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Contents

Instructor's

Preface

vii

Student's

Preface

xi
xiii

Dependence Chart
0

Sets and

Relations

Groups

and Subgroups
and

1
2
3
.

Introduction Binary

Operations
Binary

Examples 20
Structures

11
28

Isomorphic
Groups

36

5
6

Subgroups
Cyclic

49
59
Cayley

\342\200\242

Groups

Generating Sets and


IT 11

Digraphs

68

Permutations,

Cosets,
75
Alternating
the

and Direct Products

8
9

Groups

of Permutations

Orbits, Cycles,and

10

Cosetsand
Direct Plane

the

Theorem

11

Products Isometries

87 Groups of Lagrange 96 and Finitely Generated Abelian


114

tl2

Groups

104

Contents

III

HOMOMORPHISMS

AND FACTOR GROUPS

125

13
14

Homomorphisms

125

Factor Groups
Factor-Group Group Applications

135
Computations

15 *16
Tl7

and Simple

Groups

144

Action

on a Set
of

154
to Counting

G-Sets

161

Rings

and Fields
and

167
184

18
19
20

Rings Integral

Fields

167
177 Theorems of an

Domains
and

Fermat's
Rings

Euler's Quotients

21

The Field of

Integral Domain
over

190

22
23
i\"24

of Polynomials

198
a Field

Factorization of Polynomials
Noncommutative

209

+25

Ordered Rings

Examples and Fields

220 227

Ideals

and

Factor
and

Rings
Rings 245
254

237
237

26
27
+28

Homomorphisms

Factor Ideals

Prime and Maximal Grobner Basesfor

Ideals

Extension

Fields
to Extension

265
Fields

29
30
31
^32

Introduction Vector

265

Spaces

274

Algebraic Extensions
Geometric
Finite

283
293

Constructions
Fields

33

300

VII

Advanced
34

Group
Theorems
311

Theory
307

307

Isomorphism

35
36

Series of Groups
Sylow Theorems
Applications

321
Sylow Theory

37

of the

327

Contents
333 346

38

Free

Abelian

Groups
341

39 Free Groups
40

Group Presentations

'VIII

Groups

in Topology
Complexes

355
Groups 363

41
42
43 44

Simplicial Computations

and Homology

355
371

of Homology

Groups

MoreHomology Computations 379 Homological lgebra A


ix

and Applications

Factorization

389
Domains

45
46
47

Unique

Factorization

389

Euclidean Domains
Gaussian

401
Norms 407

Integers

and Multiplicative

Automorphisms
48

and Galois Theory


415
Theorem

415

Automorphisms

of Fields
Extension

49
50
51
T52

The Isomorphism
Splitting

424

Fields

431

Separable Extensions
Totally

436
444

Inseparable
448

Extensions

53
54

GaloisTheory
Illustrations
Cyclotomic

55
56

of Galois Theory
Extensions Quintic

457

464 470

Insolvability of the
Appendix:
Bibliography

Matrix Algebra
483

477

Notations

487
Asking

Answers to Odd-Numbered ExercisesNot

for Definitions

or Proofs

491

Index 513

' Not

required

\342\226\240

This section

for the remainder is a prerequisite

of the

text.
17 and 36 only.

for Sections

Instructor's

Preface

introduction to abstract algebra. It is anticipated that the students have studied and probably linear algebra. However, these are primarily mathematical matter from calculus and linear maturity prerequisites; subject algebra appears mostly in illustrative and exercises. examples As in previous editions of the text, my aim remains to teach students as much about and fields as I can in a first course. For many abstract students, groups, rings, algebra is their first extended treatment of mathematics. Recognizing this, exposure to an axiomatic I have included extensive explanations concerning what we are trying to accomplish, how we are trying to do it, and of this text why we choose these methods.Mastery constitutes a firm foundation for more specialized work in algebra, and also provides valuable experience for any further axiomatic study of mathematics.
This

is an

calculus

Changes from the


The

Sixth Edition

material had increased from one lesson in the first edition edition. My personal preferenceis to spend less time before to algebra; Much of it is review for therefore, I spend little time on preliminaries. getting four lessons on it may result in their not allowing sufficient students, and spending many time in their schedules to handle the course when new material arises. Accordingly, in this edition, I have reverted to just one preliminary lesson on sets and relations, leaving other A summary of matrices now needed. in the topics to be reviewed when appears
amount

to four

lessons

of preliminary in the sixth

Appendix.

The first
which

two

editions

could

be covered

consisted of short, in a single lesson.


triple

consecutively

numbered to that

sections,

many of
avoid

have

reverted

cumbersome
In

and

intimidating

numbering
the

of definitions,
order

response

to suggestions

by reviewers,

of

theorems examples,etc. has been changedso presentation


vii

design

to

the

Instructor's

Preface

that the
a new
In in

basic material

on

groups,
first,

one-semester

course appears
attempting

introduction,
response

to

be covered rings, and fields that would normally the more-advanced before Section group theory. of the study. some feeling for the nature provide
the

in

1 is

to several that

requests, I have included


in the
first

material

on homology
is easily

topology

appeared

two

editions.

Computation

groups of homology groups


accessible; in Section 38
have

strengthens

students'

after Sections 0 through


through

of factor groups. The material understanding one need only read about free abelian 15, as preparation.
automata, sixth

groups,

Theorem

38.5,

To make
linear

room

for the

homology groups, I
additional

omitted
structures

the discussion
that

appeared
of

of in the

binary edition.

codes, and
students

algebraic

I have

synopsis

also included a few exercisesasking a proof in the text. Before the first

to give a

one- or
an

two-sentence
to show

such

exercise,

I give

example

what I expect.

Some Features

Retained
down most

I continue
concepts,

to break and

exercise sets into

parts

consisting

of computations,

a proof again Answers to odd-numbered exercisesnot requesting I am supplying the of the text. However, in response to suggestions, appear at answers to parts a), c), e),g), and i) only of my 10-part true-false exercises. a manual The excellent historical notes by Victor Katz are, of course,retained. Also, solutions asking for proofs, including containing complete solutions for all the exercises, theory. the back

is available for the


A

instructor

dependence

chart

from the publisher. with section numbers appears in

the

front

matter

as

an

aid

in

making

a syllabus.

Acknowledgments I am
and

very

grateful

to those
I am

who

have

reviewed

the text or

who

have

sent me

suggestions

who used the sixth M. Bergman, especially indebted to George and made note of typographical edition and other errors, which he sent to me along a great many other valuable suggestions for improvement. I really with appreciate this which must have involved a large expenditure of time on his part. review, voluntary I also wish to express my appreciation to William Hoffman, Julie and LaChance, of Addison-Wesley for their I was most with this project. Finally, Cindy Cody help
corrections.

fortunate to have John Probst and the staff at TechBooks handling the production of the text from my manuscript. They produced the most error-free I have experienced, pages and the solutions courteously helped me with a technical problem I had while preparing manual.

Suggestions
Those

for New Instructors

of Algebra

developed their

have discovered the difficulties and taught algebra several times are not for them. solutions. The comments I make here This courseis an abrupt change from the typical calculus for the undergraduate who

have

own

students.
board

graduate-style

lecture
class

for most

of

the

time,

presentation, writing out definitions will not work with most students.

and proofs I have

on
it

the

found

best

Instructor's

Preface

ix

to spend at least the first half of each class period answering on homework, questions to give a proof requested in an exercise, and generally checking trying to get a volunteer to see if they seem to understand the material for that class. Typically, I spent assigned about the last 20 minutes of my 50-minute time talking about new ideas for the next only of view, it is a waste of time class, and giving at least one proof. From a practical point to try to write on the board all the definitions and proofs. They are in the text. I suggest that at least half of the assigned exercises consist of the computational ones. Students are used to doing in calculus. Although there are many computations exercises asking for proofs that we would love to assign, I recommend that you assign at most two or three such exercises, and try to get someone to explain how each proof is should be asked to do at least one proof performed in the next class. I do think students in each assignment. face a barrage of definitions and Students theorems, something they have never encountered before.They are not used to mastering this type of material. Grades on tests to us, requesting a few definitions are apt to be low and that seem reasonable and proofs, this problem for most students. My recommendation for handling appears in depressing 2001 issue of the MAA Abstract Algebra Classes,in the November my article, Happy
FOCUS.

At URI, we have Our semestersare quite


the

only

a single

short,

semester undergraduate 42 consisting of about

course

in abstract

50-minute

classes.

algebra. When I taught

I gave three 50-minute tests in class, about 38 classes for which the leaving was given an assignment. in Sections 0-11, 13-15, I always covered the material Of 18-23,26, 27, and 29-32, which is a total of 27 sections. course, I spent more than one class on several of the sections, two but I usually had time to cover about more; sometimes I included Sections 16 and 17. (There is no point in doing Section 16 unless course, student
you

do

Section

sometimes

becoming

17, or will be doing Section 12 (see the Dependence discouraged in the first few weeks
Section

36 later.) I often coveredSection25, and from The job is to keep students Chart). of the course.

Student's

Preface

This

course

may

well require a different


You may

approach

than

those you
working

used in

previous

mathematics

courses.

to have become accustomed

a homework

problem

by

turning
That

This
should

in the text to find a similar problem, and then just changing some numbers. work with a few problems in this text, but it will not work for most of them. may all important, and where problems becomes is a subject in which understanding the text. not be tackled without first studying on studying the text. Notice that the text bristles Let me make some suggestions
back

The definitions are crucial. We with definitions, theorems, corollaries,and examples. a defimtion is followed Sometimes agree on terminology to make any progress. are probably the most important an example that illustrates the concept. Examples by I suggest you skip the proofs aids in studying the text. Pay attention to the examples. first reading of a section, unless you are really \"gung-ho\" on of the theorems on your and try to understand what it just proofs. You should read the statement of the theorem means. Often, a theorem is followed an example that illustrates it, a great aid in really by what the theorem says. understanding concentrate on what In summary, on your first reading of a section,I suggestyou a real understanding of it. If you do not information the section gives, and on gaining
must

the statement of a theorem means,it will probably be meaningless for the proof. Proofs are very basic to mathematics. After you feel you understand the information at least some of the proofs. in a section, you should read and try to understand given the easiest Proofs of corollaries are usually ones, for they often follow very directly from under the \"Theory\" heading ask for a proof.Try the theorem. Quite a lot of the exercises It takes a bit of practice and experience. Proofs in not to be discouraged at the outset. than for there are usually can be more difficult proofs in geometry and calculus, algebra
understand you

what

to read

no

suggestive

pictures

that you

can draw.

Often,

a proof

falls

out

easily

if you

happen to xi

Student's Preface

look at

expression. Of course,it is hopeless to devise a proof if you do not to prove. For example, if an exercise asks really understand what it is that you are trying is a member of a certain that the defining set, you must know you to show given thing criterion to be a member of that set, and then show that your given thing satisfies that
just

the right

criterion.

aids for your study at the back of the text. Of course, you will not to odd-numbered problems requesting a proof. If you run into a discover look in the list of notations notation such as Z\342\200\236 you do not understand, that that appears that you do after the bibliography. If you run into terminology like inner automorphism not look in the Index for the first page where the term occurs. understand,
There

are several

the answers

In mathematics

summary, course,

although it is really

an understanding

of the

subject

is important

in every
you

crucial to

your

performance

in this

course. May

find it a

rewarding experience.

Narragansett, RI

J.B.F.

Dependence

Chart 0-11
12

13-15

16

34

17

36

35

37

38

39

41-44
18-23

40

24

25

26

28 27

32
29-33

45-47

48-51

52

53-54

55

56

section

Sets

and Relations
Notion

On Definitions,and the
Many

of a

Set

do not realize the great of definitions to mathematics. students This importance to communicate with each other. stems from the need for mathematicians importance If two people are trying to communicate about some subject, they must have the same of its technical terms. However, there is an important structural weakness. understanding

It is

impossible to

define

every

concept.

Suppose, for example, we define


One objects.\"

the

term

set as
by then,

\"A

set

is a well-defined

collection of
it

naturally
an

asks

what is meant

a collection. is

We could define

as

\"A

Now our language will run out of new words to use and have to repeat is finite, so after some time we somewords already examined. The definition is then circular and obviously worthless. or primitive Mathematicians realize that there must be some undefined concept with set shall be such a primitive which to start. At the moment, they have agreed that concept. We shall not define set, but shall just hope that when such expressions as \"the set of all or \"the set of all members of the United States Senate\" are used, people's real numbers\" to make communication feasible. ideas of what is meant are sufficiently similar various We summarize we shall simply assume about sets. briefly some of the things
collection

is

aggregate

of things.\"

What,

an aggregate?

1.

A set

S is madeup denote this fact by


is exactly 0.

of elements,

and if a

is one of
It is
the

these

elements,

we shall

a e

S.
with

2.
3.

There by

one set

no

elements.

empty

set and

is denoted

We may describe a set either by giving a characterizing property of the such as \"the set of all members of the United States Senate,\" or by elements, the elements. The standard a set by listing elements is listing way to describe to enclose the designations of the elements, separated by commas, in braces, for example, {1, 2, 15}.f a set is described by a characterizing I property P(x) of its elements is also often used, and is read x, the brace notation {x \\ P(x)} \"the set of all x such that the statement P(x) about x is true.\" Thus
{2,4,

6, 8}

= {x | x is an

even

whole

positive

number <

8}

= {2x\\x 1,2,3,4}. =
The

notation

{x

\\ P(x)}

is often

called

\"set-builder

notation.\"

4.

A set is well defined, meaning that if S is a set and a is some object, then either a is definitely in S, denoted by a e S, or a is definitely not in S, denoted a \302\242 Thus, we should never say, S. \"Consider the set S of somepositive by 2 e S or 2 \302\242. On the other hand, for it is not definite whether S. we numbers,\"
1

Section 0

Sets and Relations


T of all
or not

can

consider

the set
prime

prime

positive

integers.
T

definitely

either

prime. Thus 5 e

and

Every positive integer is 14 \302\242. It may be hard T. to

actually goes

2(2 )
It is back a set.

is in a set. For example,as this book determine whether an object unknown whether 2(2\") + 1 is in T. However, to press it is probably + 1 is certainly either prime or not prime.
text

not feasible for this

to push

to the

concept of a

set.

For example,

the definition we will never

of everything

define

we use all the the number n in terms

way

of

Every

definition

is an

if and

only

if'type

of statement.

With

this

understanding,

definitions

understoodas part of the is isosceles triangle as follows:\"A triangle


is always

to be

are often stated with the only if suppressed, but it definition. Thus we may define an isosceles if it has two sides of equal length,\" when we

is isosceles if and only if it has two sides of equal a triangle length. labeledand numbered text, we have to define many terms. We use specifically for the main algebraic conceptswith which we are concerned. To avoid definitions of such labels and numberings, we define many terms within overwhelming quantity using boldface type. body of the text and exercises

really mean that


In our

an the

Boldface Convention
A

term

printed

in boldface

in

a sentence

is being defined

by

that

sentence.

Do not feel that you have to memorize a definition word for word. The important is to understand the concept, so that you can define preciselythe same concept in your own words. Thus the definition \"An isosceles is one having two equal triangle sides\" is perfectly correct.Of course, we had to delay stating our boldface convention
thing
until not

we define

had

finished
section,

using boldface in

the

preceding

discussion
as sets,
and

of sets, becausewe do both for


some
illustration

a set! we do
concepts.

In

this

for review

of

the

define some familiar First we give a few


by B c be used

concepts
definitions

and

notation.

0.1 Definition

set

B is a

A. The
\342\200\242

notations

subset of a set A, denoted B C A or A D B will to


A this

or

Z>

B,
A

for B
A

C
itself

but

if every B /

element of B is in A. \342\226\240
subsets

Note

that according

definition,

for any

set A,
A.

and 0

are both
A

of A.

0.2 Definition

If A is any set, then subset of A.

is the

improper

subset of

Any

other

subset of

is a

proper
\342\226\240

Sets

and

Relations

0.3 Example
0.4 Definition

Let S = {1, ,3}. his 2 T


Let
If A
A

set
and

S has
{1,2,

a total

of

eight

subsets,

{1,2},{1,3},{2, }, 3
and

namely

0, {1},

{2}, {3},
A
Cartesian
\342\226\240

3}.
x

B be
and

sets. The
B. B

set A
4},

B =

{(a, b)

\\ a

e A

and b e

B) is

the

product
0.5

of A

Example

= {1, 2, 3}and

= {3,

then

we

have
(2,

A x
Throughout Let

B=

{(1,3),(1,4),

3), (2,

4), (3, 3), (3,4)}.


involving
for

this

us take

care of notation
set

text, much work will be done for these sets once and

familiar sets

of numbers.

all.

Z is

the

of all

integers where
are the
n

(that

is,

whole

numbers:

Q is the
m/n

set of all
set

rational

numbers

(that is, numbers

that

positive, negative, and zero). can be expressed as quotients

of integers, of all
E+

0).

E is the
C is
Z*, the

real numbers. sets of positive members of Z, Q, and


sets E,

Z+, Q+,and
set Q*,

respectively.

of all

complex numbers.

E*, and C*

are the

of nonzero

members of Z, Q, E, and
that

C, respectively.

0.6 Example

The set E
draw

xE

is

the

familiar

Euclidean

plane

we

use in

graphs

of functions.

first-semester calculus to A

Relations
We which

Between
the notion might

Sets
of
an

introduce we

element
.^\302\276 b.

a of

set

being

related

denote by a

The notation

.y\302\243 exhibits b

left-to-right
the

following
relation

order, just as the notation definition of a relation


between

.^\302\276 as

(a, b) for an a set.

element

in

to an element b of set B, the elements a and b in A x B. This leads us to

0.7 Definition

related to
0.8

b\"

and

write

sets A and a ,yH,b.

B is a

subset J?

of A

B. We

read (a, b)
a set
the

e J?

as

\"a is
\342\226\240

Example

(Equality
consider

Relation)
every set

There is one familiar relation between in this text to possess: namely, S mentioned
=

and itself
equality

that

we

relation

defined on a set S by
is the

subset {(x, x)\\x but if x


and

S] of
y

S x

S.
elements of

Thus

for

any x
=

e S, to

we have
relation

x = x,

are different

S, then
A

(x,

y)
We

\302\242.and

we write x
any

^ y.
between a set

will refer

and

itself,

as in

as a
0.9 Example

the preceding example,

relation

on S.

Thegraph
of E

of the

x E. Thus

it is a

where f(x) = x3 for all x e E, isthesqbset{(x,x3) \\x e E} function/ is completely relation on E. The function determined by its graph. A

Section0

Setsand
The

Relations

be a \"rule\"

example suggests that to each x e E exactly assigns certain type of subset of E x E, that is, as and deal with any sets X and Y.
preceding
that function
\302\242) mapping

rather one

than

define a \"function\" e E, we can easily y


free

y = describe

f(x)

to

it as a

a type

of relation. We

ourselves

from E

0.10 Definition

x function
each
The \302\242.

between X and Y with the property that one ordered pair (x, y) in \302\242. Such a appears : X Y and express is also calleda map or mapping of X into Y. We write \302\247 \342\200\224>\342\200\242 (x, y) \342\202\254 4>{x) = y. The domain of 4> is the set X and the set Y is the codomain of 0 by
X into
first Y

is a

relation

&

as the

member

of exactly

range

of
the

is 0[X] \302\242)

{<j>(x)

\\x

e X}.
: (E
on

\342\226\240

0.11

Example

We can view
function

addition E.

of real

mapping of E

x E into

notation by +((2, 3)) = 5. In our familiar notation is 2 + 3 = 5.


Cardinality

For example,

numbers as a function the action of


set

(2,

x E) \342\200\224>\342\200\242as a E, that is, in 3) e E x E is given

notation

we write

((2, 3),5) e

+.

Of

course
\342\226\262

of X and is often denoted of elementsin a set X is the cardinality by \\X\\. we have |{2, 5,7} | = 3. It will be important for us to know whether two sets count have the same cardinality. If both sets are finite there is no problem; we can simply the same the elements in each set. But do Z, Q, and E have cardinality? To convince ourselvesthat two sets X and Y have the same cardinality, we try to exhibit a pairing of each x in X with only one )' in Y in such a way that each element of Y is also used only once in this pairing. For the sets X = {2, 5, 7} and Y = {?, !, #}, the pairing

The number For example,

2<*V?,
shows

5o#,
Notice

7o!
that

they

have

the same

cardinality.

we could

also exhibit

this
X

{(2, ?), (5, #), (7, !)}which, pairing 1

as

a subset

of

F, is a

relation between

and

as pairing F. The

23

45

67
the same cardinality. is a special

89
-5

10--a pairing,
<->

0-11-22-33-44
shows sets

that

the sets

Z
the

and

Z+

have

Such
type

showing

that

X and F

have

same

cardinality,

of relation

between

X and

F called a

once in
domain

pairing

one-to-one correspondence. Sinceeach element x of X appears precisely we can regard this one-to-one as a function with relation, correspondence X. The range of the function is F because each y in F also appears in some x \342\226\240*+ formalize this discussion in a definition. y. We
this : X \302\242)
\342\200\224>\342\200\242 F is

0.12 Definition

*A

function

Exercise 37).

The

function
another

one to one if 4>{x\\) F if the range is \302\247onto

0(\302\276) only

when

x\\ =

X2

(see
\342\226\240

of 0 is F.

We should

mention

elsewhere. In
map that is

Bourbaki's

both

used by the disciples of N. Bourbaki, in case you encounter it terminology, terminology, a one-to-one map is an injection, an onto map is a surjection, and a one to one and onto is a bijection.

Sets and

Relations

If

a subset

of X x
first

is a

one-to-one

appears

as the
second

member

of exactly

function <p mapping X onto Y, then one ordered pair in \302\242) also each y and

each e

&

Y appears

as

the

and second

we get
function \302\247 maps

of exactly one orderedpair in \302\242. member Thus if we interchange the first members of all orderedpairs (x, y) in <p to obtain a set of ordered pairs (y, x), a subset of Y x X, which gives a one-to-one function Y onto X. This mapping the inverse function of \302\242, is denoted by <j>~1. Summarizing, is called and if X one to one onto Y and <j>(x) = y, then 0\"1 maps Y one to one onto X, and
= x.

4>-\\y)

0.13 Definition

Two sets X
X

onto

and Y have the that is, if there F,

same cardinality if there exists exists a one-to-onecorrespondence


f(x)

a one-to-one
between

function mapping
X and Y.
\342\226\240

0.14

Example

because /(2) = /(-2) = 4 the is the proper subset of all nonnegative but 2 ^ \342\200\2242. it is not onto E because Also, range in E. However, g : E \342\200\224>\342\200\242by g(x) = x3 is both one to one and onto E defined numbers
The function
E where / : E ->\342\200\242

= x2 is not

one

to one

E.
We
by

showed so that

that Z

and

Z+

have
Ko.

the same

Ko,

|Z| =

|Z+| =

cardinality.

It is

fascinating

may have the same as a set having this


A

number
property.

of elements
whether and

as the

We denote this cardinal number that a proper subset of an infinite set whole set; an infinite set can be defined

set

We naturally wonder has cardinality Ko if


we set

all infinite only

sets have
elements

the

same

cardinality
in that

as the
an infinite this

set Z.
row,

if all
using

of its
Z+.

could

be listed
to the

so that for the


downward,

could

\"number

them\"

of fractions Q. The square array and contains all members of

Figure extends

0.15 indicates
infinitely

is possible
infinitely

right and

Q. We

have

shown

through

of
out

the

string

and

this array. Imagine the fractions to be glued to this and pulling to the left in the direction of the all elements of Q appearon it in an infinite row as

|Q|

= K0 also.

winding its way string. Taking the beginning the string straightens arrow, \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242. Thus 0, \\,\342\200\224 ^,1,-1, |,

a string

0.15Figure

Section

Sets and

Relations
= {x e

If

the

set S

E | 0 < x < 1} has


extending

cardinality infinitely

Ko, all

as unending

decimals

in a column

downward,

its elements couldbelisted perhaps as

\342\200\242 \342\226\240 0.3659663426 \342\200\242

0.7103958453 0.0358493553 0.9968452214---

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242

in S. Surely S contains a such array must omit some number nth digit after the decimal point a number different from 0, from 9, having \342\200\242 r from the nth digit of the nth number in this list. For example, might start .5637and \342\200\242. 5 rather than 3 after shows r cannot The the decimal be the first number in S point r cannot be the The 6 rather than 1 in the second digit shows listed in the array shown. we second number listed, and so on. Because could make this argument with any list, 15 indicates we see that S has too many elements to be paired with those in Z+. Exercise the cardinality of E by E has the same number of elementsas S. We just denote that

We now

argue

that

any

number r

as its

|E|.

Exercise
than

19 indicates
|E|.

that

there

are infinitely

many different cardinal numbers

even

greater
Partitions

and
disjoint

Equivalence

Relations

Sets are
occasion disjoint
section

if no two of them have have any element in common. Later we will to break up a set having an algebraic structure a notion of addition) into (e.g., subsets that become elements in a related algebraic structure. We concludethis with a study of a set
exactly

of such breakups, or partitions

of

sets.

0.16 Definition

partition
in

of S is

one of

S is a collection of nonempty subsets the subsets. The subsetsare the


a partition

of S cells

such

that partition.

every

element
\342\226\240

of the

When

discussing

of a set S, we denote

by x

the cell

containing

the

element

x of

S.
Z+

0.17 Example

Splitting

of odd positive
a partition

subset of even positive integers (thosedivisible by divided integers (those leaving a remainder of 1 when of Z+ into two cells. For example, we can write
into the
14

2) and by

the subset we obtain 2),

= (2,4,6.8,10,12,

14, 16. 18, \342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242}.


cells,

We

could

also partition
another

Z+

into

three

one consisting

of the

positive

integers

divisible
divided

divided

by 3, containing by 3, and the last containing by 3.

all positive
positive

integers leaving a remainder of 1 when integers leaving a remainder of 2 when

Z+ into n cells according Generalizing, for each positive integer n, we can partition \342\200\242 \342\200\242 1 when the remainder is 0, 1, 2, \342\200\242 \342\200\224 n a positive integer is divided by n. , These cells are the residue us classes modulo n in Z+. Exercise 35 asks to display these for the cases n =2,3, and 5. \342\226\262 partitions
to

whether

Sets

and

Relations

Each x,
y

partition

of

a set
if and

S yields a relation
only if x
and

.M on
in the

S in

a natural

e S,

let x

.M

y are

same cell of

we would write x \342\226\240>\342\202\254 e ,^\302\276 Definition y as (x, y) (see shows that this relation .^\302\276 S satisfies the three properties of an on in the following definition.
notation,

way: namely, for In set partition. 0.7). A bit of thought


the equivalence

relation

0.18

Definition

An equivalence

relation .^\302\276 on

a set

S is one that

satisfies

these

three properties for all

x,

y,

z e

S.

1.

(Reflexive) x .Mx.
(Symmetric)

2.
3.
To symmetric

If x

-jfcy,

then

.^

x.
then

(Transitive) If x .^\302\276 and y


illustrate

y ,3%z

x.J?z.

\342\226\240

condition

why the relation in the definition,


x is the

to ,>? corresponding

a partition
that

we

need

only observe
(that

if y

of S satisfies the is in the same cell


We

as x

is, if x .>? y), then (that similar observations to verify

in the
reflexive

same cell as y
and transitive
= defined

is, y

..M x).
to

leave

the

properties

Exercise

28.

0.19 Example

set For any nonempty S x S is an equivalence

S, the

equality

relation

by the subset

{(x, x) \\ x

e S]

of
\342\226\262

relation.

0.20

Example

The equivalence relation on Z+ corresponding modulo n, discussed in Example 0.17, is denoted by =\342\200\236. Rather than write a=\342\200\236b, we congruence modulo n. It is sometimes write a = b (mod n), read, \"a is congruent to b modulo n.\" For example, we usually have 15 = 27 (mod 4) because both 15 and 27 have remainder 3 when divided by 4. \342\226\262 (Congruence
to

the

partition

Modulo n) of Z+ into

Let n

e Z+.

residue

classes

0.21

Example

Let a relation

,^/B on the set Z be defined by n .^\302\276 if m ^\302\276 an equivalence is determine whether relation. Reflexive a .M a, because a2 > 0 for all a e Z. Symmetric

and only if

nm

>

0, and

let us

If a

.M b,

then

ab

> 0,

Transitive
If

we

knew b =

b2

\\ia.yib and b .M c, > 0, we coulddeduceac


moment

> 0 and b > 0 and be then ab


so ba

.Ma. > 0.

> 0 whence

case

0 separately. A
\342\200\22435. ,^2

not have relation.


We
show

Thus the

of thought shows that relation c/Z, is not transitive,

Thus ab2c = acb2 > 0. ,M c. We have to examine the \342\200\2243,^0 and 0 .M 5, but we do and hence is not an equivalence
\342\226\262

observed

above that a partition

yields a natural
natural

equivalence

relation.

We now

that

an equivalence

that

follows

relation on a set yieldsa states both results for reference.


Relations

partition

of the

set. Thetheorem

0.22Theorem

(Equivalence

and

equivalence

relation

on

S. Then ~ yields a

Partitions)

Let S
partition

be a
a}.

nonempty

set

and let

~ be

an

of S,

where

a=

\\x

S \\x ~

Section0

Setsand

Relations

Also,
only

if a

each partition of S gives and b are in the same

rise

to an equivalence relation cell of the partition.

~ on S where

a ~

b if

and

Proof

eSdo give a partition cells a = {x eSU~a)fora We must show that the different of S is in some cell and so that if a e b, then a =b. Let of S, so that every element a e S. Then a e a by the reflexive condition (1), soa is in at least one cell. Supposenow that a were in a cell b also. We need to show that a = b as sets; this that is a standard show that a cannot be in more than one cell. There will way to show
two

sets are

the

same:

Show

that each

set is a subsetof

the

other.
the
y

x ~ a. But aefc,soa~i>. We show that a c.b. Let x e a. Then Then,by ~ b, sox \342\202\254 ocj. c we show that \302\243 a. Let Now condition (3), x b. Thus ~ fc. But aefc,sofl~fc and, by symmetry (2), b ~- a. Then by transitivity y = so >' e a. HenceKq also, so \302\243 a and our proof is complete. Each

transitive
Then e \302\243. ~

(3),

a,
\342\231\246

cell

in the

partition

arising

from

an equivalence relation is

an

equivalence

class.

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

0
4, describe

In Exercises 1 through

the set by

listing

its elements.

1. {x e 3. {m e

M Z

\\x2 = 3}
| mn

2. {m e for some n
10, decide e Z}

m2

= 3}

= 60

4. {m e Z | m2

<

115}

In Exercises 5 through of each description

whether the object described indeed is

a set

(is well defined).

Give an

alternate

set.

5.
6.

{n {n {n

e Z+

|n

is a large number}
< 57} an integer}

e Z | n2 e Z

7.

< 0} | 39 < n3

8. {x 9. {x
10.

e Q | x is almost &Q\\x may e Q | x may


the

be written be written

with denominator greater with positive


denominator

than

100}

{x

less

than 4}

11. List

elements

in {a,

b, c} x

{1,2, c}.
between 4, 6}. For eachrelation A into S. If it is a function,

12.

Let

A = {1,
it

2, 3} and

B = {2,

A and
decide

given

as a

subset of
one

whether
onto

is a

function mapping

whether

it is

one to

A x S, decide and whether it is

B.

a. {(1,4),

(2,4), (3, 6)}

c. {(1,

6), (1,2), (1,4)}


geometrically

b. {(1,4), (2, d. {(2,), (1, 2


f.

6), (3,4)}

6), (3,4)}

e. {(1, 6),(2,6),(3, 6)}

{(1,2),

(2, 6),

(2,4)}
the

13.

Illustrate by

that two line

indicating

in Fig.

