity 0, we will write a term Z[x], we will write the polynomial 2 + constant Addition in polynomial. and multiplication of polynomials with coefficients in a ring R are defined a way familiar to us. If f(x) = and a0 + axx h anx\" g(x) then = bo biX --- + + \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240, b\342\200\236xn for polynomial f(x) addition, we have = co + C]_x H + g(x) h cnxn where ## c\342\200\236 + b\342\200\236, a\342\200\236 The degree of the zero polynomial is sometimes defined to be \342\200\224 1, which is the first integer less than 0, or to be \342\200\224that the degreeof f(x)g(x) oo so will be the sum of the degrees of f(x) and g(x) if one of is zero. them defined ' 200 Part IV Rings and Fields and for polynomial multiplication, d0 we have H f(x)g(x) = Observe definitions + dxx h d\342\200\236x\" H but where d\342\200\236 ^=0 aib\342\200\236-i that make ## both c, and dt are 0 for all sense. Note that J2'i=oa'bn-i a finite need ## number of values of i, not equal J2\"=obian-i if so these R is not commutative. theorem. ## With these definitions of addition and multiplication, we have the following 22.2 Theorem ## The set R[x] ring of all polynomials in an indeterminate x If R with coefficients under if polynomial addition and 1 is multiplication. is commutative, then in a ring R is a so is R[x], and Proof R has unity 1^0. then also unity for R[x]. ## That {R[x], +) and the distributive We illustrate by Applying law is apparent. The associative but slightly cumbersome, straightforward, the associative law. proving to at, bj, ck e R, we obtain axioms ring is an abelian group for multiplication computations. laws are 2>*'') 2>,v J=0 ckx J2 ,,=0 ckx \302\243*'\342\226\240*\302\273-'\342\226\240*\" \\ ('=0 .4=0 J2 n=0 (Ea'fc\302\253-'' \\ i=0 E( aibJck)xs Efc ,;=o E 5-0 E^-\342\204\242 m=0 J^m-j m=0 \\ j=0 oo / \\ \302\260\302\260 ./=0 / \\i=0 Whew!! should under value the fourth expression, having computation, just two summation signs, as the value of the triple product f (x)g{x)h(x) of thesepolynomials this associative we view f(g(h(x))) as the fashion, multiplication. (In a similar of the associative composition (f o g o h){x) of three functions f, g, and h.) In this be viewed The distributive The ring if definition are similarly proved. (See Exercise26.) to the statement of the theorem show that R [x] is a commutative R is commutative, and a unity 1 ^ 0 in R is also unity for R[x], in view of the in R[x]. of multiplication \342\231 laws comments prior Thus Z[x] ring is the ring of polynomials Q[x] the of polynomials in x with rational ## in the indeterminate x with integral and so on. coefficients, coefficients, Section22 Rings of Polynomials 201 22.3 Example In la [x ], we have (x + Still working in ## 1)2= {x+ l)(x+ 1) obtain x2 + (1 + l)x + 1 = x2 1. 7Li\\_x\\, we (x + Ifi? ## 1) + (x + 1)= (1+ l)x and (1 + then 1) = Ox + we 0 = 0. the ring (/?[>])[)>], \342\226\262 is a ring ring and* of y are ## two inde terminates, can form that is, the polynomial naturalway in that are polynomials in x. Every in y with coefficients polynomials that are polynomials in x can be rewritten in a with coefficients in x with as a polynomial coefficients that are polynomials in y as illustrated to (/?[)>])[;t], 20. This indicates that isomorphic (R [*])[>'] is naturally a careful these rings by means of this natural although proof is tedious. We shall identify isomorphism, and shall consider this ring R[x, y] the ring of polynomials in two inde\342\226\240 in in R. The ring R[xi, \342\226\240 of polynomials terminates x and y with coefficients \342\226\240, x\342\200\236] the n indeterminates defined. xt with coefficients in R is similarly We leave as Exercise 24 the proof that if D is an integral domain then so is D[x]. In is not a field, for if F is a field, then is an integral domain. Note that F[x] F[x] particular, x is not a unit in F[x]. That is, there is no polynomial f(x) e F[x]such that xf(x) = 1. of F[x]. Any element F{x) By Theorem21.5,one can construct the field of quotients in F{x) can be represented as a quotient of two polynomials in F[x] with f{x)/g{x) of F[x\\, define F(x\\, \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240, of quotients to be ---,.\302\275]. g(x) ^ 0. We similarly x\342\200\236) the field \342\226\240 This field F{x\\, \342\226\240 is the field of rational functions in n indeterminates over F. \342\226\240, x\342\200\236) These fields play a very important role in algebraic geometry. by Exercise The We Evaluation are Homomorphisms used to study what we F be fields, with F the existence of very important will be the fundamental tools can be Let to proceed to show how homomorphisms to as \"solving a polynomial equation.\" a subfield of E, that is, F < E. The next theorem asserts of F[x] into E. These homomorphisms homomorphisms for much of the rest of our work. now ready have always referred E and 22.4 Theorem ## (The Evaluation E, let a be any defined Homomorphisms element for Field Theory) an Let F The be a subfield 4>a of a field : F[x] \342\200\224*E of E, and let x be indeterminate. map by 4>a(aa +axx for + (\302\253o and (f>a h anxn) = a0 + axa -\\ \\- anan a\\x maps a, homomorphism ## e + anxn) F isomorphically 4>a is evaluation ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 F[x] is ahomomorphism of F[x] into E. Also, 4>a{x) = that is, 4>a{a) = aforae f. The by the identity map; at a. in Proof The subfield and mapping diagram an Fig. 22.5 may help us to visualize is really this situation. The dashed lines indicate element of the ## set. The theorem an immediate IV Rings and Fields [fix]] N a = <pa{x) \"\342\226\240 a = (pa{a) 22.5 Figure consequence of our that definitions of addition well defined, is, independent of our ## representation of f{x) e F[x]as H and multiplication in F[x]. The a finite map 0a is sum a0 + axx since h a\342\200\236x\", such a finite which of terms If Ox', f(x) + g(x)= co f(x) = sum representing f(x) can be changed does not affect the value of 4>a(f(x))+ only by insertion + bmxm, or deletion and + \302\253o axx + cxx + ## \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240 = bo + a\342\200\236xn, g(x) \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 b\\x \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240 h{x) = crxr, then \302\242(^(/^) + g(x)) = 4>a{h{x)) = Co qa crar, while = 0\302\253(/(^)) + Mg(x)) (a0 + ## aia + ---+ anan) addition (b0 + bxa + ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 + bmam). Since by definition of polynomial Mf(x) we have c,- a,- + fc,-, we see that + g(x)) = we see that = d0 Mf(x)) + if$a(g(x)).

Turning

to multiplication,

f(x)g(x)

dxx

## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240

+ dsxs,

then

t>a{f{x)g{x)) = d0 +
while

## dia + ---+ dsas

[<M/(*))H<MS(*))]

+ (\302\253o

axa

+ bxa

## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240

+ bmam).

Section

22

Rings of Polynomials

203

Since by

definition

of polynomial
fa(f(x)g(x))

multiplication dj = X!/=oaibj-i,
= [0a

we seethat

## (/(*))] [0a(g(* ))]\342\200\242 F[x], where a

Again

Thus

4>a is a

homomorphism.
definition polynomial by the identity

of 0a applied to a constant so 0a maps F isomorphically gives 4>a{a) of 0a, we have 4>a{x) = <j)a{\\x) = la = a.

The

very

a e

e F.
\342\231\246

= a,

map.

by definition

with the identical proof if F point out that this theorem is valid commutative rings with unity rather than fields. However, we shall be they are fields. primarily in the case in which We

and

are

merely

interested

It is hard to overemphasize the importance of this simple theorem for us. It is the very It is so simple that it could justifiably foundation for all of our further work in field theory. a little misleading to write be called an observation rather than a theorem. It was perhaps that notation makes it look so complicated out the proof because the polynomial you it is a difficult theorem. may be fooled into thinking

22.6

Example

## Let F be Q and E be E 0o : QM -+ E. Here

+ 0o(\302\253o Thus

in

Theorem

22.4,

and consider

the

evaluation

homomorphism

a\\x +

+ \302\253i0

+ anQ\"

\302\253o-

every

polynomial
E

constant

## term. the evaluation

\342\226\262

22.7

Example

be Q and : QM -+ K02
Let F

be E in

and

consider

homomorphism

Here = + a\342\200\236x\")a0

+ 02(\302\2530 Note

a\\x

+ a{l

a\342\200\2362\".

that +x

4>2{x2

- 6)
of 02-

22

2-6

= 0.

Thus x2 + x

\342\200\224 6 is

in the

kernel TV
x2 +x

Of course,

-6 = (x -2){x + 3),
that

and

the reason

that 02(;t2

+x

- 6) = 0 is
22.4

02(;t

-2)

2-2 = 0.

\342\226\262

22.8

Example

Let F

0,-(ao

in Theorem

and

consider

the evaluation

homomorphism

+ a\\x

1-

anxn)

= a0

+ axi

-\\

\\-

anin

and 4>i{x)

= i.

Note that
kix2

+ 1)

= i2+1

= 0,

so x2

1 is

in the

kernel TV* of

204

Part

IV

Rings and

Fields

22.9Example

Let
0JT

F be
: Q[x]

and

let

E be

in

Theorem

22.4

and consider

the

evaluation

homomorphism

-> E.

Here
H

fa(a0 + a^x
It can
Thus

h anx\")

= a0

aXTZ

-\\

+ if a,- =

an7tn.

in

a0

+ a\\Tt +

if and

only

Ofon

= 0,

## \342\200\242 n. 1, \342\200\242 \342\200\242

polynomials
way

it =

is map. This {0}, and \302\242^ a one-to-one with rational coefficients form a ring isomorphic
4>M is

shows that

all formal

to Q[x] in a

natural

with

n. (j>\342\200\236(x)

\342\226

The

New

Approach
the connection

We now
solving

complete a polynomial

shall

refer to finding
F

a zero

equation. of a

new

ideas

and

of solving

polynomial.
and

22.10Definition

Let

be a subfield
22.4.

of a field E,

a\\x

## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 be in + a\342\200\236x\"

of Theorem

Let

element of E. Let f{x) = a0 + E be F[x], and let 0a : F[x] ->\342\200\242 the evaluation homomorphism f(a) denote
let

a be an

4>a{f{x))=
If f(a)
In

a0

+ axa

h ana\".

= 0, then
terms

a is a

zero of

f(x).
can rephrase

\342\226

of this
that

definition,

we

, numbers

r such

r2

+ r

- 6=

0 by

letting

F =

all alia

real e E

such

that

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that

+x

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= 0,
the

is, finding

all zeros

6)