0.23

what

point

segments AB and CD of different length have y of CD might be paired with point x of AB.

same

number

of points

Exercises

p
A

/
X

,B

c*-

0.23 Figure
14.

Recall
Show

that for
that the
interval

a, b e R
onto the

and

a <
have

b, the

closed

interval

[a,

fc]

in R

is denned

given intervals
[0, 2]

the same

cardinality

by giving

a formula

= {* e R | a < * < \302\243>}. by [a, fc] for a one-to-onefunction / mapping

the

first

second.
b. [1,

a. [0,1]and
15. Show
that

3] and

[5, 25]

c. [a, b]

and

[c, d]

S = maps

{x

< \342\202\254'R\\0 x

calculusthat the set S.]


For

an interval

Find an elementary function of < 1} has the same cardinality as R. [Hint: and scale appropriately to make the domain one to one onto R, and then translate

any

set A,

we denote

by

SP (A)

the collection

of

all

subsets

of A.

{a, b,

d] e

-5^(A).The set
elements of the

SP(A)

is the

power set of A. the


given

Exercises

16 through

For example, if A 19 deal with the


of the

= {a, b, c, d}, then notion of the power

set of a set A.
16.

List the

power

set of

set and

give the

cardinality

power set.

a. 0
17. Let
A

b. {a}
be

c. {a,b}
oh
the

d.
about

{a,

b, c}

a finite
try finite

set,

and

let

\\A\\

s. Based

preceding

exercise,

make a conjecture
A into Each

the

value

of

\\.3^(A)\\. Then

to prove

your conjecture. let BA be the set of all functions mapping of the set d^(A). [Hint: same as the cardinality
finite

18.

For

any

set A,

or infinite,
BA

the set
element

B = {0,1}.how S

that

the cardinality

of

is the

of BA determines a

subset of A 19.
Show

in a

natural way.]

to be able to be put in a one-to-one are an infinite number of infinite cardinal A into .5s(A) to be given. Show that \302\247 numbers. be cannot [Hint: Imagine a one-to-onefunction \302\242) mapping onto d?(A) by considering, for each x & A, whether x e (j>(x) and using this idea to define a subset S of A that is not in the range of \302\242.] the set of everything Is a logically acceptable concept? Why or why not?
that

the power

set of a set A,
A. Explain

or infinite,
intuitively

has too many


means

elements

correspondencewith

why this

that there

20. LetA a.

= {1,2} and
using

lets

= {3,4,5}.

Illustrate,

A and
what

B,
you

why

we

consider

that 2

+ 3 = 5. Usesimilar
value

reasoning

with

sets of

your

own

choice

to decide
K0,

would

consider to

be the

of
ii. K0

i. 3 +

+ K0.

b.
21.

Illustrate

why

we consider
in

that

3 = 6 2 \342\200\242

by plotting
what

the

points

reasoning

with a figure
numbers
\342\200\242 How \342\200\242 9? \342\200\242,

the

text to

decide

you be

would

of A x B in the plane R x R. Use similar consider to be the value of Ko \342\200\242 Ko.

How
0, 1, you

many

in the interval

0 <x
of the

< 1 can

expressed
Following 12N\"

in the
this
2N'\302\260?

form

2, 3,
would

many are
the

there

form .#####?
about

idea,

each # is a digit .##, where and Exercise 15, decidewhat

consider to be the the idea


blanks
in

value

of

How 10K\302\260.

and

22.

Continuing

preceding

exercise and using


cardinal

Exercises

18 and
which

the

three

to give a

list of five

numbers,

each of

is greater

to fill in notation 19, use exponential than the preceding one.

K0.|R|, _,_,_.

10
In

Section

Sets

and Relations

Exercises

23 through

27,

find

the

number
24. 27.

of different partitions
2 elements 5 elements
following
if

of a set having

the

given

number of

elements.

23. 1 element 26. 4 elements


28. Considera partition
of a

25. 3 elements
0.18 explained
the

set S.

The paragraph
.^\302\276if y

Definition

why

the

relation

and only

x and
relation.

y are

in

same similar

cell explanations
relation

satisfies
Exercises

the

symmetric

condition

for an equivalence

Write

of

why

the

reflexive

and transitive properties are


In

also satisifed.
whether relation.

29 through arising

34, determine
> 0

the

given

relation is

an

equivalence

on the

the set. Describe

partition 29. 31.

from each
if

equivalence

n M m in Z x.rfymRif\\x\\
in

nm

30. x .M y
32.
the the

in M if inMif base

x >
\\x

y y\\

=
Z+

\\y\\

x JZ

<

33. n J% m

if n
if

and m have
m have
of the
the

same same

number

of digits in

the

usual

ten notation

34. 35.

,>8

m in Z+

n and

final digit in

the usual

base

ten notation

Using

set notation

in Example

0.17 for

\342\200\242 form {#,#. #. \342\200\242 an infinite set, write for \342\200\242} value of n. indicated

the residue

classes modulo

in Z+

discussed

a.

= 2

b. n

= 3
if

c.
and

36. Let n e Z+ s = r \342\200\224nq

and let ~ be defined for some q e Z.


~ is an

on

Z by

r ~ s
on Z.

only

if r

- s is divisible
modulo

by

n, that

is,
was

if

and

only

if

a.

Show part

that b.)

equivalence
to

relation

(It is

called \"congruence
this

n\" just

as it

for Z+.

See
n,

b. Show that,

when restricted of Example 0.20.


cells
in

the

subset

Z+ of Z,

is vhe

equivalence

relation,

congruence

modulo

c. The
37.
Students

of this

partition of Z

are

residue
the

classes modulo
notation

in Z.

modulo

Z rather

than in Z+ using

\342\200\242 #. \342\200\242, {\342\226\240 #,

#.

\342\200\242 these \342\226\240 for \342\200\242}

Repeat Exercise 35 for the residue infinite sets.

classes

the concept of a one-to-onefunction I think I know the reason. You (mapping). from A to B. It seems a direction associated with to expect a reasonable it, one-to-one mapping to be a mapping that carries one point of A into one point of B, in the direction simply But of course, every mapping of A into B does this, and Definition indicated by the arrow. 0.12 did not say in mind, make as good a pedagogical that at all. With this unfortunate situation caseas you can for calling the in Definition 0.12 two-to-two it is almost impossible to functions described instead. (Unfortunately, functions get widely used terminology changed.)
often

misunderstand

see, a mapping

B <p : A\342\200\224>has

part

Groups

and

Subgroups

Section

Introduction
Binary

and Examples

Section 2
Section Section

Operations
Binary

3 4

Isomorphic Groups
Subgroups

Structures

Section 5
Section

Cyclic Groups
Generating

Section 7

Sets

and Cayley

Digraphs

section

Introduction
In

and Examples

an algebra of a binary operation on a set as giving operations. We think of that algebra. To illustrate are interested in the structural properties with note what we mean by a structural property our familiar set E of real numbers, x = a/2. that the equation x + x = a has a solution x in E for each a e E, namely, x = a However, the corresponding multiplicative equation x \342\226\240 does not have a solution structure than E with in E if a < 0. Thus, E with addition has a different algebraic
or

of abstract algebra. we attempt to give you a little idea of the nature Both addition with addition and multiplication of real numbers. For example, addition combine two numbers to obtain one number. and multiplication to be binary 2 and 3 to obtain addition and multiplication combines 5. We consider sets in which we have one and examine operations. In this text, we abstract this notion,
this

section,

We are all

familiar

more

binary

on the

set, and

we

multiplication.

Sometimes two different sets with what we naturally regard as very different binary structure. For example, we will see in operations turn out to have the same algebraic structure as the set E+ of Section 3 that the set E with addition has the same algebraic
with multiplication! positive real numbers We will This section is designed to get you thinking about such things informally. some examples. in Sections 2 and 3. We now turn to make everything precise of complex numbers of magnitude 1 provides us with several examples that will Multiplication and with a review of complex numbers be useful and illuminating in our work. We start

their

multiplication.

11

Groups and Subgroups

bi

a +

bi

\342\226\240\342\200\224T I I i i ( \\a

-4

-3

-2

-1

0
\342\200\224i

-2i

1.1 Figure

Complex
A

Numbers
can be

real

number
x-axis. in Fig.

as an
shown

A complex

1.1. and label the point >'-axis, coordinates (a. Cartesian is defined by

visualized geometrically as a point on number can be regarded as a point that we label the vertical axis as the Note
one

a line that

we often regard

in the
yi-axis

Euclidean plane, as

unit

above the

origin

with

i rather

rather than just the with than 1. The point


complex

b) is labeleda
C:

+ bi
bi

in Fig.

1.1. The

set C of

numbers

{a +

a.

b e numbers we write

We consider
with

ffi to be a subset of the complex the complex number r + Qi.For example, we write 0 + \\i and 0 + 0; as 0. Similarly, Complex

3+

by identifying a real number it + Oz' as 3 and \342\200\224Qi as

r
\342\200\224 it

as i and

0 +

si as si.
of real

numbers
i

complexnumber sowe require

was

developed after the invented to provide a solution


were

development to the

quadratic

numbers. The equation x2 = -1,

that

(1)

Unfortunately,
numbers.

has

been

generations of students
Actually,

to view

called an imaginary number, the complex numbers with

and

this

terminology

more

skepticism

has led than the real

such as 1,3, it, \342\200\224and i are inventions of our minds. a/3, is the number 1. If there were, it would There is no physical entity that surely be in a place of honor in some great scientific museum, and past it would file a steady stream of at 1 in wonder and awe. A basic goal of this text is to show how mathematicians, gazing we can invent solutions of polynomial when the coefficients of the polynomial equations may not even be real numbers!
all numbers, Multiplication

of Complex
{a +

Numbers
the

The product

bi){c +

di) is defined in
arithmetic

way

it must

be if we are
1,

to

enjoy

the

familiar properties

of real

and require

that i2

\342\200\224 in

accord with Eq.

(1).

Section 1
Namely, we

Introduction

and

Examples

13

see that

we

want

to have

(a +

bi){c+ di) = ac+ adi + bci + bdi2 = ac + adi + bci + bd(\342\200\224l)


=

(ac

\342\200\224

bd)

+ (ad

+ bc)i.

Consequently, we define
Z\\zi
which that

multiplication

of z\\

\342\200\224 a +

be and

zi = c + di as bc)i,
is routine

= (a

+ bi)(c
with

+ di) = (ac\342\200\224+ bd)


ac
\342\200\224 bd and

(ad +

(2)
to check
+
Z1Z2

is of the

the form r

+ si

r =

s =

ad +

be. It
+

properties z\\Zi all hold for all z\\. Z2, Z3 e C


(2

usual

ZiZ\\. Zifez3)

(z\\Z2)z3

andz!(z2

Z3) =

Z1Z3

1.2 Example
Solution

Compute

50(8 +

30rather

We

don't

memorize

that equation.

Eq. (2), but We have

we compute

the product as
15 =

we did to

motivate

(2 - 5i)(8+ 30 =
To

16 6;+

40/

31

\342\200\224 34r.

\342\226\262

establish
value

absolute

the geometric meaning \\a + bi\\ of a + bi by


\\a

of complexmultiplication,
bi\\ =

we

first define

the

-Ja1 +

b2.
bi

(3)
to the

This

absolute

value

origin in Fig.

1.1. We

and is the distance from a + is a nonnegative real number can now describe a complex number z in the polar-coordinate

form
(4)

z =
where 6 is the angle z, as shown in Fig.
measured

|z|(cos# +

sin#).

1.3. A

famous

from the ;t-axis to the vector counterclockwise formula due to Leonard Euler statesthat
e'6
\342\200\224 cosO

from 0 to

+ i

sin#.

Euler's Formula
We

ask

you

e6, cos 6

to derive Euler's and sin 6 in Exercise

formula

formally

41. Using

from the power series expansions for this formula, we can express in Eq. (4) as z

y
,,

z = |z|(cos0 +
;'

sin 9)

|c| sin 9

^r^
y^
Z\\ 1 V

i 0

1 1 1 1

>

|z| cos 9

1.3 Figure

14

Part

Groups and

Subgroups
set zi =
i6\\ \\zi\\e'

Me

.Letus

and

Zl

\\z2\\e\"

and

compute
with

their product
number
Z\\Zi

in

this

form,

assuming

that the

usual

laws

of exponentiation

hold

complex

exponents.
=

We

obtain

,,1(01+02) = |z, \\z,\\e^ \\Zi\\e '\\z2\\e'\"' = |Zi||Z2|e\"


+ i sin(0!

= |zil|z2|[cos(0i 82) +
Note
that

+ 82)].
\\z\\Zi\\

(5)
=
\\zi\\\\z2\\

Eq.

5 concludes

in the

8\\ polar angle 8 for ziz2 is the sum numbers by multiplying their absolute in Fig. 1.4. Exercise 39 indicateshow to Euler's formula and without recourse

polar

form

of

Eq.

4 where

and

the

8 =

geometrically, we multiply complex values and adding their polar angles, as shown this can be derived via trigonometric identities about complex exponentiation. assumptions
+

82. Thus,

N7T/2

1.4Figure
Note that
i

1.5 Figure

has

polar

has polar angle 2(n/2)


1.6 Example

=u

angle n/2
and

and

absolute

value
that

1, as

shown

in Fig.

1.5. Thus i2

|1

\342\200\242 =

1|

1, so

i2 =

\342\200\224 1.

Find all solutions

in

C of

the equation z2
i

= i.
using

Solution

Writing

the equation

z2 =

in polar

form and

Eq.

(5), we

obtain

|z|2(cos2<9+
Thus

;sin2<9)=1(0+0-

|z|2

Consequently, n yielding
solutions

1, so \\z\\ ~ 1. The angle 8 for 28 = (n/2) + n(2n), so8

must

satisfy +

cos
8 =

28 =

and

sin2#

\342\200\224 1.

values 8 where 0

< 8 < 2tt


It 4

(tt/4)

rnt for an

are

0 and

1, yielding
.

of integer n. The values tt/4 or 8 = 5n/4. Our

are
\342\200\224 1 cos TC . . sin \342\200\224l-1 \342\200\224

Z\\

and

= \302\2432

5tt
cos
4
1- i

sin

\342\200\224

5rt
4

or
z\\

-7=(1

V2

+ 0

and

Z2 =

+ \342\200\224p(l

0-

V2

Section 1

Introduction and Examples

15

1.7

Example

Find

all solutions

of z =

\342\200\22416.

Solution

As in

Example 1.6 we write

the

equation + i

in polar
sin46\302\273)

form, obtaining
16(-1

|z|4(cos4<9

+ Or).
and

40 = n
obtained

Consequently, |z|4 =

16,so
6 =
2tt

+ n(2n), so
0 <

where

6 <

-16 is

= 2 while cos 46 = -I + n(7t/2) for integers n. (n/4) are tt/4, 3tt/4, 5tt/4, and In/4.
\\z\\

= sin46\302\273

0. We find that
values

The different
Thus

of 6

one solution

of z4 =

2(cos^
In

+
three

isin^=2(-L
more

+ -L;-)=V2(l i).
A

a similar

way, we

find

solutions,
and

72(-1 The last


by two

+ 0,
illustrate

72(-1-0-

72(1-0-

examples

writing

a +

bi

We will

1 / 0. Exercises 6through or not use addition


that

the equation

in polar

that we can find solutions of an equation z\" = a + bi form. There will always be n solutions, provided that 21 ask you to solve equations of this type. of complex numbers,
but

division

we

probably

should

mention

addition

is given by

(a +
and

bi) + (c+ di)


c +

(a +

c) + (b +

d)i.
the device

(6)

division

of a

+ bi

by

nonzero

di can be performed
+ bd)

using

a + bi c + di

a + bi c \342\200\224 (ac di c \342\200\224 c + di di ac + bd be \342\200\224 ad + -^^TL c2 + d2 c2 + d2

+ (be \342\200\224 ad)i


d2

c2 +

(7)

Algebra

on Circles
{z

Let U =
the origin
multiplication.

C \\ \\z\\ \342\202\254 radius

and

1], so that 1, as shown in U

U is
in

the

circle

in the

Fig.
again

1.8. The
a number in

the product of two


Thus,

numbers

is

we can

view

multiplication

Euclidean plane with center at relation \\z\\Zi\\ = IZ1IIZ2I shows that in U; we say that U is closed under U as providing algebra on the circle
z =

in Fig.

1.8.
in that

As illustrated number 6 e R
interval

Fig. 1.8, lies in the


by

we associate

with

each where

half-open
[0, 2tt),

interval

0 <

cos 9 + i sin# 0 < 2n. This

in U a
half-open

real

is usually that will be apparent complex

denoted
later.
the

Recall
6\\

numbers is

sum

but we prefer to denote it by 11\302\276^ reasons for that the angle associated with the product Z1Z2 of two if 6\\ + 62 > 2it + 62 of the associated angles.Of course

16

Part I

Groups

and

Subgroups

1.8 Figure

then

the

angle
on

modulo 2-7T

in R2jr associated with z\\Z2 is 8\\ + 62 \342\200\224This gives us an 2it. here by +2n \342\226\240 E2jr. We denote this addition

addition

1.9

Example

In R2w, we have

3-f

+2n

5-f

lJ\302\243-

- 2n

3f.
2tc that enabled us to define
interval
addition

There

was nothing

special
R2ir

about

the

number
half-open

on

the half-open

interval

\342\200\242 We can

use

any

Rc = {x

e ffi|0

< * < c}.


5.5.
\342\226\262

1.10

Example

InR23,wehave

16 +23

19 =

35 - 23=

12.InE8.5,wehave6+8.5

8 =

14-8.5

multiplication on the circle U where |z| = 1 and addition ffi2.T algebraic properties. We have the natural one-to-one *> 0 between in Fig. 1.8. Moreover, we z e U and 6 e ffi2^ indicated correspondence z
Now

complex

number
have

modulo

2tt on

the same

deliberately

defined

+2n

so that

if

z\\

<+ 0\\

and

zi +>

02,

then

z\\-

zi\302\261* (0\\

+2n

02).

(8)

isomorphism
shows that if we rename each z e U by its corresponding angle 0 then the product of two elements in U is renamed by the sum of the 1.8, for those two elements. Thus U with number and ffi2ir angles multiplication complex with modulo 2it must have the same algebraic properties. They differ addition only in the names of the elements and the names of the operations. Such a one-to-one correspondence the relation of elements and names of Names (8) is called an isomorphism. satisfying
(8)
shown

The relation
in Fig.

binary

operations are

not

important

in abstract

algebra; we

are interested

in

algebraic

Section

Introduction and Examples

17

properties.

We

illustrate

what we

mean by

saying

that the

algebraic properties of U and

of R2;r

are the

same.
such

1.11Example In U

there is exactly one element e The element 0 in R2;r that corresponds e +2n x = x for all x e R23r. z \342\226\240 z= z \342\226\240 lint/ z \342\226\240

that

\342\226\240 z =

z for all z
only

e U, namely,

e =
that

1.
^

to 1 e U is the

element

e in R2;r such

1.12 Example

The equation
Now

has
to

and has exactly four solutions, 1, i, \342\200\2241, \342\200\224i. namely, and 0 e ffi2;r correspond, and the equation x +2jT x +2;r * +2jr x = 0 in R2;r exactly four solutions, namely, 0. tt/2, tt, and 3tt/2, which, of course, correspond

let/

\342\200\224 1, i, 1, and

\342\200\224i, respectively.

\342\226\262

Because
an

our circle

U has
length

radius

1, it

has circumference
the

2it
*-axis

and

the

radian
up

measure
half-open

of
the

angle

6 is
ffi2jT,

equal to
put

the

of the
interval

arc
down

angle

subtends.

If we

pick

our

interval
circle

the 0 in

the

on the 1
the

on

the

and wind it

around

to 1. Moreover, each number way in the interval will fall on the point of the circle that number as the value of the having on in Fig. central angle 6 shown 1.8. This shows that we could also think of addition arcs counterclockwise, starting as being of subtended ffi2;r computed by adding lengths is lit or greater. at z = 1, and 2it if the sum of the lengths subtracting
U counterclockwise,

it will reach all

back

a starting of addition on a circle in terms of adding lengths of arcs from P on the circle and proceeding counterclockwise, we can use a circle of radius point our has circumference of radius 1. We can take 2, which 4tt, just as well as a circle interval BL^ and wrap it around counterclockwise, starting at P; it will just half-open on cover the whole circle. Addition of arcs lengths us a notion of algebra for points gives this circle of radius is surely isomorphic to ~M^n with addition 2, which However, +4^. if we take as the circle \\z\\ = 2 in Fig. 1.8, multiplication of complex numbers does not circle. The relation \\z\\Z2\\ = \\z\\\\|z21 shows that the product of give us an algebra on this such 4 rather two numbers has absolute value than 2. Thus complex number complex is not closed on this circle. multiplication The preceding paragraphs indicate that a little geometry can sometimes be of help

If we think

to convince ourselves that ffi2;r and BL^ are algebra. We can use geometry stretch out the interval R2;r uniformly to cover the interval E4^, or, isomorphic. Simply if you prefer, use a magnifier of power 2. Thus we set up the one-to-one correspondence a *>2a between a e E2t and 2a e E4JT. The relation (8) for isomorphism becomes

in abstract

if

a \302\261+ 2a

and

\302\261* 2b

then

{a

+\302\276 ) b

\302\261* (2a

+4^

2b).

(9)

isomorphism

This is obvious
final

if a

+ b

< 2tt.

If

a + b

= 2jt

+ c, then

2a

+ 2b

An

2c,

and the

pairing

in the

displayed relation becomes c *> 2c, which


has 1\302\276^

is true.

1.13 Example

x +4^ x
which
1.12. Example

+4^ x +4^x = 0 in
times
the

are two

solutions

four solutions, exactly found for the analogous

namely, 0, n,

2jt, and
in

3tt,

equation

in

ffi2jr

\342\226\262

18

Part

Groups and

Subgroups
about the numbers to E^ with
2n
+j

There

is nothing
with

special

and An

in

the

previous
need

Surely, Ec * e Ec with
Roots

+c

(d/c)x

is isomorphic e Erf.

for all

c, d

e E+. We

argument. only pair

of Unity
of the

Theelements
technique

set

Un

=
and

{z e
1.7,

C | z\"

of Examples
2jt\\ ( m\342\200\224

1.6

1} are called the nth roots of unity. Using the we see that the elements of this set are the numbers
=

cos

\\

n J

i sin

(
\\

2n\\
m\342\200\224

for

m =

\342\200\236 \342\200\242\342\200\224 , \342\200\236 \342\200\242 1. n \342\200\242,

0. 1, 2,

J If we

They all have absolute value of unity can be written nth roots

C U. 1, so U\342\200\236 as

let

\302\243 cos

^ +

sin

^-,

then these

1 = = Because\302\243\" 1, n
\342\200\224

^,^,^,^,---,^-1.

do)
under multiplication.
w For example, ith

these n powers

of \302\243 are

closed

10,

we have

t6ts = Thus we see that


ofE\342\200\236.

tH = tl0t4 = 1\342\200\242 t4 t4 =
\302\243' by computing \302\243-7

-^
i

we

can compute

i +,,

j,

viewing

and

j as

elements modulo

Let
n

Z\342\200\236 {0,

1. 2,

\342\200\242 n 3. \342\200\242\342\200\224 \342\200\242.1}. We

see that

and c E\342\200\236 clearly Z\342\200\236

addition

is closed

on

Z\342\200\236.

1.14

Example

The solution

of the

equation

x +

5 = 3 in

Zg

is x

= 6, because5+86

= 11

\342\200\224 =

3.
\342\226\262

If we

rename

each of thenth
of
This Z\342\200\236.

roots

of unity in a one-to-one

all

the

elements

gives

(10) by its exponent, we use for names and correspondence between U\342\200\236 Z\342\200\236.

Clearly,

if

\302\261\302\261 and \302\243' i

CJ *+

J-

*en

(f'

\342\200\242 ^) \302\261> +\342\200\236 (i j).

(11)

isomorphism

Thus

with [/\342\200\236

complex

number

multiplication

and

with Z\342\200\236

addition

have +\342\200\236

the same

algebraic properties.

1.15Example

It

can

be shown
this

that there

is

an

isomorphism

of

U%

with

Z8 in

Under

isomorphism,

we must

then have
the

\342\226\2405 = *> \302\243 \302\2432 t;

= which \302\243 ei2ir/8 ^> 5, 5 = 2. \342\226\262 +8

Exercise

35 asks
which

you to
each

continue

elements

of Z8 to

of the

in Example 1.15, finding six elements of U% correspond. remaining


computation

the

Section

Exercises

19

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

1
9 compute

In Exercises 1
a,b\342\202\254R.

through

the given 2. /4 5. (4

arithmetic

expression

and give

the

answer

in

the form

a+

bi

for

1. 4.

/3 (-035
(2

3.

/23

r)(5

3r)

6. (8 +
9.

2/)(3 - /)
binomial

7.

30(4 +

/) +

(6- 5/)
15 write

8. (1+
11. Find
the given
/

/)3

(1

- /)5 (Use the

theorem.)

10. Find

|3-4/|. 12 through
16 through

|6 +

4/|.
z in

In Exercises 12.3-4/
In

complexnumber
in C

the polar + 5/

form

\\z\\(p

+ qi)

where

\\p

1. + qi\\ \342\200\224

13.-1 +
21,
find

14.12

15.-3 + 5/
19. z3

Exercises

all

solutions

of the

given

equation. =-8

16.z4=l

17. z4 =
= 1

-1
-64
given +io

18. z3
expression 6

= -27/

20. z6
In

21. 22 through

z6 =

Exercises

27, compute the

using the

indicated

modular

addition.

22. 10+17

16
the expression

23- 8
26.

24- 20-5 ^ no sense.


given

+25 19-3

25. |
In

+i |
why

3f

+2,

27. 2V2+^32 3V2

28. Explain
Exercises

5 +6 8 in
all

R6 makes

29 through

34, find

solutions

x of

the

equation.

29. x
31.

+15 7 = 3 in Zi5 +7 * = 3 in Z7 +12 * = 2 in


Z12

30. x 32.
34.

+2jT

in 5

R^ in Z7

x +7 * +7 * =
* +4 x

33. x
35.

+4 * +4 * =

0 in

Z4

with Example 1.15 asserts that there is an isomorphism of \302\243/g the element of Z$ that corresponds to each of the remaining
and

Zg in which f = e'(n/4)^> 5 and f2 ^> 2. Find six elements f'\" in [/\302\276 m = 0, 3, 4, 5, 6, for

7.
an

36.

There is

37. 38.

correspond for m = 0,2, 3,4, 5, and 6. Why can there be no isomorphism of U& Derive the formulas
sin(a

isomorphism

of

C/7

with

Z7 in which

t,

e'(2-T/7) ^>

4. Find

the

element

in

Z7

to which

t,m must

with

Z6 in which f

= e'(T/3) to corresponds

4?

b)

sin a

cos b +

cosa sin

and

cos(a +
by

b) =

cosacosb

\342\200\224 sin a

sin b

using

Euler's

formula and

computing

e'\"e'b.

39.

+ / sin02). Letzi andz2 = |z2l(cos6>2 = |zi||z2|[cos(0i 92) + / sin(0i +92)]. + toderiveziZ2

= |zi|(cos0i+/sinSi)
formula

Use the

trigonometric

identities

in Exercise

38

40. a.
b.

Derivea
Derive

for cos

30

in

terms

of sin

and

cos
from

cos 0 the formula cos 30 = 4 cos3 0-3 in Section 32.) have use for this identity

9 using
part

Euler's

formula. identity

(a) and the

sin2

0 +

cos2 0

= 1.(We

will

20

Part I

Groups

and

Subgroups

41. Recall

the

power

series

expansions

e
sin,

X2

=1+*+2! =,-x3

X3

X4

3!+4!+\"x1

+ ^ + --<
_

xn

--x0
xA

+ .-. +

x2\"~] iN\342\200\236_,
+

(-1)-^-^
x2n s\342\200\236

...,

and

COSX =

x2

xb

l-V.+^.-6i e'e =

+ -- + r

{~1)(2ny.+formally

from

calculus.

Derive

Euler's formula

cosS+ ;' sinS

from these

three

series

expansions.

section

Binary

Operations
we

in a strange world and are observing to a strange civilization a class of fellow creatures in addition world drilling of also that we have not been told that the class is learning to add, but were just placed as observers in the room where this was going on. We are asked to give a The teacher makes noises that sound to us approximately report on exactly what happens. like gloop,poyt. The class responds with bimt. The teacherthen gives ompt, gaft, and the are they doing? We cannot report that are adding with poyt. What class they responds Of course, numbers, for we do not even know that the sounds are representing numbers. on. All we can say with any certainty is we do realize that there is communication going are designated some that these creatures know rule, so that when certain pairs of things like gloop, poyt, they are able to agree on a response, in their language, one after another, on in addition drill in our first bimt. This same procedure classes where a goes grade teacher may say four, seven, and the class responds with eleven. and multiplication of numbers, we are thus led to In our attempt to analyze addition the idea that addition is basically just a rule that people learn, enabling them to associate, with two numbers in a given order, some number as the answer. is also Multiplication that in playing this game with such a rule, but a different rule. Note finally students, careful of what two things teachers have to be a little they give to the class. If a first inserts ten, sky, the class will be very confused. The rule is only teacher grade suddenly from some specified set. defined for pairs of things
that Suppose

are visitors

one of the creatures numbers. Suppose

of this

Definitions
As

and Examples
let us
the

mathematicians,

attempt to collect
notions
not

the

core

of these
multiplication

basic ideas
of

in

a useful

As we a set. However, we can attempt to attempt be somewhat mathematically precise, and we describe our generalizations as functions than as rules. Recall from Definition 0.10 and Example 0.11)rather 0.4 (see Definition that for any set S, the set S x S consists of all ordered pairs (a, b) for elementsa and b of S. definition,

generalizing
Section

of addition

and

numbers.

remarked in

0, we

do

to define

2.1 Definition

S x S,we

binary

* on operation the will denote

a set S is a function element *((a, b)) of

mapping
S by

S x

S into

S. For

each (a,

b) e
\342\226\240

a *

b.

Section

Binary

Operations

21

Intuitively,

we

may

pair (a, b) of elements 2.2 Example

of S,

to each regard a binary operation * on S as assigning, an element a * b of S. We proceed with examples.

ordered

Our usual
different

operation on on E. In this example, binary operation


addition

+ is a binary

the

set

E. Our

usual

multiplication by

\342\200\242 is a

we could

replace E

any

of the

sets
\342\226\262

C, Z,E+,orZ+.
Note

that

we require a
from

binary

operation

on a set

S to be

definedfor

every

ordered

pair (a, b) 2.3 Example

of elements
set

S. + is

Let M(E) be the


a
binary

of all on this

operation

matrices having
Sometimes

different

matrices^ with real entries. The usual matrix set since A + B is not defined for an ordered numbers of rows or of columns.
binary

addition

not

pair (A, B)

of
\342\226\262

a binary a formal

also.We
2.4 Definition
Let

make

operation on S providesa definition.


and

operation

on a subset

H of S

~
subset

* be a binary

operation on S

let

H be a

subset of

S. The
H.
S is

under * if for alla,b H given by restricting


By

e //we also
* to

have

a *

b e

H. In this
* on

case,

the binary

H is closed operation on
\342\226\240

H is the

induced operation

operation

of * on

our very

a subset

definition of a binary not be, as the following may


addition

S,

the

set

closed

under

*, but

example
of

shows. does not


and

2.5 Example

Our usual
on the

+ on

the set E
real closed

real

numbers

induce a binary
but 2

set E*
E*. \302\242.

of nonzero
E* is
will

numbers

and 0

Thus

not

because under *. occasion

2 e E*

\342\200\2242 e E*,

operation = (\342\200\2242)0
\342\226\262

In our
under

text, we

often

have

a binary

operation

* on S. Toarrive

it means
sure

you

for an element to be in H, and understand the next example.