same

{a e
It

E |$a{x2 x + that we have In fact, 0} = [r e E | r2 phrase - 6 = 0} = {2,-3}. problem seem quite in may seem in merely succeeded making ## a simple the problem that complicated. what we have use its done is to the language of ## mappings, and we can now to develop for will continue Our all the solution. mapping machinery we have developed and Basic Goal to We continue concerned and attempt in to put ring our with topics rings theory homomorphisms ## for group will in perspective. Sections 26 and 27 are on factor groups analogous to the material theory. However, our aim in developing these analogous future work that are from our aims in group theory. be quite different In group the concepts of factor groups and homomorphisms to study the structure of a given group and to determine the types of group structures of certain orders that about homomorphisms and factor could exist. We will be talking rings in Section 26 conceptsfor theory we used Section22 with an eye to fundamental Rings of Polynomials 205 finding zeros of polynomials, problems in algebra. history, mathematical using which is one of the Let us take a moment to talk about the language of \"solving polynomial oldest and most in this aim the equations\" light of to which we are accustomed. start with the Pythagorean We school of mathematics 525 B.C. The of about that all distances are commensurable: that Pythagoreans worked with the assumption a and b, there should exist a unit of distance u and integers ;; and m is, given distances and b = (m)(u). In terms such that a = {n){u) of numbers, then, thinking of a as being one unit of distance, they maintained that all numbers are integers. This idea of comcan be rephrased according our ideas as an assertion that all numbers to mensurability are rational, for if a and b are rational numbers, then each is an integral multiple of the For example, if a = reciprocal of the least common multiple of their denominators. -^ = (35)(^) and b = (76)(^). and b = |f, then a The Pythagoreans knew, the Pythagorean of course, what is now called theorem; of length that b and a hypotenuse c, is, for a right triangle with legs of lengths a and a2 + b2 = c2. had to grant the existence of a right triangle two also of a hypotenuse having of such a right triangle would, say one unit each. The hypotenuse legs of equal length, consternation and as we know, have to have a length of V2. Imagine then their one of their society\342\200\224according himself\342\200\224 to some stories it was Pythagoras dismay when in our terminology in the following is stated came up with the embarrassing fact that They theorem. 22.11 Theorem The polynomial number. x2 \342\200\224 2 has no zeros in the rational numbers. Thus y/2 is not a rational Proof Suppose that that lowest m/n for m, n any e Z is a rational factors number such that (m/n)2 = 2. We assume we have canceled terms common to m and n, so that the fraction with gcd(m, n) = 1. Then m \342\200\224 2n , m/n is in where both m2 and 2n2 we factor of 2n2, m2 has as factorsthe 2n2 must have two as a factor. We have 2 is a contradicting for ## are integers. see that 2 of m Since m2 and must 2n2 are the same integer, and since be one of the factors of m2. But as a square. factors factors deduced that 2, so n2 the the fact repeated twice. Thus m2 must have two factors 2. Then must have 2 as a factor, and consequently ;; has 2 from m2 = 2n2 that both m and n must be divisible by 2, fraction terms. Thus we have 2 ^ (m/n)2 m/n is in lowest \342\231\246 any m, n e Thus Z. ran right the Pythagoreans into equation, x2 - 2 = 0. We the question of a solution 3], of a polynomial refer the student Pythagorean to Shanks dilemma [36, Chapter and its for a lively in and totally delightful account of this significance mathematics. 206 Part IV Rings and Fields \342\226\240 Historical Note of polynomial mathematics developed solution equations has been a carry out the computation rational fact, to as many places the as The goalof Babylonians ## for nearly 4000 years. The versions of the quadratic necessary distinction between and could thereforeignore quadratic equations. For example, to solve x2 \342\200\224 870, the Babylonian scribe x = to take half of 1 (|), square it instructed his students and add that to 870. The squareroot of 870|, (|), is then added to | to give 30 as the namely 291, was the scribes did not discuss, answer. What however, what to do if the square root in this process was not a rational number. Chinese mathematicians, however, from about 200 B.C., discovered a method similar to what is now called Horner's method to solve since they used numerically; equations quadratic a decimal system, they were able in principle to formula to solve Chinese, in techniques extended ## and irrational solutions. The their numerical Persian to polynomial world, In the Arab Omar Khayyam for solving cubic equations geometrically by of intersection of appropriately finding the point(s) while Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi chosen conic sections, (died u 1213)sed, in effect, techniques of calculus to or not a cubic equation had a real determine whether positive root. It was the Italian Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576)who first published a procedure for solving cubic equations ## equations of higher degree. poet-mathematician methods (1048-1131) developed the algebraically. In our of a group, we commented on the of motivation of the definition necessity such as x + 2 = 0 might have solutions. having negative numbers, so that equations caused a certain amount of consternation in some The introduction of negative numbers circles. We can visualize 1 apple,2 apples,and even j| apples, but how can philosophical and say that it is \342\200\22417 consideration of the equation we point to anything Finally, apples? of the number i. The very name of an \"imaginary x2 + 1 = 0 led to the introduction number\" this number was regarded. Even today, students many given to i shows how are led by this name to regard i with some degree of suspicion. The negative numbers were introduced to us at such an early stage in our mathematical that we development accepted them We first without question. in high school freshman algebra. The first there problem in both freshman was to learn how to add, multiply, and factor polynomials. Then, algebra in the second course in algebra and in high school, considerable emphasiswas placed on solving polynomial equations. These topics are exactly those with which we shall be concerned. The difference is that while in high school, only polynomials with real met polynomials shall be doing our work with for polynomials coefficients from any field. Once we have developed the machinery of homomorphisms and factor rings in Section with our basic goal: to show that given any polynomial of 26, we will proceed of the polynomial may be from degree > 1, where the coefficients any field, we can find a zero of this polynomial in some field containing the given field. After the machinery is developed in Sections 26 and 27, the achievement of this goal will be very easy, and is really a very elegant piece of mathematics. All this fuss may seem ridiculous, but just think back in history. This is the than 2000 years of mathematical in working with polynomial culmination of more endeavor the After achieving our basic goal, we shall spend the rest of our time studying equations. ## number coefficients were considered, e w Section 22 Exercises 207 nature of these ## this material. should solutions of polynomial equations. We need have no fear in approaching We shall be dealingwith familiar topics of high school algebra. Tins work- ## seem much In conclusion, really ## more natural we remark than that ## group theory. the machinery of factor rings basic is not ideas necessary [27, ## in order for us to achieve our goal. ## and ring homomorphisms For a direct demonstration, see Artin that p. 29]. ## However, factor rings we should grasp, and our basic are fundamental ring homomorphisms once we have goal will follow very easily and mastered them. \342\226\240 EXERCISES 22 Computations In Exercises 1 through 4, find the sum and the product of the given polynomials in the given polynomial ring. 1. f(x) = Ax Ax + 2 in Z8[x}. = x + 1,g{x) = x + 1 in Z2[x]. 2. f(x) 3. f{x) = 2x2 + 3x + 4, g(x) = 3x2 + 2x + 3 in Z6[x]. 4. f{x) = 2x3 + Ax2 + 3x + 2, gix) = 3x4 + 2x + A in - 5, g{x) = 2x2 - Z5[x]. 5. How many polynomials are there of degree < in Z2M? Z5 [x]? ## (Include 0.) (Include 0.) for 6. In How many polynomials are there of degree< 2 in in Theorem Exercises 7 and + 3) 8, F = \302\243 C = 22.4. Compute the indicated evaluation homomorphism. 7. faix2 8. ^i2x3 -x2+3x the + 2) evaluation In Exercises 9 through 11, F 3x2 = E = Z7 in Theorem ## 22.4. Compute for 10. 05[(x3 indicated homomorphism. 9. &[ix4 + 2x)ixi + 5x\" + 3)] [Hint: 2)iAx2 + 3)(x7 + 3x2 + 1)] 11. 04(3x106 + 2x53) 15, find way Use Fermat's ## theorem.] finite field of the ## In Exercises 12 through that field. [Hint: One 12. x2 14. x5 is simply ## all zeros in the indicated to try all candidates!] given polynomial with coefficients in + 1 in Z2 2x 13. x3 in Z5 + 2x + 2 in Z7 + 3x3 + x2 + where 15. fix)gix) 16. fix) = x3 + 2x2 + 5 and gix) = 3x2 + 2x in in Z7 Let ipa : Zs[x] \342\200\224> Z5 be an evaluation homomorphism as Theorem 22.4. ## Use Fermat's theorem to evaluate 03 ix231 +3x111 -2x53 theorem + l). find 17. Use Fermat's to all zeros in Z5 of 2x219 + 3x1A + 2x51 + 3x44. Concepts In Exercises 18 and it is ## 19, correct the in a form definition of the italicized term without reference to the text, if correction is needed, so that acceptablefor publication. 208 Part IV Rings and Fields R is an = 18. A polynomial with coefficients in oo a ring infinite formal sum y]atx' i=0 flo + o\\x + a2X2 + a\342\200\236xn + \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240 where 19. a,- /? for \342\202\254 2 0, 1,2, ## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242. Let F is the be a field and let f(x) e f[i]. Aze/wo//(x)isana x into a. evaluation homomorphism mapping element e F such that 0a(/(x)) = 0, where 0a : F(;c) -\302\273 F 20. Considerthe f{x, of y) = (3x3 + 2x)y3 (x2 -6x+ l);y2 + (x4 - 2x)y (x4 - 3x2 + 2) of the (QM)[;y]the Write f(x, y) as it would appear if viewed as an element of (Q[j])M. in 21. Consider 05homomorphism evaluation homomorphism 05 : Q[x] \342\200\224>\342\226\240 R. Find six elements the kernel 22. Find a polynomial of degree>0 in following Iii[x] that is a unit. ## 23. Mark each of the true or (anxn false. + 1- a. Thepolynomial b. If R a\\x flo) \342\202\254 R[x] is 0 if and only if a,- 0, for 0, 1, ## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 n. \342\200\242, R[x] is commutative. ring, then D[x] is an integral domain. c. If D is an integral domain, d. If R is a ring containing divisors of 0, then has divisors of 0. R[x] e. If R is a ring and f(x) and g(x) in R[x] are of degrees3 and 4, respectively, then f(x)g(x) may be of degree 8 in R[x]. f. If Ris any ring and f(x) and g(x) in R[x] are of degrees 3 and 4, respectively, then f(x)g(x) is is a commutative then always of degree 7. E and ## g. If F is a subfield all g(jc) e F[x]. \342\202\254 a \302\243 is zero of /(x) e F[;c],then a is a zero of h(x) = f(x)g(x)for h. If F is a field, i. If R is a j. Theory If R is a in F. then the units in F[x] are precisely the units then x is never a divisor of 0 in R [x ]. ring, the ring, then the zero divisors in R[x] are precisely zero divisors in R. 24. Prove 25. Let that if D is an integral domain, then D[x] is an an integral domain. D be an integral domain in D[x]. and x indeterminate. a. Describe b. Find ## the units the units in the left Z[x]. Z7 c. 26. 27. Find units in [x]. Prove the distributive law for Let F be a field of characteristic D(oq R is a ring and x is an indeterminate. R[x], where D be the formal polynomial differentiation zero and let map, so that a.\\x + a2X2 ## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 + anxn) a\\ + 2 ## \342\226\240 \342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242 + +n \342\200\242 \302\2532* a\342\200\236x\"~l. a. ShowthatD : F[x] \342\200\224>\342\226\240 F[x] isagroup homomorphism of {F[x], +) into itself. Is Da ring homomorphism? Section 23 Factorization of Polynomials over a Field 209 b. Find c. 28. Find the the kernel image subfield of D. of F[x] of a under D. Let F be a field E. homomorphism : F[xu ---,\302\276] 0\302\253,,...,\302\253\342\200\236 -> a. Define an evaluation for a,- \342\202\254 \302\243, stating b. With c. ## the analog of Theorem 22.4. = F = Q, compute + \302\242-3,2(^1\302\2763 3^14\302\276). ## the concept in the text definition Define R be a of a zero of of a RR a polynomial {x\\, ## \342\226\240 \302\243 \342\226\240 \342\226\240, F[x\\, xn) ## \342\226\240 in \342\226\240 \342\226\240, xn] a way analogous to the zero of f(x). functions 29. Let by ## ring, and let be the set of all mapping R into R. For e \302\242,^/ RR, define ## the sum \302\242+11/ (0+^)(r) and = 0(r) + ^(r) the product \342\200\242 \342\226\240f by (0 \342\200\242 i;){r) = 0(rW) that ## for r efi. 30. Referring Note that \342\200\242 is not function composition. Show (RR, +, is a \342\200\242) ring. function to Exercise that 29, let F 0(a) be a field. all An element a e of \302\242)FF is a polynomial of on F, if there exists f(x) e F[x]such a. Show = f(a) for polynomial F. on F forms a subring that the set Pf of all functions FF. that b. Show that the F[x] don't PF is not necessarily isomorphicto F[x]. ring even have the same number of elements.] [Hint: Show if F is a finite field, PF and 31. Refer to Exercises many 29 and 30 for the (Z3 Zl, following questions. Z^z,l a. How elements are there in Z2Zi? in b. Qassify (Z2Zl, +} and +} by Theorem then FF 11.12,the Fundamental Theorem of finitely generated abelian groups. c. Show Note if F is a finite that if . that field, = PF. [Hint: Of course, PF c ## FF. LetF have as elements a \\, ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240, a\342\200\236. f,(x) = then \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 c(x - a{) \342\226\240 at-i)(x - ai+l) \342\226\240 a\342\200\236), (x (x fi(cij) = 0 function for j on that every ## j^ i, and the value ft (at) F is a polynomial function.] can be controlledby the choice of c e F. Usethis to show SECTION 23 Factorization Recall of Polynomials concerned that with over a Field zeros that we are finding with F g(x),h(x) < E. Suppose f{x) e F[x] factors \342\202\254 F[x] and let a e E. Now for ## of polynomials. Let E and so that f(x) = in F[x], the evaluation homomorphism (pa(g(x))(t>a{h(x)) be fields, we g{x)h(x) for <j>a, have f(a) = = <t>a{f{x)) = (pa(g(x)h(x)) g(a)h(a). attempt f(x). Thus if a e E, then f(a) and only if find a zero of f(x) is reducedto the problem is one reason why it is useful to study factorization = 0 if ## either g(a) = 0 or h(a) = 0.The of finding a zero of a factor of of polynomials. to This Part IV Rings and Fields ## The Division Algorithm in F[x] The following theorem algorithm is the ## basic tool for our Z given in work in this the section. Note importance the similarity with the division for Theorem 6.3, of which has been amply 23.1 demonstrated. Theorem (Division Algorithm ## for F[x]) Let f{x) = anxn and H a\342\200\236-i*\"_1 H \302\253o g(x) = bmxm + and a\342\200\236bm bm~\\xm~l ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 b0 be two where ## elements of F[x], with there are unique polynomials either q(x) degree and of r(x) set = 0 or the elements of F and m > 0. Then + r(x) in F[x] such that f(x) = g{x)q{x) r{x), r(x) is less than the degree m of g(x). both nonzero there Proof Considerthe such that f{x) done. we are for S = {f(x) - g(x)s(x) s(x) e F[x]}. If 0 e S then \\ = q{x) g(x)s(x) = 0, so f(x) = g(x)s(x). Taking exists s{x) and S. Then r(x) = 0, an s(x) Otherwise, let r{x) be an element of minimal degree in f(x) some = g(x)q(x) that the q(x) e F[x]. We must show ## + r(x) degree of r(x) is lessthan 1- m. Suppose that r(x) = with Cj H c,x' + c,-xx'~l co, F and c, ^ 0. If form t > m, then f(x)-q(x)g(x)-(ct/bm)x'-mg(x) and = r(x)-(ct/bm)x'-mg(x), of lower degree), the degree of r (x). However, (1) the latter is of the r(x) which \342\200\224 (c,x' + terms is a polynomial in Eq. ## (1) can be written in S, of degree lowerthan in the t, the polynomial form fix) so fact + g{x)[q{x) (c,/bm)x'-m], that r(x) was selected to m of g(x). the degree = g(x)ql(x) it is the contradicting the have minimal degree in S. Thus degree of r(x) is less than For uniqueness,if f{x) and + rl(x) + r2(x), - fix) then = g(x)q2(x) subtracting we have ## g(x)[qi(x) Because either r2(x) \342\200\224 - q2(x)]= or the r2(x) r^x). \342\200\224 rx(x) = 0 degree of r2(x) r\\{x) is less than of g{x),this r2(x) \342\200\224 the degree must can hold only if q\\{x) r\\{x) \342\200\224 q2(x) = 0 so q\\{x) q2(x). Then we have ri(x) = 0 so r2(x). \342\2 We can compute the polynomials in M.[x] q(x) and in high r(x) of Theorem 23.1 by long division just as we divided polynomials school. Section23 Factorization of Polynomials over a Field 211 23.2Example Let us work with polynomials in Z5 [x] and divide 3x3 f(x) =x4 by 2x3 + Ax ## - 1 23.1. The long example, Ax g{x) = x2 \342\200\224 2x + 3 to find q{x) andr(x) of Theorem Zs[x], division should be easy to follow, but remember that we x are in x so, for ## \342\200\224 = (\342\200\2243.v> 2x. \342\200\224 x-2x ,-4 + 3 ;r - 3x3 2x2 + Ax - 1 x4 \342\200\224 2x3 + 3x~ - x3 \342\200\224 x2 Ax 3x x3 + 2x~ \342\200\224 - 3x2 3x2 + 2x -- 1 x - -4 + x + 3 Thus q{x) = x2 \342\200\224 \342\200\224 3, and r(x) = x + 3. first We give three important the school algebrafor mapping (homomorphism) corollaries of Theorem23.1.The case F[x] = Rpc]. We phrase special 22. approach described in Section element one our proof ## appears in high in terms of the 23.3 Corollary ## (Factor Theorem) An a factor of f(x) in F[x]. Suppose that a e ## F is a zero of f(x) f{a) = e F[x] if and only if x \342\200\224 a is Proof for a such & we have 0. By Theorem 23.1, there exist q(x), r(x) \342\202\254 F[x] that f(x) = (x where for -a)q(x) + r(x), is less than either c e r(x) = 0 or the degree of r(x) 1. Thus we must have r(x) = c F, so /(-*) = Applying (-^ a)q(x) : + c. \342\200\224>\342\226\240 F of our evaluation homomorphism, 0 = 4>a F[x] Theorem 22.4, we find /(a) = 0q(a) + c, f{x). applying so it must be that if c= x 0. Then \342\200\224 a a is Conversely, = (x \342\200\224 so x \342\200\224a factor of a is a)q(x), /(x) factor of f{x) in F[x], where a e F, then our \342\231\246 evaluationhomomorpohism4>a to f{x) = (x \342\200\224 a)q(x),v/ehave (a) = 0q(a) = 0. 212 Part IV Rings and Fields 23.4Example Working again in Zs[x], note that 1 is a zero of eZ5W. factor (x4 + Thus by 3x3 +2*+4) Corollary 23.3, find we should factorization be ableto x4 + 3x3 + 2x + 4 into (x Y)q (x) in Zs[x]. Let us the by long division. Ax x3 + x ~l Ax2 + + + 1 2x + x4 + 3x3 4x3 4x3 --4x2 4x2 2x 4x2 - 4x x+ x ## Thus x4 + 3x3 a zero of x3 + 2x + 4 = (x + 4x2 + 4x - 1)03+ 4x2 r +4 4x + this 1) in Z5[x]. Since by x 1 is seen get to be 1 also, we can divide polynomial \342\200\224 1 and x~ x3 4x2 + 4x + 1 + 4x + 1 4x -4 Since x2 + 4 still has 1 as a zero, we can divide x + 1 again by x \342\200\224 1 and get +4 x+ x 4 0 Thus x4 + The 3x3 2x + should 4 = (x also - l)3(x+ 1)in look Z5[x]. next corollary polynomial familiar. 