\342\200\242 be the

a subset H of S is closed to decide whether correct conclusion, we have to know what have trouble here. Be to use this fact. Students at a

2.6 Example

Let

+
and

and
let

Z,
(b)
and

H =

{n2\\n

usual binary operations of addition e Z+}. Determine whether H


only

and

multiplication
(a)

on the
addition

set
and

is closed under

multiplication.

12 = 1 and 22 = 4 are in H, but that 1 + 4 = 5 addition. For part (b), suppose that r e H and s e H. Using what it means for r and s to be in H, we see that there must be integers n and m in Z+ such that r = n2 and s = m2. rs = n2m2 = (nm)2. of elements in H and the Consequently, By the characterization
Forpart

(a), we

need

observe

that

H. \302\242. Thus

H is

not

closed

under

fact

that

nm

e Z+,

this means that

rs

e H,

so H

is closed under

multiplication.

\342\226\262

T Most students of abstract algebra have studied linear algebra and are familiar with matrices and matrix operations. For the benefit of those students, examples involving matrices are often given. The reader who is with matrices can either skip all references to them or turn to the Appendix at the back of the text not familiar where there is a short summary.

Parti

Groups

and Subgroups

2.7 Example

Let F bethe
We

real-valued functions as domain the set E of real numbers. f having from calculus with the binary operations +, \342\200\224, oonF. and \342\226\240, Namely, for each orderedpair (/, g) of functions in F, we define for each x e E
set

of all

are

familiar

f +8
/

by

{f

+ g)(x)

\302\243 by

(/

- g)(x)
\342\200\242

= f{x)

= f(x)

+ g(x)

addition,

g(x)

subtraction,

\342\200\242

8 by

(/

g)(x)

= f(x)g(x)

multiplication,

and

/
All

o g by

(/ o g)(x)
are

= f(g(x))
with

composition.

four

of these

functions

again

real valued

domain

E, so

F is closedunder

all

four

operations
The

+,

and o. \342\200\224, \342\226\240,

\342\226\262

In

this

text,

binary we

To emphasize
structural

above are very familiar to you. operations described in the examples want to abstract basic structural from our familiar algebra. concepts we should illustrate these this concept of abstraction from the familiar, We presentedthe binary operations of with unfamiliar concepts examples.
multiplication

complex number
in

on

U and

addition U\342\200\236,

on Z\342\200\236, addition and +\342\200\236

+c on
* on a

Ec

Section

1.
important

The most

method element b.

set is to characterizethe defined in terms of a and


2.8 Example

of describing a particular binary operation a * b assigned to each pair (a, b) by

given

some

property

On Z+, we define common value ifa

a binary

= b. Thus

operation * by 2 * 11 = 2;
operation

a * b

15* 10=
a *' b

equals

the smaller
and

of a

and

b,

or the

10;

3*3

= 3. 3 =

\342\226\262

2.9

Example

On Z+, we define a binary and 5 *' 5 = 5.

*' by

\342\226\240 Thus

a.

2 *'

2, 25 *' 10= 25,

2.10

Example

we define a binary Example 2.8. Thus 4 *\" 7


On Z+,

operation

= 6;25

*\"

*\" by a 9 = 11;

*\"

b =

(a *
6 =

b) + 2, where
8.

* is

defined in

and 6 *\"

\342\226\262

It may seem that these examples are of no importance, but consider for a moment. Supposewe go into a store to buy a large, delicious chocolatebar. Suppose we see two identical bars sideby side, the wrapper of one stamped $1.67 and the wrapper of the other stamped $1.79.Of course we pick up the one stamped $1.67. Our knowledge of which one we want depends on the fact that at some time we learned the binary operation * of Example2.8.It is a very important operation. Likewise,the binary operation *' of order. Think what a problem we our ability to distinguish Example 2.9 is defined using
would

have

if we

not

be hasty

tried to put about dismissing


operations to us. 2.9

on

our

shoes first,
operation

and

then

our

socks!

Thus we
significance.

should

somebinary
and

as being

of

little

Of

course,

our

usual

of addition

multiplication

of numbers

have a practical

importance well known


Examples

were chosen to demonstrate that a binary operation may or on the order of the given may not depend pair. Thus in Example 2.8, a * b = b * a for alla,b e Z+ , and in Example 2.9 this is not the case, for 5 *' 7 = 5 but 7 *' 5 = 7.

2.8

and

Section 2
2.11 Definition
A

Binary

Operations

23

binary

operation

* on a

set S is commutative
Section

if

(and

only if) a

* b = b *a

for

all
\342\226\240

a,b&S.
As

was

pointed

out

in

and

only

if from

a definition.

Theorems are not used for theorems. Now we wish to consider an expression of the form a * b * c. A binary suppose * enables us to combine only two elements, and here we have three. The obvious operation attempts to combine the three elements are to form either (a * b) * c or a * (b * c).With = 2 and then 2*9 = 2. * defined as in Example 2.8, (2 * 5) * 9 is computed by 2 * 5 2 * (5 * 9) is computed by 5 * 9 = 5 and then 2*5 = 2. Hence (2 * 5) * 9 = Likewise,
statements.
is ever

is customary in mathematics to omit the words if Definitions are always understood to be if and only and only if statements, and no such convention always if
0, it

2 * (5

* 9),

and it is

not

hard

to see that (a *

for

this

*, * c),

b) * c =
a *b
5) *\"

a * {b
for

so there

is no ambiguity

in writing

* c. But
9 =

*\" of

Example 2.10,

(2 *\"
while

4 *\"

9 =

6,

2 *\"
Thus {a *\" ambiguous.
b)

(5 *\"

9) =

2 *\"

7 =
an

4.
expression

*\" c

need

not

equal

a *\" {b *\" c),

and

a *\" b

*\"

c may

be

2.12 Definition

binary

operation

on a set

S is associative

if (a

* b)

*c =

a * (b

* c)

for all a,

b, c

e S.
\342\226\240

such as a * b * if * is associative, then longer expressions Parentheses be inserted in any fashion for purposes of ambiguous. may the final results of two such will be the same. computation; computations of functions mapping E into E was reviewed in Example 2.7. For any Composition set S and any functions define the composition S, we similarly f and g mapping S into o g of g followed by /as the function mapping S into S such that (f o g)(x) = f{g{x)) f for all x & S. Some of the most important we consider are defined operations binary of functions. It is important to know that this composition is always using composition it is defined. associative whenever
It

can

be shown

that

c *d

are

not

2.13

Theorem

(Associativity

of Composition)

Let S be a set and (/ o

let

/, g,

and

be functions

mapping

S
Proof
To

into

S. Then

/ o (g o h)

g) o h.
show

show

these
&

to each x

S. Computing

two functions are equal,we must we find that

that they

give

the

same

assignment

(/ o {g o h))(x) and

= f((g

h)(x))

= f(g(h(x)))

((/

g)

o h)(x)

= {f o g)(h(x)) =

f(g(h(x))),
\342\231\246

so

the

same

element

f(g(h(x)))

of S is indeedobtained.

24

Part I

Groupsand

Subgroups

As an example of using Theorem 2.13 to save work, recall that it is a fairly painful exercise in summation of n x n matrices is an notation to show that multiplication that there associative binary show If, in a linear algebra course, we first operation. that is a one-to-one correspondence between matrices and linear transformations and of matrices corresponds to the composition of the linear transformations multiplication we obtain this associativity at once from Theorem 2.13. (functions),

Tables For a finite


the

defined by means of a table in which of columns and at the left side elements set are listedacrossthe top We always require that the elements of the set be listedasheadsacross as headsof rows. the the left side. The next illustrates the example top in the same order as heads down use of a table to define a binary operation.
set,

a binary

operation on

the

set

can be

of the

as heads

2.14

Example

Table 2.15 definesthe

binary

operation

* on

S=

{a,b,

c] by

the following
on

rule:

2.15Table
*

(ith b c c b c b b a
only

entry

on the left)
jth

* (jth

entry

the top)

a b a c

{entry

in the

i\\h row and

column

of the

table body).
\342\226\262

a b

Thus a * b =
We if the

c and
in

b *

a =
that

a, so * is not
a binary

commutative.

can easily

see
the

entries
left

table

operation are symmetric

defined
with

by

a table

is commutative if and

respect
the

to the
lower

diagonal
corner.
on

that

starts

at

the upper

corner

of the

table and terminates at

right
operation

2.16 Example

CompleteTable

2.17

so that

* is a commutative

binary

the set

S=

{a,b,
Solution

c, d). see

w From Table2.17, e

2.17

Table

d also.Thus
b a c d b b c c d
symmetrically obtain

we

place

a b d a a

across

that b *a = d. For * to be commutative, d in the appropriate square defining the diagonal in Table 2.18 from the
this

we a * b,

must

have a * b = which is located

square

defining

b*a.

We
\342\226\262

the

rest of

Table 2.18 in of Warning

fashion

a b

to give our solution.

Some

Words

c d

Classroomexperienceshows
asked to
binary

define

some *

operation

that may result if a on it. Remember that binary operation on a set S we must be sure that
the

chaos

student

in

is given an attempt

a set and to define a

2.18Table
\\l

a
a

c a c

1.
d

2. a b b Regarding

exactly one element is assignedto for each ordered pair of elements


Condition

each

possible

ordered pair

of elementsof
it is

S, S.

of S,

\\
d

the element assignedto

again

in

\\

c d

c b

X
b

of S to \"most\" ordered * is not everywhere


attempt

\\

could

assign

will an element often make an attempt that assigns but for a few pairs, determines no element.In this event, pairs, defined on S. It may also happen that for some pairs, the In any case any of several elementsof S, that is, there is ambiguity.
student

1, a

Section 2

Exercises

25

of

ambiguity,

* is

not well defined. If Condition


several

2 is violated,
to

then

S is

not closed

under *.
Following

are

illustrations

Some of 2.19 Example

them

are worthless.

of attempts The symbol * is

define
the

binary
attempted

operations on sets.
operation in all

used for

these examples. * b = a/b. Here* is not everywhere assigned by this rule to the pair (2, 0).
On

Q,

let a

defined

on Q, for no

rational

number

is
\342\226\262

2.20

Example

On Q+, let

a *b =

a/b. Here a/b. Here

both

Conditions

1 and

2 are satisfied, and

* is a

binary
\342\226\262

operation on Q+.
2.21

Example

On Z+, let
binary

a *b =

Condition

2 fails,
closed

for 1 * 3 is not
under

in Z+.

Thus *

is not

operation
set * to

on Z+,
of all

sinceZ+is not

*.

2.22 Example

Let F be the
we
\"define\"

all real
g(x)

f(x)/g(x). Here
numbers,
not

h{x) would
= x2,

E as in Example with domain real-valued functions 2.7. Suppose the usual of f by g, that is, f * g = h, where h(x) = give quotient in F were to be defined for Condition 2 is violated, for the functions and for some g e F, g(x) will be zero for some values of x in E and be defined at those numbers in E. For example, if f{x) = cos* and
soh F. \302\243
\342\226\262

then h(0) is undefined,


Example

2.23

Example

Let F
both

be as in
what

2.22

and let

f * g = h,

f and g.

This \"definition\"

is completely

defined
sensible

it means

definition
* would

for one function would result in there


not

where h is the function greater than worthless. In the first place, we have not to be greater than another. Even if we had, any both being many functions greater than f and \342\226\262

g,
2.24

and

still be

well

defined.

Example

Let S

be a set consisting

* by
binary

a * b

of 20 people, no two of whom are of the same height. Define = c, where c is the tallest person among the 20 in S. This is a perfectly good on the set, although \342\226\262 not a particularly operation interesting one.

2.25

Example

Let S be as in Example c is the shortest person in S who 2.24 and let a * b = c, where is taller than both a and b. This * is not everywhere since if either a or b is the defined, in the set, a * b is not determined. tallest \342\226\262 person

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

Computations

Exercises 1 through

4 concern

the binary operation


[(a

* denned on S =
on the on the

{a,b,

c, d,

e] by means

of Table2.26. associative? * is associative?


* is

1.
3.

Compute

b *d, (a * b) (b * d)

c *c, *c

and and

* c)

* e] * a.

2. Compute
Compute

a * (b b *

* c).

Can you

say say

basis of this basis of


this

computations computation

whether whether

* c and

(d * c). Can you

26

Part I

Groups

and

Subgroups

2.26 Table
*

2.27 Table
C

2.28Table
c c c d b a d * a b c d a a b b c d c d c d c d

a a b

b b c

d b

e d c a

b b d a

a b

a b c d

a b b

e b

b a c d

c a b e d b

e d d c

4. Is* commutative?
5. Complete

Why? define
to

Table 2.27 soas to


can be
compute

a commutative

binary

operation

6.
In

Table

2.28

completed

define

an associative

binary

{a,b, c, d). operation * on S = {a,b, c, d).


* on

S=

Assume this is

possible and
Exercises

the missing

entries.
whether

7 through

11, determine a*b


a

the

binary

associative.

operation

defined

is commutative

and whether

* is

7. * defined
8. *

on

Z by letting
letting

defined on Q by
defined defined

= a \342\200\224 b = ab + 1 *b

9. * 10.*
12.

on on on

Q by letting a * b = ab/2 Z+ by letting a*b-2ah Z+ by letting


exactly if S

11. * defined
Let S

a *b

= ab
How many
different

be a set having
many

one element.

binary

operations
n

can be defined

on

SI Answer

the
13.

question

has exactly

2 elements; exactly

3 elements;

exactly

elements. on

How

different

commutative

binary operations can

be

defined

a set

of 2 elements? on a set of

elements?

on a set

of

elements?

Concepts

In Exercises
A binary

14 through
it is

16, correct

the definition of

the

italicized

term

without reference

to

the

text, if

correction

is needed, so that
14.

in a form

acceptablefor publication.

15. A
(b

16.
In

if and only if a * b = b * a. operation * is commutative * on a set S is associative and only if, for all a,b,c if binary operation * c) * a = b * (c * a). H of a set S is closed subset under a binary operation * on S if and only if (a * b) e H for

e S,
all a,b

we

have

e S.

Exercises * is

17 through

22,

determine state

whether whether

the definition Condition

of * doesgive
1, Condition

a binary

event that
are

not a binary operation,


* by

2, or both

of these

operation on the set. In the conditions on page 24

violated.

17. 18.

On Z+, On Z+,
R, Z+,

define define

19. On

define define

20.

On

*b = a \342\200\224 b. * by letting a *b = ab. * by letting a *b = a - b. * by letting a * b = c, where c


letting a

is the

smallest

integer

greater

than both

and

b.

Section

Exercises

27

21. On
23.

Z+,

define

* by letting a
* by subset

22. On Z+, define Let H

letting

* b = c, where a * b = c, where

c is at c is

least 5

more than
integer

a + b. less

the largest

than the
for

product of a and
a, b

b.

be the
each

of M2(M)

consisting of all
or false.

matrices

of the

form

ffi.

Is H

closed under

a 24.

matrix

addition?

b matrix

multiplication?
S, then

Mark

of the

following
any

true

a. If * is

binary

operation

on

any

set

a *a
any

= a for

all a

e S.
* c)

b. If * is any c e S.

commutative

binary

operation

on

set

S, then a

* (b

= (b

* c) * a

for

all

a, b,
c e

c. If
e.
f.

* is

any associative
binary

binary

operation

onanyset
importance

d. The only
A binary
Every

operations

of

any

S, thena * (b * c) = (b * c) *aforalla, b, are those defined on sets of numbers.


if there

S.

operation * on a set S is commutative


operation

binary

defined on a set

having

exactly

exist a,b e S such one element is

that
both

a *

b = b *a.
and

commutative

associative.

g.

of S.

binary

operation operation

on a set on a set on a set on a set


of those

S assigns at S assigns at

least

one element one element element

of S to of S to
of S

each

ordered

pair of pair of

elements

h. A binary S.

most

each

ordered

elementsof elements
pair of

i. j. 25.
Give two

of S.
A

binary

operation operation

S assigns exactly S may


assign

one

to

each

ordered

pair of
ordered

elementsof S.
binary

binary

more

than one of the


your

element of S to
text

some

a set different

different from

any

operations

and

*' on

described in the examples this set. Be sure that

and

not a set

of numbers. Define

set is well

defined.

Theory

26. Prove

that

if *

is an

associative

and commutative
(a * b)

binary operation on a set

S, then

* (c

* d) = [(d * c) * a] * b
triples

for

all a, b,

c, d

e S. Assume

the

associative

law only for

as in * z)

the definition,

that

is,

assume

only

(x * y)
for
In all

* z

= x

* (y

x, y,z

e S.

Exercises

27 and
binary

28,

either

prove

the statement
consisting

or give a counterexample.
single element
just
in

27. Every
28.
the
Every

operation

on a set

of a

both

commutative

and associative.

commutative set of

binary

operation on a set having


functions

two elements

is associative.

Let F be the
binary counterexample.

all real-valued

having
In

as domain

operations
addition

+,

and o \342\200\224, \342\200\242,

on F.

Exercises

29 through

the set ffi of all real numbers. Example 2.7 defined 35, either prove the given statement or give

29. Function

+ on

F is
on

associative.
is commutative

30. Function

subtraction

\342\200\224 F

28

Part I

Groups

and

Subgroups

31. Function

subtraction

\342\200\224 on F

is associative. is commutative. is associative.

32. 33.

Function Function

multiplication multiplication composition *' are

\342\200\242 on F \342\200\242 on F

34. Function 35. If * and

o on F

is commutative.
operations

any two binary

on a set

S, then
for

a *(b

*' c)
binary

= (a * b) *' (a * c)
operation

all

a, b, c

e S.
\\ a

36. Suppose that


Show

* is

an associative
under

on a set

S. Let
of

that
in

H is
S.)

closed

*. (We

think

of H as consisting

H = {a e S
all elements

* x

= x *a

for

all

x e

S}.

of S that

commute

with

every

element
37.
is closed

Supposethat*isanassociativeandcommutativebinaryoperationonaset5'.ShowthatH under *. (The elements of H are idempotents of the binary operation

= {a e
*.)

S\\a*a = a)

section

Isomorphic
Compare the

Binary Structures
3.1 for if, in

Table

the

binary the

operation set

* on

the set S =

{a,

b,

c] with

Table 3.2 for


$, and

binary
Notice

operation
that
by

every c

& using

{#, $, &}. Table 3.1, we replaceall occurrences the one-to-one correspondence

*' on

T =

of a by

#, every b by

a we obtain
precisely

-o-

fc

-o- $

c -o- &

differ only in the symbols (or names) 3.2. The two tables * and *' for the operations. If we rewrite Table 3.3 and the symbols denoting with elements in the order y, x, z, we obtain Table 3.4. (Here we did not set up any oneorder outside the heavy one-correpondence; wejust listed the same elements in different in Table 3.1, all occurrences a by y, every b by x, and bars of the table.) Replacing, of every c by z using the one-to-one correspondence Table the elements

a
we obtain

-o-

>'

-o-

-o-

z 3.4 for

Table 3.4. We
tables

think

These four
order

differ

of Tables 3.1, in the names only

3.2, 3.3, and

(or symbols)

as being structurally their elements and

alike.
in

the

that those elements arelistedasheadsin the tables. However, Table 3.5 for binary * and Table 3.6 for binary * on the set S = b, c] are structurally operation operation from each other and from Table 3.1. In Table 3.1, each element three different appears times in the body of the table, while the body of Table 3.5 contains the single element b. In Table 3.6, for all 5 eS we get the same value c for 5 * s along the upper-left to lowerin Table 3.1. Thus Tables 3.1 through while we get three different values right diagonal,

{a,

3.6

give

provided

just three structurally we disregard the

different names

binary

operations
and

of the

elements

the

order

on a set of three in which they

elements, appear

as

heads in the
Germany

tables.
we to children have just discussed is somewhat akin in France and the operation of addition on the set Z+. The children have different in

The situation
learning

Section

Isomorphic

Binary Structures

29

3.1Table
*

3.2

Table

3.3 Table
$

a c

b a

c b

*'

# & #
$

& $

*\"

a b c

# $

z
X

a b c b c a

&

&

& #

z X

z
3.6

z
Table

3.4 Table
*\"

3.5Table
X

z
X

c b

y X

z
y

y X

a b

b b b b b b b b b
drei
\342\226\240 the \342\200\242 for \342\200\242)

a b

c a

z
names

c
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 versus

c
numbers,

b c a a b c

(un,

deux,
binary

trois,

ein, zwei,

the same
numbers,

structure.

so their

(In this case, they addition tables would appear

are

but they are learning the same symbols for the also using in the the same if they list the numbers

same order.)
in studying the different We are interested operations types of structures that binary can provide on sets having the same number of elements, as typified 3.4, 3.5, by Tables and 3.6. Let us consider a binary algebraic structure^ {S,*) to be a set S together with a binary structures {S, *) and (S', *') to operation * on S. In order for two such binary be structurally alike in the sense we have described, have to have a one-to-one we would
b correspondenceetween

the

elements

x of y ^>

S and
then

the

elements
x *

x' of

S' such that

if
A

-\302\253\342\226\272 and x

y',

y ^> x

*' y'.

(1)

one-to-one is

correspondence customary
0

elements.It
to-one
regard order.
structure function

mapping

the equation 4>{x)= x' as reading the one-to-one In terms of \302\242, final ^> correspondence in the in S' is the same as in S, can be expressed as

exists if the sets S and S' have the same number of to describe a one-to-one correspondence giving a oneby S onto S' (see Definition For such a function \302\242, we 0.12). pairing
(1),

x ^> x
asserts

in

left-to-right

which

the algebraic

Such, an

a function isomorphism.

showing

that

4>(x*y) = 0(x)*'0(y). two algebraic systems are structurally


definition.

alike

is known

as

We give a

formal

3.7

Definition

Let (S, *) and {S', *') be binary algebraic structures. one-to-one function 0 mapping S onto S' such that
(f>{x

An

isomorphism

of S

with

S'

is a

* y)

= 4>{y) *'

(f>{y)

for

all x,

S.

homomorphism

property

Remember

that

boldface

type indicates that a

term is being

defined.

30

Part

Groups and

Subgroups
exists, \302\247

If

such

denote
You

by

a map S ~

then
the

S and
* and

S' are isomorphic binary


*' from
the

structures,

which

we

S', omitting wonder


why

notation.

\342\226\240

may
the

we

labeled

the displayed condition

in

Definition notion

3.7 the

homomorphism

property idea

rather

than the

isomorphismproperty.The
which

of isomorphism

includes
words
relation

of one-to-one

correspondence,
the

appeared

in the
will

definition via
discuss

the

one-to-one
between is \302\242)not

and onto

before
0:5-^5'

display.

In Chapter

13, we

the
property,

S and

S'

when

but

necessarily
that

one to one;
in Section

is \302\247

satisfies the displayed homomorphism then called a homomorphism

rather

than

an

isomorphism. It is apparent

1, we

showedthat

the

binary

structures

{U,

and \342\226\240)

(Ec, +c) are isomorphic for all eachn e Z+.

c e E+. Also,

and \342\226\240) (Z\342\200\236, are +\342\200\236} isomorphic {U\342\200\236,

for

the for a collection of binary structures, algebraic the Our discussion Definition collection. 3.7 is an equivalence relation on defined by Tables 3.1 definition shows that the binary structures leading to the preceding the same equivalence while Tables 3.5 and 3.6 are 3.4 are in those class, given by through whether in different equivalence classes.We proceed to discuss how to try to determine
us

relation ~

Exercise 7 asks 2
in

to show that

binary
How
We binary

structures

are

isomorphic.

to Show
now

That Binary Structures


showing

Are Isomorphic
from
Definition

give
structures

an outline
{S,

how

to proceed
isomorphic.

3.7

to show that

two

*} and {S', *') are


the

Step

1
that

Define
we

function

0 that
in

gives
some

the

isomorphism

of S
to

with

S'.

Now

this

means
in

have

to describe,

fashion,

what 0(s) is
That

be

for every

&

S.

Step 2 S' and

Show that 0 is a one-to-one function. deduce from this that x = y in S.


0 is
&

is, suppose

that

<j)(x)=
and

4>{y)

Step 3 Show that there does exist s

S such
4>{x

Step4
same.

Show

that

onto S'. That is, suppose that s' that 0(s) = s'. * y) = 4>{x)*' 4>{y)forall x,y
sides

e S' is given

show

that

e S.
see

This

is just

a question
the

of computation. Compute both

of the

equation

and

whether

they are

3.8 Example

Let us

show

that

the binary

structure (E,
where \342\200\242}

+} with
an

operation

the usual

addition is

to the isomorphic

structure
We

(R+,

\342\200\242 is the

usual multiplication.
operation

Step 1

have

to somehow from

convert

Recall

ab+c =
of two

that (ab)(a\342\202\254)

addition

of addition to multiplication. of exponents corresponds to


<f> :

(j){x)

multiplication = ex
4>{x)

for x

e E. Note

quantities. Thus we try defining that ex > 0 for all x e E,


the

\342\200\224>\342\200\242 E+ by

so indeed,
we see that

E+. natural

Step 2

If (j>(x) = 4>{y), then ex = ey. Taking x = y, so 0 is indeedone to one.

logarithm,

Section

Isomorphic Binary Structures

31
E+.

Step

If r

e E+,
y

then

ln(r)

e E

and 0(lnr)

eln

r =

r. Thus

0 is onto
0(y).

Step

For x, see that

e E,

is \302\247indeed

we have 0(x + y) = ex+y = ex an isomorphism.

\342\226\240 ey =

0(x)

\342\226\240 Thus

we
\342\226\262

3.9

Example

Let 2Z = {2n \\ n e Z}, so that 2Z is the set of all even integers,positive, and negative, zero. We claim that (Z, +} is isomorphic to (2Z, +}, where + is the usual addition. This of a binary structure (Z, +} that is actually isomorphic will give an example to a structure of a proper subset under the induced consisting operation, in contrast to Example 3.8, the operations were totally different. where

Step 1
Step

The

obvious
(j>{m)

function
<p{ri),
n

: Z 2Z to \302\242) \342\200\224>\342\200\242

try is given
n. Thus
=

by

<j>{n)

= 2n

for

\342\202\254 Z.

If
If

then

2m = 2n

so m
2Z.

is \302\247 one

to one.

Step 3
Step

n e

2Z, then
=

is even

so n = 2m for m

n/2

e Z.

Hence

(j>{m)

2(n/2)

= n so

0 is onto

Let m,n

e Z. The
4>{m +

equation =

n) = 2(m +

n)

2m +

2n =

(f>{m)

0(n)

then shows

that

0 is

an isomorphism.
Not

A
Isomorphic

How to
We now
turn

Show That Binary StructuresAre


to the

reverse

question, namely:
that
case?

How do we
isomorphic,

demonstrate

two binary structures

(S, *) and {S',*'}are not

if this

is the

would mean that there is no one-to-one function the property S onto S' with <f> from = 4>{x)*' <j>(y) for all x, y \342\202\254 general, it is clearly not feasible to try every S. In 4>{x one-to-onefunction it has this property, S onto S' and test whether possible mapping when S This is the case precisely except in the case where there are no such functions. and S' do not have the same Definition 0.13.) (See cardinality.
This
* >')

3.10 Example

The

binary

structures

(Q, +}
the

and(E, +} are
following

not

while

to say
induced
A

|E| ^ K0. (See that Q is a proper operation


structural

discussion

subset of

E. Example

can indeed be isomorphic

Q has cardinality K0 Note that it is not enough Example 0.13.) 3.9 shows that a proper subset with the to the entire binary structure. \342\226\262
isomorphic

because

isomorphic
characteristics

of a binary structure is one that must be shared by any property structure. It is not concerned with names or some other nonstructural of the elements. For example, the binary structures defined by Tables 3.1 and

are totally different. Also, a structural although the elements with what we considerto be the \"name\" of the binary operation. Example 3.8 showed that a binary structure whose operation is our usual addition can be is our usual multiplication. The number of elements isomorphic to one whose operation in the set S is a structural of (S, *}. property
3.2
property

are isomorphic, is not concerned

32

Part I

Groups

and

Subgroups

In the event that there are one-to-one mappings of S onto (S, *) is not isomorphic to (S', *'} (if this is the case) some structural that the other does not possess. property

S',
by

showing

we usually show that one

that

has

3.11

Example

both have cardinality X0, and there are lots of one-to-one functions and where is the Z+. However, the binary structures (Z, \342\200\242)(Z+, \342\200\242), \342\200\242 mapping there In (Z, \342\200\242) are two elements x such that usual multiplication, are not isomorphic. 1. However, in (Z+, \342\200\242), is only the single element1. \342\226\262 there x = x, x \342\200\242 namely, 0 and

The sets Z

and

Z+

Z onto

We

list a few
structure

of a binary

examples of possiblestructural (S, *) to get you thinking


Properties

properties

and nonstructural

properties

along

the right
Nonstructural

line.
Properties
element.

PossibleStructural
1. The

Possible

set has 4 elements.


operation

a. The b. The
c. The d. S

number 4 is an

2. The
solution

is commutative.

3. x * x

= x for
x in

4. The equation

S. a * x = b has a S for all a, b e S.


all

x e

operation is called\"addition.' elements of S are matrices. is a subset of C.

We

introduced structural

3.3, by *\" on the set {x,y, z], we have x *\" u = u *\" x = u where for the binary operation for all choices possiblechoices, y, and z for u. Thus x plays the same role as 0 in = u + 0 = u for all u e E, and the same role as 1 in (E, \342\200\242) where (E, +) where 0 + u 1 \342\200\242 \342\226\240 for all u e E. Because 1 = u u = u Tables 3.1 and 3.2 give structures isomorphic to the one in Table 3.3, they must exhibit an element with a similar property. We see that = u*'$ = u in Table 3.1 and that $*'u b * u = u * b = u for all elements u appearing
illustrated

One other

the algebraic notions of commutativity notion that will be of interest

and

associativity

in Section
Table

2.

to us is

x,

for

all elements

u in Table

3.2. We

give

a formal

definition of this

structural

notion

and

prove a little
3.12

theorem.

Definition

Let {S, *} be

e*s = s*e = s for


(Uniqueness

binary all

structure. s
\342\202\254 S.

An element

e of

S is

an

identity

element

for * if

\342\226\240

3.13

Theorem

element.

That

of Identity Element) is, if there is an identity


in the

binary

structure

{S, *) has

at

most

one identity

element,

it is

unique.

Proof

Proceeding
elements

standard

way

to show

of S

serving as identity
element,
have

elements.

We let

e as an identity element, we must


must

we must have e * e = However, e * e = e. We thus obtain e = e, showing

uniqueness, suppose that them compete with

both each

e and other.

e are
Regarding

e.

regarding that

e as an identity an identity

element

be

unique.

\342\231\246

Section

Isomorphic

Binary Structures

33

have a good grasp of the notion of isomorphic it binary structures, that an identity element for * is indeeda structural of having property a structure {S, *}.However, we know from experience that will be unable readers many to see the forest because of all the that have appeared. For them, we now supply a trees
If

you

now

should

be evident

careful proof,
3.14Theorem

skipping

along

to touch

those trees

that

are

involved.

with

Suppose {S, *} has an identity {S', *'}, then 0(e) is an

elements
identity

element

S' is an isomorphism for*. If 0 : S \342\200\224>\342\200\242 *' on S'. for the binary operation

of {S,*}

Proof

Lets' e S'.We
it is a

= s'. Because must show that 0(e) *' s' = s' *'0(e) 0 is an isomorphism, one-to-one map of S onto S'. In particular, there exists s & S such that 0(s) = e is an identity element for * so that we know that e * s = s *e = s. Because Now 0 a function, we then obtain

s'.
is

(p{e *

s) =

0(s * e) =
we can

<p(s).

Using

Definition

3.7 of

an

isomorphism,

rewrite

this

as

0(e)

*' 4>{s)=

0(5) *' 0(e)= 0(5).


that 0(5)

Remembering

that

we chose
=

0(e)

*' s' = s' *'0(e)


conclude

\342\202\254 S such

= s', we obtain

the

desired

relation
\342\231\246

s'.

We
certain

binary

structures

Theorem

3.14,

that

areindeedstructural.
3.15 Example
We

with three more examplesshowing via structural properties that are not isomorphic. In the exercises we ask you to show, as in the structures in these examples the properties we use to distinguish That structure. is, they must be sharedby any isomorphic

show

that

the binary
and

structures (Q, +}
Z have

and

(Z,

+} under

the

usual

addition

isomorphic. (Both Q cardinality x + x = c has a solution x for all mapping Q onto Z.) The equation not the case in Z. For example,the x + x = 3 has no solution equation exhibited a structural that distinguishes these two structures. property
3.16

Ko, so there are lots

of one-to-one c

are not functions e Q, but this is in Z. We have


\342\226\262

Example

The binary structures (C, \342\200\242} \342\200\242} the usual multiplication and (E, under that C and ffi have the same cardinality.) The equation (It can be shown in ffi. solution x for all c e C, but x \342\200\242 x =-1 has no solution The binary
structure

are not

isomorphic. x \342\226\240 has x = c

a
\342\226\262

3.17

Example

(M2(E),

is not

isomorphic

to (E,

with the \342\200\242}

sets have of matrices

cardinality |E|.) is not.

x 2 real matrices with the usual matrix multiplication usual number multiplication. (It can be shown that both of numbers is commutative, but multiplication Multiplication
of 2 \342\200\242}
\342\226\262

34

Part

Groups and

Subgroups

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

3 + is
the

In

all

the

exercises,

usual

addition

on the set where

it

is specified,

and

\342\200\242 is the

usual multiplication.

Computations

1. What
structure
In

three

things must we check to determine (S, *) with (S\", *')?

whether

a function

S 5\" is an \302\242:\342\200\224>\342\200\242

isomorphism

of a

binary

Exercises

the second.
2.
Z,

1.) (See Exercise If


with
with with

2 through

10, determine
it is
<j>(ri) <j>(n)

whether the given map 0 is an not an isomorphism, why not?

isomorphism

of the first

binary

structure

with

+)

(Z, +) where
(Z, (Z, (Q,

= =

\342\200\224n for n

e Z

3.

Z, +)

+) where +) where +) where

2n for n
n

e Z
n e Z

4. Z, +)

0(n) =
<j>(x)

1 for

5. Q, +) with

x/2
for

for x

e Q

6. Q, \342\200\242)(Q, with

where \342\200\242) 0(x) where \342\200\242)

= x2 = *3
0(A) 0(A)

* \342\202\254 Q

7.

E,

with \342\200\242)(E,

0(x)

for* e
is the is the

E
of matrix of matrix

8.

M2(E),

with \342\200\242)(E, with \342\200\242)(E, (E+,

where \342\200\242) where \342\200\242)

determinant determinant

A A

9.
In

Mi(E),

10. E, +)
Exercises

with

where \342\200\242) 0(r)

= 0.5'\" for r

eE /
/
mapping

Follow

11 through 15, let F be the set of all functions the instructions for Exercises 2 through 10.
{F, (E, (F,

E into

that

have

derivatives

of

all

orders.

11. (F, +) with


12. (F,
13. (F,

+} where +) where +) where

\302\242(/)

/', the
/'(0)

derivative

of

+)
+)
+)

with with

\302\242(/)

0(/)(*)

= ft

/(t)dt

14. (F,
15. 16.

with

(F,

+) where 0(/)(*)
where \342\200\242)

/(f)A] \302\243[\302\243
\342\200\242

(F,

with \342\200\242)(F,

0(/)(x) by that

= x

/(x)

The map

0 : Z -* Z
onto

defined such

0(n) =
is \302\242an

1 for

n e Z is

one to
*) onto

one

and onto

Z. Give the

definition

of a

binary operation

* on Z

isomorphism

mapping

a.
In

(Z,

+)

(Z, *),
identity defined

b.
element by

(Z,

(Z, +).

each map

case,

give the

for *

on Z.
for

17. The
a.

0 : Z

-^ Z
*),
the

0(n)

= n + 1

n e

binary operation
(Z,

* on Z

such

that

is \302\242an

isomorphism

onto \342\200\242)(Z,

Z is one to mapping b. (Z, *) onto

one

and onto

Z. Give the

definition

of a

(Z,

\342\200\242).

In each

case, give
: Q-+ \302\242

identity

element
by

for *

on Z.
one

18. The
a.

map

Q defined

<j>(x) = 3x

binary
(Q,

operation * on Q such +) onto (Q, *),

that

\342\200\224 x e 1 for Q is one to is an isomorphism mapping 0

and onto

Q. Give the

definition

of a

b. (Q, *)
element for

onto

(Q, +).

In each

case, give

the

identity

* on Q.

3 Section Exercises

35
of a

19.

The binary

map

<p

: Q -\302\273 defined Q

by
that

<j>{x)

3x

\342\200\224

1 for

x e

Q is one

to one

and onto

Q. Give the

definition

operation onto \342\200\242)(Q,

* on

such

0 is an

isomorphism

mapping

a.

(Q,

*),
the

b. (Q, *)
identity

onto

(Q,

\342\200\242).

In each

case, give

element

for *

on Q.

Concepts

20. The
by

displayed

homomorphism

condition
the

for

an

isomorphism

in \302\242)Definition
how

3.7 is
condition

sometimes summarized
can be viewed
in

saying, manner.

\"0 must

commutewith
correct

binary

operation(s).\" Explain

that

this

In Exercises

21 and
it is

22,

the definition

of

the

italicized

term

without reference

to

the

text, if

correction is

needed, so that
21.
22.

in a form

acceptablefor
isomorphism
on a set

publication.

A function
Let *
element

5\" is 0 : S \342\200\224>- an binary

if and
An

only

if 0(a

* b)
with

= 0(a) *' 0(&)the

be a

operation
all

S.

element

e of

property

5*e

= 5=

e*5isan

identity

for * for

s e

S.

Proof Synopsis
to give a one or two sentence of a proof is your ability synopsis of it, explaining your understanding Note that we said \"sentence\" and not \"equation.\" the proof without all the details and computations. for a synopsis of a proof in the From now on, some of our exercise setsmay contain one or two problems asking Here is our for you what we mean by a synopsis. exceed three sentences. We should illustrate text. It should rarely and then our synopsis. of the theorem now, of Theorem 3.14. Readthe statement one-sentence synopsis
A

good

test of

the

idea of

Representing

an element carry

of S'

as 0(5) for
of 0(e)

some

s e

S, use the

homomorphism
in

property

of 0
That
did

to

the computation

*' 0(5) back

to a

computation

S.

We

that one mathematician does the proof go?\" of explanation give another if asked, \"How might the computation or explain of S' as 0(5). To supply why we could represent an element every in our synopsis. written proof. We just gave the guts of the argument detail would result in a completely
kind

is the
not

make

23. Give a proof synopsis


Theory

of Theorem

3.13.

24.

An

identity

two-sided a. a left

element for a binary operation identity element.\" Using complete


element that

* as described
sentences,

by

Definition

3.12 is
definitions

sometimesreferred to
for

as

\"a

give analogous

identity

ei for *,

and
identity

b. a right
element

identity

element

en for

*.

3.13 Theorem shows


identity

if a two-sided

for *

element

you just
where

the first
25.

place

the

defined? If so,prove it. If not, give proof of Theorem 3.13breaks down.


eRl

exists, it is unique. a counterexample


identity

Is the sametrue for a one-sided (S, *) for a finite set S and find
element

Continuing element en

the ideas

24 of Exercise can
If so,

where eL /

structure have a left a binary an operation an example, using give

ei and a
S. If not,

right

on a

finite

set

prove

that

identity it is

impossible.

36

Part I

Groupsand
\342\200\224>B is a <p

Subgroups

26.

Recall f(a)

that

if

/ :A
(S,*).

one-to-one

function

mapping

A onto

S, then
with

' (fc)

is the

fc.

Prove

that if

: S \342\200\224>- an 5\" is

isomorphism

of (5, *)

(5\", *'),

then

unique a e A such that is of \302\242^ an isomorphism

(5\",*') with
27.

Prove
with

that

5\" if 0 : S -\302\273 is an

isomorphism
function
isomorphic,

of (S, *)
i\\r o 0

(5\"',

*\,") then
the

the

composite

: 5\" -\302\273 is an isomorphism with (5\", *')andy/5\"' is an isomorphism of (5, *) with (5\"', *\.
you

of (S\",

*')

28. Prove that


of binary
appropriate
In

relation

~ of being
You

described

structures.
places 29 through

may

simply

quote the results

in Definition 3.7, is an equivalence relation on any set were asked to prove in the preceding two exercises at
indicated
structure property of a binary is an identity element

in your

proof.
proof

Exercises

32, give a careful


commutative. associative.
equation

for a skeptic
did

that

the

(S, *)
for

is indeed a 29. The

structural

property. * is * is

(In Theorem

3.14, we

this

for the

property,

\"There

*.\

operation

30. The operation 31. For each c

e S,the

x *

x =

c has
b*b

a solution

x in S.

32. Thereexists

an element

b in

such

that

= b.
of

~
of
the

33. Let

be the

subset of M2(E) consisting


that (C, (C,

all matrices matrix

form
matrix

for a,
multiplication.

b e

ffi.

Exercise

23 of

Section 2 shows
a. Show b. Show
(We
that that

H is

closed

under to

both (H,

addition and

+) is

isomorphic

+}.
\342\200\242).

is isomorphic \342\200\242)

to (H,

34.

C.) complex numbers There are 16 possible structures on the set {a, b} of two elements. How many nonisomorphic (that is, binary in different) structures are there among these 16? Phrased more precisely terms of the isomorphism structurally ~ on this set of 16 structures, how many equivalence classes are there? Write down one equivalence relation structure from each equivalenceclass.[Hint: a and b everywhere in a table and then rewriting Interchanging the table with listed in the original elements the one we order does not always yield a table different from representation
started

say that

H is a matrix

of the

with.]

section

Groups

Letus continue
the

the

analysis problems

computational
apply

of our past experience with of addition and multiplication

algebra.

Once

we had

mastered

of numbers,

we were ready

of problems. Often problems lead to operations to the solution is to be determined. The simplest some unknown number x, which and equations are the linear ones of the forms a + x b for the operation of addition, ax =b for multiplication. The additive linear equation always has a numerical solution, and so has the multiplicative one, provideda/0. the need for solutions of Indeed,

to

these

binary

equations

involving

for the negative good motivation very is shown by equations such as 2x = 3. the need for rational numbers for us to be able to solve linear equations involving It is desirable our binary is not possible for every binary operations. This however. For example, the equation operation, a * x = a has no solution in S = {a,b, c] for the operation * of Example 2.14. Let us abstract from familiar algebra those properties of addition that enable us to solve the 5 + * = 2 in Z. We must not refer to subtraction, for we are concerned with the equation solution in this case addition. The steps in phrased in terms of a single binary operation,
additive

linear

equations

such as 5

+ x = 2 is a

numbers.

Similarly,

Section 4

Groups

37

the

solution

are as

follows:
-5+

(-5 +

5+ * (5+ *)
5)

= 2, =-5+

given,

x =

2, adding-5, -5 + 2, associative law,


\342\200\2245 + 2,

0 +

* = * = x =

computing
property

\342\200\224 5

+ 5,

-5 + 2,
\342\200\2243,

of 0,
\342\200\224 5

computing
\342\200\2243 is a

+ 2.

Strictly speaking, wehave


possibility A similar

not

shownhere
show

that
the

for a solution.

To

that

\342\200\2243 is a

analysis could be made for the operation of multiplication:


2x

that it is the only solution, but rather 5 solution, one merely computes + (\342\200\2243). 2x = 3 in the rational numbers with equation

= 3,

given,
multiplying

= \\(i), \\{2x)
{\\ \342\226\240 =

by

i,

2)x

^3,

associative law, computing ^2,


property

1 \342\200\242 x = ^3,

43, 2
3

of

1, 13.

computing

have to We can now see what properties a set S and a binary operation * on S would of this procedure for an equation a * x = b for a, b \342\202\254 S. Basic have to permit imitation of an element e in S with the property that e * x = x to the procedure is the existence the role of e, and 1 played the role for S. For for all x \342\202\254 our additive example, 0 played a' in S that has the property that our Then we need an element example. multiplicative the role of a', and \\ played a! * a = For our additive example with a = 5, \342\200\2245 played the role for our multiplicative with a = 2. Finally we need the associative law. example The remainder is just computation. A similar analysis shows that in order to solve the x * a = b (remember that a * x need not equal x * a), we would like to have an equation element e in S such that x * e = x for all x e S and an a' in S such that a * a! = e. With be sure of being able to solve linear equations. all of these properties of * on S, we could Thus we need an associative element e such that an identity binary structure (S, *) with This is precisely the for each a e S, there exists a! S such that a * a' = a' *a

e.

= e.

notion of a group,

which

we now

define.

Definition
Rather

and Examples
describe a group

than

using terms defined in


we

Sections

of the
who

preceding paragraph,
this

give

a self-contained
without

2 and 3 as wedid at definition. This enablesa


having

the

end

person

picks up

text

to discover

what a group is
a binary

to look

up more terms.
the

4.1 Definition

group

axioms
Sfx:

(G, *) is a set are satisfied:


For

under G, closed

operation

*, such

that

following

all a,b,c

e G,
(a

we have
c=

* b) *

a * (b * c).

associativity

of

38

Part I

Groups and Subgroups

3^:

There

is an

element

in

G such

that for all x


identity

e G,
e for

e * x = x *e = x.
Corresponding 3\302\276-.

element

*
that

to each

a e

G, there

is an

element
inverse

a'
a'

in

G such

a *a
4.2

= a *a = e.
1, which

of a

\342\226\240

Example

We easily
associative

see that

(U,

and are groups. (\302\243/\342\200\236, \342\200\242} \342\200\242}


and

Multiplication

of complex numbers
for multiplication.

is

and both U
computation

contain U\342\200\236

is

an

identity

For

e'e e

U, the

ew

\342\226\240 ei{2^e)

= e2\"1 = 1 For z

shows

that

every

element

of U has

an

inverse.
\342\226\240 =zn

the computation \302\243/\342\200\236,

z\"'1

= l

shows
Because
Similarly,

that

every

element

of

Un

has

an inverse.

Thus (U,
that (Ec,

and are groups. \342\226\240) (\302\243/\342\200\236, \342\200\242} for

(Rc, +c) is isomorphic


the

to (\302\243/, we see \342\200\242},

+c) is a group
that

all c

e M+.
group

fact that

+\342\200\236} (Z\342\200\236, is isomorphic

to

shows ([/\342\200\236, \342\200\242}

(Z\342\200\236, is a +\342\200\236}

forallneZ+.

A
out
structure

We point
the binary
understanding

now there
we

that we is of
specify

will

sometimes

be sloppy

in notation.

Rather

than

use

notation

(G, *}

constantly, we often
operation

refer to

a group
In

that
that

course a binary
an operation

on the

set G.
phrase

G, with the the event that


\"the group

clarity demands

* on G, we use the

Historical
are

Note
three

historical

There of development
mathematical

abstract

group

roots of the theory evident


the

Carl F Gauss, in
in

his

Disquisitiones
with

the

literature
All

of

nineteenth number

century: theory,
the

cae (1800), dealt extensively ax2 + 2bxy + cy2, and


equivalence
composition possessed properties.

quadratic
under group

Arithmetiforms
that

the theory of and geometry.


theoretic methods were

algebraicequations,
three

classes

of these

areas used groupfirst area

in particular of these forms to what amounted

showed

methods

of reasoning,

considerably
central

although more explicit in the


themes
the

Finally,
provided

the theory most

of algebraic equations

than in the other two.

One of the
nineteenth

century
attention
themselves,

was

search

of geometry in the for invariants

concept. initiated

explicit prefiguring of the group in fact Lagrange Joseph-Louis (1736-1813) of an the study of permutations of the roots
the it. These considered

under various types of


Gradually
transformations [

geometrictransformations.
which

became

focused on the in many cases can be

thought

of as

In number
century

Leonhard

elements of groups. theory, already in the eighteenth Euler had considered the remainders
by a fixed

equation as a tool for solving of course, were ultimately of a group. It was Walter von

permutations, as elements

Dyck

Heinrich roots
and

Weber

(1842-1913) to

who

able independently
give

combine

on division
remainders

of powers a\"
have

prime p. These Similarly,

clear

definitions

and (1856-1934) in 1882 were the three historical of the notion of an

\"group\"

properties.

abstract group.

Section 4

Groups
under

39
rather
refer

under

*.\" For
the

example,
more Zg

than write to the group


4.3 Definition

tedious

without

we may refer to the groups (Z, +), (Q, +), and (ffi, specifying the operation.
binary

Z, ( +).

i>,

and

ffi

addition

However, we feel

free to

group

G is

abelian

if its

operation

is commutative.

\342\226\240 Historical

Note then has

in honor groups are calledabelian of the Norwegian Niels Henrik Commutative mathematician Abel (1802-1829). Abel was interested in the
question of paper

been applied to
attracted

commutative

groups

in

general. Abel was


and

to mathematics

as a teenager
Norway.

of solvability in 1828, written


an

polynomial equations. In a he proved that if all the roots

soon

surpassed

all his

teachers in

He

can be expressed as rational g,... ,h of one of them, say x, and and g{x), the if for any two of these roots, f{x) then the relation f{g{x)) = g{f{x))always holds, Abel showed that equation is solvable by radicals. each of thesefunctions in fact permutes the roots of the these functions are elements hence, equation;

of such
functions

equation

f,

to study grant finally received a government travel elsewhere in 1825 and proceeded to Berlin, where he befriended Crelle, the founder of the most August influential German mathematical journal. Abel numerous contributed papers to Crelle's Journal during in the field the next several years, including many

of elliptic functions,
virtually

whose

theory

he created

single-handedly.

Abel
and

returned
an to write

to

Norway

in

of

the

group

of permutations

of

the

roots.

It was

1827

with no
died

position

abundance

of debts.

this
led
algebra

property

permutation groups

of commutativity in these associated with solvable equations

He nevertheless continued
that but

brilliant

papers,
days

of tuberculosis

at the
in

age of 26, two


a university

Camille
to name

Jordan in his 1870 treatise on such groups abelian; the name

before since
position

Crelle succeeded for him in Berlin.

finding

Let us give someexamples


also of

of some

sets with binary operations

that

give

groups

and

somethat
Z+ under

do

not give

groups.
a group.

4.4 Example
4.5

The

set

addition is not
integers

There is no 0) under

identity

element

for + in

Z+.

\342\226\262

Example

The set

of all nonnegative
element

(including

addition

is still

not a group.

There
\342\226\262

is an
4.6

identity

0, but no

inverse for 2.
of integers and of rational, real, are abelian groups. addition is not a and

Example

The familiar

additive

properties

complex

numbers
\342\226\262

show
4.7

that

Z,

Q, E,

and C under
multiplication

Example

The set

Z+

under

of 3.
4.8

group. There is

an

identity

1, but

no inverse
A

Example

The familiar
under

multiplicative

properties

of rational,
the

real,
sets Q*,

and ffi*,

complex and

numbers

show that
\342\226\262

the sets Q+ and


multiplication

E+

of positive numbers and are abelian groups.

C* of

nonzero numbers

40

Part

Groups and

Subgroups
real-valued
E under

4.9Example
4.10

The

set of all
group

functions

with

domain

function

addition

is a group.

This
Example

is abelian.
should

\342\226\26

(Linear Algebra) Those who have studied vector spaces can for a vector space V pertaining just to vector addition that V under vector addition is an abelian group. The set Mmx\342\200\236(E) all m x of matrix with all entries 0 is the The set M\342\200\236(E) all n x n of n x n matrix with all entries Show that the
multiplication
n

note

that

the axioms by asserting

be summarized

\342\226\26

4.11

Example

matrices identity

under matrix. under

matrix addition is a group. This group is abelian.

The m

x n

\342\226\26

4.12

Example

matrices

matrix

multiplication is
n x

not

a group.

The

0 has no inverse.
consisting

\342\226\26

4.13

Example

subset S of
is a group.

Mn (E)

of all

invertible

n matrices

under

matrix

Solution

We

start

so that

both

by showing that A^1 and B'1

S is closed under

matrix

multiplication.

Let A

and

B be

in S,

exist and

AA'1

BB'1

= In. Then
=

(AB)(B'1A~1)=
so that

A{BB~l)A~l

AlnA'x

=.

I\342\200\236,

Since
since

This

invertible and consequently is also in S. and acts matrix multiplication is associative element, and /\342\200\236 as the identity each element of S has an inverse by definition of S, we seethat S is indeed a group. is not commutative. It is our first example of a nonabelian group. a group

AB is

The group
fundamental
and

of

invertible

n x

matrices

described
is the you

in the

importance

in linear

is usually

denoted by

algebra. It GL(n, E). Thoseof

general linear group of degreen, who have studied linear algebra know

preceding exampleis of T : E\"

that E\",

a matrix defined
E\"

in

GL(n,

of

into

by 7\\x) = itself is defined


corresponds
of

linear E) gives rise to an invertible and that conversely, Ax, every invertible

transformation
linear

\342\200\224

transformation

multiplication

linear
group

transformations

in this in GL(n, fashion by some matrix to composition of linear transformations. E\" into itself form a group under function

Thus

E). Also, matrix all invertible

is usually

denoted

by GL(W).
a * b

Of course,GL(n,E) ~ Then
\342\200\224 *c=

composition;

this

GL(W).

4.14

Example

Let *

be defined on Q+ by

= ab/2.

(a *b)'
and

*c =

ab

abc

likewise

a * (b
Thus * is associative.
Computation

* c)

= a

= * \342\200\224

be
2

abc
4

shows

that

2* a
for

= a *2 = a
for *. =
Finally,

all

a e

Q+, so 2 is an

identity

element a*-

so a! = A/a

is an

inverse

-*a=2, a a for a. HenceQ+ with the

operation

* is a group.

Section 4

Groups

41

Elementary Properties of Groups


As

we proceed only

is the

thing

to prove our we know


Definition and

first
about

theorem
groups

about groups, we must at the moment. The


on.

use

Definition
a second
third

proof of
of a

4.1, which theorem


can

can employ both


use the
definition

4.1

the first a =

and the first theorem; two theorems, and so

the proof

theorem

laws. In real arithmetic, we know that establish cancellation 2a = 2b b. We need only divide both sides of the equation inverse of 2. 2, or equivalently, by multiply both sides by |, which is the multiplicative We parrot this proof to establish cancellation laws for any group. Note that we will also use the associative law. Our first

theorem will
that

2a =

2b implies

4.15 Theorem

If hold

is a group
in

with binary

a, b, c

e G.

G, that is,

a * b = a * c implies * c. Then

operation *,

then

the

left

and

b =

c, and b * a

= c * a implies

right cancellation
b =

laws

c for all

Proof

Suppose

a * b

= a

by

3\302\276.

there

exists

a', and
(a

a * (a * b) =
By the

a' *

* c).

associative law,
(a'

* a) * a

*b =

(a' * a) * c.

By

the

definition

of a'

in

3\302\276,

a'

= e,

so

e * b = e * c.
By

the

definition

of e

in

.\302\276

b =

c. that b

Similarly, from b * a = c *a one can deduce a! and use of the axioms for a group. by
Our

= c upon
We show
group

multiplication

on the

right
\342\231\246

next

proof can
unique

make use of
Recall

Theorem

4.15.

that

a \"linear

a group has a
find

solution.

that we

chose our

properties

equation\" in to allow us to

solutions

of such

equations.
elements

4.16 Theorem

If

G is a

linear

group with binary operation *, and if a and b are any a * x = b and y * a = b have unique solutions equations
of at
that

of G,
y in

then

the

x and

G.

Proof

First we show the existence solution of a * x = b. Note


a *

least one

solution

by

just

computing

that a!

* b is a

(a' * b)

= (a * a') * b,
= e* = b,

associative
definition property

law,
of a', of e.

b,

Thus x = a' * b is a of y * a = b.

solution

of a

* x = b- In

a similar

fashion,

b *

a' is a solution

42

Part I

Groups

and

Subgroups

To show uniqueness of y, we use the standard method of assuming two solutions, y\\ and yi, so that y\\ * a = b and yi * a = b. Then y\\ The of x follows similarly. by Theorem 4.15, y\\ = )\302\276. uniqueness
Of

that * a

we have

* a, )\302\276

and

\342\231\246

course,

to prove

the definition procedure we used in motivating then x = a! * b. However, we choseto illustrate


unique;

namely,
that

same. Note
commutative.

followed the if a * x = b, to prove an object is the standard way and then prove they must be the you have two such objects, suppose x \342\200\224 b and y = b * a! need not be the same unless * is the solutions a' *
the

uniqueness

in the

last theorem, we could of a group, showing

have

that

Because

that the

identity

a group is a special type e in a group is unique.

of binary We

state

structure, we know this again as part

from of

Theorem

3.13

the next

theorem

for easy reference.

4.17Theorem

In

a group

G with binary

operation *, there is only


e *

one

element

e in G such

that

x = x
there

*e=

x
one element

for

all

x e

G. Likewise for

each aeC,
a *a

is only

a'

in

G such

that

= a *a = e.
of each

In

summary,

the identity

element

and

inverse

element are unique


binary

in

a group.

Proof

Theorem 3.13 shows that

an identity
to

element
show

for

any

structure

is unique. No

use
a\"

of the
so that

group

axioms

was required
uniqueness

this. aeG

Turning

to

the

of an
a\" *

a'*a

= a*a'

= e and

inverse, suppose that


a =

has inverses

a'

and

a * a\"
=

e. Then
\342\200\224 e

a * a\"
and,

a *

a'

by Theorem

4.15,
a

= a

so the

inverse Note

of a in a

group is unique.

\342\231\246

that in a
(a

group G, {b' * a')

we have

* b) *

= a * (b
4.17
this
state

* b')
show

*a

= (a * e) * a'
the

= a *a = e.
unique

This That

equation

and

Theorem

is,

(a *

b)' =

b' * a'. We

that b' * a' is as a corollary.

inverse

of a

* b.

4.18 Corollary

Let

G be a

group. For all

a,b e

G, we

have

(a *

b)' =

* a'.

we remark that binary algebraic structures For your information, with weaker axioms than those for a group have also been studied quite Of these weaker structures, extensively. the semigroup, a set with an associative binary has perhaps had the most operation, A monoid is a semigroup that has an identity element for the binary attention. operation. is both a semigroup Note that every group and a monoid.

4 Section

Groups

43

Finally,
be

it is

possible to

give

axioms

for a group

(G, *} that

seem

at first

glance

to

weaker,

namely:

1.

The binary
There

operation

2.
From

exists

a left

associative. identity element e in G such


* on

G is

that e
G such

* x = x for
that a'

all

x e

G.

3. For eacha
this

e G, there

exists

a left

inverse a! in

*a

= e.

definition, one can provethat the left identity element is also a right and a left inverse is also a right inverse for the same element.Thus element, identity these axioms should not be calledweaker, since they result in exactly the same structures called groups. It is conceivable that it might be easierin some cases to check these being than to check our two-sided axioms.Of course, axioms by symmetry it is clear that left there are also right axioms for a group.
one-sided

Finite Groups and


All

Group Tables
is,

our

examples
an
finite

the set G has


smallest
Since
might

infinite

after Example 4.2 have been of infinite groups, that number of elements. We turn to finite groups,

groups

where
with

starting

the

sets.

a group

has to have at
group

least

one element,
three

give rise to a
by inverse

is a

one-element

group. Let us try to put a group structure on a set of two elements. Since one of the elements must play the role of identity we may as well let the set be {e, a}. Let us attempt element, to find a table for a binary * on {e, a} that gives a group structure on {e, a}. operation we shall always list the identity When a table for a group first, as in giving operation,
the

on {e} is defined always its own

e *

e=

e. The

namely, the identity, set {e}.The only possible group axioms hold. The

a minimal binary
identity

set that *
is

operation
element

in every

following

table.

e a

Sincee is

to be

the identity,

so

e *x = x *e = x
for

all

x e

{e, a],

we are

forced

to fill in

the table as follows,if

* is

to give a group:

e e a

a a
have an inverse

e a
Also,

a must

a' such that


a *

a =

a *a

= e.

Groups

and

Subgroups

have

In our case, a! must a! = a, so we have


*

be

either

e or

to complete

the table

a. Sincea! = e obviously as follows:

does

not work,

we

must

a a e
axioms are
now

a
All

a
group

except possibly the associative property. an operation can be a basis from a table defining Checkingssociativity a = {0, 1} under 2 is that addition modulo tedious However, we know Z2 very process. be the one above with e replaced a group, and by our arguments, its table must by 0 and a by 1. Thus the must be satisfied for our table containing e associative property
the satisfied,

on a case-by-case

and a.

With
that

this

example

as background,
operation

we
be

should

be able

to list
satisfy

some necessary conditions


for the which

a table

giving a binary
on the

on a finite

set

must

= x means that the row acts as the identity element. the elements appearing e at the extreme left must contain exactly opposite x * e = x across the very top of the table in the same order. Similarly, the condition the e at the very top must contain means that the column of the table under exactly elements appearing at the extreme left in the same order.The fact that every element a has a right and a left inverse means that in the row having a at the extreme left, the element e must appear, and in the column under a at the very top, the e must appear.
of
the

a group structure denote by e, that


table

set. There must

one element

of the set, The condition e * x

operation to give we may as well

Thus e must appear in each row and in each column. We can do even better than this, however. By Theorem4.16,not only the equations a * x = e and y * a = e have unique but also the equations a * x = b and y * a = b. By a similar this solutions, argument, means that each element b of the group must appear once and only once in each row and

each

column

of the

table.

Suppose conversely that a table for a binary operation on a finite set is such that there is an element each element acting as identity and that in each row and each column, of the set appears exactly once. Then it can be seen that the structure is a group structure if and only if the associative law holds. If a binary operation * is given by a table, the associative law is usually messy to check. If the operation * is defined by some law is often easy to check.Fortunately, characterizing property of a * b, the associative ' this second case turns out to be the one usually encountered. We saw that there was essentially only one group of two elements in the sense that if the elements are denoted by e and a with the identity e appearing first, the element table must be shown in Table 4.19. Suppose that a set has three elements. As before, we may as well let the set be {e, a, b). For e to be an identity element, a binary operation * on this set has to have a table of the form in Table 4.20. This leaves four shown to be filled in. You can quickly see that Table 4.20 must be completed as shown places in Table 4.21 if each row and each column each are to contain element exactly once. Because there was only one way to complete the table and Z3 = {0, 1, 2}under addition modulo 3 is a group, the associative e, a, property must hold for our table containing andfo.

Section 4

Exercises

45

a table for G' imagine the table for G = {e,a, b) filling we see that if we take the for G' and rename the table the next element listed a, and the last element b, the resulting table for G' e, identity must be the same as the one we had for G. As in Section 3, this renaming explained G' with the group G. Definition 3.7 denned the gives an isomorphism of the group notion of isomorphism and of isomorphic binary are just certain structures. Groups of binary so the same definition to them. Thus our work above structures, types pertains can be summarized that all groups with a single element are isomorphic, all by saying groups with just two elements are isomorphic, and all groups with just three elements are
Now other

with

that G' is any suppose element identity appearing could be done in only one way,

group

of three

elements and
out of

first. Since our

isomorphic.

to express this identification use the phrase up to isomorphism using the of three elements, relation ~. Thus we may say, \"There is only one group equivalence up to isomorphism.\"
We

4.19
*

Table e

4.20 Table

4.21Table a a b b
*

a a e

a a b e

b b e a

a b

a b

a b

a b

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

Computations
In

Exercises

1 through

6, determine
first

whether

the

binary

operation

* gives a

group that

structure does

on the

given set. If no

group

results,

give the

axiom

in the

order 3^, = ab.