23.5 Corollary nonzero f(x) e F[x] of degreen can have at most zeros in a field F. Section 23 Factorization of Polynomials over a Field 213 Proof The preceding corollary shows that if f(x) a\\ F is a zero of fix), then = ix -ai)qiix), \342\200\224 1. A where, of course,the factorization degree of qiix) is zero a2 & of q\$$x) then results in fix) Continuing = ix at - ai)ix - a2)q2ix). this process, we arrive fix) = ix - ai) side ## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 ix ar)qrix), of fix) ## where qr(x) has no further \342\200\224 ix a,-) can appear on the zeros right-hand in F. F, then Since the degree is n, at most n factors of the preceding equation, so r < n. Also, if b ^ a; for i = 1, ## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 r and \342\200\242, & fib) = ib-ai)---ib-ar)qrib)^Q, and since F the Our has no divisors of 0 none the of b zeros \342\200\224 or a; ## \342\200\242 r \342\200\242, a,- for i = 1, \342\200\242< n are all in F ## qr (b) are 0 by of fix). construction. Hence \342\231\246 final corollary nonzero elements of a surprising that that ## the result inZ. of the multiplicative F* of the structure group than with factorization in F[x]. It may at first seem such a result follows from the division in F[x], but recall that algorithm a subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic follows from the division algorithm field is concerned with F, rather 23.6 Corollary If G is a finite subgroup the of the multiplicative group {F*, of a \342\200\242) field F, finite then G is In particular, multiplicative group of all nonzero elements of a field cyclic. is cyclic. Proof as By Theorem11.12 a finite abelian group, G is isomorphic to a directproduct Z,*, x where each dt is a power of a prime. Letus think of each of the Z^. as a Zdr, notation. Let m be the least common cyclic group of order dt in multiplicative multiple \342\200\242 of all the d; for i = 1, 2, \342\200\242 note that m < d\\d2- \342\226\240 a,- e Z^, then a; ' = 1, so If -dr. \342\200\242, r; a.m = 1 since d; divides m. Thus for all a e G, we have am = 1, so every elementof Zd2 x ## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 x G is zero of in xm \342\200\224 But 1. G has prime d\\d2 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 dr elements, > d\\d2 while xm dr. \342\200\224 1 can have at most m d\\d2 \342\226\240 so \342\226\240 \342\226\240 zeros the field F by Corollary in 23.5, so m ## \342\226\240 Hence \342\226\240 \342\226\240 m = and dr, ## the primes involved the isomorphic to Exercises the cyclic ## powers group Zm. d\\,d2,--,dr are distinct, of the group G is \342\231\246 5 through ## some finite fields. The fact has been appliedin algebraic Irreducible ## 8 ask us to find all generators that the multiplicative group coding. the cyclic groups of units for field of units of a finite is cyclic Polynomials definition Our next importance school to us. algebra out a type of polynomial in singles The concept is probably already familiar. in a more general setting. F[x] We that really ## will be of utmost are doing high 214 Part IV Rings and Fields e F[x] isirreducible over be expressedas a product 23.7Definition A nonconstant polynomial in ## polynomial f(x) F[x] if f(x) cannot in F[x] g(x) and is over h(x) both of lower degreethan not the ## is an irreducible of two polynomials g{x)h{x) of f(x). If f(x) e F[x] degree F or a nonconstant F. polynomial that is irreducible over F, then f{x) is reducible not \342\226 just ## that the preceding Note the concept irreducible. if definition A concerns polynomial f(x) be irreducible viewed over a larger field E the concept irreducible over F and may be irreducible over F, but may F. We illustrate this. containing not 23.8 Example 2 viewed in Q[x] has no zeros in Q. This shows that that x2 \342\200\224 2 = over Q, for a factorization x2 \342\200\224 (ax + b){cx + d) for a,b,c, 2 viewed in R[x] is not 2 in would give rise to zeros of x2 \342\200\224 Q. However, x2 \342\200\224 deQ \342\226 2 factors in R[x] into (x - */2)(x + V2). irreducible over R, because x2 \342\200\224 Theorem 22.11 shows x2 \342\200\224 2 is irreducible ## It is worthwhile to remember that F. Thus we could have denned of the units in F = an irreducible f{x) polynomial such that in any factorization the [x] areprecisely nonzero elements polynomial f{x) as a nonconstant g(x)h(x) in F[x], either g(x) or h(x) is a unit. 23.9 Example Let us show 3x + that f(x) = x3 + 3x + 2 viewed in Zs[x] is irreducible over Z5. If would then x3 = -2, /(2) = 1, and /(0) = 2, /(1) = 1, = \342\200\2242, has no zeros in Z5. Thus f(x) is irreducible over that f(x) /(-2) showing and cubic Z5. This test for irreducibility by finding zeros works nicely for quadratic \342\226 over a finite field with a small number of elements. polynomials ## 2 factored in Zs[x] least one linear factorof be 0, by Corollary 23.3. into f(x) of lower degree then there polynomials a for of the form x \342\200\224 some a e Z5. But exist at would f{a) However, /(-1) Irreducible polynomials of determining now The problem difficult. illustrated We give for will play a very important role in our work from now on. irreducible F may be whether a given f(x)&F[x]is over that are useful in certain cases. some criteria for irreducibility irreducibility One technique determining of quadratic and cubic polynomials was in Examples 23.8 and 23.9. We formalize it in a ## theorem. is reducible over F if and 23.10 Theorem ## Let f(x) e F[x],nd a only if it has a let F. f(x) be of degree 2 or 3. Then f(x) zero in Proof is reducible so that f(x) = g(x)h(x), where the degree of g(x) and the degree of or cubic, h(x) are both less than the degree of f{x), then since f(x) is either quadratic either g(x) or h(x) is of degree 1.If, say, g(x) is of degree 1, then except for a possible factor in F, g(x) is of the form x \342\200\224 that f{a) = 0, so a. Then g{a) = 0, which implies f(x) has a zero in F. If f(x) ## Conversely, Corollary23.3shows of f(x), so f(x) is reducible. that if f(a) = 0 for a e F, then a is x \342\200\224a factor \342\231 We turn to some conditions for irreducibility most important condition that we shall give is not this theorem here; it involves clearing prove over Q of polynomials the in Q[x]. The contained in denominators next theorem. We shall messy. ## and gets a bit Section 23 Factorization of Polynomialsover a Field 215 23.11 Theorem If f(x) r and e Z[x],then and f(x) only factors if it s in Q[x] if and s in 7L\\x\\. ## into a product of has such a factorization two polynomials with of lower degrees polynomials of the same \342\231\246 degreesr Proof 23.12 ## The proof If f(x) Q, then If But is omitted here. x\" Corollary + an-ixn~l + in Z, Q, ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 it has a zero m a in ## + a0 is in Z[x] and m must divide with a0 0, and if ## fix) has a zero in 23.3. so for a0\342\200\224 Proof f(x) then has a zero then /(x) ## has a linear factor x am somem ## by Theorem 23.11, e Z we must have ## f(x) has a factorization with a linear ## Q[x] by Corollary factor in Z[x], f(x) = Thus ao/m {x- m)(xn~l ao/m). \342\231\246 is in Z, so m divides oq. 23.13 Example 2 2 over Q, for x2 of the irreducibility of x2 Corollary 23.12 gives us another proof in Q[x] if and only if it has a zero in Q by Theorem 23.10. By factors nontrivially i Corollary23.12,t has a zero in Q if and only if it has a zero in Z, and moreover the only are the divisors \302\261 none of these numbers 1 and \302\2612 2. A check shows that of possibilities \342\200\224 \342\200\224 2. is a zero of x2 \342\200\224 \342\226\262 23.14 Example Let us use Theorem23.11 to show that f{x) viewed =x4-2x2 + 8x + zero in either has a linear factor in Q[x], then it has a Q[x] is irreducible over Q. If fix) and by Corollary 23.12, this zero would have to be a divisor in Z of 1, that is, Z, = 8, and /(-1) = \342\200\2248, But /(1) \302\2611. so such a factorization is impossible. in factors If fix) factorization. into two quadratic factors in Q[x], then by Theorem 23.11, it has ix2 + in Z[x]. Equating ax + b)ix2 ex +d) that 2, coefficients of powers of x, we find b we must and have a + bd=l, for ad + be = 8, ac+ + d \342\200\224 c= 0 In any e Z. From either bd = 1, we see that b = d = lor b = d b = d and from ad + be = 8, we deduce that dia + c) = 8. But case, a factorization into two quadratic impossible since a + c = 0.Thus polynomials and is irreducible over Q. fix) impossible integers a, b,c,d = this \342\200\224 1. is is also \342\226\262 We irreducibility. conclude An additional our irreducibility criteria with the famous Eisenstein useful criterion is given in Exercise 37. very Let criterion for 23.15 Theorem (Eisenstein Criterion) in Z[x], and an e Z but be a prime. Supposethat fix) = anxn with ## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 + a is ^k 0 (mod p), over at = 0 ## (mod p) for all i < n, ao # 0 (mod p2). Then fix) is irreducible Q. 216 Part IV Rings and Fields Proof ## By Theorem23.11we need lower degreein Z[x]. If f{x) is a factorization that in only ## show that f(x) does not factor into polynomials of (brxr + ^ 0, ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240 b0)(csxs c0) Z[x], not bo and cq are both ## co = 0 (mod Let m be the p). Now smallest cs ^0andr,s < \302\253,thenao # 0 (mod p2) implies that modulo p. Suppose \302\243>o0 (mod p) and congruent # = brcs. 0 (mod p) implies that br,cs a\342\200\236 ^0 (mod p), sincea\342\200\236 ^ value of k such that q ^ 0 (mod /?).Then withfor to 0 ## <Zm \342\200\224 boCm + b\\Cm-\\ ## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 fcmCo if m, brcm-r if r < m. r > The \342\200\242 \342\200\242, cm_i, \342\200\242 are all co p while congruent to 0 modulo s = n, congruent to 0 modulo p implies that am ^ 0 modulo p,som =n. Consequently, was nontrivial. contradicting our assumption that s < n; that is, that our factorization fact that neither fo0 nor cm are \342\231\ Note that if we take p = 2, the Q. Eisenstein criterion gives us still another proof of ## the 23.16 Example irreducibility 2 over of x2 \342\200\224 Taking = 3, we see by Theorem 23.15 that 9x4 ## 25x5 is irreducible over ( 23.17 3x2 12 Corollary The polynomial <M*) = is x-l prime = xp~l +XP~2 + . +x+ I irreducible over Theorem Theorem Q for any p only Proof Again following by 23.11, 22.5 commutative we need that its It consider actually factorizations shows in Z[x]. We remarked can be phism used for : Q[x] proof that 0X+1 -+ Q[x]. ## Here we want to rings. is natural for us to denote ## evaluation homomorphims use the evaluation homomor<j>x+i{f{x)) by f(x + 1) for f{x) 6 QM.Let g{x) = The = + \342\200\236(x 1) coefficient by Thus of xp~r p ## (x + 1)- 1 for 0 < r < p is the binomial p divides (x + l)p - 1 xp PX ## is divisible 0 < r < p. because pi but does ## coefficient p\\/[rl(p not divide either r! or \342\200\224which r)!] ## (p \342\200\224 r)! when g{x) = xP-1 + (PA Xp-2 + ## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 + p Section 23 Factorization of Polynomials over a Field 217 satisifies the >p(x) Eisenstein h{x)r{x) ## for the prime criterion were a nontrivial factorization >p(x and is thus of &p(x) ## irreducible in Z[.r]. then ever Z. Br: r + 1) = g(x) = h{x + l)r(x+ 1) p(x) would give a nontrivial ## factorization of g(x) inZ[x].Thus 0>p(x) in Corollary must also be irreiuc:rle \342\231\246 over Q. The polynomial 23.17 is thepth cyclotomic polynomial. Uniqueness Polynomials of Factorization in in F[x] a product F[x] can be factored into For of irreducible that in an f(x), g{x) divides essentially unique way. if there exists q(x) e F[x]such that f(x) = g(x)q(x). Note the similarity F[x] theorem that follows with boxed Property (1) for Z following 6.9. Example irreducible ## g(x) e F[x] we say polynomials in fix F[x] i in of the 23.18 Theorem Let p{x) be an polynomial F[x], Proof 23.19 We then either p(x) divides r(x) or this ## If p(x) divides divides s(x). p(x) in F[x]. r(x)s(x) for r(x), s(x) e delay the proof of theorem to Section ## 27. (See Theorem27.27.) \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\226\240rn(x)forri(x) \342\231\246 Corollary ## Ifp(x)isirreducibleinF[x]andp(x)dividestheproductr1(x) then p(x) divides rt(x) for at least one i. F[x], Proof 23.20 ## Using mathematical induction, If F into we find that ## this is immediate from f(x) e irreducible factors Theorem 23.18. \342\231\246 Theorem is a field, a product then every nonconstant polynomial the F[x] can be factored in F[x] of irreducible for ## except for order and Proof unit (that is, ## polynomials, nonzero constant) polynomial. polynomials in F. irreducible, being unique = ## Let f(x) e F[x]be a nonconstant g(x)h(x),wi\\h the degree ofg(x) If into If f(x) is both not, not then f(x) and the degree ofh(x) here. If this less than the g{x) and h(x) are both irreducible, we stop Continuing polynomials of lower degree. f(x) process, ## at least one we arrive at ## degree of f(x). of them factors a factorization = Pl(x)p2(x)---pr(x). 1, 2, \342\200\242 \342\200\242 r. \342\200\242, ## where pt{x) is irreducible It remains for to i = for us show uniqueness. Suppose that qi(x)q2ix) \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 fix) = are two ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 pr{x) pi(x)p2(x) \342\226\240 = qs(x) factorizations of some fix) into irreducible polynomials. Since Piix) divides qj(x), let us ## assume q\\(x). qiix) = ## Then by Corollary is irreducible, q\\{x) 23.19, uiPiix), substituting where u\\ ^ 0, but u\\ is in F and thus is a unit. Then u\\P\\{x) for q\\(x) and canceling, we get Piix) \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 Prix) = u\\qiix) ## \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 qs(x). 218 Part IV Rings and Fields = u2p2ix),so By a similar argument, say q2(x) ## Pi(x)-- -Pr(x)= uiu2q?,(x)---qs(x). Continuing in this manner, we eventually 1 = arrive \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 at \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 uiu2 urqr+\\{x) qs(x). This ## possible if s = r, so that irreducible factors pt{x) and qj{x) is only ## this equation is actually were the same except 1 = mm ## \342\200\242Thus \342\200\242 \342\200\242 ur. possiblyfor order and the unit factors. 23.21 \342\231\246 Example is (x \342\200\224 + 1). of x4 + 3x3 + 2x + 4 in Zs[x] \$$3(x Example 23.4 shows a factorization These irreducible factorsin Zs[x] are only unique up to units in Zs[x], that is, nonzero \342\226\262 constants in Z5. For example,(x \342\200\224 + 1) = (x \342\200\224 \342\200\224 + 3). l)2(2x 2)(3x \\)3(x \342\226\240 EXERCISES 23 Computations In with Exercises r(x) 1 through 4, find q(x) = 0 ## or of degree less than + Ax2-3x+2 +4x2 + 3x 3x2 and r(x) the ## as describedby degree of g(x). the division algorithm so that f(x) = g{x)q{x) + r(x) ## 1. f{x) =x6 + 3x5 2. f(x) =-xb + 3x5 3. f{x) = x5 - 2x4 4. f(x) In Exercises (Review andg(x) = x2 + 2x = 3x2 in Z7[x]. 3 - 3x + 2 and g(x) g{x) 2x - in Z7[x]. - 5 and and = 2x + 1 in ## Z\342\200\236 [x]. Z\342\200\236 [x]. =x4 + 5x3 5 through g(x) = 5x2 - x + 2 in the 8, find all generators of 6. cyclic multiplicative group of units of the given 8. finite field. Corollary 6.16.) Z7 linear 5. Z5 polynomial polynomial 7. factors Z17 Find in Z23 ## 9. The 10. The x4 x3 2x3 + 4 ## can be factored into + 2x Ix in Zs[x]. this ## factorization. Find this + 2x2 + 1 can 5 can be factored ## into linear factors into Z7[x]. factorization. factorization. polynomials 11. Thepolynomial 12. Is x3 ofZsM. + 3x2 \342\200\224 \342\200\224 be factored linear Express factors in Zn [x]. Find this + 2x + 3 an irreducible polynomial of Zs[x]? Why? in Z5 [x]? over it as a product of irreducible it as a 13. Is 2x3 polynomials + x2 + 2x + 2 an in Ijs[x]. fix) that irreducible polynomial Why? Express product of C? irreducible 14. Show = x2 + 8x - 2 is irreducible = x2 Q. Is fix) irreducible over E? Over ## 14 15. Repeat Exercise with 16. Demonstrate 17. Demonstrate In Exercises that that x3 + x4 21, ## + 6x + 12in place - 8 is irreducible over Q. 3x2 22x2 + 1 is irreducible over Q. gix) of fix). ducibility over 18 through Q. determine whether the polynomial in Z[x] satisfies an Eisenstein criterion for irre- Section23 Exercises 219 18. x2 12 - 9x3 ## 19. 8x3 + 6x2 -9x+2A + 2Ax 20. 4x10 22. Find 18 21. 2x10- 25x3 \\0x2 school - 30 algebra problem. You use a bit of 6x4 + 17x3+ lx2 + x \342\200\224 Q. (This is a tedious 10 in of analytic or and calculus and make a graph, geometry best candidates for zeros.) all zeros high might use Newton's method to see which are the Concepts In Exercises 23 and that ## 24, correct the in a form \342\202\254 F[x] definition of the italicized term F if without reference to the text, if correction is needed, so 23. it is acceptablefor publication. is irreducible A polynomial g(x), ## f(x) h{x) e F[x]. over the field and only the field if f(x) ^ g(x)h(x) for only if in any polynomials 24. A 25. nonconstant in F[x], Mark one of the of the polynomial factors f(x) is in true e F[x] is irreducible F. or false. over over if and any factorization of it each following 6 is a. x b. 3x - 2 is irreducible \342\200\224 Q. over Q. c. x2 \342\200\224irreducible over Q. 3 is d. x2 + 3 is irreducible over Z7. the units of F[x] are precisely the e. If F is a field, f. If F is a field, the units of F[x] are precisely the irreducible nonzero nonzero elements elements of F. of F. at at g. polynomial f(x) that of degree < E. of degree in F[x] with coefficients ## in a field F can have in a field F can have most most n zeros in F. any h. A ## polynomial f(x) of degree such F polynomial polynomial such n with coefficients has at most n zeros in given field E i. 26. In Every 1 in F[x] at j. Each Find can have x + ## least one zeroin the field F. finite number of zerosin the + x3, + the field F. all prime numbers p that 2 is a factor of x4 x2 \342\200\224 1 x + in Zp[x]. in the given Exercises 27 through in in 30, find all irreducible polynomials of 28. indicated in in degree Z2[x] Z3[x] ring. ## 27. 29. 31. Degree 2 Degree 2 Z2[x] Z3 [x] Degree 3 30. Degree 3 in Zp[x], where Find the number of irreducible p is a prime. [Hint: quadratic polynomials of reducible polynomials of the form x2 + ax + b, then the number of reducible quadratics, from the total number of quadratics.] Find the number and subtract this Proof Synopsis 32. Give 33. a synopsis of the proof of Corollary of Corollary 23.5. Give a synopsis of the proof 23.6. Theory ## 34. Show that 35. If F is a an for p a field prime, a ^ a0xn. the polynomial xp + f(x) a = in flo Zp[x] is not irreducible + anxn for any a e show Zp. that 1 /a and 0 is a zero of + a\\x H in F[x], is a zero of + an_\\x ## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 + 220 Part IV Rings and Fields field, and let a e F. Show algorithm, is /(a). by 36. (Remainder fix) Theorem) Let f(x) e F[x] where with F is a the that the remainder r(x) when is divided by am : Z x be \342\200\224 in a, accordance division given 37. Let -> Zm the natural for a e Z. that homomorphism given H amia) = (the remainder of a when divided by m) a. Show 5^ : Z[x] ->\342\200\242 Zm[x] by 1- ff^(a0 + is a homomorphism b. Show that flix onto anxn) ffm(a0) am(tfi)* 1- ^(aj*\" if fix) ## of ZLr] e Z[x] and 7Lm\\x\\. ffm(/(;c)) then both have fix) degree \302\253 and a^ifix)) does not factor in Zm[x] into two polynomials c. Usepart the (b) ## less than n, to show that x3 + 11x of degree is irreducible ## in Q[x]. [Hint: Try a prime value + 36is irreducible in Q[x]. of m that simplifies coefficients.] SECTION 24 ^NoNCOMMUTATrVE EXAMPLES Thus ring nothing ## the only example we of M\342\200\236iF) all n x n matrices far, with have presented of a ring that is We not commutative is the with entries strictly in a field skew F. shall be doing there almost are other several noncommutative rings and rings fields. ## important noncommutative of such rings. examples occurring very naturally ## To show that in algebra, we give Rings Let of Endomorphisms the into itself is an endomorphism Since the composition of two such a homomorphism, we define multiplication of A into itself is again homomorphisms on End(A) is associative. by function composition, and thus multiplication we have to describe the value of (0 + xjs) on To define addition, for 0, xjs e End(A), each a e A. Define A be of A. Let ## any abelian group. A homomorphism set of all endomorphisms of of A be End(A). (0 + f){a) = 4>ia) Since f{a). (0 + f)ia + b) = =$ia ma)