3\302\276, from 3\302\276

Definition

4.1

not hold.

1. Let *

be defined

on Z

by

letting
{2\302\253 | n

a *b

2. Let

* be * be

defined on

2Z =
by

e Z} by letting a * b = a * b =

a *b =

a + b.

3.

Let

defined on R+ on Q on C
by

letting letting

~Jab.
real numbers
\\ab\\.

4. Let * 5. Let * 6. Let *


7.

be defined be defined be defined

ab.
by

on the
by

set R*
letting

of nonzero

letting

a * b =

a/b.

a *b

8.

1000 elements. example of an abelian group G where G has exactly We can also consider modulo n in For 5 -7 6 = 2 \342\200\242\342\200\236 Z\342\200\236. example, multiplication 8 is a group. Give the 4(7) + 2. Theset {1,3,5, 7}with multiplication -8 modulo

Give an

in

Z7

because

\342\200\242 = 6 \342\200\224 30

9.

Show

that

the group

\342\200\242) (\302\243/, is not isomorphic integer

to either
\\ m

(R,

+) or (R*,

(All three \342\200\242).

group. have cardinality groups


table

for this

|R|.)

10. Let n

be a positive
that
that

and

let nL

{nm

e Z}.

a. Show b. Show

(\302\253Z, +)

+) (\302\253Z,

is a group. ~

(Z, +).

46

Part I
In Exercises

Groups

and

Subgroups

11 through whether the given set of matrices under the specified matrix 18, determine operation, whose only nonzero entries addition or multiplication, matrix is a square matrix is a group. Recall that a diagonal is a square the upper left to the lower lie on the main diagonal, from right corner. An upper-triangular matrix matrix with only zero entries below the main diagonal. Associated with each n x n matrix A is a number called = det(A) det(S). Also, If A and B are both n x n matrices, then det(AS) the determinant of A, denoted by det(A). = 1 and A is invertible 0. if and only if det(A) det(7\342\200\236) ^
11.
All

n x

n diagonal
n n

matricesunder
matrices matrices

matrix

addition.
multiplication.

12. All n x
13.

diagonal diagonal

under matrix with no

All n
All All

zero diagonal

entry

under

matrix multiplication. matrix multiplication.

14. 15.
17.

n x n x

n diagonal

n upper-triangular
n n n

matrices with all diagonal matricesunder matrix


matrices matrices

entries 1 or

\342\200\224 1 under

multiplication.
addition.

16. All n x
All n

upper-triangular upper-triangular matrices the

under matrix

with determinant 1 under

matrix

multiplication.

18. All n x

with determinant
all

either 1 or
except

\342\200\224 1 under

matrix multiplication.

19. Let S be

set of

real

numbers

\342\200\224 1. Define

* on

by

a *b

= a

+ b + ab.

a.
b.

Show Show Find

that that the

* gives a

binary

operation

on S.

c.

(S, *) is a group. solution of the equation

2***3

= 7 in S.

structures on a set of 4 elements. shows 20. This exercise that there are two nonisomorphic group Let the set be [e, a, b, c}, ith w e the identity element for the group A group table would then operation. to start in the manner shown in Table 4.22. The square indicated be filled in by the question mark cannot
a.

have
with

different from both e and a. In this identity latter case, it is no loss of generality to assume that this element is b. If this square is filled in with e, the table can then be completed in two ways to give a group. Find these two tables. (You need not check the associative in with b, then the table can only be completed in one way to give a group. Find this law.) If this square is filled table. (Again, need not check the associative tables law.) Of the three you you now have, two give isomorphic two tables these are, and onto renaming function which is an groups. Determine which give the one-to-one
It must
filled

be

in either

with the

element

e or

with

an element

isomorphism.

a. b.

Are Which

all groups table

of 4 gives

elements commutative? isomorphic


one
that to

a group

the

group

so \302\243/4,

that we

know
the

the

binary

operation

defined by the
for

table is associative?

c.

Show

that

the group
value

given by
of n,

of the
we

one particular

so

know

other tables is structurally defined that the operation


are

same by that

as the

14 group in Exercise table is associativealso. on a set


binary

21. According
many

to Exercise

12 of
structure

Section 2, there
of

of these

give a

a group?

How

many

16 possible of the

binary

operations

of 2 elements. ow H
on a set

19,683 possible

operations

of

3 elementsgive Concepts

a group

structure?

22. Consider our


orders to
state

axioms the

.^, axioms

and .\302\276

for .\302\276

a group.

We gave them

in the

order

Conceivable 5^.\302\276.\302\276\302\276.

other

are

and -^5\302\276\302\276\302\276. .\302\276\302\276\302\276\302\276\302\276. 3\302\276\302\276\302\276^ .\302\276.^.\302\276

Of ^.\302\276\302\276^.

these

six possible

Section 4

Exercises
and why?

47

orders,
this.

Most

exactly three instructors

are acceptable for ask the student to

a definition.

define

a group

Which orders are not on at least one test.)

acceptable,

(Remember

4.22 Table
* \342\200\242

b c b c

a b

a b

23. The
a.

following

\"definitions\"
wrote

students who
A group
satisfied

a bit

of a group are taken verbatim, including too quickly and carelessly.Criticize them.
together

spelling and
that

punctuation,

from

papers

of

G is a set of elements

with

a binary

operation * such

the following

conditions are

* is

associative

There exists e

e G such
G there

that

e*x=x*e
For

= x=
that

identity.

every

a e

exists

an a'

(inverse) such

a \342\226\240 a = a

\342\226\240 a =

b.

group

is a set

The operation
there

is an

G such that on G is associative. identity element (e) in G.

for every

a e
is a

G, there
with

is an a binary

a' (inverse

for

each

element)

c. A
the an

group

set

operation such

binary inverse
identity

operation exists
element

is defined
exists

an d. A

set G is called
operation

a group

Binary

* is

over the binery associative under

operation addition

* such that

for all a, b

eG

there

exist an element

{e}such

that

a*e
Fore

= e*a

=e

every

element

a there exists

an

element

a' such that

a*a'

= a'*a
three

=e
elements

24. Give
25.

a table
but

for a
axiom
the

binary Wx.

operation

on the

set {e,a, b} of

satisfying

axioms

and ,\302\276

,^

for a

group
Mark

not

each of

following

true or

false.
than

a.
b.
c.

A Any

group two

may have groups

more

one

identity

element.

of three
linear

elementsare isomorphic.
has a solution.

In a group,

each

equation

48

Part I

Groupsand
proper attitude the text.

Subgroups

d. The as in
e.

toward

a definition

is to

memorize

it so

that

you

can reproduce

it word

for

word

Any definition person's

a person gives for a group is correct provided that definition is also a group by the definition in the text. a person
definition

everything

that is a

group

by

that

f. Any definition

gives for a group


satisfies
three

is correct
in

provided

that satisfies

the

the one
elements

the

text and

he or she can conversely. solution


in

show

that

everything

g.
h.
j.

Every An

finite equation
empty

group of the
set

of at most

is abelian.
has

i. The
Every

can

form a * x * b = c always be considered a group.


algebraic

a unique

a group.

group is a binary

structure.

Proof synopsis

We give an

example

of a proof
unique.

synopsis. Here is a one-sentence synopsis

of the

proof

that

the

inverse

of an

element

in

a group

(G, *) is
that a

Assuming

* a'
left

= e and

a * a\"

= e,

apply

the

left cancellation

law to the

equation

a * a'

= a

a\".

Note
notation

that we said
an

\"the

cancellation

given as

explanation

given

law\" and not a conversation during

\"Theorem
at

4.15.\" We always with

suppose
to

that

our

synopsis

was
little

lunch,

no reference

text

numbering

and as

as is

practical.
of the

26. Givea one-sentence synopsis

proof of

the

left

cancellation in Theorem

law in Theorem

4.15.
ax = b has a
unique

27. Give
solution

at most

a two-sentence

synopsis of the

proof

4.16

that

an

equation

in a group.

Theory

28.

From

our

intuitive

isomorphism, then 4>{e) binary structures (S, *)


It in

grasp of the is the


and
intuitively

should

also be

G',

that is, that

4>{a)'=

G' of isomorphic groups, it should be clear that if cp : G -\302\273 is a group e' of G'. Recall that Theorem 3.14 gave a proof of this for isomorphic the case of groups. (5\", *'). Of course, this covers clear that if a and a' areinverse in G, then 0(a) and <j>{a') are inverse pairs pairs notion
identity

<p(a').

Give

a careful

proof of
and

this

for

a skeptic

who can't

see the

forest

for all

the
G

trees.

29. Show

that

if G

is a finite

such that

a *a

= e.

group

with identity

with

an even

number of elements, then a *b =


\\a\\b.

there

is a

^ e in

30.

Let

R*

be the

set of all

real

numbers

except 0. Define
binary
for

* on

R*

by letting

a.

b.
d.

Show that * gives an associative Show that there is a left identity


with

operation on

R*.
in R*.

* and a right

inverse for each element

c. Is R*
Explain

this the

operation a group? of this exercise. significance


binary x of
use

31. If *
has 32.
Show

is a
exactly

binary operation on a set S, an element one idempotent element. (You may

S is an
that

idempotent

for * if

x *x
in the

= x. Prove
text.)
[Hint:

that

a group

any theorems
x *

proved so far

that every group (a * b) * (a * b).]

with

identity

e and

such

x =

for

all

x e

G is abeliaa

Consider

Section 5

Subgroups
c & G

49
Z+. Give a
such

33. Let 34. Let


a\" =

be an

abelian
induction

group

and

let

c\"

c *c
=

\342\226\240\342\226\240 *\342\226\240 for *c (b\")

n factors

c,

where

and n e

mathematical

proof that (a

* b)\"

(a\*")

for

all a,

be

G.
that number

group with a finite number of elements. Show that for any a e G, there exists an n e Z+ e. See Exercise 33 for the meaning of a\". [Hint: Consider e, a, a2, a3,..., a'\", where m is the of elements in G, and use the cancellation laws.]
G be a that

35. Show
of a2.

if (a *

b)2 = a2 *
and let
and

b2 for

a and b

in

a group

G, then

a *b
if

= b* a.See
only if a
that

Exercise

33 for

the

meaning

36. Let
37.

Let

G be a group G be a group
that

a,b e

G. Show
*b*

that c =

(a * b)'

= a'

*b'

and

*b = b* *a

a.

suppose
together

that a
with

e for

a, b, c e G.Show
G satisfying

b * c

38. Prove
39.

a set

G,

a binary

operation * on
an associative

the left
* on
all

= e also. axioms 1, 2, and


G
such

3 given

on

page 43, is a group.


Prove

that a nonempty

set G, together
a *x

with y *

binary

operation in G

that

= b

and

a = b have

solutions

for

a, b

e G,

is a

group.

[Hint:

Use Exercise

38.]
the

be a group. Consider 40. Let (G, \342\200\242)

binary

operation

* on the

set G defined

by

a * b = for a,b

\342\226\240 a

e G. Show
with

that

map

4>

<p{a) =
group

a'

for

(G, *) is a a e G.]

group

and

that

(G, *) is

actually

isomorphic

to (G,

[Hint: \342\200\242).

Consider

the

41. Let G be a

and let of G

g be one fixed
with

element

of G.

Show

that

the

is an

map ig,

such that

ig(x)

= gxg'

for* e

G,

isomorphism

itself.

section

Subgroups

Notation and
It

Terminology

notation used in group theory. some conventional and terminology as a rule do not use a special symbol * to denote a binary operation different Algebraists from or the usual addition and multiplication. They stick with the conventional additive or multiplication, depending notation and even call the operation addition multiplicative on the symbol used. The symbol for addition is, of course, +, and usually multiplication of the is denoted by juxtaposition without a dot, if no confusion results. Thus in place notation a * b, we shall be using either a + b to be read \"the sum of a and b,\" or ab to be read \"the product of a and bV There that the is a sort of unwritten agreement feel be used only to designate commutative + should operations. Algebraists symbol uncomfortable when they see a + b / b + a. For this reason, when developing our very in a general situation where the operation we theory may or may not be commutative, shall always use multiplicative notation. element and 0 to denote an additive identity Algebraists frequently use the symbol the 1 to denote a multiplicative identity even though they may not be element, symbol about numbers the integers 0 and 1. Of course, if they are also talking actually denoting at the same time, so that confusion would result, symbols such as e or u are used as is time

to explain

50

Part I

Groupsand

Subgroups

5.1 Table

identity

elements.

1
1

a a b 1

b b 1 a

or, since situations


It

is

a b

a b

multiplicative

of three elements might be onelike Table Thus a table for a group 5.1 such a group is commutative, look the table might like Table 5.2. In general we shall continue of a group. to use e to denote the identity element to denote the inverse of an element a in a group by a-1 in customary notation in additive notation. From now on, we shall be using these and by \342\200\224a

notations

we denote the product aaa ... a for n factors a by a\". We let a0 be the identity element .a-1 for n factors a~1a~1a~1.. e, and denote the product by a~n. It is easy to see that = am+n form, n e Z, holds.Form, n e Z+, it is clear. our usual law of exponents, aman another We illustrate type of case by an example:
-V

in place of the symbol a'. Let n be a positive integer.If a is an element

of a group

G,

written

multiplicatively,

= a

5.2Table
+

aaaaa = a (a a)aaaa = a a aaaa = (a a)aaa = eaaa = (ea)aa


we denote
In

eaaaa

= a

(ea)aaa

= aaa

= a
na,
the

a a b 0

b b 0 a

In

additive

notation,

a+a

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 +a + \342\226\240 for +a

0 a b

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 for + + + \342\226\240 + (\342\200\224a) (\342\200\224a)(\342\200\224a)(\342\200\224a)

n summands

by
n

and \342\200\224na, is

n summands by let 0a be
in Z,

denote
identity

element.

Be careful: confusion

the

notation
theory regarding appears term

na, the number

not

in

G.

One

reason

we prefer to
is the misinterprets

present group
the n

caused by when it

notation, even if G is abelian, using multiplicative n as being in G in this notation na. No one ever
in an that is

Let us explain one more 5.3 Definition If G is a


group,

exponent. used so often

it merits

a special

definition.
(Recall

then
for

Section 0 that,

the order any set S, \\S\\

\\G\\

of

is the

the number of cardinality of S.)


G is

elementsin

G.

from

\342\226\2

Subsets

and

Subgroups

have noticed that we sometimes have had groups contained within larger For example, the group Z under addition is contained within the group Q under in turn is contained in the group ffi under which addition. When we view the addition, it is very important to notice that the (Z, +} as contained in the group (ffi, +}, group operation + on integers n and m as elements of (Z, +} producesthe same element n + m as would result if you were to think of n and m as elementsin (E, +}. Thus we should not regard the group (Q+, \342\200\242} as contained in (ffi, +}, even though Q+ is contained in ffi as a set. In this instance, 2 \342\200\242 in (Q+, \342\200\242}, 2 + 3 = 5 in (E, +}. We are requiring 3 = 6 while not only that the set of one be a subset of the set of the other, but also that the group

You may
groups.

group operation on
to

the

subset
this

be the
subset

each

ordered

pair from

as is

induced operation assigned by the

that

assigns

the same

element
whole

group

operation

on

the

set.

5.4 Definition

If a subset

of

a group

G is
G that

closed under

the

binary
H

operation

induced operation from H < G or G > H denote


H

is itself

a group, then H is a subgroup of

is a subgroup G, and H < G or

of G and if H with the of G. We shall let

G>

H shall

mean

< G

but

G.

\342\226\2

Section

Subgroups

51

Thus (Z, Q+ C of G.

E. Every

+} < (E,+} but


group

(Q+,

is not \342\200\242}

a subgroup

of (E,

+}, even
e is the

though identity

as sets, element

G has

as subgroups

G itself

and [e], where

5.5 Definition

If G is a
All

group,

then

other

subgroups
other

of G. All
We

the subgroup consisting are proper subgroups. are nontrivial. subgroups


illustrations.

of G itself

is the

The subgroup

{e} is

improper subgroup of G. the trivial subgroup


\342\226\240

turn

to some

5.6

Example

Let

E\"

be

the additive

The subsetconsisting
a subgroup

row group of all n-component of these vectors having of all

vectors 0 as

with real number entries. is entry in the first component


\342\226\262

of

E\".

5.7

Example

Q+ under

multiplication

is a

proper subgroup a subgroup

of E+ under
Un

multiplication.

\342\226\262

5.8

Example

The nth roots


numbers

of unity

in

C form

of

the group

C* of

nonzerocomplex
\342\226\262

under

multiplication.
types
their

5.9

Example

There are two different We describe them by

4-group, and the Z4 is isomorphic


multiplication.

notation
to

of group structures group tables (Tables V comes from the


\302\243/4

of order

4 (see
5.11).

Exercise 20 of
The group
V

Section is the The

4).

5.10 and
German i}

Klein
group

the

group

{1, i,

\342\200\224 \342\200\224 of

1,

word Vier for four. fourth roots of unity

under

of Z4 is {0,2}. Note that only nontrivial proper subgroup {0,3 } is not a subgroup since {0, 3} is not closed under +. For example, 3 + 3=2, and 2 \302\242 3}. Z4, {0, V has three nontrivial proper subgroups, {e,a), and However, the group [e, c). Here {e, a, b] is not a subgroup, since {e, a, b] is not closed under the operation of V because ab = c, and c \302\242 a, b). A [e, The of

[e,b],

5.10 Table
Z4:

5.11Table
1 1

e a e a b c

0 1

0 1 2
3

2
3

0 1

2 3

0 1

e a b c a e c b b c e a c b a e of the

It is often
subgroup

a diagram, a line
of

contains the

of a group. In such subgroups G to a group that H is a H means running G. Thus the larger group is placed nearer the top of the diagram. Figure 5.12 for the groups Z4 and V of Example 5.9. subgroup diagrams
useful

to draw a

subgroup diagram
from

downward

a group

52

Part I

Groups

and

Subgroups

Note that if H < have a unique solution,

G and
namely

e H,

then
that

by

Theorem

4.16,

the equation
But

ax

\342\200\224 a must

the identity
this

element of
unique
to

H.

be viewedas one e of G. A element


H and

in

G, and
the

we see

solution
the

similar

G, shows

that

then argument inverse a~1 of a

applied
in

equation

can also must also be the identity ax = e, viewed in both


this

equation

G is

also the

inverse ofa in

the

subgroup

H.

{0,2}

le,a)

{0}

(a) 5.12

(b)

Figure

(a) Subgroup

diagram for
functions

Z4. (b)

Subgroup diagram for

V.

5.13

Example

Let F
subset

be the
of F

group

of all

real-valued
functions

consisting of those
continuous

that

E under with domain are continuous is a subgroup

addition.

The

of

F,

for

the sum of

functions

is continuous,
identity

the

function

where
continuous,

f(x)

= 0 for all
then
\342\200\224 is

x is continuous
continuous.

and

is the

additive

element,

and if

f is

\342\226\26

to have routine for determining whether a subset of a group G It is convenient steps 5.13 is a subgroup of G. Example indicates such a routine, and in the next theorem, we are available, demonstrate its validity. While more compactcriteria involving carefully this more transparent theorem for a first course. only one condition, we prefer
5.14

Theorem

A subset H
1.

of

a group

G is a
the

subgroup

of

G if

and

only

if

H is
the

closed under
element

binary

operation
H,

of G,

2.
3.

identity

e of

G is in

for all a
that if

e H

it

is true

that a^1

e H

also.

Proof

H < G then of a subgroup definition and


The

1, 2, and 3 must hold follows at once from the the remarks preceding Example 5.13. G such that Conditions 1,2, and 3 hold. H is a subset of a group suppose Conversely, 2 we have at once that .^ is satisfied. Also 5\302\276 satisfied by 3. It remains is to check By the associative axiom, 8\302\276. surely for all a, b, c e H it is true that (ab)c = a(bc) in But for we may actually view this as an equation in G, where the associative law holds. H,
fact Conditions

from

Hence H
5.15

< G.

\342\231\24

Example

Let F
differentiable

be as in

Example

5.13.

the

constant

subgroup function 0 is

is a

of those The subset of F consisting functions that are of F, for the sum of differentiable functions is differentiable, \342\200\224 and if f is differentiable, then differentiable, f is

differentiable.

\342\226\262

Section

Subgroups

53

5.16 Example

Recall

from called

linear

algebra

that every

square matrix
A is

A has

associated
only

det(A)

its determinant,

and

that

invertible

if and

if det(

\342\200\242 \342\200\224 are square matrices of the same size, thenit can be shown that det(AB) det(A) det(B). Let G be the multiplicative of all invertible n x n matrices with entries in C and group let T be the subset of G consisting of those matrices with determinant 1. The equation = det(A) \342\200\242 shows that T is closed under matrix Recall det(AB) det(B) multiplication. \342\200\242 = matrix that the identity has determinant 1. From the equation /\342\200\236 det(A) det(A_1) = = 1. Theorem 5.14 = det(7\342\200\236) 1, we see that if det(A) = 1, then det(A_1) det(AA_1) \342\226\262 that T is a subgroup of G. then shows

with it a number A) / 0. If A and B

Cyclic

Subgroups

have to be if it contains 3. It would have which is 6. Then it has to contain 6+3, which is 9. 9 and the inverse of 6 is 6.It is easily checked 3. of Z]2, and it is the smallest subgroup containing that H = {0,3, 6, 9} is a subgroup in a general situation. As we remarked before, for Let us imitate this reasoning and let notation. Let G be a group a general use multiplicative argument we always of G containing a must, Theorem a e G. A subgroup 5.14, contain an, the result by of computing products of a and itself for n factors for every positive integer n. These It is possible, of a do give a set closed under integral powers multiplication. positive a must that the inverse of a is not in this set. Of course, a subgroup however, containing also contain a~m for all m e Z+. It must contain the a-1, and, in general, it must contain the element a must a subgroup identity element e = a0. Summarizing, of G containing contain all elementsan {or nafor additive groups) for all n e Z. That is, a subgroup a must contain {a\" \\n e Z}. Observe that these powers an of a need not be containing in the group distinct. For example, V of Example 5.9,

Let us
to

see how

contain

the identity

H of Z12 element 0 and 3 Note that the inverse of 3 is


large

a subgroup

would

+ 3,

a = e,
We have 5.17 Theorem

a =a,
next

a
theorem.

\342\200\224 e,

a~

= a,

and

so on.

almost provedthe
group

Let G be a

and let

a e

G. Then
ff

K|neZ)
subgroup

is a

subgroup

of containing

G and

is

the

smallest'

of G

that

contains

a,

that is,

every

subgroup

a contains

H.

1 We may find occasion to distinguish between to subsets of a set S the terms minimal and smallest as applied A subset H of S is minimal that have some property. with respect to the property if H has the property, and no subset K C H,K ^ H, has the property. If H has the property and H c K for every subset K with the property, then H is the smallest subset with the property. There may be many minimal subsets, but there can subset. To illustrate, {e,a},{e,b], and {e, c} are all minimal nontrivial of the be only one smallest subgroups V contains no smallest nontrivial V. (See Fig. 5.12.)However, group subgroup.

54

Part

Groups and Subgroups

Proof

conditions given in Theorem 5.14 for a subset of a group to give a Since aras = ar+s for r, 5 g Z, we see that the product in G of two elements subgroup. the group of H is again in H. Thus H is closed under operation of G. Also a0 = e, so = e. Hence all the conditions a~rar are satisfied, e e H, and for ar e H, a~r e H and and H < G. that any subgroup of showed Our prior to the statement of the theorem arguments of G containing \342\231\ contain a. G containing a must H, so H is the smallest subgroup
We

check

the three

5.18Definition

Let
in

G be a
Theorem

group

and

let a

e G.
the

Then the

subgroup

{a\" \\n e

5.17, is called

cyclic

subgroup

of G

G, characterized generated by a, and denoted


G if {a}=

Z} of

by(a>. Definition

\342\226

5.19

G and is a generator for G generates An element a of a group if there is some element a in G that generates G. G is cyclic
Let Z4
and

G.

group

\342\226

5.20

Example

be the
is,

groups of

Example5.9.Then
(1) =

Z4

is cyclic

and

both

1 and

3 are

generators, that

(3)=24(c)

However, V
course,
5.21

is not
the

cyclic, for
trivial

a {a}, {b},nd

are proper

subgroups of two

elements.

Of

{e) is

subgroup

of one

element.

\342\226\

Example

The group
group,

under

addition
only n

is a cyclic
generators.

and

they are the

modulo

n is

cyclic. If

>

1,

are for this group. Both 1 and \342\200\2241 generators for n e Z+, the group Z\342\200\236 addition under 1 are then both 1 and n \342\200\224 generators, but there may be

Also,

others.
5.22

\342\226\

Example

Consider
(3) must

the

group

Z under

addition.

Let us

find

(3).

Here

the notation is additive,

and

contain

3.
0,
In other words,
the

-3
cyclic

3=6, 3 + 3 + -3 = \342\200\2246,-3+-

3+

+ 3

= 9,

and

so on,

= \342\200\2243 and H\342\200\2243 \342\200\2249,

so on.

negative,
shall

and \302\253Z be

zero.

generated subgroup We denote this subgroup

let

the cyclic

subgroup

of (\302\253}

of 3, positive, by 3 consists of all multiples 3Z as well as (3). In a similar by way, we Z. Note that 6Z < 3Z. \342\226\2

5.23

Example

For each positive integer n, let U\342\200\236 multiplicative be the group of the nth roots of unity in C. These elements of U\342\200\236be represented can geometrically by equally spaced points on a circle about the origin, as illustrated in Fig. 5.24. The heavy point the represents number
=

2tt
cos
n
\\-

i;

i sin \342\200\224.

2tc
n

Section

Exercises

55

The Section around

geometric 1, shows the

interpretation

at once

that

circle,

multiplication

is a

landing cyclic group,

in of multiplication of complexnumbers, explained to powers, it works its way counterclockwise is \302\243 raised on each of the elements of Un in turn. Thus Un under
as
and

is \302\243a

generator.
z, where

The
\\z\\

group

is the U\342\200\236

of the

group U

of all complexnumbers

1, under

cyclic subgroup multiplication.

(\302\243) \342\226\262

5.24

Figure

EXERCISES

Computations
In

Exercises

1 through
numbers

6, determine
under

whether

the

given

subset of

the

complex

numbers

is a subgroup

of the

group

C of

complex
set

addition.

1. M

2. Q+
CR of

3. 7Z
including

4. The
7.

pure

imaginary

numbers

5. The set7rQ
Which multiplication?

of rational

multiples of n
Exercises 1 through

6. Theset
6 are
subgroups

[it\"

]\302\253eZ}

of the

sets in

of the

group C*

of nonzero complexnumbers
matrices

under

In Exercises 8 through
a subgroup
8.

13, determine

whether the

given

set of

invertible n x

with real

number

entries

is

of GL(n, M). x
n

The n

matrices n x

with determinant

2
zeros

9. Thediagonal
10.

n matrices n x
n

with

no

on the

diagonal the

The upper-triangular

matrices

with no
\342\200\224 1

zeros on

diagonal

11. 12.

The n x The n x

n n

matrices matrices n x

with determinant with determinant

\342\200\224 1 or 1 matrices 7,,. [These

13. The

set of all
has

the transpose
operation

of

A,

n matrices A such that (AT)A = is the matrix whose j'th column

are of A

called

is the

the property

(AB)T =

/th

row

for 1 <

j < n,

orthogonal.
and

that the

Recall that AT, transpose

(BT)(AT).]

56

Part I

Groups

and

Subgroups

Let F be the
that
with

set of

have a nonzero
the

all real-valued functions value at every point

with in R.

induced

operation is (a) a subgroup


F

domain R and let F In Exercises 14 through of the group F under

be the
addition,

subset

of F

consisting of those functions


given

19, determine

whether the

subset

of F

(b) a subgroup

of

the

group

F under

multiplication.

14. The subset


15.

The subset

of all
of all

e F such
such

that

/(1)

= 0

16. The subset


18. The subset

/ e F
/ /

that
that that

/(1)
/(0) /(0)

= 1
= 1 = -1

17. The subset of all

e F such e F such

of all

19. The subset of all

constant

functions

in F.
of all

20.

Nine

groups

are given

below. Give a completelist


G\\,

subgroup relations,

of the

form

G, <

Gj,

that

exist

between these G\\ = Z under


G2

given
addition

groups

G?,

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242, Gg.

12Z under

addition

G3 = Q+ under multiplication G4 = R under addition G5

= R+ G6 = {jr\"

under

multiplication

e Z} I \302\253

G7 = 3Z under addition Gg = the set of all integral Gg = {6\" I n e Z} under


21.

under multiplication
multiples
multiplication

of 6 under

addition

Write

at least 5

elements of each
under

of the

following

cyclic groups.

a. 25Z under
c.

addition
multiplication

b. {(1)\" I n e Z} {tt\"
I

n e

Z} under

multiplication

In Exercises

22 through

all 25, describe

the

elements

in the

cyclic subgroup
25.
group, list
=
all

of

GL(2,

R) generated

by

the

given

2x2
22.

matrix.
0

-1
Which

23.
of the

24.

0 -2\"

-2
the

0
generators = (6Z,

26.

following groups are


G,

(Z,
{6\"

cyclic? For each cyclic +) G2 = (Q, +) G3


I

of the

group.

(Q+,

G4 \342\200\242)

+)

G5 =
Gg

n e
fcV21

Z} under
a, b

multiplication

= {a

e Z} under
cyclic

addition

In Exercises
element.

27

through

35,

find the

order of the

subgroup

of the

given

group

generated

by the

indicated

27.

The subgroup

of Z4
of of

generated

by 3
by

28. The subgroup

V generated
U(, generated

c (see

Table 5.11)

29. Thesubgroup
30. The
subgroup

by cos ^f
by

sin

^f

of Us

generated
generated

cos

^f- +
=y

i sin sin

^=y

31. The

subgroup

of

U%

by cos

+ i

Section 5

Exercises

57

32.

The

subgroup
subgroup

of

U%

generated

by cos ^f

sin

^f 4x4 1
o\"

33. The

of the

multiplicative

group G of invertible
0 0

matrices generated

by

0 0

0 10

10

0 0

0
matrices generatedby
l\"

34.

The

subgroup

of the

multiplicative

group

G of
\"0

invertible 4x4
0

0
1

10

10
_0

0 0
0

0^
4x4
o\"

35. The subgroup

of the

multiplicative

group G of invertible
0 0 1

matrices generated

by

10 0 0

10

36.a.

give the group X(, of 6 elements. (0), (1), (2), (3),(4),and (5) of the group Z6 given in part (a). subgroups c. Which elements are generators for the group X(, of part (a)? of X(,. (We will see later that these are all d. Give the subgroup for the part (b) subgroups diagram
Complete

Table

5.25 to

b. Compute

the

the

subgroups

ofZ6.)

5.25 Table

+ 0 1 2
3

1 1

3 3

4 4
5

0 1

2 3

2 3

4
5

Concepts
In

Exercises
that

37 and
it is

38, correct the


in a form
G is a

definition

of the

italicized term
contains

without

reference

to the

text,

if

correction

is

needed, so
37.

acceptablefor publication.
subset H
if there

of a group inverse of eachof its


A subgroup
group

of G that

the identity G =

element e of
|

G and

also

contains

the

elements.
only

38. A
39.

G is

cyclic if and
following

exists a

e G such

that

{an

n \342\202\254 Z}.