+ b) +

+ fia 0(i>)] +
Vr(fl)]

+ b)
[Vr(fl)

irib)]

= [^a)

[00)
+

+ irib)]

=
we see
that <f>

i<t>

ir)ia)

i4>

ir)ib)

\\[r

is again

Since A

is commutative,

in End(A). we have
+

(0 +
for all a

f)ia) = 4>ia)
=
xjs

ir{a)

= ir{a)
in

4>ia)

(i/r +

0)(a) The

A,

so

+ \302\242)xjs

+ 0

End(A)

is commutative.

follows

from

This section is

not used in

the remainder

of

the text.

Section

24

Noncommutative Examples

221

+ [\302\242

(^+

6)](a)

= 0(a)

=
=

+ [(^ + 0)(a)]
+

0(a)

[Vr(a) if (a)]

+ 9(a)]

[\302\242(^+

+ 0(a)

If

e is

identity

of A,

then

## = (0 + i/O(a) + 0(a) = M + is) + e](a). the homomorphism 0 defined

0(a)

by

= e
Finally,

for a

is an

identity

in End(A).
0 e

for

End(A), = -0(a)
=

defined \342\200\2240

by

(-0)(a)

is inEnd(A),

since

(-0)(a

+ b)

= -0(a = -0(a)

+ ft)

-[0(a)
=

+ 0(fo)] + (-0)(^),

0(fo)

(-0)(a)

and

= 0 + (\342\200\2240) 0.

are homomorphisms except Thus the set AA of all functions homomorphisms. definition of addition, and, from A into A is an abelian group under exactly the same in AA. of course, a nice associative multiplication function composition again gives are homomorphisms now to However, we do needthe fact that these functions in End(A)
to

Thus (End(A), +} is an abelian group. Note that we have not yet used the fact that our functions
that 0

show

i/r

and

are \342\200\2240

again

prove satisfies

the left

all the

## distributive law in axioms for a ring.

End(A).
Let

0,

xjs,

law, (AA, +, Except for this left distributive and 0 be in End(A), and let a e A. Then
=

\342\200\242}

Since 0 is a
homomorphism,

0(0(a)

+ f{a)).

0(0(a)

+ Vr(fl)) =
=

0(0(a)) +
(00)(a)

0(Vr(a))

+ (0V)(a)

= (00 + 0iA)(a).
Thus

0(0

+ i/r) =

00 +

0i/f.

The

right

distributive

trouble,

even

in AA,

## and follows from

((Vr

+ 0)0)(a)

(Vr

0)(0(a))
+

=
Thus

(Vr0)(a)

(00)(a)

= (Vr0

+ 0(0(a)) + 00)(a).

we

have

proved the
of

following

theorem.

24.1

Theorem

homomorphism

## all endomorphisms and homomorphism

of

an

abelian

group

A forms a

ring

under

multiplication

(function

composition).

to show relevance to this section, we should give an example that Again, showing Since function composition is in general not End(A) need not be commutative. in some seems reasonable to expect. However, nd(A) be commutative commutative,this E may

us

to show that

## End((Z, +}) is commutative.

222

Part

IV

Rings and

Fields

24.2Example

Consider

verify

the abelian group (Z x Z, +} discussed that two elements of End((Z Z, +}) are

in Section
<f> and xjs

11. It is
defined
\302\253))

straightforward

to

by
=

\302\242((171, n))

\342\200\224 +

(m

n, 0)
first

and

ir((m,

(0, n).
xjs

## Note that <f> maps factor. Thus

everything

onto the

factor

of Z

x Z,

and

collapses

the

first

(\\[r4>){m, while

n)

\\[f(m

+ n,

0) =

(0, 0).

(0i/O(m,

n) =

## 0(0, n) = (n, 0).

Hence0i/r
24.3

^\302\242.

\342\226\262

Example

Let F
ring

be a field of characteristic
of polynomials

F[x]

and let {F[x], +} be the additive zero, group of the with coefficients in F. For this example, let us denote this O this notation. We can considerEnd(F[x]). ne group by F[x], to simplify in F[x] of End(F[x]) acts on each polynomial by multiplying it by x. Let this

endomorphism be X, so
X(ao

+ a\\x

+ \302\2532*2

## 3. (3e+ 3a+ 3b)4

for

In Exercises 4.

the

element

of

EI

form

a\\

+ aii

+ a3j

a;

\342\202\254 ffi.

(i +

3/)(4 +

2/ -

5.

ffkji5

6. (i+JT]

7. [(1+30(4/
to the

+ 3^-1
+ 1/ii + 0fl2
+

8.

Referring

group S3 given
lyoi

in Example

8.7, compute
lfl2

the

product

(Opo +

+ 0p2

+ 0/ii

l/i3)(lpo

+ lPi + 0p2

l(l3)

in the

group

algebra

Z2S3.
group

9. Find the
Concepts

center of the

(H*,

where \342\200\242),

H* is

quaternions.

the

EI

induced

each other,

each

of which

is a

field

isomorphic

to C

under

11.

Mark

each of the

following

true or

## false. of 0 for any

with

a. b.
c.

has M\342\200\236(F)
Every End(A)

n and

## any field F. every abelian

group

nonzero

of M2CZ2) is a unit.
unity
=\302\243 0 for =\302\243 0 for group

is always

A. A.

d. End(A)

is never a ring

with

unity

any abelian

Section

25

Ordered

Rings and

Fields

227

e. The
End(A)

subset

Iso(A)

for every

to (Z,

the

isomorphisms

of A

onto

A,

forms

a subring

of

f. R(Z,
g. The
unity.

+) is isomorphic
ring

+,

## for every \342\200\242)

group

commutative commutative

group

RG

of an abelian

G is a

## ring R with unity. ring for any commutative

ring R

with

h. The

i.
j.

quaternions are a field. is a group where HI* (HI*, \342\200\242) No subring of HI is a field. following
by

is the

set of nonzero

quaternions.

12.

Show

each

of the

giving
with

an example. in a strictly
skew

a.

polynomial

of degree n

coefficients

skew

field

may

have more

than

n zeros

in the skew

field.

b.
Theory

finite

multiplicative

subgroup of a

strictly

field need

not be cyclic.

13.

Let

be \302\242)the

element of
that is \302\242also

of 0. Show

## End((Z x Z, +)) given a left divisor of 0.

for

in Example

24.2. That
these

exampleshowedthat
units.

0 is a

right divisor

14. Show
0 and
15.

that 1.]
that

M2(F)

every

field F.
to (Z,

Exhibit

[Hint: F has

at

least

two elements,

Show
Show

End

((Z,

naturally

isomorphic

+,

## and that \342\200\242)

End((Z\342\200\236, +))

is naturally

isomorphic

to

(Z\342\200\236,+,-).

16. 17.

that End((Z2

Z2,

+))

is not

Referring

to Example
group^of

24.3,
K e

show

## isomorphic that YX - XY show

that
that

to

(Z2

x Z2,

+,

\342\200\242).

= RG
HI

1. is isomorphic M2(C) ^

18. If G

= {e},he t

one element,

to

for

any ring

R.

19. Thereexists

a matrix

M2(C) such
+ cj

0 : a

-^

defined _, n

by

(f>{a

+ bi

dk)

\342\200\236+ i

~*~c '

~*~ ^^'

for all a,

b,c,d e
matrix

K,

gives

an isomorphism

of

HI

with

0[HI]

a. Find the
b. What 8

K.
should

equations

you

check

to see
to

that

## \302\242) really 4>

is a homomorphism? an isomorphism

c.

What

other

show

that

gives

of

HI

with

0[H]?

section

25

^Ordered
We

## Rings and Fields

relation

on any subset of E. (We Definition 0.7.) We regard < as providing an ordering of the real numbers. In this section, we study orderings of that the rings this section under discussion and fields. We assume throughout have rings 1. nonzero unity < a is In the real numbers, a < b if and only if b \342\200\224 positive, so the order relation We use the determined if we know which real numbers are positive. on E is completely the notion of orderin a ring. to define idea of labeling certain elements as positive are

familiar

remind

< on

the set E

and

discussedin

Section

0. See

This section is

not

used in

the remainder

of the text.

228

Part IV

Rings and

Fields
subset P are in
P. following

25.1Definition

An

ordered

ring is a

ring

together

## with a nonempty and ab

of

R satisfying

these

two properties.

Closure
Trichotomy

For

all

a, b e

P,
R,

both

a + b

For each

a e
a e

one

and only

one of the
\342\200\224a e P.

holds:

P,

a = 0,

Elements
It is

of P

are called\"positive.\"
see that
P if R
then

\342\226\24

is an ordered ring with set P of positive elementsand S is in satisfies the requirements for a set of positive elements the This is the induced an ordering of S. (SeeExercise 6.) gives 2 ring ordering from the given ordering of R. We observeat once that for each of the rings Z, Q and ffi the set of elements that we satisfies the conditions of closureand trichotomy. have always considered to be positive We will refer to the familiar and the induced ordering on their ordering of these rings as the natural ordering. We now give an unfamiliar illustration. subrings easy to
a subring

of R, S, and thus

D S

25.2

Example

elements. There are two Let R be an ordered ring with set P of positive define an ordering of the polynomial R[x]. We describe two possible ring in R[x] of positive elements. A nonzero polynomial can be written Aiigh,

natural

ways

to

f(x) =
where

arxr + ar+\\Xr+l

## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 + a\342\200\236x\"

that and anx\" are the nonzero terms of lowest and arxr Let Ptow be the set of all such f(x) for which ar e P, highest degree, respectively. e P. The closure and trichotomy and let Phigh be the set of all such f(x) for which an that P\\ovl and Phigh must satisfy to give orderings of R [x] follow at once from requirements of addition and multiplication those same properties for P and the definition in R[x].

ar ^

and

a\342\200\236 ^

0, so

Illustrating
would not
same

in

Z[x],

with

ordering

given

by

Piow,

the polynomial
With

f(x) =
given

now element

in Z.

ordering

by

this

positive

in Z.
in

\342\226\262

Suppose
any

nonzero

## that P is the set of positive of R. Then either a or

elements

elements
\342\200\224a is in

an
by

ordered
closure,

P, so any

ring R. a2 =
particular,

Let a be
is (\342\200\224a)2 1 =

also in

ring has characteristic zero. must be positive, we see that the natural are precisely the ordering of E is the only possible ordering. The positive real numbers and the set could not be enlarged without destroying squares of nonzeroreal numbers 1 + 1+---+1 Because must be positive, the only possible trichotomy. ordering of Z is the natural ordering also. All ordered rings have characteristic zero so we can, by identification consider every ordered ring to contain Z as an ordered (renaming), subring. \342\200\224 If a and b are nonzeroelements of P then either \342\200\224a is in P and or a either b or \342\200\224 either ab or ab is in P. By trichotomy, b is in P. Consequently by closure, ab cannot be zero so an ordered ring can have no zero divisors. We summarize these observations in a theorem and corollary.
an ordered

of R

are positive. In

12

1 +

number

of summands

Because squares

of

nonzero

elements

Section

25

## Ordered Rings and

Fields

229

25.3Theorem
25.4 Corollary

Let

R be an

ordered

ring.

characteristic 0, and
We

there

of nonzero

elements of

are

positive.

R has

divisors.
ring R,
possible
and

can

consider
R

Z to

Z from
ordering.

is

the natural

## be embeddedin any ordered ordering of Z. The only

the

induced

ordering
the

of

ordering

of 5 is

natural

be ordered, because that the field C of complex numbers cannot i2 are squares. It also shows that no finite can be ordered ring is zero. because the characteristic of an ordered ring The theorem that follows defines a relation < in an ordered ring, and gives properties of <. The definition of < is motivated that, in the real numbers, a < b by the observation

Theorem
1=12

25.3 shows
\342\200\224 1 =

both

and

if

and

only

if b
terms

\342\200\224 a is

positive.

having

also shows

that

ordering

could have

been

definedin
25.5 Theorem

of a relation

the

listed

properties.

Let R
the

be

an ordered on R

relation

ring defined

with by

set

P of

## positive elements. Let <,

if (b \342\200\224 a) e all

\"is less

than,\" be

< b if

and

only

(1)

for a,b

\342\202\254 R. The

relation
One

## < has these propertiesfor

and

a, b, c e holds:

R.

Trichotomy
Transitivity \342\226\240

only

one of

the

following

lfa<b If b <
If

## a < b, a = b, and b < c, then

b < a.
a

< c.

Isotonicity

c,

then

a + b <

a +
ab

c.
< ac

b <

c and

0<

a, then

and ba

< ca.

Conversely, the

given

set

P =

{x e

Definition

25.1,

< on a nonzero ring R satisfying these three conditions, satisfies the two criteria for a set of positive elementsin x) and the relation < P defined this P is the given as in Condition (1) with
a relation
| R

0 <

relation <.

Proof Let R

be an

ordered ring
three

with

set

P of

## positive elements, and the

let a

< b mean (b

\342\200\224

a)

e P.

We prove the

properties

for <.
R. By
b a,
trichotomy

Trichotomy

Let a, b e appliedto

property

of P in

Definition 25.1
e P

\342\200\224

exactly

one of

(b-a)&P,
holds. These
translate

b-a
in terms
b,

= 0, (a of < to

b)

a <b.
respectively.

a=
b <

b <

Transitivity

Leta <
closure

and

of

P under

## c. Then (b \342\200\224a)P and (c-fc) e addition, we have

+

eP.By

(b-a)

(c-b)

= (c-a)&P

soa < c.

230

Part

IV

Rings

and

Fields

Isotonicity

Let b < c, so (c -

b)

P.

Then
b)a

P so a + b
\342\200\224 =

<

a +

c. Also if

ca
\342\200\224

= (c of P

b) e
both

a(c
and

b)

ac

\342\200\224

aband(c

\342\200\224=

ba

are in

P, so ab
exercise.

< ac
(See

ba

In
ring.

\"conversely\"

of the

theorem as an
feel free

equally

easy

\342\231\2

view

25.5, we will
and

now

to use the
in terms

< notation

in an ordered
=.

The

notations b >

>

are defined

as

usual

of <
a

and

Namely,

a means a

< b,

## a <b means either a = b or a > b means either b < a or

< b,

b =

a.

25.6 Example

of R[x] given by to think what the orderings ring. It is illustrative 25.5. Example 25.2 mean in terms of the relation < of Theorem \342\200\224 x is positive sox < a. Also, Taking Piow, we observe, for every a > 0 in R, that a \342\200\224e x = x \342\200\224positive, so 0 < x. Thus 0 is 0 < x < a for every a e R. We have (xl x;) Piow when i < j, so xi < x' if i < j. Our monomials have the ordering
be

Let R
Piow

an ordered

and

Phigh in

0 <

## \342\200\242< \342\200\242 -x6

x^ < x4

<x <

x2

< x

< a

for

any

positive many

a e

R.

Taking

infinitely

positive
similar

elements

We leave a
Exercise
The

E, we see that in this ordering of Rpc] that are less than any positive real number! of R[x] given by discussion of < for the ordering
R =

there are
P^h

to

1.
an ordering

\342\226\2

Archimedian.

preceding example is of interest because it exhibits We give a definition explaining this terminology. consider to be a subring of every orderedring.

Remember

that is that we

not

can

25.7

Definition

An ordering

of a ring

R with positive

this property:
a and

Archimedian The

in

R,

there

## exists a positive integer

such

that

ordering.

\342\226\2

but the ordering of R[x] given by Piow ordering of E is Archimedian, in Example 25.6 is not Archimedian because for every positive integer n we have (17 \342\200\224 e Piow, so nx < 17 for all n e Z+. nx) We give two examples and fields that are of interest describing types of ordered rings in more advanced work.

natural

discussed

25.8 Example

Let R be a ring. In Section 22 we defined a polynomial of the a,- are 0. If formal sum X!^o aix> wnere ^ but a finite number we do not require any of the at to be zero, we obtain a formal power series in x with coefficients in the ring R. (The adjective,/orwa/, is customarily used becausewe are not with convergence of series.)Exactly the same the formulas are used to define dealing sum and product of theseseries for polynomials as in Section 22. Most of us had some
in

## (Formal Power SeriesRings)

R[x]

to be a

Section 25

Ordered Rings

and

Fields

231

practice
ring
the

and multiplying series when we studied calculus.These series form a adding which we denote by /?[[*]], and which contains R[x] as a subring. If R is an ordered to R[[x]] exactly as we extended ring, we can extend the ordering

ordering

not?)
25.9

the the

set same

Pjow of

ordering

## positive elements. (We cannot use that we displayed in Example

Phiah-

Why
\342\226\262

25.6.

Example

with Laurent Series Fields) Continuing the idea of Example 25.8,we let F series of the form Y^n a'x' where and consider formal N may be any integer, zero, or negative, and a,- e F. (Equivalently, we couldconsiderY2u=-oc positive, aix' where all but a finite of the a,- are zero for negative number values of i. In studying for functions of a complex variable, oneencounters of this form called \"Laurent calculus series With the natural addition and multiplication of these series, we actually have a series'') + 0 + (k + Ox2 + \342\226\240\342\22 ^zeW which we denoteby F((x)).Theinverseofxistheseriesx_1 Inverses of elements and quotients can be computed three by series division. We compute \342\226\240 terms of (x 1 +x \342\226\240x2 + \342\226\240 + 2x4 + 3x5 + \342\200\242) in R((x)) for illustra+x3 -)/(x3

(Formal

be a field

tion. 3x~' +
x6 +
Ax~l

+ +x3

2x4 +

3x5 +

x - 1+
x~l

x2

+ 2

+ 3x +
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 2x + \342\200\242 6x - 9x2 + Ax

\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240

If
an

F is an

ordering -x~3,x~2,

of F((x)).
x_1,x\302\260

## ordered field, we can use the In Exercise 2 we ask

=

\342\200\242 \342\200\242

l,x,x2,x3,

of Pjow in i?[[x]] to define analog to symbolically order the monomials you \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 did for as we 25.6. Note that R[x] in Example
obvious of

Let clear

F[x],

and thus

induces an
It is

ordering
\342\226\262

R be an

that by

an ordering
and

-^- R'
map
4>

be a ring
can

isomorphism.

intuitively

of

to provide

for a skeptic,

leave

the proof
with

## to carry over theorem what would have

be used

the ordering
to

be

proved

25.10Theorem

Let

R be an

ordered
The

isomorphism.

set of

positive
4>{b)

4>{a) <'

set P of positive elementsand let <j> : R -*- R' be a ring P' = 0[P] satisfies the requirements of Definition 25.1 for a elements of R'. Furthermore, in the ordering of R' given by P', we have in R' if and only if a < b in R.
ring

subset

We call
by\" <^> from

stated

the preceding

theorem

the \"ordering

induced

25.11Example

Example

22.9

that the

evaluation

homomorphism

0W : Q[x]

-\302\261 E

where

0(ao +
is one

aix +

a\\it

## \342\226\240 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 + a\342\200\236n\"

to one. Thus

it

provides

an isomorphism

of Q[x]

with

0[Q[x]].

We denote

this

232

Part

IV

Rings

and

Fields

image
Examples

ring

by

25.2

the ordering Q>[tt]. If we provide Q[x] with using on Q[7t] induced by (j>\342\200\236 is very and 25.6, the ordering

the set
different
it

Piow

of
that any

from
than

induced element An
Theorem 25.10 automorphisms

by the of Q>!

ordering

of

ffi.

In the

Piow ordering,

is less

\342\226

of R

onto

## itself the set

is called

an an

automorphism ordered

different
carry

orderings

of

of R. R if there ring
itself.

exist

that do

not

P of positive elementsonto

We give

an example.

25.12 Example

11 Exercise of
ring

Section

18 shows
ring <f>:

that {m +

n*Jl \\m,n

e Z}
from <j>{m

is a ring.
ffi

by Z[\\/2].

This
It is

has

a natural

order induced
and onto

in

which

## Let us denotethis *Jl is positive.

= m
\342\200\224

w However, e claim
automorphism.

that

Z[V2]

## \342\200\224>\342\226\240 defined Z[V2]

by

+ n*jT)

ny^is

an

clearly one to
to

one

homomorphism

property

Exercise
\342\200\224 is

17.

of the Z[V2]. We leavethe verification Because 0(\\/2) = \342\200\224we see the ordering \\/2,

induced by
m +

order on Z[V2], an element positive! In the natural both positive, or if m is positive and 2n2 < m2, or if n is positive and m2 < 2n2. In Exercise 3, we ask you to give the analogous descriptions A for positive elementsin the ordering of Z[-s/2] induced by \302\242.
4> will

be one

where
and

^/2

n~j2 is positive if m

n are

## In view are not

natural

of Examples 25.11and 25.12, the induced orderings, e wonder w one. Our final theorem shows that
ordered

which
whether this

of ffi that exhibit orderings on subrings other than the Q can have an ordering is not possible.

## 25.13 Theorem Let D be an

field

integral

domain

with P

as set of

positive

elements,

and let

F be a

of quotients

of D.

The set
=

P' = {xe F | x

a/b

for a,b
induces

D and \342\202\254

ab e

P}
Furthermore,

is well-defined gives an order on F that and P' is the only subset of F with this property.
Proof

the given

order on D.

suppose that x = a/b = a'/b' for a, b, a', b' e D and show that a'b' e P. From a/b = a'/b' we obtain that ab We must ab' = a'b. we have (ab)b' = a'b2. Now P and by assumption, ab & P. b2 \342\202\254 Multiplying by b, = = and the properties of Using a(\342\200\224b) {\342\200\224a)b \342\200\224(ab) a ring, we see that trichotomy a' and b' are both in P or both not in P. In either case, we have either a'b' e P. We proceed to closure for P'. Let x = a/b and y = c/d be two elements of P', so P and ab \342\202\254 cd e P. Now x + y = (ad + bc)/bd and (ad + bc)bd = (ab)d2 + b2(cd) is in P because squares are also in P and P is closed under addition and multiplication. Thus (x + y) e P'. Also xy = ac/bd is in P' because acbd = (ab)(cd) is a product of two in P. of P and thus elements that for x = a/b, the product For trichotomy, we need only observe ab satisfies just To show
that

P'

is well-defined,

& P.

one of

ab \342\202\254 P,
by

ab

= 0,
into

ab i P
&

trichotomy

for P.
shown

For P',
that
if

thesetranslate
give
in an

We have
is

in

P'

if and

only

al

P' does = a is

P,

so

= 0, and* \302\243 respectively. P', For a e D, weseethata ordering =a/\\ the given ordering on D is indeedthe induced
x P',x of F.

ordering

from F by P'.

Section 25

Exercises
satisfying

233

Finally,

of Definition 25.1 and such that P\" n D = = ab must be in P\", so ab e (P\" flfl) xb2

suppose

trichotomy

shows
maintains

of F

that

P\" where P. Let* = a/b \342\202\254 a. b e D. Then = P. Thus xeP'so P\" c P'. The law of that we then must have P' = P\". herefore P' gives the only ordering T \342\231\246 order for elements of D. original

that

P\" is a

set of positive

elements

of F

the

conditions

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

25

Computations

1. Leti?

be an

in R[x]

of a positive element a of .Rand ordered ring. Describethe ordering as we did in Example 25.6, but using the set Phigh of Example 25.6
ordered

the monomials*,

x2, x3,
elements in F,

## \342\200\242 \342\226\24 \342\226\240 x\". \342\200\242,

2. LetF be an
Example

field and
that

25.9. Describe
in described

let F((x)) be the field of formal \342\200\242 \342\200\242 the ordering of the monomialsx~3, x~2, x~l,
example.
ordering

= x\302\260

of R[x].
in

discussed

\\,x,x2,x3
\342\200\224 is

## \342\200\242 in the ,\342\226\240\342\226\240

ordering

of F((x))
3. Example
in

an 25.12 described

terms

of m

and

n,

all positive

## of Z[V2] = {m + n~Jl \\m,n elements of Z[V2] in that ordering.

e Z}

in which

V2

positive. Describe,

In Exercises

4 through

9, let

R[x] have

the

ordering

given

by
ii- Phigh

i. Pi0w
as described in order corresponding
25.2. In Example to increasing

and

(ii), list

polynomials

as described

the

given
< of

e.

4. a.
5. a.
6.

-5 + 3x
-1
-3 + 5x2

a.

## b. 5 - 3x b. 3x- S,x3 b. -2x + 5x2

b.

c. -x
c. +x3

+ lx2
+ lx2

-5x

d. x - llx4 d. %x2

lx2

2 + Ax2

+ x5

e. -3x3

Ax5

c.

-5

7. a.

-2x2 + 5x3
Ax

x3 +
Ax

Ax4

c.
c.

2x x

3x2

e.
e. e.
Ax4

8x4

5x5

2x 3x x +

8. a.

- 3x2
3x2

b.

+ 2x2

c. Ax

- 6x3
Ax3

d. 5* d.

6x3

## - 2x2 - 2x2 3x2

9. a. x In Exercises
the

+ 5x3

b. 2

- 3x2 + 5x3
the

- 3x2 +

x +

3x2 +

e.

Ax3

given

elements

ordering

to increasing

## 25.9. List the

as described

labels

a, b, c,

d, e of
< of

by the relation

Theorem 25.5.

10. a.

J\\,

b. \342\200\224
^V

c.

^V

d.

\342\200\224 ^V

11.

a.
1

- x

b.'

l+x
-\342\200\224\342\200\224-

c.

x-x2
1 +2x -\342\200\224\342\200\224

d.

\342\200\224\342\200\224t

l+x2

e.
x3

+ Ax

12. a.

5-lx
x2+3x3

,_

-2

, , \342\200\236

b.

+ Ax

A-3x

c.

A~3x

d.

9 - 3x2 2 + 6x

3 -5x

e.

~6+2x

234

Part

IV

Rings

and Fields

13 a'

l~X
1+x

b' 3~5x
3+5x

1
Ax+x2

\"

a'

l
~3x + x2

&

Ax

+ x2

i-x

Concepts

14. It

can

be shown that
\\i2{~l+^).

## the smallest subfield

Explain

containing

ordering

of a

subfield of C that
following

of R containing ifl is isomorphic to there is no ordering why this shows that, although contains some elements that are not real numbers.

the

smallest
for

subfield of

C
an

C, there may

be

15. Mark

each of the

true or

false.

a. Thereis only
b. The field
c. d. e.

Any If R
An An

one ordering possible for the ring Z. R can be ordered in only one way. in only one way. subfield of R can be ordered

The field

Q can be ordered
ordered

in only

one

way.

is

an

ring,

in be ordered

a way
fo

that induces

the n

given e Z+

order

on R.

f.

ordering

of a

g.

is an is an

and and

foreacha, if for

e R,

there exists
such

such that b
exists

< na.

each a,b

that 0

< a,

there

n e Z+

h. If R i. If R

## ordered ring ordered ring

has

a e a e

R, then

\342\200\224a cannot

be positive.

j. Every

ordered ring
of the

an

## a or \342\200\224a is positive. R, then either infinite number of elements.

in discussed

16. Describe an
number.

ordering

ring Q[tt],

Example

25.11,

in which jt is greater

than

any

rational

Theory

17.

Referring morphism.

to Example

25.12, show

that

the

map

<f>:

Z[V2]

-\302\273 R

where

(p(m

+ n^/l)

m\342\200\224 n4l

is a homo-

In Exercises

18 through

24, let R

be

an ordered
given

ring
\"We

Theorem 25.5. Prove the Theorem 25.5. For example,you must 0 < b then ab < 0.\
R defined in

statement.

not say,

on set P of positive elements, and let < be the relation 25.1 and (All the proofs have to be in terms of Definition know that negative times positive is negative, so if a < 0 and
with

18. IfaeP,thenO<a.

19.
20.
21.

If

a, b

e P

and

ac

= bd, then

d = either c \342\200\224 0 or cd

&

P.

If a If a

a field

0 < b,

then ab

< 0.
then a/b is l/a.
< -1.

22. If
23. If
24. If

R is R is
R

a field and

positive.

is a

field and

the

l/a

26. Show
the that

text. set P

if R

requirements

on there

elements in

properties
satisfying

S is gives

n S

satisfies

27. Show

## that if < is a relation stated in Theorem 25.5, then

a ring R exists a

the

isotonicity
elements

Section

25

Exercises

235

in

Definition

25.1,

and such

that

the

relation

## <P defined that

if

by

a <P

b if and only

if

(b

a) e
n is

P is the

same

as

the relation

<.
integral

28. Let
then

R be

an ordered

domain.

Show

a2n+l

= b2n+l

where a,b

and

a positive

integer,

a =

b.

29. Let R

in two variables with coefficients in R. the ring R[x, y] of polynomials be an ordered ring and consider on and two Example 25.2 describes ways in which we can order R[x], and for each of these, we can continue two ways, giving four ways of arriving at an ordering of R[x, y]. There are order (/?[;c])[y] in the analogous then (/?[y])[;c]. Show that another four ways of arriving at an ordering of R[x, y] if we first order R[y] and of R[x, y] are different. You might start by considering whether x < y or all eight of these orderings [Hint: < x in each of these orderings, and continue in this fashion.] y

PART

Ideals

and

Factor

Rings

Section

26

Homomorphisms

and Factor
Ideals Ideals

Rings

Section

27

Prime and

Maximal

Section

28

fGr6bner Basesfor

section

26

Homomorphisms

and Factor

Rings

Homomorphisms
We'defined

the wished

since we
isomorphic

concepts to talk

## of homomorphism and isomorphism about evaluation homomorphisms

for rings

in Section

18,
a

for polynomials

and

rings.

homomorphism

We repeat is a structure-relating
and R into

some

definitions

here

for

easy reference.

Recall
relate

map.

A homomorphism

for

rings

must

both

structure

their

multiplicative

structure.
if +
\302\2420))

26.1 Definition

map

0 of

ring

a ring

## R' is a homomorphism 0(a + b) = 4>{a)

^ab)

and

= 0(a)0(fc)

for all

elements a

and

bin

R.

showed

by

In Example 18.10we defined evaluation and Example 18.11 homomorphisms, that the map 0 : Z ^ Z\342\200\236, where is the remainder of m when divided 0(m) We give another n, is a homomorphism. simple but very fundamental example of a

homomorphism.