Mark each

of the
There

true or
law
group

false.
in which

a. Theassociative
b.

holds

may be a

in every group. the cancellation

law

fails.

58

Part

Groups and Subgroups

c.
d.
e.

Every Every

group group

is a subgroup has

of itself. exactly two improper


every

subgroups.

In every
A

cyclic
group

group,

element
generator.

is a generator.
is also

f.
g. h. i. j.

cyclic

has a unique
that
defined

Every Z4 is a Every

set of numbers may be


group.

is a group
as a

A subgroup

under addition subset of a group.


subgroup under
the the

a group

under

multiplication.

cyclic

subset of every
of an

group

is a

induced

operation.

40. Show
solutions

by

means in some

example
with

that

it is

possible for

quadratic

equation

x1 =

to

have

more

than two

group G

identity

e.

Theory

41 and 42, let 0 : G ^ G' be to convincea skeptic of the intuitively proof


In Exercises
of 41. If J? is a subgroup into subgroups. subgroups 42.

an isomorphism

of a group

(G, *)
of

with

a group

(G', *').
isomorphism

Write

out

clear

statement.
e H}

G, then

0[ff] =

| {0(\302\276) h

is a

subgroup

G'. That

is,

an

carries

is cyclic, then G' is cyclic. 43. Show that if H and K are subgroups
If G

of an

abelian group
{hk
I

G, then
k
\342\202\254 K]

h \342\202\254 H and

is a subgroup

of G. following argument: a e H. Then a~]


\"Condition

44. Find
45.

the

flaw in the
3, for let

2 of
and

from 1 and
Show (This

e H by

3,

by

Theorem 5.14 is redundant, 1, aa~] = e is an element

since

it can

be derived
2.\"

of H,

proving

that a nonempty subset H of a group G is a subgroup of G if and only if ab^1 is one of the more compact criteria referred to prior to Theorem 5.14)
a cyclic if G
the

H for \342\202\254

all a, b

H. \342\202\254

46. Prove that 47. Prove that


satisfying

group

with

only

one generator
written

can have
H of

at

most

2 elements.
identity

is an abelian group, x1 = e form equation


47 for the

multiplicatively,

with

element

e, then

all

elements

x of G

a subgroup
situation

G. of all
solutions

48. Repeat
integer

Exercise
n >

general
group

of the

set H

x of the

equation
such
of G.

x\"

e for a fixed

1 in

an abelian

G with

identity e.
with

49. Show that if 50. Let a nonempty


subgroup of

a e

G,
finite

where

G is a

finite group
group

identity

e, then
the

there exists
binary

e Z+

that

a\" =
that

e.
H

subset

H of a
fixed

G be

closed under

operation

Show

is a

G. a be one
element
Ha

51. Let

G be a

group and let

of G. Show
= {x e

that

xa

= ax}

is a

subgroup

of G.

52. Generalizing a. Show that


b. In
53.

Exercise 51, let S be any subset of a group G. of G. H$ = {x e G | xs = sx for all 5 e S} is a subgroup reference to part (a), the subgroup HG is the center of G. Show that
subgroup relation

HG

is an

abelian e H.

group.

Let

H be a

of on

a group

G. For a, b e

G,

let

a ~

if

and

only

if ab~]

Show

that

~ is an

equivalence

G.

Section

Cyclic Groups

59

54.

For sets

and

K,

we define the

intersection H n K
flni[

by

= {i|xeflandie^).
Pi

Show

that

if H

< G and
cyclic and let

< G,

then H

< G.

(Remember: <

denotes \"is

a subgroup

of,\"

not

\"is a

subset

of\

55. Prove that 56. LetGbe a


ofG?

every group

group is abelian.
Gn

{gn | g

e G}.Under

what

hypothesis

about G can we

show

that

is a G\342\200\236

subgroup

57.

Show

that

a group

with

no

proper

nontrivial

subgroups is cyclic.

section

Cyclic Groups
Recall

the

following

facts and

notations

from

Section

5. If G is a

group

and

a e

G,

then

= {an\\n

&Z}

is a subgroup
by

a.

Also,

(Theorem 5.17). This group a group G and an element given


of G

is the cyclic subgroup a in G, if


|

(a) of G generated

G=
then a is a generator of
Let G and

{an

n e

Z},

W the group G = {a)is cyclic. e introduce one new bit of G. If the cyclic subgroup element of a group (a) of G is finite, terminology. of this cyclic subgroup. Otherwise, e say that a then w the order of a is the order \\(a) | that if a e G is of finite order m, then m is of infinite order. We will see in this section is the smallest integer such that am = e. positive and all subgroups The first goal of this section is to describe all cyclic groups of will This is not an idle exercise. We see later that cyclic groups serve cyclic groups. as building blocks for all sufficiently small abelian groups, in particular, for all finite are fundamental abelian to the understanding of groups. Cyclic groups groups.

a be an

Elementary
We

Properties of CyclicGroups
a demonstration

start

with

that cyclic groups

are abelian.

6.1Theorem

Every

cyclic

group is
cyclic

abelian.
and let

Proof Let G be a
If gi

group

a be a
G

generator
{an |

of G
n e

so

that

(a) =

Z}.
integers

and

g2

are any

two elements
= aras

of G, there
= ar+s

exist

r and 5 such

that

gi

= ar

and g2 =

as. Then
glg2

= as+r = asar = g2gu


\342\231\246

so

G is
We

abelian.
shall

continue
they

to use

multiplicative

notation

for

our general work on

cyclic

groups, even though

are abelian.

60

Part I

Groupsand

Subgroups

The division

for

the

study

of cyclic

algorithm that groups.


> 0

follows

is a seemingly

trivial,

but

very

fundamental

tool

> 0, q

\342\200\224|-

-\\
2m
<I>n

A\342\200\224

(q + \\)m

n < 0, q

< 0

\342\200\224|-

qm

(q +

\\)m

2m

6.2 Figure

6.3 Division

Algorithm

for

If m
that

is a positive integer and n


n

is any

integer, then there


0 <

exist unique

integers

and r such

mq

+ r

and

r <

Proof

6.2. On the real x-axis of Fig. diagrammatic explanation, using the of m and the position of n. Now n falls either multiples analytic geometry, on a multiple qm of m and r can be taken as 0, or n falls between two multiples of m. If the latter is the case, let qm be the first multiple of m to the left of n. Then r is as in Fig. 6.2. Note that shown 0 < r < m. Uniqueness q and r follows since if n is not of a multiple of m so that we can take r = 0, then there is a unique multiple qm of m to the in Fig. 6.2. left of n and at distance less than m from n, as illustrated \342\231\
We

give

an intuitive

mark off

In nonnegative

the notation remainder

of

the

division

algorithm,

we regard q
m.

as the

quotient

and r

as

the

when n is

divided by
when

6.4 Example

Find

the

quotient

q and

remainder r

38

is divided

by 7

according to the

division

algorithm.

Solution

The positive multiples a nonnegative remainder

of 7

less

are 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42,---. Choosing than 7, we write


38

the

multiple

to leave

= 35

+ 3=
is

so the

quotient

is q = 5
q and

and

the

remainder

7(5) + 3 r = 3.
by 7

\342\226\

6.5

Example

Find the
algorithm.

quotient

remainder

when

is divided \342\200\22438

according to the

division

Solution

The negative multiples of 7 are -7, -14, -21, to leave a nonnegative remainder less than tiple

-28,-35,-42,
7, we

. Choosing the

mul-

write + 4

-38 = -42 + 4
so the
We

7(-6)

quotient is q
will

-6
for

and

the

remainder

is r

= 4.
that a subgroup Hofa to do to prove this.

use the
Think

division

algorithm

to show

cyclicgroup
We

is also

cyclic.

a moment

what we will

have

will have

to

Section 6

Cyclic Groups

61

use

of a cyclic group we have proved little since about cyclic groups yet. have to use the fact that G has a generating a. We must then element in terms of this generator some generator c = am for H in order to show that exhibit, a, H is cyclic. There is really only m of a to try. Can you one natural choice for the power what it is before you read the proof of the theorem? guess
the
That

definition is, we will

6.6 Theorem

subgroup

of a cyclic group
If
that

group is cyclic.
generated
H ^
am

Proof

Let G be a cyclic H = (e) is cyclic.


integer

by a
a\"

and

let

{e},
e H.

then

e H

H be a subgroup of G. If H for some n \342\202\254Let m be Z+.

= {e},
the

then

smallest

in Z+ such

We claim that

c =

am generates

H;
H =

that

is,

(am) =

(c).
Since b
&

We

must

show

b =

a\" for

that every b e H is a some n. Find g and r such


n =

power
that

of c.

and

H <

G, we have

mq + r

for

0<r

<m

in

accord

with the division algorithm.


an

Then
amq+r

= {am)qar,

so ar =
Now
{amyqan.

since

a\"

&

H.am

& H,

and H is a
ff;

group,

both that

(am)~q

and

a\"

are

in H.

Thus

(am)\"V e

is,
that

ar e
am

ff.
and 0

Since m
have r

was

the

smallest
n =

= 0. Thus

positive integer such and ^m b=


= a\302\273

e H

< r < m,

we

must

(am)i

=cq,
\342\231\246

so

fc

is a As

power of
noted

c.
5.22,

integer

ft,

the

in Examples 5.21 and set nL of all multiples

subgroup generated by ft. Theorem of Z under We addition. subgroups

addition is cyclic and for a positive the cyclic addition, subgroup of Z under 6.6 shows that these cyclic subgroups are the only state this as a corollary.
Z under

of ft

is a

6.7Corollary

The

subgroups

of Z

under

addition

are precisely

the groups
define
that

ftZ

under

addition

for n e

Z.

This corollary
two

gives

us an

elegant

way

to

positive

subgroup
which

integers of the group may

r and

s. Exercise45 shows
Thus

the greatest H = {nr +

common divisor of ms | n,m e Z} is a


have

we

choose to

Z under addition. be positive.

H must

be cyclicand

a generator

d,

62

Part I

Groups

and

Subgroups

6.8 Definition

Let r

and

5 be

two positive

integers. The positive


H

generator

d of

the cyclic group

= {nr

+ ms

\\

n,m

e Z}
r and

under
d =

addition

is the

greatest

common divisor (abbreviated gcd) of

s. We

write

gcd(r, s).
Note

\342\22

from

and 5

= Or +

Is are

the definition that d is a divisor of both in H. Since d e H, we can write


d =

r and

5 since

both r =

\\r

Os

nr + ms
the
must
d in

n and m. We see that for someintegers every integer dividing both r and 5 divides d and hence must be a divisor of d also.Thus right-hand side of the equation, accounts for the name given to both r and s; this be the largest number dividing

Definition

6.8.
gcd of

6.9 Example
Solution

Find

the

42

and

72.

The positive divisors of 42 are 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 14, 21, and 42. The positive divisors of 72 is 6. Note are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 36, and 72. The greatest common divisor 24, is an algorithm for expressing the greatest that 6 = (3)(72)+ There common divisor d of r and 5 in the form d = nr + ms, but we will not need to make use of it

18, (-5)(42).

here.
Two positive integers are relatively prime. Note

\342\22

are relatively
that

prime if
no prime

their

gcd is
the

they

have

factors in

common.

1. For example,12and 25 In our discussion

of subgroups of cyclic

groups,

we will

need to

know

following:

If r

ands arerelatively

prime

andifr

divides sm,

then

r must

divide m.

(1)

Let's prove

this.

If r

and 5 are relatively 1=

prime, for

then some

we may write a, b

ar + bs

e Z.

Multiplying

by

m, we

obtain m = arm

+ bsm.
sm.

Nowr

side

divides both arm and bsm sincer divides of this equation, so r must divide m.

Thus

r is a divisor of the

right-hand

The
We

Structure
can

of Cyclic

Groups
up

now

describe

all cyclic groups,

to an

isomorphism.

Section 6

CyclicGroups

63

6.10

Theorem

G be a cyclic group with generator a. If the order of Gis infinite, then G is isomorphic to (Z, +}. If G has finite order ft, then G is isomorphic to (Z\342\200\236, +\342\200\236).
Let

Proof

Case

For all positiveintegers


distinct

m,am and

/
h

e.
>

In

this

case

we claim
and

that

no

two

exponents
aA =

k can

give equal elementsah


k. Then

ak of

G.

Suppose that

a* and say

\342\200\236h-k = a a

a h-k =

e,

contrary

to our

expressed as am (j>(a') = i is thus

Case I assumption. Hence every elementof G can be The map \302\242) \342\200\224> for a unique meZ. : G Z given by one to one, and onto Z. Also, well defined,

0(a!V)
so the
Case

= 4>{ai+i)= i +

j=

+ \302\242(0.1)

0(aJ'),
an

homomorphism property

is satisfied

and 0 is

isomorphism.

II

efor some positive integer m. Let n be the smallest positive integer such that a\" = e.lf s e Z and 5 = nq + r for 0 < r < ft, then </ = a\"<7+r = (a\<V") = e<7ar = ar. AsinCase 1, if 0 < k < h < n and 0 < h - fc < n, contradicting our choice of aA = a*, then aA_* = e and
am

n. Thus

the

elements

a0 =
are

e, a, a

,a ,
map well
\\j/

all

given

one, k = i +n j-

and comprise all elements of G. The \342\200\242\342\200\242 1 is thus n \342\200\242, by i/f(a') = i for *' = 0, 1, 2, = e, we see that a1 a' and Because a\" onto Z\342\200\236.
distinct
Thus

: G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 Z\342\200\236

defined,

one to

= ak where

f(alaj)

= i
property

+\342\200\236 j

= f(a')

+\342\200\236 f(aJ),

so the

homomorphism

is satisfied

and

\\j/

is an

isomorphism.

n- 1

6.11Figure
6.13 Example

6.12

Figure

Motivated by
an~'

our

work

with Un,

it

is nice

of a cyclic group element ah is located

of ordern
h

as being

to visualize the elements e= a0, a1, distributed evenly on a circle (seeFig.

a2,

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240, The

6.11).

of these
a0

from the
start

bottom where e =
ah and

from

go k

additional

equal units counterclockwise along the circle, measured is located. To multiply ah and ak diagrammatically, we units around counterclockwise. To see arithmetically

64

Part

Groups and

Subgroups
q and
h +

where

we end

up,

find

r such
k =
around
nq

that

for

0 < r

< n.
we

The

nq

takes

us all the

way

the circle as Fig.


on

q times, and 6.11


these
but

then

wind up

at

ar.
with

A
the

Figure 6.12 is essentially the same on the generator. The operation exponents Subgroups
We

with

the points

labeled
modulo

exponents

is

addition

n.

of Finite

Cyclic Groups
and

have

completed
us complete

6.7gives
the

our description of cyclicgroups information about subgroups

turn to

of infinite

their subgroups. Corollary cyclic groups. Let us give


cyclic

basic

theorem

regarding
group
cyclic

generators of subgroups for the

finite

groups.
let

6.14Theorem

Let G be a
greatest

cyclic

Then b generatesa
common
Proof

with n elements and generated H of G containing subgroup

by a.
n/d

Let b e
elements,

G and
n)

b =

as.
the

where

d is

divisor ofnands.

Also, (as) =

(ar)ifandonlyifgcd(5,

= gcd(t,n).

from Theorem That b generates a cyclicsubgroup H of G is known 5.17. We need show that H has n/d elements. of Case II of Theorem we the argument 6.10, Following only see that H has as many elements as the smallest positive powerm of b that gives the if (as)m = e, or if and if n divides Now b = as, and bm = e if and only only identity. ms. What is the smallest positive integer m such that n divides ms? Let d be the gcd of n and s. Then there exists u and v such that integers d =

un +

vs.

Sinced divides
where
find

both

n and

s, we may
1 =

write

u(n/d)

+ v(s/d)
equation

both

n/d

and

s/d
any

are integers.
integer

This last

shows

that n/d

and

s/d

are

relatively
the

prime, for
smallest

dividing
that

both of them must

also divide

1. We

wish to

positive

m such

m(s/d)

is an integer.

(n/d)

From
smallest

the

boxed

division the

property

(1), we
order

concludethat

n/d

must

divide

m, so

the

such
for

m is
then

of order n, we see that if d is had subgroup (d) of Z\342\200\236n/d elements, and contains all the m less than n such that gcd(m, n) = d. Thus there is only one subgroup positive integers of Z\342\200\236 of order the preceding this shows at once that if n/d. Taken with paragraph, a is a generator of the cyclic group G, then (as) = (a'} if and only if gcd(s, n) =
Taking

is n/d. moment Z\342\200\236model for a cyclic group as a


of H the cyclic

n/d. Thus the

a divisor

of n,

gcd(f.n).
6.15

\342\231\2

Example

For an example
the

using

additive

notation,

consider
12 is

greatest

common comm

divisor

of 3

and

Z^, with the 3 = 3 \342\200\242 1 generates 3,

a generator a subgroup

= 1. Since of y = 4

elements,

namely
(3)

{0,3,6,9}.

Section

Cyclic Groups

65

Sincethe
Since the

gcd

of 8 and

12 is 4, 8 generatesa
(8}

subgroup

of

-j

= 3 elements, namely,

= {0,4,

8}.
of

gcd

of 12

and 5 is 1, 5 generatesa
group

subgroup

= 12 elements;that

is,

5 is

a generator

of the

whole

Z^. immediately

A from Theorem 6.14.


the

The following

corollary

follows

6.16Corollary
6.17 Example

If a

is a generator
elements

of a finite

are the Let us


Starting

of the

cyclic group G of order n, then form ar, where r is relatively prime

other

generators

of G

to n.

find

all subgroups

of

\"L\\%

and

give

their subgroup

diagram.
17 are

All

subgroups

are

cyclic. By

Corollary 6.16, the


2,

elements

1, 5,

7, 11, 13, and

all generators

of 7L\\%.

with

(2) =

{0,2,4,6,8, 10,12,14, 6}. 1

is

of the form h2, where h is relatively has as generators elements prime and 16. The element 6 of so h2 = 2,4, 8, 10,14,and to 9, namely, 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, of this subgroup. (2) generates {0, 6, 12}, and 12 alsois a generator We have thus far found all subgroups generated by 0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10,11,12, 15 to consider. and 17. This leaves just 3, 9, and
of

order

9 and

h =

1 1 13, 4, 6,
15 also

(3) ={0,3,6,9,
and Finally,

12,15},
15 =
5 \342\200\242 3, and

generates

this

group

of order

6, since

the gcd

of 5 and

6 is

1.

(9}

= {0,

9}.
is given

The subgroup

diagram

for these

subgroups of Zig
(1)

in Fig.

6.18.

zlg

6.18 Figure

Subgroup

diagram

for Z18.

we are afraid we wrote it out in such detail This example is straightforward; some look complicated. The exercises may give practice along these lines.

that

it
\342\226\262

66

Part

Groups and

Subgroups

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

Computations
In

Exercises

1 through

4,

find

the

quotient

and remainder, according to 2. n =

the

division

algorithm,

when n is

divided

by m.

1. n = 3. n =

42, m -50,

=
m

9
=

-42, 50, m

8
7, find

4. n = the greatest

In Exercises 5

through

commondivisor
and 88

of the

two integers.

5. 32 and
8. 5

24 11, find

6. 48

7.
of a

360

and

420

In Exercises 8 through

the number of

generators

cyclic group

having

the

given

order.

9. 8
is an group. be the must
14.
find

10. 12
automorphism

11. 60
Exercises

of a group with itself An isomorphism number of automorphisms of the given

of the group. In
under

12 through

16, find

the

[Hint: Make

44. use ofExercise What


13.
17 through
subgroup
subgroup subgroup Z6

image of a generator
15. Z
in

an automorphism?]

12. Z2
In

Z8

16. Z12
indicated

Exercises

21,

the

number
by by

of elements
25 30

the

cyclic group.

17. The cyclic


18. 19.

of Z30
of Z42 (;') of

generated
generated

The cyclic The cyclic

the group

20. The cyclic 21. Thecyclic


In Exercises

subgroup subgroup

of the of the

C* of nonzero complex C* ofExercise generated 19 group 19 group C* of Exercise generated


all subgroups

numbers
by by

under multiplication

(1 +
1 + ;'

i)/V2

22 through

24, find
29,

of the given

group,

and draw
24.

the subgroup

diagram

for the

subgroups.

22. Z,2
In Exercises

23. Z36
25 through
26.

Z8

find all

orders of subgroups
27. Z12

of the

given group.
29.

25.

Z6

Z8

28.

Z20

Z,7

Concepts In Exercises

30 and
it is

31,

correct

the definition of

the

italicized

term

without reference

to

the

text, if

correction is

needed, so that
30.

in a form
group

acceptablefor publication.
G has

An element

a of a
common

order n e Z+ if

and

only

if a\" =

e.
integer

31. Thegreatest 32.


Mark

divisor

of two positive
true

integers

is the

largest positive

that

divides

both of them.

each

of the

following abelian
addition element least

or false. is abelian. is cyclic.

a. Every
b. Every

cyclic group
group

c. Q

under

is a cyclic of every one

d.

Every

e. Thereis at
f. Every
group

of order

group. cyclic group generates abelian group of every <4 is cyclic.

the group.
finite

order

>0.

Section6

Exercises

67

g.
h. j.
In

All

generators

of Z20 are

prime

numbers. group.

If G

and G' are groups,


^f

then

G n G' is a

i. If

H and

are

subgroups

of a group

G, then
of a

D K

isa

group.

Every

cyclic

group of order >2 has


either

at least

two distinct generators.


group

Exercises

33 through

37,

give

an example

with

the property

described, or

explain

why

no

example exists.

33.
34.

finite
infinite

group

that is not
that is

cyclic

An

35. A
36.

cyclic

not cyclic group group having only one generator cyclic


group

An infinite
A

having

four generators
generators

37.

finite

cyclic

group having four

of all of the cyclic multiplicative The generators U\342\200\236 nth roots of unity group of unity for the 41, find the primitive nth roots unity. In Exercises 38 through

in C given

are the primitive value of n.

nth

roots

of

38.

= 4

39. n =

6
8

40.

n =

41. n =

12

ProofSynopsis

42. Give

a one-sentence most

synopsis of

the

proof

of Theorem
proof

6.1. 6.6.

43. Give at Theory

a three-sentence

synopsis of the

of Theorem

44. Let
G

be a cyclic
show xff

isomorphism,
\342\200\224> G' and and and and

to G. If <f>: G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 G' is an with a, and let G' be a group generator isomorphic for every x \342\202\254 determined by the value 4>{a). That is, if \302\242): G, <j){x) is completely = if (a), then (f>{x) = ir{x) for all x & G. : G \342\200\224>\342\200\242isomophisms such G' are two that 0(a)

group
that,

45.

Let r

5 be b be s be

positive integers. elements of a


group

Show

that G. Show

{nr +

ms

\\

n, m
has

e Z} is a
finite

subgroup

of Z.

46. Let

that if ab

order

n, then

ba alsohas

order

n.

47. Let r

positive integers.
least

a. Define the
b. Under what

common

multiple
least
that

of r
common

and

5 as a

generator of a

certain

cyclic

group.

condition is the
part

c.

Generalizing

(b), show

the product

multiple of r and 5 their product, rsi of the greatest commondivisor and of the least commonmultiple
must

of r

and 5 is

rs.
has
only that

48. Show
49.
Show such

that by that

a group that

a finite the

number of

subgroups

be a finite

group.
a theorem:
\"If

a counterexample every
group

following

\"converse\" of
G is

Theorem 6.6is not 2 and


cyclic

a group

G is

proper subgroup is

cyclic, then

cyclic.\" subgroup of order of generators


is the

50. Let
Show

G be a
that

ax =
q be

xa

and suppose for all x e

a e G generates G. [Hint: Consider


Find

a cyclic

unique such

element.

(xax'])2.] number

51. Let

and

distinct prime numbers.

the

of the

group

7Lpq.

68

Part

Groups and

Subgroups
number
G of

52. Let
53.
Show

p be a that

prime number.
in a finite

Find

the

of generators of

the

cyclic

group

Zpr, where r is
xm

an

integer

> 1.
m

cyclic
each

group

solutions

x in

for

positive

order n, written multiplicatively, integer m that divides n.


is the

the equation m does

e has

exactly

54.
55. 56.

With

reference

to Exercise
has

53, what
and let
relatively that

situation if 1 < m

<

and number.

not

divide

n?

Show that 1p Let G be an a. Show


that

no proper

nontrivial

subgroups if p is a prime
and

abelian if r

group

K be

finite cyclic
a cyclic

subgroups

with

\\H\\

= r

and

\\K\\

= s.

and 5 are

prime, G contains

then

G contains a

cyclic subgroup
least

of order

rs. multiple of r
and

b.

Generalizing

part

(a), show

subgroup of order the

common

s.

section

Generating
Let

Sets

And Cayley Digraphs

G be a group, and let a e G. We have described the cyclic subgroup (a) of G, which the element a. Suppose we want to find as of G that contains is the smallest subgroup that contains both a and b for another element b in G. By as possible small a subgroup Theorem 5.17, we see that any subgroup containing a and b must contain a\" and bm for all finite products of such powers ofa and b. all m, n e Z, and consequently must contain For example, such an expression might be a2b4a~3b2a5. Note that we cannot \"simplify\" this expression by writing first all powers of a followed by the powers of b, since G may are of the same not be abelian. However, products of such expressions again expressions e = a0 and the of such an expression is again of the same inverse type. Furthermore, of a2fo4a~3fo2a5 is a~5b~2a3b~4a~2. By Theorem5.14, type. For example,the inverse of a and b form a subgroup of G, this shows that all such products of integral powers which surely must be the smallest containing both a and b. We call a and b subgroup If this subgroup should be all of G, then we say that {a, b) generators of this subgroup. generates G.Of course, there is nothing sacred about taking just two elements a, b e G. We could of elements of G, have made similar arguments for three, four, or any number

as long 7.1 Example


The It

as we

take only V = by

finite

products

of their

integral powers.
5.9 is

Klein is also

4-group

generated

{e, a, b, c] of {a, c], {b,c], and

Example

{a, b, c}. If a

generated by {a, b] since ab = c. group G is generated a subset S, by

then every subsetof


7.2Example

G containing

S generates

G.
+ 3 = be Z6- It by {2,

\342\226

The group

Z6 is generated by
subgroup

{1}

so that
also

any

containing
contains

and {5}. It is also generated {2,3}since2 by and 3 must contain 5 and must therefore
{3,

5,
is

since (2) =
We

generated

by {3,

a 4}, {2, 3, 4}, {1,3},nd

5}, but it is

not

generated

4}

{0,2, 4}

2 and

4.

\342\226

of a group G generated by given an intuitive explanation of the subgroup follows in of G. What is a detailed exposition of the same idea approached of subgroups. After we get an intuitive grasp of via intersections another way, namely as possible. We give a set-theoretic a concept,it is nice to try to write it up as neatly a theorem that was in Exercise definition and generalize 54 of Section 5. have
a subset

Section7
Let {5,-| i
o DieISif

Generating Setsand

Cayley

Digraphs

69

7.3 Definition

e the

1} be a collection of sets.Here may be any set sets St is the set of all elements that are in all n ielS{

of indices. Theintersection the sets St; that is,

= {x\\x
may
Si

e Si for all;

e /}.

If

I is

finite, I

= {1,2, ...,

n],

we

denote n,-e/S,- by
\342\226\240

ns2n---0\302\276.
//,

7.4

Theorem

The intersection

of somesubgroups
Let a

of a group

G for

/ is

again a subgroup

of

G.

Proof

Let us
fo

show

closure.

e n,-e///,
e

//, for all; e /. Thenafo Since //, is a subgroup


for
that

so that a e //, for all 2 e I and and fo e n,-e///,-, for all 2 e /, since //, is a group. Thus afo e n,-e///,-. //,all 2 e /, and hence all i e /, we have e e for for

//,

e e n,-e///,-.
Finally,

a e
a-1

n,-e///,-, we
e n,e///,-.
and

have

e //,

for all

e /,

so a-1

for all //,\342\226\240

/,
\342\231\246

which implies
Let
containing

G be a
all

group

let

a,- e

G for

the elements of G.

at for i
subgroup

e /,
H

if we

take the
// e /.
2'

intersection of all
This

subgroups

a
a,-

subgroup

There is at least one subgroup of G itself. Theorem 7.4 assuresus that namely of G containing all a,- for z' e /, we will obtain is the smallest subgroup of G containing all the
i

e /.

G is

for

7.5 Definition

Let G

of G containing be a group and let a,- e G for 2 e /. The smallest subgroup is all of G, then e /}. If this subgroup e /} is the subgroup {a,- 12 by {a,- 12 generated of G. If there is a finite set {a,- 12 e /} e /} generates G and the a,- are generators {a,- 12 \342\226\240 that generates G, then G is finitely generated. Note

w definition is consistent ith our previous definition of a generator for also that the statement a is a generator of G may mean either that G = {a} or that a is a member of a subset of G that generates G. The context in which the statement is made should indicate which is intended. Our next theorem gives the into the subgroup of G generatedby {a,- 12 e /} that we discussed for structural insight two before Example 7.1. generators

that this

a cyclicgroup.

Note

7.6 Theorem

If G is a group and a,- e G for 2 e /, then the subgroup // of G generated by {a,- 12 e /} has as elementspreciselythose elements of integral powers of G that are finite products of the a,-, where powers of a fixed a,- may occur several times in the product.

Proof

Let K denote the


We

set

of all

finite

products

of integral
and

powers of
since H is
a product

the the

a,-.

Then

K c
subgroup

H.

need

only

observe

containing at for 2 e again in K. Since (a,-)0=


the

that K is a subgroup /, we will be done.

then,

smallest

Observethat
For every

e, we have
product

e & K.

element fc
a,-

product

giving k a

new

with

the order

of the

of elements in K is if we form from and the opposite reversed


in ^T,

Part I

Groups

and

Subgroups

sign on all

exponents, we have

1, which

is

thus

in K.

For example,

which

is again

in K.

\342\2

Cayley

Digraphs
set
the

For each generating group in terms of

S of a

finite

group

generators representations

in S.

digraph. These visual referred to as Cayley

the G, there is a directed graph representing The term directedgraph is usually abbreviated as and are also of groups were devised by Cayley,

diagrams in the literature. consists of a finite number of points, called vertices of the a digraph Intuitively, a direction denoted by an arrowhead) joining and some arcs (each with vertices. digraph, a generating G using set S we have one vertex, represented by In a digraph for a group a dot, for each elementof G. Each generator in S is denotedby one type of arc. We and paperwork. colors for different arc types in pencil Since different coulduse different are not available in our text, we use different colors arcs, like solid, dashed, and style
dotted,

to denote

different generators. Thus if


bby---*

S = {a,b,

c] we

might denote

a
With xa

by

\342\226\240

and

cby

\342\200\242

this = y.

notation,

That is, traveling

of the group to that type we are in a direction oppositeto

an occurrence of x\302\273*y in a Cayley digraph means that an arc in the direction of the arrow indicates that multiplication at the start of the arc on the right by the generator corresponding element at the end of the arc. Of course, since element of arc yields the group = x. Thus traveling we know immediately that ya~l an arc in the group,
the

arrow

of the
denote

corresponding

generator.
the

this by

omitting
b2 =

corresponds to multiplication If a generator in S is its own arrowhead from the arc, rather
denote

on

the right by

the inverse

inverse,
than

it is customary to using a double arrow.

For example,if
7.7Example

e, we

might

b by

Neither

= {1} BothofthedigraphsshowninFig.7.8representthegroupZ6withgeneratingset5 and shape of an arc nor the angle between arcs has any significance the length

(b)

7.8 Figure

Two digraphs for

Ze with

S =

(1}using

\342\226\240

Section

Generating

Sets and

Cayley Digraphs

71

(a)

(b) for Z6

7.9 Figure

Two digraphs

with S

= (2, 3}using

\342\226\240 *\342\200\224 and-

7.10

Example

Both of

the

digraphs 3 is

{2,3}.
Notice
group.