26.2

Example

Let Rl,R2,--,Rn be rings. For each i, the map m : (Projection Homomorphisms) \342\200\242 -> \342\200\242 \342\200\242 x Rn Rx x R2 x \342\200\242 Rt defined by jt,- (ry, r2, \342\200\242 = r,- is a homomorphism, \342\200\242, r\342\200\236) onto the ith component. The two required projection of a homomorphism hold properties
Section

28 is not

required for

the remainder

of

the text.

237

238

Part

Ideals

and

Factor

Rings

for

iti

since

both

and

multiplication individual

in

the

direct product

are computed

by

and multiplication

in each

component.

\342\226

Properties

of
our

Homomorphisms through

We 26.3 Theorem

work

way

## the exposition of Section13but

for

ring

homomorphisms.

Let R into a ring R'. If 0 be a homomorphism of a ring in R', and if a e R, in R, then 0(0) = 0' is the additive identity identity = If S of R'. Going the then of R, then 0[S] is a subring \302\242(-a) \342\200\224\302\242(a).is a subring of R. Finally, if R has unity of R', then 0_1 [S'] is a subring other way, if S' is a subring to subrings, and for 0[/?]. 1, then 0(1) is unity Loosely speaking, subrings correspond to rings with unity under a ring homomorphism. with unity correspond rings

## (Analogue of Theorem 13.12)

0 is the

Proof

Let 0
viewed

be a homomorphism
as a

0(0)

= C
Theorem

R into a ring R'. of {R, +} into (/?',+'), group homomorphism is the additive element of R' and that identity
of

a ring

Since,

Theorem
0(\342\200\224a)

## in particular, 0 can be 13.12 tells us that

\342\200\2240(a).

13.12
set

also tells us
(0[S],
then

that

if S

is a

subring

of R, of

group

## {S, +}, the elements of 0[5],

+'} gives

a subgroup
=

then, considering the additive (/?', +'}. If 0(si) and 0(\302\276)are two

0(^)0(\302\276) and
0(^1\302\276) \342\202\254 0[5].

0(^1\302\276)

Thus

0(^)0(\302\276)

e 0[5],

so 0[5] is
that

closed
if S' that

under

multiplication.

Consequently,

0[5]

is a

subring

of

i?'. 13.12

## Going the other way, (0-1 [\302\243'],+} is a subgroup

Then

Theorem

also shows

is a
0(a)

subring

of

R',

then

of (#,+}.Leta,fo
=

e 0\"1 so [5'],
4>{a)4>{b).

e S'and0(fo)

e 5'.

<p{ab) Since
<j>{a)<j>{b) \342\202\254 5', we subring if

see that
R.

afo

e 0_1

[5'] so

multiplication

and thus

is a

of

Finally,

R has

unity 1, then

for

all r

e i?,
0(l)0(r)

## 0(r) = 0(lr) = 0(rl)=

so 0(1) is unity
Note for

= 0(r

)0(1),

0[/?].

\342\231

in Theorem
to illustrate

26.3

that

0(1)

is unity

for 0[/?],

but

not

necessarily

for R'

as we

Let

in Exercise

9.
of rings.

a map

0:7?^

R be a homomorphism 0-1[O'] =

The subring

{retf|0(r) = O'}
of {R, +} homomorphisms

is the

kernel
Now

of 0,

denotedby

Ker(0). group

\342\226

this

Ker(0)

into

(/?',

+} given by
once

give us at

is the same as the kernel of the 0. Theorem 13.15and Corollary results for ring homomorphisms. analogous

homomorphism

13.18

on group

Section

26

Homomorphisms

## and Factor Rings

239

26.5

Theorem

: R (Analogue of Theorem 13.15) Let \302\247 => R' be a ring homomorphism, = \302\253 // = // +a, where a + H = Ker(0). Let a e R. Then + 0_1[0(a)] a of the commutative is the coset containing additive group {H, +}.

and

H = H+a
a one-to-one

let

26.6 Corollary

(Analogue map

of

Corollary

13.18)

ring

homomorphism

: R \302\247

=> R' is

if and

only if Ker(0)

= {0}.

We

are

now

analogue

for rings

of Section

14. We

start

with

the

26.7

Theorem

(Analogue

of Theorem

Then the
choosing

cosets

representatives.

(a

=>

R' be

a ring

homomorphism

with kernel

H.

## whose binary operations are defined by R/H of two cosets is defined by

+ H)

+ (b +
by

H) = (a

b) +

H,

and

the

product

of the

cosets is defined
(a

+ H)(b

+ 7/)
by

= (ab)+ H.
+ 7/)

Also,

the

map
the

/x : R/H

-> (j>[R]defined
part

(i(a is done

= 4>{a) s an i
in

isomorphism.

Proof

Once again,

of the

theory

for us

Theorem

14.1.

We proceed is well
of

of cosets by
consider

end,

let h\\,

h2, e 7/

and

a +

7/

+ 7/.

Let
+

c = (a + h\\)(b
We must
show

hi)

= ab

+ ah2 + h\\b

h\\h2.
+

that

= 0(afo
=

0(c)

+ a/i2 +

h\\b

^\302\276)

<$>{ab) + 0(a/i2) 0(afc) 4>{ab) + 0(/ii&) + + 0>(fo) 0(/ii/i2) (1) = = Thus To multiplication multiplication are + + 0(a)O' 0' + + 0'0' 0' + 0' = 4>{ab). show ## multiplication that R/H and by choosing ## representatives is well defined. to show in that is a ring, it remains the associative property for from well the distributive 7v. laws hold R/H. Since addition follow and at once computed by choosing ## representatives, these properties corresponding propertiesin Theorem defined, 14.1 shows that the map /x defined in the statement of Theorem 26.4is one to one, onto 0[7v],and satisfies the additive property for a homomorphism. 240 Part Ideals and Factor Rings Multiplicatively, we have fi[(a + ## H){b + 7/)]= ii{ab + H) = 4>{ab) = 0(a)0(fe)= /i{a+ H)/i{b demonstration H). This completes 26.8 the that /x is an isomorphism. \342\23 Example Example remainder shows 18.11 shows that the when divided by that Z/nZ is a ring where of m that choosingepresentatives r : Z defined by 0(m) = r, where r is the \302\242) -> Z\342\200\236 Since Ker(0) = nZ, Theorem 26.7 ahomomorphism. on residue classes canbe computed by operations the corresponding operation in Z. The theorem also and performing map n, is shows this ring Z/nZ is isomorphic to Z\342\200\236. \342\22 It remains multiplicationof multiplication additive Eq. (1)is H = Theorem 26.9 due Ker(0), H of a ring R such that only to characterize those subrings is well defined. The coset cosets of H by choosing representatives in Theorem to be well defined in Eq. (1). The success of 26.7 was shown = 4>{hxb) =${hxh2) = 0'. That H where to the fact that 4>{ah2) is, if h \342\202\254 then for every a,b e 7? we have ah e H and Kb e H. This suggests

below,

which is
Theorem

the

analogue

of Theorem

14.4.
of

26.9 Theorem

(Analogue

of

14.4)

Let H

be a
the

subring

the

ring R.

Multiplication

of

cosets of

H is well defined by
(a +

equation

H)(b +

H)=ab + H
\342\202\254 R and

,if and
Proof

only

if ah

\342\202\254 H and

Kb

H for \342\202\254

all a,b

&

H. e H.

ah

& H

+ /i2

a and

## and hb & H for all a,b are also representatives ofthe

&

R and cosets

all
a +

/i

Let /ii,

h2

\302\243 H

so

7/andfo +

//containing

b. Then

(a + Since ah2
afo and

h\\){b

hi)
in

\342\200\224 ab +

ah2 +

h\\b

h\\h2.
(a

h\\b

and h\\h2
that

are all

by hypothesis,

we see that

+ h\\){b

+ h2) e

//.

of additive cosets by representatives is well the coset product {a + //)//. Choosing representatives = 0+// =//. Sincewe a e (a + //) and 0 e //, we see that =a0+// (a + //)// also compute can a e (a + //) and /i e //, we see that (a + //)// by choosing any ah & H for any /i e //. A similar argument with the product //(fo + //) shows starting

Conversely,

defined. Let a

eR

suppose
and

multiplication

consider

that

hb

&

for any

/i

e //.

\342\23

In group the type of substructure are precisely of groups theory, normal subgroups with a well-defined operation on cosets given required to form a factor group by operating with chosen representatives. Theorem26.9 shows that in ring theory, the analogous substructure must be a subring H of a ring R such that aH c H and H Hb \302\243 for \342\202\254 a// = {a/j | /i e //} and //fo = {/jfo | /i e //}. From now on we will alla,b /?, where we started usually denote such a substructure using N by N rather than H. Recall that to mean a normal subgroup in Section 15.

Section

26

241

26.10

Definition

is an

of a

ring

satisfying

the properties
for

c N

and

Nb\302\243N

all a,b

ideal.

\342\226\240

26.11

Example

We see

that

nL

is an

ideal
all

in

the

ring

L since we

know

it is

a subring,

and

s{nm)

=
\342\226\262

{nm)s = n{ms)

e nL for
of all
constant

seZ.

26.12

Example

Let F

be

the

ring

It

into

E, ideal

and

let C

be

the

subring

of F

C an

in F7

Why?
a constant

is not

## true that the product

of a constant
product

function

with every
2 is

function is again

function.
an

## For example, the

off.

of sin

and

the function

2 sin

x.

Thus

C is

not \342\226\262

ideal

\342\226\240 Historical

Note
Eduard

## was Ernst It introduced

number\"

of

unique

who (1810-1893) an \"ideal complex concept in 1847 in order to preserve the notion in certain rings of factorization
Kummer
the

necessary

to preserve
Kummer

unique

factorization.

By use
prove states
&

of

of these,
certain

was

in fact

able

to

cases

of Fermat's
y\"

that x\" +

zn

## Last Theorem, which has no solutions x,y,z

L+

if

algebraic

integers.

In particular,
into

Kummer
numbers

wanted

to

n >

2.
It

be able
+ \302\253o a\\a

to factor
+
of

primes
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242

+ \302\2532<22

ap-i<xp~1,

are
the

turned

in general
determined

not a
by

\"number\"

at all,

## number,\" which was uniquely

was

complexroot
does

prime) and the a,Kummer had noticed that ordinary integers. of primes as \"unfavorable naive definition
numbers\" product of

xp =

1 (p

to the expected results; the such \"unfavorable\" numbers may well be divisible by other \"unfactorable\" numbers.
Kummer defined numbers\"

the set of integers it \"divided.\" Richard took advantage of this fact to identify the ideal factorwith this set; he therefore called the set itself an ideal, and proceeded to show that it satisfied the in the text. Dedekind was definition given then able to define the notions of prime ideal and

Dedekind

in terms

these\"ideal

prime factors\" and \"ideal of certain congruence relationships; factors\" were then used as the divisors
\"ideal

algebraic

any

ideal

number

ideals.

be written

uniquely

as a

product of prime

26.13

Example

Let F
that

be as in
= 0.

the

preceding
an

/(2)

Is N
let

ideal

in Fl

the

subring

of all

functions f such

Solution

Let/
we

e N

and

g e

F. Then (fg)(2)
N kernel

find that

gf e

N. Therefore
the

is

0,so also

by

just

observing

that N is

of the

## \342\226\262 evaluation homomorphism \302\2422F \342\200\224>\342\200\242 '\342\226\240 E.

242

Part

Ideals and

Factor Rings
denned on
and

Once

we know
cosets

that multiplication

by the

choosing associative

of a

subring N of R,

## representatives law for

is well

multiplication
R.

the

distributive

laws for
corollary

these cosetsfollow
of Theorem

at once

from the

N

We have

at once

this

26.9.

26.14 Corollary

(Analogue

of

Corollary
R/N

of N

form a ring

with

{a +

cosets

N) +

(b + N)

= (a + b)
=

and

(a +

N)(b + N)

ab +
factor

N.
ring

26.15 Definition

The

ring

R/N

in the

## preceding corollaryis the

quotient

(or quotient

ring) of
of the,

byN.

* If we

use

the

term

ring, be sure

not

to confuse Section

it with the

notion

field

of

quotients

of an

integral

domain, discussed in

21.

Fundamental

Homomorphism
our

Theorem 13 and
14, we

Tocomplete
and

analogy

with Sections

give the

analogues of Theorems14.9

14.11.

26.16

Theorem

be an

with

to

: R

Proof

see that

part

is done in

## Theorem 14.9. Turning + N = (x

the multiplicative

question, we

y(xy) 26.17

= (xy)

+ N)(y +

N)

y(x)y(y).

\342\231

Theorem

Let 0 : Theorem; Analogue of Theorem 14.11) with kernel N. Then 0[/?] is a ring, and the map ring homomorphism (i: R/N -> 0[/?]given by /i(x + N) = 4>{x) is an isomorphism. If y : R \342\200\224>\342\200\242 R/Nisthe homomorphism given by y{x) = x + N, then for each x e R, we have <j>{x) = /J,y(x).
R

Homomorphism

Proof

This follows
Fig. 14.10.

at

once

from

Theorems

26.7

and

26.16.

Figure

26.18 is

the

analogue

of

\342\231

W)

R/N

26.18 Figure

Section 26

Exercises
the factor
shows
n

243

26.19

Example

Example Example
/j,

## 26.11 shows that 18.11 shows that

we

nZ 0 : Z

is an

ideal of Z,
where Z\342\200\236

so we

can

form

ring

nZ. n is

->

0(m)

is the

remainder of m
is

modulo

homomorphism, and
: Z/nZ
an

## see that /x(m

->

where Z\342\200\236

## the map well defined and

that
\342\226\262

is

isomorphism. In

R gives rise to a factor ring every ring homomorphism with domain ring R/N gives rise to a homomorphism mapping R into R X. An ideal in ring theory is analogous to a normal Both are subgroup in the group theory. needed to form a factor structure. the type of substructure to Theorem 26.3 on properties of homomorphisms. We should now add an addendum and let N be an ideal of R. Then 0[7V]is an ideal Let \302\247 -> R' be a homomorphism, : R summary,
every

R/N,

and

factor

of 0[/?],

although
0_1

it

need

not be an

## ideal of./?'. Also, if

leave

N' is an
of
this

ideal

of either

0[.R] or

of R', then

[W]

is an ideal

of R. We

the proof

to Exercise

22.

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

26

Computations

1. Describe all
0((1,

2.

Find

of Z x Z into Z x Z. [Hint: Note that ring homomorphisms = 0((1, 0))0((1,0)) and 0((0, 1)) = 0((0, 1))0((0, 1)).Consider 0)) a subring isomorphic to all positive contains integers n such that Z\342\200\236
all

if 0 also Z2.

is such
0((1,

a homomorphism,

then

0)(0, 1)).]

3. Find

ideals

N of

Zi2.
?

In

each

case compute

Z^/N;

that

is, find

a known

ring

to which

the quotient

ring

is

isomorphic.
4.

and

multiplication

tables

for 2Z/8Z.

Are 2Z/8Z

and

Z4 isomorphic

rings?

Concepts
In

Exercises

needed, so that
5.
An

5 through it is in

## 7, correct the a form acceptable

of a ring R
with

definition

of the

italicized term

without

reference

to the

text, if correction is

for publication.
a ring

isomorphism ideal
TV

R' is

a homomorphism
of (R,

## /?' such 0 : /? ->\342\226\240 for

that Ker(0)
all n

= {0}.
we have

6. An

of a

ring R is an

subgroup

+) such that

all r

and

iV,

rn

&

and nr

e N.
of a

7. Thekernel
8.

/?' is {0(r) = 0' | r e W}. a ring R into a ring 0 mapping Let F be the ring of all functions mapping R into R and having derivatives of all orders. Differentiation gives = /'(*)\342\226\240 5 a homomorphism? Why? Is a map 5 : F \342\200\224>\342\226\240 F where S(f(x)) the connection between this Give exercise and Example 26.12.

homomorphism

9. Give an
unity

example

of a ring

homomorphism 0 : R
true or

has

unity

1 and

0(1)

7^

0',

but 0(1)

is

not

for R'.
following

## 10. Mark each of the

false.
ring.

a. Theconcept
b.

A ring
A

c.

ring

of a ring homomorphism is closely connected with the idea of a factor R' carries ideals of R into ideals of R'. homomorphism 0 : R \342\200\224>\342\226\240 is one to one if and only if the kernel is {0}. homomorphism ideal

d. Q is an

in R.

244

Part

Ideals

and

Factor

Rings

e.
f.

## ideal subring quotient

in a ring

g.
h.

is a subring of the ring. of every ring is an ideal of the ring. ring of every commutative ring is again a commutative
Z4 are R

ring.

The rings
An

i.

ideal

the

all

of R

if and

only the

if 1 e concept

N.
of a

ideal

concept

of a

ring as

normal

subgroup

is to

the

11.

## Let R be a ring. interest? Why? Give an

an

Observe

that

{0} and

are

both

ideals of R.

Are

the

factor

rings R/R

and

R/{0}

of real

12.

example
example

to

show

that a
that that

factor

ring

of an

integral domain
domain divisors

may

be a

field.

13. Give

to show

a factor a factor

14. Give
15.
Find

an example a subring

to show of the
ring

is not

## may have divisors of 0.

of 0
may

be

an integral

domain.
if and

Z x

that

an ideal of Z

x Z.
R modulo

16. A
(rs

student sr)

\342\200\224 e

Assume

to prove that a quotient ring of a ring N for all r, 5 & R. The student starts out: rs = sr for allr.se R/N is commutative. Then
is asked the instructor the student
should

an ideal

is commutative

only

if

R/N.
from there on?

a. Why
b.
c.
What

does

the

this

expect

nonsense

Prove

\"if and

only if.\

Theory

17. Let
that

R =

{a +

b\\[2

\\a,b

e Z}

R' is

x 2 matrices
show

of the

form
cj> :

yt

for

a, b e
<j>(a

Z.

Show

R is

[a ,

## a subring of R and that \342\226\240 2b-] is an \342\226\240 , . isomorphism.

that
that

a subring

of M2(Z). Then
ring is
R ->

that

R ->

R', where

+ bsl%

18.

Show

each homomorphism
if

from a field
are

to a

either

one

to one
R'

or maps everything
Section

onto

0.

R,

R', and

R\"

rings,
R\"

and if

<p :

R' and

\\fr :

## ->\342\226\240 R\" are

composite
R

function

\\jf<j> : R

->

is a unity

homomorphism.

(Use Exercise 49 of

homomorphisms,
13.)
(f>p

then the

be

a commutative

(j>p(a) =

ap is a homomorphism
R' be

ring

with

## of prime characteristic Frobenius homomorphism).

p.

Show

that

the map

: R \342\200\224>\342\226\240 R given by

21. Let R
unity

and 1 and

rings
no

and

<j>[N]

0 divisors,

and let N

such that

0[i?]

{0'}. =\302\243

Show

that if R has

a.
Show

R -> that

a ring
is an

homomorphism

be

an

ideal

of R.

ideal of cf)[R].
of cf)[R]

b. Give an

example

to show that
either

f(x\\,

N'

be an

ideal
F[xi,-

## $[N] need not be or of R'. Show an ideal that cj>~1 of R'. [N1] is an ideal of R. the 28 of ## let S be and subset any \342\226\240\342\200\242\342\200\242 \342\200\242\342\226\240 & that ,xn] is 24. 25. an ## ideal that that \342\226\240 \342\226\240 x F of F x F x \342\226\240 for n factors. Show that of have every element(^, \342\200\242\342\200\242 a zero(see Exercise \342\200\242, S as ,xn) an) \342\226\240 in F[x\\, \342\226\240 This is of importance in algebraic \342\226\240, xn]. geometry. a field, be ## set Ns of all Section 22) field. unity. Show Show a factor if R ring of a field with is either the trivial an (zero) ring of ## one elementor is isomorphic N R, =\302\243 then to the with is a ring unity and N is ideal of R such that R/N is a ring Section 27 ## Prime and Maximal Ideals 245 26. Let be that a commutative an intersection ring and and let a e R. Show 27. Show of ideals let N of a ring R is {x e W | ax an ideal of R. again that Ia = = 0} is an ideal of W. 28. Let into R and R' be that rings and W be ideals of R and R'. Show 0 induces natural homomorphism 0* : R/N ## /?', respectively.Let 0 be a homomorphism ->\342\226\240 if 0[A^] c W. (UseExercise /?'/Af' ring of 39 of Section 14.) 29. Let0 be a homomorphism is a unit in R'. 30. An element a of a ring elements in a commutative of a ring R is R with unity onto a nonzero R'. Let be a unit in W. Show that o(;/1 nilpotent an if a\" ideal, ring R is in ## = 0 for some n e Z+. Show the nilradical of R. 30, find that the collection of all nilpotent that it 31. Referring the to the definition given Exercise the nilradical of the ## ring Z12 and observe is one of ideals of Z12 found in Exercise that 3. What if N is the nilradical of Z? of Z32? ring 32. Referring to Exercise ideal 30, show is the nilradical of a commutative R, then R/N has as nilradical the trivial {0 + N}. ring and that ## 33. Let R 34. Let R some be a commutative and is nilpotent be n to Exercise N an ideal of R. Referring 30, show of R/N is R/N, then the nilradical of R is R. that the set */N of all a a commutative ring and N an ideal of R. Show of N. Z+, is an ideal of W, the radical if every element of N a\" & N the nilradical e R, such that for 35. Referring to Exercise equal 34, show N of the by examples that for proper ideals N b. -JN of a may commutative equal ring R, a. */N neednot 36. What is the N. 30)? relationship ## ideal ~JN of Exercise by 34 to the nilradical of R/N (seeExercise Word your answer 37. carefully. Show that 0 :C^ Afc(R) given *(* + for K)=(4 subring \302\273) a, fc e K gives an isomorphism ring of C with the 0[C] of M2(IR). ring ## 38. Let fitea Section with 24. Let a e R, ## unity and let End((W, +)) and let Xa : R ^ Rbe given be the by of endomorphisms of (R, +) as described in Xa(x) =ax for* e R. that that a. Show b. Show Aa is an R' = analogue {Xa c. Prove the SECTION endomorphism of (/?,+). of End((/J, | a e tf} is a subring +)). of Cay ley's theorem for R by showing that R' of (b) is isomorphic to R. 27 Prime Exercises rings ## and Maximal Ideals 12 through R/N where ## 14 of the R and R/N situation, preceding have section very different asked us to structural provide examples to those of factor with properties. We start some examples shown of this and in ## the process, provide solutions which is domain exercises. is a 27.1 Example As was for p a prime. Thus in Corollary a factor ## 19.12, the ring Zp, ring of an integral isomorphic to Z/pZ, may be afield. field A 246 Part Ideals and Factor Rings 27.2 Example The ring Z x Z is not an integral domain, for (0,1)(1,0) = showing (0,0), = the that (0,1) Z x where original Z, and (Z x meZ. ring and (1,0) L are 0divisors. et {(0, n) an \\n e Z}. Now N is an [(m, 0) ideal of Z)/N is isomorphic ring to Z of under correspondence integral ## Thus a factor is not. a ring may be domain, ## + N] -o-m, even though the \342\226 27.3 Example The subset N = {0,3} of Z6 and ## elements, 0 + N,l show that Z(,/N ~ + N, Z3 is easily 2 + N. seen to be an ideal multiply of Z(,, and in such Z(,/N has three as ## These add and fashion to under the correspondence (1+A0\302\253*1, (0 + N)**0, (2+A0\302\253*2. domain, This example shows that ifR is not even it is still possible for R/N to be afield. an integral that is, ## ifR has zerodivisors, A 27 .4 Example Note that that Z is an a showed This the example original Every ~ Z^ is integral domain, but Z/6Z factor ring may have a structure that seems indicates that the structure of a factor ring not. The examples preceding better than the original ring. seem worse than that of may ring. nonzero \342\226 ring R has at least ## two ideals, rings of a the improper has ## ideal {0}. For theseideals,the nontrivial factor are R/R, 'R/{0}, of and which is isomorphic to R. ## These are uninteresting ring R ## a group, a proper N ^ {0}. ideal is and the trivial one element, and which only Just as for a subgroup cases. an ideal N of R such that N ^ R ideal R While factor above rings of rings and integral which domains follows may be of great examples indicate, Corollary 27.6, useful our next ## interest, as the theorem, shows that a factor ring of is a ## a field is really not to us. of R 27.5 Theorem If R ## ring with unity, and N is an ideal containing a unit, then N = R. Proof LetN be an rN then of R, and suppose that u e N for some unit uin R. Then the condition ideal c N for all r e R implies, if we take r = u~l and u e N, that 1 = u~l u is in N. But c N for all r e R implies rN N = R. that r 1 = r is in N for all r & R,so \342\231 no 27.6 Corollary A field contains proper nontrivial ideals. it follows Proof that Since every nonzero elementof a field is a unit, an ideal of a field F is either {0} or all of F. and take at once from Theorem 27.5 \342\231 Maximal We Prime Ideals of when is a factor now up the question with ## domain. The analogy the groups case in which ## the factor ring in Section a field. ## ring is a field and when 15 can be stretched a bit ## it is an integral further to cover Section 27 ## Prime and Maximal Ideals 247 27.7 Definition maximal ideal idealN of 27.8 R properly ## of a ring R is an ideal M containing M. integer. different from R such that there is no proper \342\226\240 Example Let p about be a prime multiplication positive We know that Z/pZ normal pZ must be a maximal 15.18. Since Z is an abelian Theorem is a subgroup by group and every subgroup of Z. Since pZ is an normal subgroup, we see that pZ is a maximal proper subgroup that pZ is a maximal of Z. We know that Z/pZ ideal of the ring Z, it follows ideal is we know that of Z ## moment and regarding and consequently Zp is a simple group, for the Z/pZ is isomorphic and Zp to Zp. as additive Forgetting groups, isomorphic illustrates Theorem to the ring Zp, and that Zp is actually a field. Thus Z/pZ is a field. This \342\226\262 the next theorem. Let 27.9 (Analogue maximal ## of Theorem 15.18) if ideal of R if and only maximal R be R/M in R. a commutative is a field. that ring with unity. Then M is Proof a commutative ring with if M ^ R, which is unity ring + M) e R/M, with a ^ M, so that a + M is not (a a the additive inverse identity element of R/M. Suppose + M has no multiplicative in R/M. Then the set (R/M)(a + M) = {(r+ M){a + M) e #/M} does not + M) | (r of R/M. It is nontrivial 1 + M. We easily see that contain + M) is an ideal (R/M)(a it does not contain because 1 + M. By the because a \302\242 and it is a proper ideal M, is the of Section 26, if y : R \342\200\224>\342\226\240 canonical homomorphism, then final paragraph i?/M of R properly + M)] is a properideal containing M. But this contradicts y~l[(R/M)(a our assumption that M is a maximal ideal, soa + M must have a multiplicative inverse ideal Suppose M is a Observe if R is ## unity, then R/M is also a nonzero Let the case if M is maximal. commutative with in R/M. Conversely, suppose of R that R/M that N is any ideal such c N is a c field.By the R and onto R/M, then y[AT| is an ideal of R/M with states that the field contrary to Corollary 27.6,which ideals. Hence if R/M is a field, M is maximal. 27.10 of Section final paragraph is the canonical homomorphism y {(0 + M)} cy[N]c R/M. But 26, if of this R is R/M contains no proper nontrivial \342\231\246 Example Since Z/nZ the maximal and is isomorphic to Z\342\200\236 Z\342\200\236field if and only if n is a prime, we see that is a ideals of Z are preciselythe ideals pZ for prime positive integers p. \342\226\262 with 27.11 Corollary Proof A commutative Corollary ring unity is a field if and only if it has no ideals. proper R, proper nontrivial nontrivial ideals. 27.6 shows that a field has no proper nontrivial if a commutative ring R with unity has no ideal and R/{0], which is isomorphic to {0} is a maximal Conversely, ideals, then 27.9. is a field by Theorem We now turn to the question of characterizing, for a commutative R with unity, ring N ^ R such that R/N is an integral domain. The answer here is rather obvious. The factor ring R/N will be an integral domain if and only if {a + N)(b \342\200\224 N A\") = the ideals implies that either a + N = N or b+ N N. 248 Part Ideals and Factor Rings This is exactly the statement of 0, since the coset N plays that R/N has no divisors the role of 0 in R/N. at representatives, we see that this condition amounts to Looking that ab e N implies that either a e N or b e N. saying 21.12Example All is an are of the form nZ. For n = 0, we have nZ = {0}, and Z/{0} ~ Z, which and is an domain. For n > 0, we have Z/nZ ~ Z\342\200\236 Z\342\200\236 integral domain if integral if n is a prime. Thus the nonzero and ideals nZ such that Z/nZ is an integral domain only a field, so that pZ are of the form pZ, where p is a prime. Of course, Z/pZ is actually is a maximal ideal of Z. Note that for a product rs of integers to be in pZ, the prime \302\243> in this example makes the use of the must divide either rors. The role of prime integers \342\226\262 in the next definition more reasonable. woidprime ideals of Z 27.13 Definition An ideal N in a commutative ring is a prime ideal if ab TV implies that either a&Norb&Nfora.b&R. Note \342\226\240 that {0} is a prime ideal in Z, and indeed, in any integral domain. t {0},hen 27.14 Example Note that have bd x {0} that is a prime = 0 in Z. This Z x {0}.Note Our ideal of Z x Z, for if (a, b)(c, d) e Z x implies that either T> = 0 so (a, b) e Z to Z, which is an is (Z x Z)/(Z x {0}) isomorphic x {0} rd = 0 o integral we so must d) e domain. (c, \342\226\262 ## remarks preceding Example is illustrated by Example 27.14. \\V,hich 27.12 constitute a proof of the following theorem, 27.15 Theorem Let R an be a commutative domain ring only with unity, integral if and if TV is a ## and let TV ^ R be prime ideal in R. an ideal in R. Then R/N is 27.16 Corollary ## Every maximal ideal in a commutative ring R with unity is a prime ideal. domain, Proof ## If M is maximal is a prime ideal The very in ## R, then R/M is Theorem 27.15. by in a field, hence an integral and therefore \342\231\246 material ## that has just and we important shall be using ## mind. We must know and must remember the following been presentedregarding maximal and prime ideals is the main ideas well it quite a lot. We should keep of maximal and prime understand the definitions ideals and facts that we have demonstrated. For a commutative 1. An An ## ring ideal ideal R with unity: M of R TV is maximal if prime if R is and and only only if R/M is a field. integral 2. 3. of R is if R/N is an domain. ## Every maximal idealof a prime ideal. ## Section27 Prime and Maximal Ideals 249 Prime Fields proceed We now with to show that that the rings Z and form Z\342\200\236 similar ## foundations for all ## upon which all rings unity rest, and Q and ## ring with unity n > 0, and (-1) n 1. Recall + (-1) fields. Let R be any \342\200\242 \342\200\242 1 we that by n \342\226\240 mean 1 + 1 + \342\200\242 for n summands for + 1 n \342\226\240 for 1 = 0 for n < 0, while + --- + (-1) for \\n\\ summands service Zp perform a 0. 27.17 Theorem If is a ring with unity 1, then the map : Z \302\242) n \342\200\224>\342\226\240 R given by 0(n) = for n \342\200\242 1 e Z is a homomorphism of Z into R. Proof Observethat 0(n + m) laws (ft m) that \342\226\240 1 = (ft \342\200\242 1) + (m \342\226\240 = 1) 0(n) + 0(m). The distributive in i? 1 + show (1 + ---+ 1)(1 + m 1 + -+1) summands = (1+1+ -+ nm summands 1) \342\226\240 n summands Thus (n \342\200\242\342\226\240 = l)(m 1) (nm) \342\226\240 1 for ft, m ## > 0. Similar arguments with the distributive laws show that for all n, m e Z, we have \342\200\242\342\226\240 = (ft l)(m 1) (nm) \342\226\240 1. Thus (p(nm) = 27.18 1 = (n (nm) \342\226\240 \342\200\242\342\200\242 = l)(m 1) <j>(n)$(m).

\342\231\246

Corollary

If R to

is a ring

If R Z\342\200\236.

with unity and characteristic n > 1, then i? contains a subring a subring isomorphic to has characteristic 0, then R contains : Z \342\200\224>\342\226\240 i? given by

isomorphic Z.

Proof

m e Z is a homomorphism by ideals in Z are of the form sZ for some 5 e Z. By Theorem19.15 we see that if R has characteristic n > 0, then the kernel of <f> < is ftZ. Then the image \302\242[7,] R is isomorphic to Z/nZ ^ Z\342\200\236. characteristic If the of i? < R 1 ^= 0 is 0, then m \342\200\242 for all m ^= 0, so the kernel of 0 is {0}.Thus, the image \302\242[1,] The map
Theorem27.17. <f> m \342\200\242 1 for

0(m) =
ideal

The kernel

must be

an

in Z. All

is isomorphic
27.19

to

Z.