Since how

its

different

7.9 representthe group Z& with generating set S = own inverse, there is no arrowhead on the dashed arcs representing 3. in Fig. 7.8 for the same those these Cayley diagrams look from
shown

in Fig.

The difference is due


digraph

to

the

different
satisfy

choice for
these

the

set

of generators.

\342\226\262

Every

for a group must

four properties

for

the

reasons

indicated.

Property

Reason
is connected, from

1. The digraph we can get


any

that is,

Every
in a

equation

gx

= h

has a

solution

vertex

g to by traveling along
any vertex
at g

group.

consecutive arcs, starting


2.

and
The

ending at h. At most one arc goesfrom g to a vertex h.


g has

a vertex

solution

of gx
each

is unique.

3. Each vertex

of each

type

starting
ending

exactly one at g, and


at g.

arc
one

For g

e G and

generator
{gb~l)b

b we = g. =

can compute gb, and


If gq ug~lh

of each type 4. If two different

sequences from

types to the from


the
It

starting

vertex

of arc g lead

and

gr

= h,

then

uq

= ur.

same

vertex

h, then
arc

those
starting
to

samesequences of
any

types

vertex

u will

lead

same

vertex v.

can

be shown
for

digraph

some

that, conversely,every digraph group. Due to the symmetry


the

satisfying

these
digraph,

of such a

four properties is a Cayley we can choose labels

like a, b, c for

various

arc types,
a product from digraphs.

name each other vertex by to attain that vertex starting

name any vertex e to represent the identity, and of arc labels and their inverses that we can travel the one that we named e. Some finite were first groups

constructed (found)

using

72

Part I

Groups

and

Subgroups

,, //
/
;
\\ \\ \\

\342\226\240

(a)

7.11 Figure

7.12 Example

digraph

satisfying

the four
the

properties on page 71 is
labels

shown

in Fig.

7.11 (a). To obtain

Fig.

7.11

(b), we selected

>
named

and
b

a vertex e, and then the other vertices as shown. We have a group named we named of eight elements. Note that the vertex that {e,a,a2,a3,b,ab,a2b,a3b} well be named ba~l, the vertex that we named a3 couldbenamed ab could equally a~l, etc. It is not hard to compute products of elements this group. To compute (a3b)(a2b), in we just start at the vertex labeled a3b and then travel in succession two solid arcs and = one dashed arc, arriving at the vertex a, so (a3b)(a2b) a. In this fashion, we could write out the table for this \342\226 eight-element group.

EXERCISES

Computations
In

Exercises

1 through

6, list
Z12

the

elements

of the

1. The subset {2, 3}of


3. The 5.

subgroup generated by the given subset. 2. The subset {4, 6} of Z]2


4. The 6.

subset {8, 10}of Zi8 The subset {12, 42} of Z the


group

subset {12, 30}of Z36 The subset {18, 24, 39} of


products,

7. For

described

in Example

7.12 compute these

using

Fig. 7.11(b).
c.

a. (a2b)a3

b.

(ab)(a3b)

b(a2b)

-Ta

'

bid

f
(b)

(a)

(c)

7.13 Figure

Section 7

Exercises

73
e as that

In

Exercises

identity

element.

8 through 10, give List the identity


will

the

table e first

for the

group

having and

the list

indicated

digraph. In each

digraph,

take so

in your table,

the remaining

elements

alphabetically,

your answers

be

easy to

check.

8. Thedigraph 9. The digraph


10. The digraph Concepts

in Fig. in Fig. in Fig.

7.13(a) 7.13(b) 7.13(c)

11.
12.

How

can

we tell

from a Cayley digraph


11, determine

whether
whether

or not group

the

corresponding

group

is commutative? digraph

Referring

to Exercise

the

corresponding
or not

to the

Cayley

in Fig. 7.11(b) is
at

commutative.

13. Is it
triangle

obvious

from
outside

a Cayley
triangle

digraph of a
in Fig.

group

whether

the

group

is cyclic?

[Hint: Look
Z6.

Fig.

7.9(b).]

14. The large

similarly

exhibit
set

a cyclic

the cyclic subgroup {0, 2, 4} of 7.9(b) exhibits subgroup of Zg? Why or why not? Zg

Does

the smaller inside

15. The generating


group.

S =

{1, 2} for
draw

contains

Nevertheless,

we can

a Cayley

since 1 is a generator for the more generators than necessary, such a Cayley digraph for Z6 with this generating set S. Draw

digraph.

16.

Draw A

a Cayley

digraph for
to

Z8

taking

as generating
of a

set S =
an

{2,5}.
that equates some product G is commutative so
of generators
that

17.

relation

on a set
the

S of generators
identity

group G is
example,

equation

and

their inverses

one relationisaba~lb~l= e.If,

e of

G. For
moreover,

if S

= {a, b} and
inverse,

ab

= ba,

then

b is

its

own

then another
of G.

relation is

b2

e.

a. Explain how we can find some relations on S from a Cayley digraph = {a,b}of generators b. Find three relations on the set S for the group 18. Draw
digraphs in

describedby 4, taking

Fig.

7.11 (b). a generating

of the each

possible
Theory

two possible case. You need not

structurally

different

groups

of order

as small

set as

label

vertices.

19.

Show

that

for n

> 3, there

exists

a nonabelian

group

with

2n

elements

that is generated

by

two

elements

of

order 2.

part

Permutations,

Cosets,

IJ

and

Direct
8

Products

Section

Groups
Orbits,

of Permutations
Cycles,
the

Section 9
Section

and the
Theorem

Alternating

Groups

10

Cosets and
Direct fPlane

of Lagrange

Section 11
Section

Products Isometries

and Finitely

Generated

Abelian

Groups

12

section

Groups
We

of Permutations
seen

have

examples

of groups of

numbers,

like

addition.

We have also introduced

groups

of matrices,

of the element A of GL(2, E) yields a transformation column vector. x as a 2-componentolumn then Ax is also a 2-component c vector, regard in that its elements is typical of the most useful The group GL(2, E) of many groups act on things to transform them. Often, an action produced by a group element can be can be regarded of the group ^function binary operation whose we construct some finite elements, called section, groups composition. us with examples of finite permutations, act on finite sets. These groups will provide the same as some nonabelian shall show that any finite group is structurally We groups.
regarded

groups Z, Q, and E under like the group GL(2, E). Each plane E2 into itself; namely, if we
the

as a function,
In

and

the

this

group

turn

of permutations. out to be particularly

Unfortunately,
useful

this

result,

which

sounds

very powerful,

does not

to us.

elements

You may be familiar with of the set. Thus for

the notion
the

of a permutation

of a

set as a rearrangement of the

set

{1,2,3,4,5},

a rearrangement

of the

elements

could

8.1, resulting in the new arrangement Fig. {4, 2, 5, 3, 1}. Letus think of this schematic diagram in Fig. 8.1 as a function mapping of eachelement element from the same in the left column into a single listed (not necessarily different) set listedat the right. Thus 1 is carried into 4,2 is mapped into 2, and so on. Furthermore, each element of the set, this mapping must be such that to be a permutation appears in

be given

schematically as in

the

right

column

once

and only

once. For example,the

diagram
at

in Fig.
all in

8.2 does not

give

1 does a permutation, for 3 appears twice while to be such a mapping. now define a permutation
'

not appear

the right

column. We

Section

12 is not used

in

the remainder

of

the text.

75

76

Part II

Permutations,

Cosets,

and

Direct

Products

l->4

l->3

2^2

2^2

3^5 4^3
5->l

3^4

4^5

5^3
8.2 Figure
: A \302\247 \342\200\224>\342\200\242 A that

8.1Figure
8.3

Definition

A permutation

of a set A

is a

function

is both

one to

one

and onto.

Permutation
We

Groups
that function composition o is of a set A. We call this operation
and a

now

show

binary

operation

on the

collection of all
Let
A

permutations

set,

and let a

x be

permutations

of

so

mapping

A onto A. The composite function


A\\A^A,

multiplication. that a and x are both one-to-one a ox defined schematically by


permutation

be

functions

o for permutation gives a mapping of A into A. Rather than keep the symbol we multiplication, will denote a o x by the juxtaposition ax, as we have done for general groups. ax will be a permutation if it is one to one and Now onto A. Remember that the action of ax on A must be read ax is one to one. If
in

right-to-left

order:

first apply x and

then

a.

Let us

show

that

(ax)(ai)
then

= (ax)(a2),

a(x(ai))

= a(x(a2)),
x is
let A,

since a is given to be one to one, we know and that x{a\\) = x{a2). But then, since one to one, this gives a\\ \342\200\224 ax is one to one. To show that ax is onto A, a2. Hence a e A. Since a is onto exists a' & A such that a(a') = a. Sincex is onto A, there

there

exists

a\"

A such that
a =

x(a\") =
a{a')

a'. Thus = (ax)(a\,

= a{x{a\

so

ax

is onto

A.

8.4 Example

that Suppose

A =
and

{1,2, 3,4,

5}
a

that

a is

the

permutation

given
in

by Fig.
parentheses

8.1. We write
and omitting

changing

the columns

to rows

in a more standard the arrows, as

notation,

Section8

Groupsof

Permutations

77

\342\226\240 Historical

Note
earliest

of the
One
permutations

recorded in the
by

studies
Yetsirah,

of
or

occurs
written

Sefer
century.

Book
author

of Creation,
sometime

an unknown the

Jewish
The

ibn al-Banna a mathematician (1256-1321), from Marrakech in what is now Morocco, and Levi ben Gerson, a French rabbi, philosopher, and
Abbas mathematician,

before
in

the eighth
Hebrew

author
in

was

interested
the letters

counting
the

various

ways
can be

which

number

of

alphabet

arranged.

n!,

were able to give rigorous proofs that the of permutations of any set of n elements is as well as prove various results about counting

sense a mystical one. It was that the letters had magical believed could suitable powers; therefore, arrangements the forces of nature. The actual text of the subjugate letters build Sefer Yetsirah is very sparse: \"Two four build 24 six words, two words, three build words, five build 120, six build 720, seven build 5040.\" enough, the idea of counting Interestingly also the arrangements of the letters of the alphabet occurred in Islamic mathematics in the eighth and in both ninth centuries. By the thirteenth century, idea the Islamic and Hebrew cultures, the abstract root so that both Abu-1-' of a permutation had taken

The question

was

in some

combinations.

Levi and his


concerned

predecessors, however, were


as simply arrangements of solutions of and others
to

with

permutations

a given finite set. It was the search for polynomial equations that led Lagrange
in

the

late

the set of a given equation. And it being was Augustin-Louis Cauchy (1789-1857) who in detail the basic theorems of permutation developed and who introduced the standard notation theory used in this text.
permutations as

functions
of

eighteenth century from a finite


the roots

think set

of

to itself,

that

so that

a (I)

= 4,

cr(2) = 2, and

so on.

Let

T=

'12
,3

3 4
5

Then

ax
For

1 2
4

5 1

12
3

4 order,

2 1
=

example,

multiplying

in right-to-left

= (crr)(l) = cr(T(l)) cr(3)


We
now

5.
of

A
a nonempty

show
this

that

the collection

of all permutations

set

forms

group under 8.5 Theorem

permutation

multiplication.
and

Let A be is a group We have

a nonempty
under shown

set,

let

SA be

the collection of all

permutations

of A.

Then Sa

permutation that

multiplication.

Proof

composition
permutation
multiplication

of

two

permutations

of A

yields a

permutation

of

A,

so Sa is closed under Now permutation

multiplication. is defined as

function composition, and

in Section

2,

we showed that
satisfied.

function

composition
that

The permutation i such

i(a)

is associative. Hence S^J is satisfied. \342\200\224 a, for all a e A acts as identity. Therefore

^ is

78

Part

II

Permutations,

Cosets, and DirectProducts

For

a permutation
mapping

a,
one

direction of the

a, that

existenceof
a

exactly

is both

one to one and

that reverses the a~l, is the permutation function, -1 a' of A such that a = a (a'). The is, a (a)is the element such element a' is a consequence the fact that, as a function, of onto. For each a e A we have
the

inverse

i(a) = and also

a=

cr(a')= cr(a~l(a))

(crcr~l)(a)

L(a') =a'
so that
Warning:
that <7_1<7

= a~\\a) = a~\\a{a'))
the

(CT_1o-)(a'),
is (\302\276

and

crcr-1

are both

permutation

i. Thus

satisfied.

\342\231\24

Some

texts compute a product

a \\\302\261permutations of
they

{o\\L){a)

= /x(cr(a)).
Exercise \\\302\261o.
another

Thus
text

the

permutation

get for
check

a\\i

by computing

51 asks on this

If you

refer to

us to check in two material, be sure to

ways

in left-to-right order, so is the one we would get that we still get a group. its order for permutation

multiplication.

was nothing in our definition of a permutation to require that the set A be will be concerned with most of our examples of permutation groups of finite sets. Note that the structure of the group Sa is concerned only permutations of elements in the set A, and not what the elements in A are. If setsA and with the number
There
finite.

However,

B have the same cardinality, then SbSa Sb , we Sa \342\200\224To define an isomorphism \302\242: \342\200\224>\342\200\242 B be let f : A \342\200\224> a one-to-one function mapping A onto B, which establishes that A and B have the same cardinality. For a e Sa, we let 4>{a) be the permutation a e Sbsuch that = f(a(a)) for all a e A. To illustrate this for A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {#, $, %} a(f(a))
and

the

function

/ :A

\342\200\224>\342\200\242 B defined

as

/(1) =#,
\302\242) maps

/(2) = $,

/(3) =
$

%,

/1

3\\

/#

%\\

(,3
We the

ij11110^
of A

$ #J-

simply renaming

rename
\342\200\242 to \342\200\242 \342\200\242, n}

function

{1,

2, 3,

in B using in our two-row notation by elements thus renaming elements of Sa to be those of Sb- We can take f, be a prototype for a finite set A of n elements.

the elements

8.6Deflnition

Let A be the group on n


Note

finite set
letters,
n\\

{1,2,

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 The

,n}.

group of all permutations


Sn.

of A

is the

symmetric

and is
elements,

denoted
where

by

\342\226\24

that

Sn has

nl=n(n-

\\){n

-2)---

(3)(2)(1).

Two

Important
the

Examples
group

8.7Example

An

interesting

We list

example for us is the of A and permutations

63 of

3!

\342\200\224 6 elements.

Let the

set A

be

{1,2,3}.

assign to

each

a subscripted

Greek letter for a name.

Section8
The reasons for

Groupsof

Permutations

79

the

choice

of names

will be
3

Mo

1 1 1

2 2
3

clear later. Let 2 Ml 1 3


M2

2 3
1 3
3
2

Mi

2 3

2 2

3 1

92 =

M3

2 3 1 3

8.8 Table
Po Po Pi P2
Mi M2 M3

Pa

Pi
Pi

P2

Mi

M2

M3

Pi

Pi
Pi

Po

M3

Mi

M2

Pi
Mi

Po

Pi

M2

M3

Mi

Mi

M2

M3

Po

Pi Po
P2

P2

M2 M3

M2 M3

/U-3

Mi M2

P2

Pi Po
this

Mi

Pi

We

The multiplication table for 53 is shown in Table 8.8. Note that have seen that any group of at most 4 elementsis abelian. a group of 5 elements is also abelian. Thus S3 has minimum
group.
There

group

is not
we will
any

abelian!
see
that

Later

order for

nonabelian
\342\226\262

8.9Figure

of S3 in Example 8.7 and the correspondence between the elements of an equilateral triangle with vertices 1,2, and 3 (see Fig. 8.9 can be placed, one covering the other with vertices on top of vertices. For this reason, we used p, 53 is also the group D3 of symmetries of an equilateral triangle. Naively, for rotations and jxt for mirror images in bisectors of angles. The notation for D3 stands the third dihedral group. The nth dihedral group Dn is the group of symmetries of the See Exercise 44.' regular n-gon. Note that we can consider the elements of S3 to act on the triangle in Fig. 8.9. See the discussion at the start of this section. is a natural
two

ways

in which

copies

8.10

Example

Let us form the


copies

dihedral
with

group
vertices

of a square

vertices
of

on
square.

top

of

vertices

the

It is

also called the

to the ways that two D4 of permutations corresponding 4 can be placed, one covering the other and with 1, 2, 3, will then be the group of symmetries (see Fig. 8.11). D4
octic

group.

Again,

we choose seemingly arbitrary

Many

people denote the nth dihedral

group

since by D2,, rather than by D\342\200\236the order of the group is 2n.

80

Part II

a Permutations, Cosets,nd

Direct

Products

notation

that we shall explain later.


in

Naively,

we
and

are using pt
<5,

for

rotations,

/x,- for

mirror
eight

images
permutations

perpendicular

bisectors

of sides,

for

diagonal

flips.

There are

involved

here. Let

Po
8.11

12
12

12
Mi

4
3

2 14
12 3
3

Figure

12
Pi

3 4
3

4
1 4

2
12
3

pi 2

P2 =

3 4
4

12
3

Si =

12
3

14
3

Pi

12
4

12
14

12

8.12'Table
Po Po
P\\

Pi

Pi

Mi

M2

\302\253i

Si

Po

Pi

Pi Pi Po
Pi

Pi Po
P\\

Mi

M2

\302\253i

Si
Mi

Pi

Pi
Pi

Pi

\302\253i

Si

M2

Pi

Pi Po

M2

Mi

Si

s,

Pi
Mi

Pi

Pi

Si

s,

Mi

M2

Mi

Si
Si

M2

\302\253i

Po

Pi Po

Pi
P\\

Pi

M2

M2

Mi

Si

Pl
Pi

Pi Pi Po

\302\253i \302\253i Mi

Si

M2

Pi
Pi

Po

Si

Si

M2

\302\253i

Mi

Pi

Pi

{PO'^ll

{Po-

8.13 Figure

Subgroup

diagram

for D4.

Section 8

Groups of

Permutations

81

in Table 8.12. Note that D4 is again nonabelian. This group The table for D4 is given is simply beautiful. It will provide us with nice for many concepts we will examples in that table! Finally, introduce in group theory. Look at the lovely symmetries we give in Fig. 8.13 the subgroup for the subgroups of D4. Look at the lovely symmetries diagram in that

diagram!
Theorem

\342\226\262

Cayley's

Look at any group table in the text. Note how each row of the table gives a permutation as listed at the top of the table. Similarly, each column of the set of elements of the group, of the group set, as listed at the left of the table. In view of the table gives a permutation that at least every finite G is isomorphic of these observations, it is not surprising group for infinite of G. The same is true to a subgroup of the group So of all permutations consisting Cayley's theorem statesthat every group is isomorphic to some group groups; This is a nice and intriguing of permutations under permutation result, multiplication. At first glance, the theorem and is a classic of group theory. might seem to be a tool to of groups of shows is the generality answer all questions about groups. What it really of all permutation groups Sa for sets A of all sizes subgroups permutations. Examining exists theorem does show that if a counterexample would be a tremendous task. Cayley's will then some group of permutations to some we have made about groups, conjecture
provide
then

We now
a

the counterexample. to the proof of Cayley's theorem, proceed in its own right. lemma that is important

starting

with

a definition

and

* Historical

Note
(1821-1895) definition

Arthur
1854:\"A
different

Cayley

sounding

gave an of a group in a

abstractpaper of

set
and

\342\226\240 of symbols, all 1, a, f), \342\226\240 of them \342\226\240, of such that the product of any two

table that multiplication by any group the group elements. However, he of wrote, \"this does not in any wise show that the best group table and note that every line and column \" \342\226\240 \342\226\240. the table \"will contain all the symbols 1, a, /3, \342\226\240 or the easiest mode of treating the general problem is thus to however, always represented [of finding all groups of a given order] Cayley's symbols, operations on sets; it does not seem that he was aware regard it as a problem of [permutations]. It seems of any other kind of group. He noted, for instance, clear that the better course is to consider the general
the

them (no matter in what order) or the product of one of them into itself, belongs to the set, is any said to be a group.\" He then proceeded to define a

unable to find a suitable teaching post. In 1863, he In 1878, finally became a professor at Cambridge. he returned to the theory of groups by publishing four papers, in one of which he stated Theorem 8.16 of this text; his \"proof was simply to notice from
group
element

permuted

that

the

four

matrix
group
went

= /S
the

transposition,
non-cyclic

his definition
century.

operations 1, a = inversion, and y = a/S, form, abstractly, of four elements. In any case, unnoticed for a quarter of a
300

problem
The

in

itself.\"

paper of 1854 was one of about the 14 yearsCayley was practicing during
This

written

the earlier one, papers of 1878, unlike found a receptive audience;in fact, they were an on Walter Van Dyck's 1882 important influence axiomatic definition of an abstract group, the definitionthat led to the development of abstract group

law, being

theory.

82

Part II

a Permutations, Cosets,nd

Direct

Products

8.14 Definition

Let f : A

-> e //} G'

B be a

{f(h) | h
8.15

function and and is denoted by and let

let

H be a

subset of

A.

The

image

of H

under f is
=

/[#].
G

\342\2

Lemma

Let G
of G

and

be groups
y

<f> :

0(x)0(y)forallx,
with0[G].

e G. Then0[G]

-> G' be a one-to-one function such a is asubgroup of G'and^providesn

that 0(xy)
isomorphism

Proof

We

show

the conditions

for a

subgroup

given

in Theorem

Let

x', y' e

0[G]. Then there

exist

ijeG

such
that

that

\302\242^)

0[G] is

hypothesis, <j>(xy) = <j>(x)<j>(y) = x'y', showing closed under the operation of G'. Let e' be the identity of G'. Then e'$(e) =

x'y'

8.14 are satisfied by 0[G]. = x and 4>{y) = y'. By shown that e 0[G]. We have

0(e) = 0(ee)= 4>{e)$(e).


e 0[G].
)

Cancellation
For

x'

shows that e' = 0(e) so e' 0[G] where x' = 0(x), we have
in G' e' =

4>{e)=

= 4>{xx~l)
e 0[G].

<j>(x)(j>(x~

= x'$(x~l),
the

which shows is a subgroup


provides

that

x'_1

= 4>{x~l)

This completes
0[G]
now

demonstration at once
for

that 0[G]

of

G'. of G with
0[G] follows
4>{x)4>{y)

That 0 provides an isomorphism a one-to-one map of G onto

because
y

<f>

such

that 4>{xy) =

all x,

e G.

\342\23

8.16

Theorem

(Cayley's
Let G

Theorem)

Every
that

group

is isomorphic

to a group

of permutations.

Proof

be a group. We show
GJetA^ left

G is

needonly to define G.Forx e ije


of Xx

a one-to-one
:

of SG. By Lemma 8.15, we isomorphic to a subgroup function 0 : G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 <j>(xy) = 4>{x)4>{y) for all So such that
->\342\200\242 G be

then Ax maps G onto G. If kx(a) kx(b), cancellation. Thus AA- is also one to one, and is a permutation Sg by defining 0(x) = Ax for all x e G. 4> : G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 shows

all c

eG

as performing
that

multiplication

defined by kx(g) by x.) The equation

= xgforallg
Xx(x~1c)

G.(Wethink

= x(x~lc) xa

= c for

= xb
We

so a
now

=b

by

of G.
Xx =

define

To show
mapping

that
into

is \302\247one G.

to one,
that

suppose that

<j>(x) =

4>{y)-

Then

Xy

as functions

In particular

one. It
g e

only

remains

to show

~ ye and Ax(e) Xy(e), \342\226\240 that is, that (j>(xy) 4>{x)4>{y),


so xe
Permutation

x Xxy

- XxXy.

y. Thus 0 is
Now

one to

for any

(XxXy)(g) =
For the

G,wehaveAX},(g):
Xx(Xy(g))

: ^x(yg) =
theorem,

(xy)g.

multiplication by

is function

composition, so

x(yg).Thus

associativity,

A\342\226\240xy XyXV
well

proof of the
by

we could

have considered equally


= gx

the permutations

px of G defined

P.Ag)

for g e
that

G. (We

can

think

these

permutations

of px as meaning right multiplication by x.) Exercise 52 shows form a subgroup of SG,again to G, but provided by isomorphic

Section

Exercises

83

a map /x

->

So defined

by

M(*)

Px->

\342\226\240

8.17

Definition

The map
the

<f>

in the

map

/x in

proof of Theorem the preceding comment


the

8.16is the
is the

left

regular

representation

right

regular representation of
the

of G.

of G,

and \342\226\240

8.18

Example

Let us
Table

compute
8.19. By
group

left

regular
we

\"compute\"

mean

representation give the

group

given
left

elements for the

regular

table, by the group representation

and

the

table.

Here the

elements are

Xe=(e
\\e

a
a

f), b)

K = (e
\\a
is just

I b), b e)
like
the

and

Xb =

a
(l \\b
e

b\\.
a)
as seen

The table for this representation in Table 8.20. For example,

original

table

with x

renamed Xx,

Kh = (e \\a
8.19

I b)(l b e)
\\b

a)

b)

(e \\e

a a

?W.
b)

Table

8.20 Table
a

e
e a b

b b
K

K K K
K

e
a

e
a

h
given
order

h
column

K
the

For a finite group corresponding to their


permutation corresponding

by a group table, pa is
in the
under

permutation

of the
ka

elements
extreme

a at

to the
pa

left. The

notations

and Xa were

order of the elements chosen to suggest right

the very top, and in the row opposite


and

is the
at

the

left multiplication

by a,

respectively.

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

Computation
In

Exercises

1 through

5, compute
6\\

the

indicated

product

involving the
6\\

following

permutations

in S(,:
6\\

/12345
CT~V3

/12345

/12345

1456

2j'
2.

r~l2
x2a
expressions

4136
3.
/x<72

5J'

^(5
4.

2 4 3 1 6J'
5. a'ha
/x

1.
In

xa

a~2x
a,

Exercises

6 through

9, computethe

shown

for the permutations


8.

x and

defined

prior to

Exercise 1.

6. |(cr)|

7.

|(r2)i

ct100

9. /x100

84

Part II

Permutations,

Cosets,

and

Direct

Products

10.

Partition

the

following

collection of groups
set.

into

subcoUections

all nonzero
Z under

elements of the

of isomorphic groups.

Herea *

superscript

means

addition

Z6 Z2 S6

S2 R* under
R+ under

multiplication

multiplication
multiplication

Q* under
addition

17Z under
O under

C* under

multiplication
{it)

addition
addition

The subgroup
The subgroup

of R*

under

multiplication

3Z under
R under

G of S$ generated a e

12
by

addition

Let

be

a set and

let a

&

SA. For

a fixed

A,

the

set

Oa.a =

{a\"(a)\\n&Z}
13, find
the

is the orbit of Exercise 1.

a under

a.

In

Exercises

11 through

orbit

of 1 under

the

permutation

defined

prior to

11. a
14. In Table
Verify

12.
8.8, we usedpo:Pi. P2,
p4>, p24> for geometrically reference the the

13.

/x

e, p, p2, 4>, 15. 16. 17.


With Find Find

of S3. Some authors use the notations Mi, M2, M3 as the names of the 6 elements these elements, where their e is our identity po, their P is our pi, and their 0 is our/^. that their six expressionsdo give all of S3.

to Exercise of elements of elements

14, give a similar


in the set in the

alternative
S4 S51 |

labeling = 3}. = 5}.

for the 8 elements of D4

in Table

8.12.

number number
group

{a e

cr(3) a{2)

set {a e
8.7

18. Consider the

S3 of Example

a.
b. 19.

Find Find

the all that

cyclic

subgroups

(pi), (p2), and


improper,

(/xi) of S3

of S3.

subgroups, the subgroup

proper and
all

and give

the

subgroup

diagram

for them.

Verify by

diagram for D4 shown


subgroups

one the

element,

then

generated
the

in Fig. 8.13 is correctby finding by two elements, etc.

all (cyclic)

subgroups generated

20. Give

multiplication

table for

cyclic P =

subgroup

of S5 generated

by

12

3
5

4 5
13
and

2 4
p3, p4,

There
21.

will

be

six elements.

Let

them

be p, p2,

p3

p\302\260

p6. Is

this

group

isomorphic

to S3?

a. Verify that

the six matrices

1 0
0 1

0\"

\"0

0\"

\"0

\"1

0\"

\"0

1 0

0
Don't

0
form

1 0

1 0

, 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
1

a group

under matrix
column

multiplication.

[Hint:

try to computeall it on
of six

products

of these by each

matrices. Instead,
matrices.\"

think b. What

how the

vector

is transformed
section

by multiplying

the

left

of the

group discussedin

this

is isomorphic to

this

group

matrices?

Section 8

Exercises

85

(a)

(b)

(c)

(Consider this

part to

continue infinitely
(d)

to the left and right.)

8.21

Figure that form a

22. After
In this

working

Exercise D4.

21, write

down

eight

matrices

group

under

matrix

multiplication

that is
23
the

isomorphicto

section we discussed the


that want

group

through 26, give a group indicated figure. You may


to symmetries,

we have to

of symmetries of an equilateral triangle and of a square. In Exercises discussed in the text that is isomorphic to the group of symmetries of on the figure, write some permutations label some special points corresponding
of permutations.

and compute some products


in Fig. in Fig. the

23. The

figure

8.21 (a) 8.21 (c)

25. Thefigure 27. Compute Concepts


In

24. Thefigure 26. Thefigure


the

in Fig. in Fig.

8.21 (b) 8.21 (d)


the notation

left regular

representation of Z4. Compute

right regular

representation of S3 using

of Example

8.7.

Exercises

28 and
that

29, correct the


in a form

definition

of the

italicized term
S to
map

without

reference

to the

text,

if

correction

is

needed, so

acceptablefor publication. of a set S is a one-to-oneap from 28. A permutation m 29. The left regular representation of a group G is the of G that carries each ieG into gx.
it is

S.
of G

into So whose value


is a

at g

e G is

the

permutation

In Exercises

30 through
-> ->

34,
by by

determine
fl(x) f2(x)

whether the given

function

permutation

of R.

30. /1 : R 31. /2 : R
32. /3 : R

R defined R defined
defined

= x = x2

+ l

-> R
->

by f2(x)
by

= -x3
= ex

33. /4 : R
34. /5 : R

R defined

fA{x)

-> R defined 35. Mark each of the a. Every b. Every

by following

f5(x)

= x3
true or

x2

- 2x

false. function.
if

permutation function function group

is a one-to-one is a permutation from

if and only
onto

it is

one to

one.

c. Every d. Every

G is

a finite set isomorphic to a

itself

must

be one to one.

subgroup

of Sq \342\226\240

86

Part

II

Permutations,

Cosets, and Direct Products

e.

Every

subgroup

f. Every g. The

of an abelian group element of a group generates


group

is abelian.

a cyclic

subgroup of the

group.

symmetric

S10 has S3 is

10 elements.

h. The symmetric
i.
j.
Sn

group

cyclic.
some

cyclic for any n. Every group is isomorphicto


is not

group

of permutations.
group

36.

Show

by an

example

that

every

proper

subgroup of a nonabelian

may be
previously

abelian.
in the

37. Let A be a nonempty set. What type of algebraic structure mentioned of all functions A into itself under function mapping composition?
38. Indicate schematically a Cayley radians and a reflection (mirror
Proof

text is given
through

by the

set

44. image). SeeExercise


proof of

digraph

for Dn

using a

generating

set

consisting

of a rotation

2jt/n

Synopsis

39.

Give a two-sentence

synopsis

of the

Cayley's theorem.
let b be

Theory

In Exercises
whether

40
| |

through

43,

let A

be a set, B a subset of A,
of SA under

and

one

particular

the

given set is sure to


a(b) a[B]

be a subgroup

the induced

operation.