\342\231\246

Theorem

A field

F is either of prime

characteristic

p and

contains a
to

subfield

isomorphic

0 of characteristic and
Proof If the

to Zp

or

contains

a subfield
0, the

isomorphic

Q.

characteristic of
to

F is not
n must

that

contains

a subring

isomorphic
characteristic

## be a prime F must contain a subring

p, or F

would

have

0 divisors.

If F is
Corollaries

of

isomorphic

to Z.

In

this

case

PartV

Ideals and

Factor Rings
show

21.8

and 21.9

that

must

contain

a field
Q.

of quotients

of this

subring

and

that

this

field

of quotients must
Thus

to be isomorphic

\342\231\24

subfield
which

field contains either a subfield to Q>. These fields Zp and isomorphic all fields rest.
every

isomorphic

Q are the

to Zp
fundamental

building

ova

blocks on

27.20 Definition

The fields Zp
Ideal

and

Q are

## prime fields. F[x]

\342\226\24

Structure
the

in
rest of

Throughout

that F is a field. We give the next definition this section, we assume in the case for a general commutative ring R with unity, although we are only interested R = F[x]. that for a commutative ring i? with unity and a e R,theset{ra \\r e R] Note is an ideal in R that contains the element a.

27.21 Definition

If R of a

is a commutative ring with unity and a e R, the ideal {ra \\ r e R] of all multiples is the principal ideal generated a and is denoted by {a). An ideal N of R by

is a

principal
27.22

ideal

if

{a) for
Z is

some a
form

e R.

\342\226\24

Example

Every ideal

F[x]

of

the

nZ,

which is

generated by

n,

so every

ideal of Z

\342\226\26

27.23

Example

The ideal

consists

of

all

polynomials

in F[x]

having zero

constant

term.

\342\226\26

The
algorithm

next
for

theorem
F[x].

is
the

another

simple

but very

(See Theorem

that

## important application of the of this theorem is to

division the

division

algorithm
division

in F[x]
algorithm

as

proof

a subgroup

of a cyclic group

is

cyclic

is to

the

in Z.

27.24 Theorem
Proof

If

is a field,

every ideal in
of F[x].

F[x]

is principal.

If N = {0},hen N = (0}. Suppose that N ^ {0}, and let g(x) t If the degree of g(x) is 0, then of N of minimal e F degree. g(x) and is a unit, so N \342\200\224 = (1) by Theorem 27.5, soN is principal. If the degree of g(x) F[x] is >1, let f{x) be any element of N. Then by Theorem 23.1, f(x) \342\200\224 + r(x), g(x)q(x) where r(x) = 0 or (degreer(x)) < (degree Now f(x) e N and g(x) e N imply g(x)). = r{x) is in N by definition of an ideal. that f{x) \342\200\224 Since g(x) is a nonzero g{x)q{x) elementof minimal degree in N, we must have r{x) = 0. Thus f(x) = g(x)q(x) and

Let N be an

ideal

be a

nonzero

element

N =

(g(x)).
We

\342\231\24

can

now characterize

the

maximal

achieving

our basic

goal:

to

show F.

that

## zero in some field

containing

Section

27

Prime and

Maximal Ideals
over F.

251

27.25

Theorem

An

ideal

{p(x)} ^

{0}of F[x] is

maximal

if and

only

if

p{x)

is irreducible

Proof

Then {p(x)) ^ F[x], so p(x) \342\202\254 F. {p(x)) ^ {0} is amaximal idealof F[x]. = f(x)g(x) be a factorization of p{x) in F[x]. Since {p{x))is a maximal p(x) ideal and hence also a prime e {p(x)} implies that f(x) e {p(x). or ideal, (f(x)g(x)) that e {p(x)}; is, either f{x) or g{x) has p{x) as a factor. But then we can't have g{x) the degrees of both f{x) and g{x) less than the degree of p{x).This shows that p(x) is
that Suppose

Let

irreducible over F.
Conversely,

if

p{x)
Now

is irreducible
N

over F,
ideal

that suppose

is an

ideal such

that

ip(x))

someg(x)
p{x)

0, that
q{x)

27.24, F[x]. by that p{x) = g(x)q(x) for some q(x) e F[x].But .Then p(x) e N implies is irreducible, which implies that either g{x) orq(x) is of degree0.If g(x) is of degree a nonzero constant in F, then g(x) is a unit in F[x], so {g(x)) = N = F[x]. If is, = c, where c e F, and g(x) = (l/c)p(x) is in (/?(*)), so is of degree 0, then q{x)
Theorem

cJVc

is a principal

so N

= {g(x))for

e N

N =

## {p(x)}. Thus {p(x)}C N

23.9 shows
that

F[x]

is impossible,

so {p(x)}is maximal.

\342\231\246

27.26

Example

Example

x3

is a
{x2

## Similarly, \342\200\224 a field. 2) is

field.

Theorem

We

shall

in + 2 is irreducible Z5[x], so Z5[x]/{x3 + 3x + 2) 2 is 22.11 shows that*2 \342\200\224irreducible in Q[x], so Q[*]/ such fields in more detail later. \342\226\262 examine

+ 3x

Application
In

to
23,

Unique

Factorization

in F[x]

we stated without Theorem 27.27, which follows. (See proof this theorem, we provedin Section 23 that factorization of in F[x] polynomials into irreducible polynomials is unique, for order of factors and except in F, We delayed the proof units of Theorem 27.27 until now since the machinery we us to give such a simple, four-line proof.This proof fills the gap have enables developed in F [x]. in our proof of unique factorization
Section
Theorem 23.18.)

Assuming

21.IH Theorem

Suppose
Theorem 27.25.

polynomial

in F[x].

If p{x) divides
s(x).

r(x)s{x)

for r(x),

s{x) e

divides r{x)

or p{x) divides
r(x)s(x)

Proof

p(x) divides
Therefore,
that

r(x)s(x). Then

e {p(x)},
Corollary

which is maximal
27.16.

by

{p{x))imphes

Hence
that

r(x)s(x)

e
\342\231\246

divides

r(x), or

s(x)

e {p(x)},

Preview
close
We

A
We

of Our
this
have outline.

Basic Goal of
the

goal.
Show

demonstration

in Section
can

at hand

fill in

## 29 of our basic the details

in F[x].

from this
Basic
that

goal:
there

Let F
exists

be a

field

and

let f(x)
F

be a nonconstant

polynomial

a field

containing

and containing

a zero

a of f(x).

252

Part V

Ideals

and

Factor

Rings

Outline of the

Proof
irreducible factor of f{x) in
F[x]/{p(x)}.
different F[x]. field
two

1.
2. 3.

Let

p{x)

be an

Let E

be the

(See Theorems of F

27.25 and
the

27.9.)

Show that no
and

elements

are in

same
to)

coset of

deduce the

## that we may coset

4>a

consider F to be (isomorphic
E.

a subfield

F[x]/{p(x)), of E.
is a zero

4. Let a be f(x)
in

x +

{p{x)) in

Show

homomorphism
E.

: F[x]

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 E, we

## that for the evaluation have 0O(/(*)) = 0. That

is, a

of

to An example of a field constructed according this outline is given in Section 29. and multiplication tables for the field Z2[x]/{x2 + x + 1). We There, we give addition the cosets show there that this field has just four elements,

0+{x2
and

+x +

1),
(x

\\

{x2 +x+\\),

x + {x2+

x + l),

+ \\)+{x2+x

\\).

We

rename these four cosets 0, 1, and 29.21 for addition and multiplication

are
a{\\ and

and obtain Tables a + 1 respectively, 29.20 in this 4-element field.To see how these tables a + a = that we are in a field of characteristic so that 2, constructed,remember = a0 \342\200\224 0. Remember also that a is a zero ofx2 +x + l.sothata2 +a + 1 = 0 + 1) \342\200\224 = \342\200\224a = a + I. a2 I consequently
and

a,

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

27

Computations

1. 2. 3.

## Find Find Find

all prime all prime all prime all prime all c all c all c
all

that that

## ideals ideals ideals ideals + c)

of Zeof Znof Z2 of

4. Find 5. Find
6.
Find Find

x Z2. Z2 x Z4.

e Z3 such e Z3 such e Z3
such

Zt,[_x]/(x2 Z3M/U3

is a field.

+ x2 +

c) is a field.

7.

that
that

Z3 [x] /(x3
Z5[x]/{x2

+ ex2+
+ x

1)is

a field.

8. Find

c e

Z5 such
such

9. Find

all c

e Z5

that

Z5M/(.x2

+ c) is a field. + ex + 1) is a field.

Concepts
In

Exercises

is needed,
10.

so that

italicized term
in

without

reference

to the

text,

if

correction

A maximal
Aprime

ideal of a ring

R is

an ideal

that

is not

contained
the

any

other

ideal of R.

11.

ideal

of a commutative

ring

is an

ideal of

form

pR

= {pr | r

R}

for

some

prime p.

Section 27

Exercises

253

12.
13.

A A

prime principal

field

is a field
ideal

that

has

no proper

subfields.
unity

that N

is
each

the

smallest

## of a commutative ring with ideal that contains a.

is an ideal

with

the property

that

there

exists

a e

.V

such

14. Mark

of the

following

true

or false. commutative
commutative

a. Every

## prime ideal of every

maximal own

ring with
ring

unity

is a

maximal ideal.

b.

Every

ideal prime

of every

with unity

is a prime ideal.

c. Q is its
d. The prime

subfield.
of C

subfield

is E. isomorphic
to

e. Every
f.
A

field

contains

a subfield

a prime

field.

as a subring. divisors may contain one of the prime fields a subfield g. Every field of characteristic zero contains isomorphic to Q. h. Let F be a field. Since F[x] has no divisors of 0, every ideal of F[x] is a prime i. Let F be a field. Every ideal of F[x] is a principal ideal. ideal of F[x] is a maximal ideal. j. Let F be a field. Every principal ring

with zero

ideal.

15. Find

a maximal a prime

ideal of

Z x Z.
prime.

16.
17.

Find Find

ideal of

a nontrivial
5x 6x

+ 6) a

field? Why?

+ 6) a field?

Why?

Proof Synopsis

two-sentence

## synopsis synopsis synopsis

of \"only of \"if

if part

part

27.24.
if\" part

of Theorem

## 23. Givea one-or

synopsis

of the

\"only

of Theorem

27.25.

Theory

24. Let
If it 26.

R be a

finite commutative
27.18

ring

with

unity.

Show

that

every

prime

ideal in R is a maximal
to

ideal.
some
Is it Z\342\200\236.

25. Corollary
possible

that

a ring

is possible,

that every ring with unity with unity may simultaneously give an example. If it is impossible,

tells us

contains

## a subring isomorphic contain two subrings isomorphic prove it.

unity

either

Z or

to

and Zm Z\342\200\236

for n ^ml
isomorphic

Continuing

Exercise

25, is it possible
7Lq for

that

a ring

with

to the

fields Zp
the TLq for

and

p and

ql

may

or prove it

is impossible.

27. Following
Zp and

idea

of Exercise

26, is

it

possible

p ^q

and p

and

q both prime?

## to contain for an integral domain Give reasonsor an illustration.

two subrings

isomorphicto

28.

Prove directly from the definitions of maximal and prime ideals that ideal of a commutative every maximal ring R with unity is a prime ideal. [Hint: M is maximal in R, ab e M, and a g M. Argue that the smallest Suppose a and M must contain 1 as ra + m and multiply ideal {ra + m \\ r e R, m e M) containing 1. Express by b.]
Show

29.

that

N is a
nontrivial

maximal ideal
ideals.

in

a ring

no proper

(Compare

that

is, it

is nontrivial

and

has

254

Part

Ideals

and

Factor

Rings

if F field field

## is a field, every proper

and f(x), and let

nontrivial

prime

ideal of

F[x] is maximal.
if

N =

g(x) e

divides g(x)

and

only if g(x)

e {f(x)).

## e s(x)g(x)| r{x),s{x) F[x]}

different

is an
both

ideal of

F[x]. Show
to

that

if f(x)

degrees

and N ^

F[x],

then

/(*)

and g{x)

cannot

be irreducible

over F.
prove

33.Use Theorem27.24
Fundamental
Nullstellensatz

the equivalence
Every

of these
nonconstant

two

theorems:

Theorem
for

of Algebra:
Let f\\{x),

polynomial
in

in C[x]
every

has

a zero

in

C
is a the

C[x]:

## \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242, f,(x)

e C[x]

these polynomials is also a zeroof a polynomial of C[x] that contains the r polynomials f\\{x),
There

C[*].

a e

that

zero of
smallest

all

r of

g{x)

Then

of g(x) is in
and

ideal

is a sort
and

of

arithmetic

of ideals

in a ring.

The next
B =

three and

exercises B is

product,

quotient

of ideals.

34. If A
a.

S are

ideals of a ring

R, the

sum A +
A +

B of A

defined
b e
that

by

{a + b | a

e A,

B}.
A c

Show

that

A +

B is

an

ideal. ring

b. Show R. The

A+
by

B and

B c

A+

B.

35. Let

A and

B be

ideals of a

product AS
f n

of A

and

S is

defined
n e Z+
AS

AB

= i

e A, fc,- e S,

a. 36. Let

Show

that

AS is an

ideal

in

R.

## b. Show ring R. The A

: quotient

that

c (A

n S).
defined

A and

S be

ideals of a

commutative

A : S

of A by S is

by

S = {r

tf

rb

e A

for all b e

S}.

Show

that that

S is

an ideal

of i?.
set

37. Show

for a field

F,

the

S of all

matrices of the

form

(oo)

for a, b
38.

e F is a
the

right

ideal

but not a
any

left

multiplication

on the matrix

right

by

element

of M2(F). That is, show that S is a subring of M2(F), but is not closed under left multiplication.
ideal that

closed under

Show

that

ring M2(la) is a

simple ring;

is, MiJJLj)

has no proper

nontrivial

ideals.

section

28

^Grobner
This concerned

Bases

for Ideals
In particular, we are we can of the set of common accomplish our goal in a single

section with

gives a brief introduction to algebraic geometry. the problem of finding a description as simple as
finite

zeros of a
section

number

of

this

text, we

book by

of polynomials. In order to be stating a few theorems without We recommend proof. and Loustaunau for the proofs and further study. [23]
will

the

This

section

of

the text.

Section

28

Ideals

255

Algebraic
Let

Varieties
a field.
X\\,X2,

and Ideals
that

be

Recall

F[X\\,X2,

,xn]

the ring

of
be

polynomials

in

n inde-

terminants

## \342\226\240 with \342\226\240 \342\226\240 ,x\342\200\236

coefficients

in F.

We let

F\"

the

Cartesian

For easein writing, we denote an element {a\\, ai, \342\200\242\342\200\242\3 \342\200\242\342\226\240\342\200\24 For ,xn]. Using similar economy, we let F[x] = F[X\\,X2, each a g f\", we have an evaluation F just homomorphism 0a: F[x] \342\200\224*- as in \342\226\240 That is, for /(x) = f(xu x2,\342\226\240 e F[x], we define 0a(/(x)) = /(a) \342\200\224 Theorem 22.4. \342\226\240, x\342\200\236) \342\200\242 \342\200\242 The follows from the ci2, \342\200\242, an). proof that 0a is indeed a homomorphism f(al, and distributive properties of the operations in F[x] and F. Just as commutative, associative, = 0. a of F\" is a zero of /(x) e F[x] if /(a) for the one-indeterminate case, an element
n factors.
of

F x

product

F\" by

a,

in

bold

type.

In what
numberof the

In this

## abbreviate follows, we further section we discuss the problem

a polynomial of finding

and

of a finite

/i, /2,

F[x]. Finding
subject

studying

geometric

properties

of

subset
F\"

of algebraic

geometry.
V(S)

28.1 Definition

Let S be a
In our

finite

of F[x].

## The algebraic variety

in

in F\"

is

the

set

of all
\342\226\240

common zeros in

of the

polynomials

S.

illustrative

use*, y, 28.2Example
Let

z in place

## examples, which of Xi,x2, and^3.

2} c

usually

involve

at most three

indeterminates, we

\"We leave

S =

R[x, y].
2.

The

algebraic

variety

V(S)

in E2 is

the

line

with
\342\226\262

-intercept

to Exercise

29 the
with

straightforward

proof

that for r