Here

of B. Determine = {a{x) \\x e B}. cr[B]


element

40. {a

SA

= b} c B}

41. {a

SA SA

| |

a{b) a[B]

e B} = B}

42. {a e SA 44. In analogy


such

43. {a 8.7 and


8.10,

with Examples

an n-gon

can be

The set of these the order of this


as the 45.

a regular plane n-gon for n > 3. Each way that two copies of of the vertices. the other, correspondsto a certain permutation in a group, the nth dihedral Find group Dn, under permutation multiplication. permutations elements Dn. Argue geometrically that this group has a subgroup having group just half as many consider

placed, with

one

covering

whole

group that

has. exactly

8.10, the ways in which the of the vertices of the cube. This is the group of rigid motions (or rotations) of the cube. (It should not be confused with the group of group of Section 12.) How many elements the figure, which will be discussedin the exercises does this symmetries of this group has at least three of order 4 and at least have? that different group Argue geometrically subgroups four different subgroups of order 3. 46. Show that Sn is a nonabelian group for n > 3.
Consider a cube
fills a certain
in Examples

cube can be placed

into

the box

cubical box. As correspond to a certain group

8.7 and

of permutations

47.

Strengthening

Exercise

46, show
identity

that

if n

> 3,

then

the

only

element of

a of S\342\200\236 satisfying

cry = ycr

for

all

e 5,, is cr

= 1, the

permutation.

48. Orbits were defined in common, then

before OaM

Exercise = Ob.a-

11. Let

a, b e

and

a e SA \342\226\240 that ifOaM Show

and Ob.a have


exists subgroup

an element

49. If

cr(a)

H of SA is transitive on A if for each a, b set, then a subgroup = b. Show that if A is a nonempty finite set, then there exists a finite IHI = \\A\\ that is transitive on A.
A

is a

there

cyclic

a e H such H of SA

that with

50.
51.

Referring

to the
only

if and
define

if Oa,a
warning

definition before Exercise 11and = A for some a \342\202\254 A.

to Exercise

49, show

that

for

a e

Sa, (o) is transitive

on A

(See the

a binary

a.

(Intuitive

of

transparent

on page 78). Let G be a group with binary operation *. Let G' be the same set as G, and operation *' on G' by x *' y = y * x for all x, y e G'. that G' under *' is a group.) the front wall of your room were made class argument Suppose and that all possible a * b = c and all possible instances a * (b * c) = glass, products

Section 9

a Orbits, Cycles,nd

the

Alternating

Groups

87

(a * b) * c of
would

the

a person
from

b.

Show

the

* were written on the wall with for G under other side of the wall from the next room in looking mathematical definition of *' that G' is a group under *'.

associative

property

see when

at the

a magic marker. front of yours?

What

52. Let
a

group. Prove that group isomorphic to G.


G be a and

the

permutations

pa:G

-> G, where from


and an identity C = PA,

pa{x)

= iaforaeG

and x e

G, do form

53. A

matrix permutation n x n permutation matrix


same

is one

that

can
any

be obtained
n x

matrix
rows

by reordering

A is

n matrix
as the

then C can

be obtained
ofnxn

precisely the
a.

reordering
finite

of the

rows of A

reordering

of the

which

its rows. If P is an from A by making produced P from /\342\200\236.


permutation

Show
under

that every
matrix

group

of order n

is isomorphicto a group
the

consisting

matrices
matrix

multiplication.
four

b. For
that

each of the
corresponds

elements

e,a,b,
such

and c in

Table

5.11 for

the

group

V, give a

specific 4x4

to it under

an isomorphism.

section

Orbits,

Cycles,

and the Alternating


set
A

Groups
partition of A into cells with the if b = an{a) for some n e Z. We

Orbits
Each property

permutation that
this

a of a a, b e
partition

determines

a natural

A are in
using

establish

the same cell if and only an appropriate equivalence relation:

For

a,

b e

A, let a

~ b if
by

and

only

if b
(1) is

cr\"(a)

for

some

n e

Z.
relation.

(1)

We

now

check

that ~ defined

Condition

indeed

an

equivalence

Reflexive
Symmetric

Clearly a If a ~ b,
and

~ a sincea = i(a)= cr\302\260(a).


then

b =

\342\200\224 n

e Z,

so b ~ a.
~

an{a)

for some

e Z.

But then
c =

a =

a~n(b)
some

Transitive

Supposes~ foandfo
n,
m

c, thenfo

= an(a)
that

and

crm(b) for

e Z.

Substituting,

we

find

c =

am(a\"(a)) =

a\"+m(a),

so a

~ c. classes in A

9.1

Definition

Let

cr

be

a permutation

equivalence

relation

of a set A. (1) are the orbits


A

The

equivalence of a. each

determined

by

the
\342\226\240

9.2 Example

Since
the

the identity
one-element

subsets

permutation i of of A.
permutation

leaves

element

of

fixed,

the orbits

of i are
\342\226\262

9.3 Example

Find

the orbits

of

the

~ \302\260

_/l
\\h

234567
867415

8\\

2)

inS8.
Solution To

find

the orbit

containing 1, we apply

repeatedly,

obtaining

symbolically

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 1\342\200\224> o \342\200\224> i \342\200\224> L \342\200\224> \342\226\240 i \342\200\224> L \342\200\224> o \342\200\224> i \342\200\224> .

88

Part

II

Permutations,

Cosets, and Direct Products

Sincea'1
the

would

simply

reverse

the directions
now

of the

orbit
and

containing
similarly

1 is
find

{1, 3, 6}.We
that the list of
orbit

choose

say 2,
orbit

containing three

containing the

4 is

{4, 7,

we see that

5}. Sincethese
orbits

in this chain, we see that arrows an integer from 1 to 8 not in {1, 3, 6}, 2 is {2, 8}. Finally, we find that the orbits include all integers from 1 to 8,

complete

of a

is

{1,3,6},

{2,8},

{4,5,7}.

Cycles
For

the

remainder of the

elements.
elements

of this section, we considerjust permutations of a finite set A of \342\200\242 A = {1, 2, 3, \342\226\240 and that we are dealing with We may as well suppose that \342\200\242, n)

symmetric

group

Sn. orbits

Refer

back to

Example 9.3. The


12
3

of

3
8

4
7

5 6 7 4 15

(2)

1 to 8 on in Fig. 9.4. That is, a acts on each integer from on the circle traveled it into the next integer one of the circles by carrying For example, the leftmost circleindicates that in the direction of the arrows. counterclockwise, = 3, (7(3) = 6, and cr(6) = 1. Figure 9.4 is a nice way to visualize the structure of cr(l)
are

indicated

graphically

the

permutation

a.

9.4 Figure
Each example,

individual the leftmost

circle in Fig.

9.4 also defines,


the

by

itself,

a permutation

in

S%

For

circle corresponds to
12
M

permutation

3
2

4
4
leaves

5 6 7
5

8 8

17

(3)

that acts on 1, 3, and fixed. In summary,

6 just
/x has

as a

does, but

the remaining

integers 2, 4, 5, 7, and
five

one three-element

orbit {1,

3, 6}

and

one-element

orbits

9.5 Figure

Such {2}, {4}, {5}, {7},and {8}. a permutation, described graphically by a single circle, is called a cycle (for circle). We consider the identity to be a cycle since it permutation can be represented a circle having the integer 1, as shown in Fig. 9.5. We now by only

define

the term

cycle

in

a mathematically

precise

way.

Section 9

a Orbits, Cycles, nd the


cycle if it has
number as in the
at

Alternating

Groups

89

9.6 Definition

permutation

element.
To

a e The length

is a S\342\200\236

most

one

of a cycleis the

of elements

orbit containing more in its largest orbit.

than

one
\342\226\240

the cumbersome notation, notation. In cyclic notation, cyclic


avoid

Eq. (3), for a cycle, we introduce cycle in Eq. (3) becomes


=

a single-row

/x

(1,3,6). the first

We understand
the into

by

this

notation
the

that
next

/x

carries

number 1 into
finally

the

second the

number first number

3 into

number

6, etc.,

until

the last

be left
our

fixed

by /x.

example,
within

1. An integer for not appearing in this notation Of course, the set on which /x acts, which is {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}in must be made clearby the context.
S5, we

second number 3, number 6 is carried /x is understood to

9.7 Example

Working

see

that

12
(1,3,5,4)
that

14
= (4,

Observe

(1, 3,
Of

5, 4)

= (3, 5, 4, 1)= (5,

4,

1, 3)

1,3, 5).

as any

since cycles are special types of permutations, course, they can be multiplied just two permutations. The product of two cycles need not again be a cycle,however. a in Eq. (2) can be written as a Using cyclic notation, we see that the permutation

product

of cycles:

12
3
These cycles

8
2

6 7 4
in

15
that the is a

(1,3,6)(2,8)(4,7,5).

(4)
at most cycles.

are disjoint, meaning


one number of
terms

cycles;thus

no
in

one-line description of Fig. 9.4. Every permutation in Sn can be expressed in a similar fashion as a product of the disjoint to its orbits. We state this as a theorem and write out the proof. corresponding

exhibits a

appears its orbits, and

any integer is moved notations of two different

by

one of
Equation

these
(4)

cycles

9.8 Theorem

Every

permutation

of a finite

set is a product of disjoint

cycles.

Proof

Let B\\,

B?,

\342\226\240 be \342\226\240 Br \342\226\240,

the orbits

of a,

and

let

/x,- be

the cycle defined

by

a{x)
/x,(x)

for* e
otherwise.

S,

Clearly
distinct

a =
equivalence While

mm

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 Since

Mr-

classes,

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 the equivalence-class orbits B, being B\\, B2, \342\226\240, \342\200\242 are \342\226\240 are disjoint, the cycles \342\200\242, /xj, /x2, /xr disjoint also.

\342\231\246

in general is not commutative, it is readily seen is commutative. Since the orbits of a permutation multiplication cycles the representation none of are unique, of a permutation as a product of disjoint cycles, which is the identity is unique up to the order of the factors. permutation,
permutation

multiplication

that

of disjoint

90

Part

II

Permutations, Cosets,and DirectProducts

9.9

Example

Consider

the

permutation

12

3
5

4
4

5
3

6
1
1, giving

6
Let us
write

it as a

the cycle

(1, 6).
This

Then

(2, 5, 3).

takes

First, 1 is moved to 6 and then 6 to product of disjoint cycles. to 3, which 2 is moved to 5, which is moved is moved care of all elements but 4, which is left fixed. Thus

to 2, or

12
6
Multiplication (2, 5, 3) is not
You
may

5
3

6
1

5
cycles

2 4

(1,6)(2,5,3).

of

disjoint

is commutative,

so

the

order

of the

factors (1,6)

and

important.

\342\226\2

should

or may 9.

practice not be disjoint.

multiplying
We

permutations
and

in

cyclic

notation further

give an example

provide

where the cycles practice in Exercises

7 through
9.10

Example

Consider

the

cycles

(1,4,5,6)

and (2,1,5)

in

S6. Multiplying,

we find that
5

(1,4,5,6)(2,
and

1,5) =

12
6

3 4
4

(2,

1,5)(1,4,5,6)
is a

12
4

6
5

13

2 6

Neither of thesepermutations
Even
It

cycle.

and

Odd

Permutations
that every
sequence

seems

by

reordering of the of positionsof pairs of repeated interchange


reasonable

1,

numbers.

2,..., n can We discuss this

be achieved
a bit

more

formally.

9.11 Definition

cycle Thus

of length

2 is a transposition.

\342\226\2

the

other.

a transposition leaves all A computation shows that


{a\\,a2,

elements but

two

fixed,

and maps

each of these onto

\342\200\242 \342\226\240 = \342\200\242\342\200\242-,\302\253\342\200\236) (ai,a\342\200\236)(ai,a\342\200\236_i)- (a\\, a3)(ai,

a2).
the

Therefore

any

cycle

is a product

of transpositions. We

then

have

following

as a

corollary to Theorem9.8.

9.12

Corollary

Any

permutation

of a finite set

of at

least

two

elements

is a product of transpositions.
of n objects

Naively, by

this

corollary interchanging

successively

just states that any rearrangement pairs of them.

canbe achieved

Section9 9.13Example
9.14

Orbits,Cycles,
the

and

the

Alternating

Groups

91

Following

the

remarks

prior to
transpositions.

corollary,

we see that

(1, 6)

(2, 5, 3) is the

product
\342\226\262

(1, 6) Example

(2, 3) (2,5) of
n

In Sn for

>

2, the identity

permutation is

the

product

(1, 2)

(1, 2)

of transpositions.
\342\226\262

of a finite set with at least two elements is a We have seen that every permutation not be disjoint, and a representation product of transpositions. The transpositions may of the permutation in this way is not For example, we can always insert at the unique. (1,2) twice, because (1, 2) (1,2) is the identity beginning the transposition permutation. to represent a given permutation used What is true is that the number of transpositions be odd. This is an important fact. We will give must either always be even or always of determinants from linear algebra. The second two The first uses a property proofs. M. Bloom. orbits and was suggested by David involves counting

9.15 Theorem

No permutation
transpositions and

in

can be S\342\200\236

expressed
odd

as a product

of

an

number
SA

both as a product of an of transpositions.


SB if A and

even

number

of

Proof 1 (From linear algebra)

We
work

remarked
with

matrix 1. Interchanging has determinant numbers 1, 2, ..., n. Theidentity any two rows of the determinant. of a square matrix the sign Let C be a matrix obtained by a changes could be obtained from /\342\200\236 by both an even number permutation a of the rows of I\342\200\236.lfC to be both 1 and of rows, its determinant would have an odd number of transpositions \342\200\224 Thus a cannot be expressed of an even and is impossible. both as a product 1, which of transpositions. number and an odd number

in Section 8 that of the permutations

B have

the

same

rows

of the n

identity

matrix

rather /\342\200\236,

We cardinality. than of the

Proof 2
(Counting orbits)

Let a e Sn of a and of

and

let r

xa

= (z, j) differ by 1.

be a
j

transposition

in Sn.

We claim that

the

number

of orbits

Case I

i Suppose and
disjoint

are in the first

cycles,

contains

i, symbolized

different orbits of a. Write a as a product of of which contains j and the second of which in Fig. 9.16. We may write by the two circles
symbolically

the

product

of these two

cycles

as

(b, j,
where

x, x, x)(a,i, x, x)
elements

the symbols

x denote possibleother

in these

orbits.

9.16 Figure

92

Part

II

Permutations,

Cosets, and Direct Products =

Computing

the

product

of the

first

three

cycles

in xa

(2,

j)a,

we

obtain

(2, j)(b,
The

j, x, x, x)(a,i, x, x)
2 orbits
in

(a, j,

x, x,

x,b,i, x, x).

have been joined to form just one in xa as the computation Exercise 28 asks us to repeat symbolized Fig. to show that the same thing happens if either one or both of i and j of their orbit in a. should be only element
original

9.16.

Case

II

Suppose 2 and j are in the same orbit of a. We can with the first cycle of the product of disjoint cycles
(a, i,
shown the

then

write

a as a

form

x, x,

x, b, j, x, x)
the product of
x, x).
in

symbolically first

by the circle in Fig. 9.17. Computing we obtain two cycles in xa = (2, j)a,
2,

(2, j)(a,

x, single

x,

x, b,
orbit

j, x,

x) = (a,j, x, x)(b,
split

i, x,

The original
Fig.

has been

into

two

as symbolized

9.17.
shown

of of xa differs from the number 1has n orbits, because each element is identity permutation the of orbits of a given member of its orbit. Now the number only permutation but not both. Thus it is a e Sn differs from n by either an even or an odd number, to write impossible

We have orbits of a by

that

the number

of

orbits

1. The

a =
where odd.
9.18

X\\X2xi

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240

xmL

the

are 7\302\276

transpositions

in two ways,

once with

m even

and once

with

\342\231

Definition

A permutation

of a

finite

set

is even

or odd
transpositions

as a
9.19

accordingto
or

whether

it can

be expressed
number

product

of an

even number of

the product

of

an

odd

of

transpositions, respectively.
Example

\342\22

The identity permutation 1 in Sn is an even If n = 1 so that we cannot form this product,

permutation

since

we have 1 =
the

(1,2)(1, 2).
other

we define 1 to

be even.On

hand,

the

permutation

(1,

4, 5,

6) (2,

1,5) in

S6 can =

be written

as

(1, 4, 5, 6)(2,1,5)
which

(1, 6)(1,

5)(1, 4)(2, 5)(2, 1)

has

five transpositions,

so

this

is an

odd permutation.

\342\226

The

Alternating
for

Groups
n >

We claim that
of odd let
for
what

2,

the

number is split S\342\200\236

of even

is, permutation; !)/2. To show this, be the set of even permutations in S\342\200\236let B\342\200\236 and be the set of odd permutations A\342\200\236 n > 2. We proceedto define function from A\342\200\236 Bn. This is exactly onto a one-to-one is needed to show that A\342\200\236 Bn have the same number and of elements.
that

permutations in Sn equally and both numbers

is the

same as the

number

are (n

Section

Orbits, Cycles,and the

Alternating

Groups

93

Let x be any
that

fixed

transposition
function

in

it exists S\342\200\236;

since n >

2. We

may

as well

suppose

x =

(1,2). We define a

XT : An

->\342\200\242 Bn

by

XT{a) =
thatis,

xa,
that since
even

a
2)cT

e
can

is mapped A\342\200\236

into (1, 2)<7by


is

XT. Observe

a is even,the
or odd

permutation

(1,

be

expressed
so (1, 2)<7

transpositions,

as a product of a (1 + indeed in Bn. If for a and

number),

number, of
= Ar(/x),

it is true /x in A\342\200\236

that

T{a)

then

(1,2)ct =
and

(1.2)//,
XT

since

Sn is a

group, we have

= /x. Thus

is a

one-to-one

function.

Finally,

T =

(1,2)

= T_1,

so if

then B\342\200\236,

and

A.r(T\"V)
Thus

= x{x~lp)

= p.

is the the number of elements in A\342\200\236 same as the number in onto B\342\200\236. Hence between the elements of the sets. there is a one-to-one correspondence is again even. Also sincen > 2, S\342\200\236 Note that the product of two even permutations and i = (1, 2)(1, 2) is an even has the transposition permutation. (1,2) Finally, note that the product of the same transpositions if a is expressed as a product of transpositions, if a is an even permutation, a^1 taken in just the opposite orderis a _1. hus T must also be even. Referring statement. to Theorem 5.14, we see that we have proved the following Ar is

Bn since

9.20

Theorem

If n >

2, then

the
of

collection
the

of all even group


of the

permutations S\342\200\236.

of {1,2,3,\342\200\242\342\226\240-,\302\253} forms a

subgroup

of order nl/2
9.21

symmetric

Definition

The subgroup
group
Both on n A\342\200\236

of

Sn

consisting

even

permutations

of

n letters

is

the

alternating
\342\226\240

letters. important

groups. Cayley's theorem shows that every finite for n subgroup of S\342\200\236 = \\G\\. It can be shown structurally for solution of polynomial that there are no formulas involving radicals just equations of degree n for n > 5. This fact is actually due to the structure of A\342\200\236, as that surprising seem! may
and are S\342\200\236 A\342\200\236 very

group G is

identical

to some

94

Part II

Permutations,

Cosets,

and

Direct

Products

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

Computations
In

Exercises

1 through

6,

find 6\\ A)

all orbits

of the given

permutation.

12

/1234567
\\5

8 2

5
3-

13
3 5

6 2
1
where

17
+

(2

6 8 7)
a(n) =
n

= 4.CT:Z-.ZwhereCT(n) n
6.
product <r

5. a

:Z

-\302\273 Z

+ 2

: Z

-^ Z

where

a(n)

= n

\342\200\224 3

In Exercises

7 through

9, compute

the indicated

of cycles

that are permutations

of {1,2,

3,4, 5,

6, 7, 8}.

7. (1,4,
9.

5)(7,

8)(2, 5,7)

8. (1, 3, 2, 7)(4,8, 6)

(1,2)(4,7,8)(2,1)(7,2,8,1,5)

In Exercises
then 1ft 10-

10 through
3

12, express

the permutation

of {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} as
/12

a product

of disjoint

cycles,

and

as a product /1

of transpositions.

4 5 6 7
3

8\\

5
8

6 7 8
2

(,8 2 6 ./12345678 *
^3

l)

6 4 1

14

7 is
the

2 5 8 6
a of a
identity.
group

13. Recall
power a.

that

element

G with

of a

Consider

identity element the group S&.

e has order r > 0 if

ar

= e

and no smaller positive

What is the order of the cycle (1,4, 5, 7)? b. State a theorem by part (a). suggested c. What is the order of a = (4,5)(2,3,7)? of

d. e.

Find into State common

the

order

a product a theorem

(1,4)(3, 5,7, 8)? of the permutations given in Exercises 10 through of disjoint cycles. suggested by parts (c) and (d). [Hint: The important
of each

x =

12 by

looking at its
you

decomposition
for are least

words

are looking

multiple.]

In Exercises

14 through

18, find

the maximum

possible order for an


=

element

of Sn for the

given value of n.

14. n

15. n =

16. n

7 group
with

17. n =

10
the

18. n
generating

15

19. Figure

9.22 shows

a Cayley labeling

Continue (1,2)(3,4)}.

digraph for the alternating the other nine vertices

A4 using
elements

set S

the

of A4,

expressed as a

= {(1,2, 3),
product

of

disjoint cycles.

Concepts
In

Exercises

is needed, so that
20. 21.

20 through 22, correct the definition of the it is in a form acceptablefor publication.

italicized term
minimal

without

reference

to the

text, if correction onto itself by


a.

For a permutation

a of a

set A, having

an orbit

of a is a
orbit.
even

nonempty

subset of

that

is mapped

A cycle is a permutation
group

only one

22. Thealternating

is the

group of all

permutations.

Section

Exercises

95

(1,2,3)

(1,)(3, 2

4) \342\226\240

9.22

Figure

23. Mark

each of the a.
Every

following permutation

true or

false.

is a cycle. even

b. Every cycle c. The definition


Theorem9.15.

is a permutation.
of

and odd

permutations

could

have

been given

equally

well

before

d. Every nontrivial

subgroup H
any

of Sg

containing

some

odd permutation

contains

a transposition.

e. A 5 has

120 elements.
n >

f.
g. h.

is not S\342\200\236
A3 SV

is

cyclic for a commutative

1.
of all of all

group.
subgroup subgroup

is isomorphic

to the to the

those elements those elements

i. SV is isomorphic j. Theoddpermutations
24.

of S% of S%

that that

leave leave

the number 8 fixed. the number 5 fixed.

in S$

form a subgroup

of S%.
permutations?

Which

of the permutations

in S3

of Example

8.7 areeven

Give the

table

for

the

alternating

group

A3.

Proof Synopsis

25. Give
26.
Theory

a one-sentence

synopsis of
synopsis

Give a two-sentence

of

9.15. Proof 1 of Theorem Proof 2 of Theorem 9.15.

27.

Prove

the following
permutation

about

if n S\342\200\236 can be S\342\200\236 Sn that

> 3. written as a product written as a product


of at

a.

Every

in
in

most
as a

n\342\200\224\\ transpositions.

b. Every

permutation

is not a

cycle can be written

product of

at

most

n
and

\342\200\224 2

transpositions.

c. Every

odd permutation
of 2n

in S\342\200\236 can be

of 2n

+ 3 transpositions,

every even

permutation

as a product

+ 8 transpositions.

Part II

Permutations,

Cosets,

and

Direct

Products

28. a.

Draw

a figure

like Fig.

9.16 to

illustrate less

that if than the

and

number

of orbits

b. Repeat
29.

part (a) if o(j) = Show that for every subgroup them are even.
a be a

of (i, j)o

is one
also.

number of orbits
all

j are in different of a.

orbits of a

and

a(i)

= i,

then

the

of Sn for n

> 2, either
\"a

the permutations a e

in

are even

or

exactly

half

of

30. Let
31.

elements

permutation of a set A. We shall say are moved by a cycle cr e 5/1 of length


set. Let
Show

moves

A\"

if a

(a) ^

a. If A

is a

finite set,

how

many

n?

Let A be an infinite Exercise 30) is finite.


Let A
Is K a

H be
that H

the

set

of all

a e
SA

SA

such

that the

number of elements moved

by

a (see

is a subgroup
set

of S\342\200\236.

32.

be

an

infinite

set. Let
SA1

K be the

of all

a e

that

move

(see Exercise
Show

30) at

most

50 elements

of

A.

subgroup of
for a S\342\200\236

Why?

33.

Consider a product
Show
Following

fixed n >
some

2 and

let cr be a

fixed odd

permutation.

that every

odd

permutation

in Sn

is

of a

and

permutation

in

A\342\200\236.

34.

that if a is a

35.

r so that

cycle ofoddlength, then a2 the line of thought opened by Exercise the resulting statement is a theorem: If a is a
cycle

is a cycle.
34, complete

the following
and

with

a condition

involving n and

of length

n,

then

cr'' is

also a cycle if
that

only

if...
given

36. Let

G be a g e G, is a

group

and let

permutation

of the

a be a fixed element set G.


that

of G.

Show

the

map

Xa

: G

-+ G,

by

Afl(g) =

ag for
of G.

37. Referring
38.
Referring

to Exercise to Exercise
corollary

36, show 49 of
of one

{Afl

a e

G} is a

subgroup

of So,

the group
on

of all

permutations

immediate
39. Show (1, 2,
that

of the

Section 8, show that H of Exercise 37 is transitive theorems in Section 4.]

the set

G.

[Hint:

This

is an

Sn

\342\200\242 \342\200\242, 3, \342\200\242 n)\"~r

transposition

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 n)}. nj{\\, by {(1,2), (1,2, 3, \342\200\242,[Hint: Show that as r varies, (1,2, 3, \342\200\242, 2) \342\200\242 all the transpositions (1,2), (2,3),(3,4), \342\200\242 - 1, n), (n, 1). Then show that any \342\200\242, (n gives is a product of someof these transpositions and use Corollary 9.12]

is generated

section

10

Cosets and the


You

of Theorem Lagrange
that the
order

may

have

noticed

order of a
This is
cells,

subgroup
the

H of a

finite

group

to be a divisor of the
exhibiting

of G.

theorem

of Lagrange.

such cells, we

a partition of will have

G into

all having

the same

size as

G seems always We shall prove it by H. Thus if there are r

r(order from which


the

of H)

(order

of

G)

theorem

follows

cosetsof

H,

and they

are

important

H satisfies a certain property, in a very natural way. We a feel for help you develop
Cosets

The cells in the partition will be called immediately. in their own right. In Section 14, we will see that if then each coset can be regardedas an element of a group in this section to give some indication of such coset groups
the

topic.

Let H
two

be a subgroup
of G
by

of

a group

G,

which

may

be of

finite

or infinite
and

order. We

exhibil

partitions

defining

two equivalence

relations, ~L

~8onG.

Section

10

Cosets and the Theorem

of Lagrange

97

10.1 Theorem

Let H be a

subgroup

of G.
a ~L

Let
b

the

relation

~L be
only

defined on G by
a~lb

if and

if

e H.

Let ~jj

be defined

by

a ~#

if

and

only

if

ab~x e

H.

Then ~l Proof
We

and

~j?

are both

equivalence relations on G.
and leave relation, how we must constantly
the

show

that

~l

is

an

equivalence

proof make

for use

to ~\302\253

Exercise
that

26.
H

When reading the a subgroup of G.

proof,

notice

of the fact

is

Reflexive

Leta e G.Then a ~L a.
Supposes

a~la

= e

and e

e H since

H is a

subgroup.

Thus

Symmetric
Transitive

~L
and

fe.Thena-1^

e H.

Since His a
H

subgroup,

(a~1b)~l ~l
\302\253\342\200\242

is in H
Let a

{a~xb)~l
and fe

= b~la, ~l

so fc_1a is in

and

fe

~-Lb

c. Then

a~lb e
is

H and
in

fe_1c

e H.

Since H
\342\231\246

is a subgroup,
The
in

{a~xb){b^c)

= a~lc 10.1 defines

H,

so a

~l c.

a partition of G, as described like. Suppose a e G. The partition a consists of all x e G such that a ~~l x, which cell containing means all x e G such that if a~xx e H. Now a~lx e H if and only if a-1* = h for some h & H, or equivalently, = a/jforsome/j e the cell containing a is {ah \\h e H], which andonlyif;t relation we denote by aH. If we go through the same reasoning for the equivalence ~j? defined by H, we find the cell in this partition containing a e G is Ha \\h e H}. {ha Since G need not be abelian, we have no reason to expectaH and Ha to be the same subsetof G. We give a formal definition.
Theorem

relation ~l in Theorem equivalence 0.22. Let's see what the cells in

this

look

//.Therefore

10.2

Definition

Let H
coset
containing

be a
of H
a.

subgroup

of

a group

G. The

subset aH = {ah
Ha =
{ha | /j e

e H]
the

of G is
right

the

left

containing

a, while

the subset

H] is

coset

of H
\342\226\240

10.3

Example

Exhibit

the

left

cosets

and the

right cosets of the so


the

subgroup

3Z of

Z.
m

Solution

Our notation
m

here

is additive,

left

coset

of 3Z

containing

is m

+ 3Z.

Taking

= 0,

we see that
3Z=

{---,-9,-6,

-3,0,3,6,9,---}

is itself one of its left cosets, the coset containing 0. To find another left we select coset, an element of Z not in 3Z, say 1, and find the left coset containing it. We have
1+
These

3Z =
and

\342\200\242 \342\200\242, -8, {\342\200\242

-5,

\342\200\242 -2, 1, 4, 7,10, \342\200\242 \342\200\242}.

two left

cosets, 3Z
coset

1 +

of them.

The

left

containing

3Z, do 2 is

not

yet

exhaust

Z. For

example, 2 is in

neither

2+

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 3Z = {\342\200\242 -4, -1, 2, 5, 8, 11,\342\200\242 \342\200\242, -7, \342\200\242}.

98

Part

II

Permutations,

Cosets, and Direct Products

It

is clear

that these three left

cosets we have

found

do exhaust

Z, so they

constitute

the

partition

of Z

into

Since Z is
so
We
the

partition

of 3Z. the left coset m + 3Z and abelian, of Z into right is the same. cosets
left

cosets

the

right

coset 3Z

are

the same,

\342\22

observe

two things

from Example10.3.

For and

a subgroup the

partition

H of an abelian group G, the into right cosets are the same.

partition

of

G into

left cosets of H

relation ~j? 0.17 and 0.20, we see that the equivalence Also, looking back at Examples n. Recall for the subgroup modulo that nZ of Z is the same as the relation of congruence is h = k (mod n) in Z if h \342\200\224divisible by n. This is the same as saying that h + (\342\200\224k) k is the partition of in nZ, which is relation ~# of Theorem Thus 10.1 in additive notation. of Z into residue classesmodulo n. For that reason, Z into cosets of nZ is the partition as cosets modulo nL. Note that we do not have we often refer to the cells of this partition to specify or right cosets sincethey are the same for this abelian group Z. left

10.4 Example

The group
One

Z6 is

abelian. Find

the

partition

of X(, into

cosets of the

subgroup

H =

{0, 3}.

Solution

coset 2 is

containing are

all We

2 + {0, 3} = the cosets.

is {0,

3} itself.

The coset containing


Since

1 is 1

{2, }. 5

{0,

3}, {1,

4},

and

+ {0, 3} = {1, {2, 5} exhaust

4}.

The

coset

all of

Z6, these

\342\226

back

point out a fascinating to Example 10.4, Table

thing

that

we will
the

develop

in

detail

in Section

14. Referring
with

10.5gives
in the

binary

operation

for 2,(, but


5}.

elements

listed in the

order they
these

appear

cosets {0, 3}, {1,4},(2,

We shaded

the table

according to
Suppose
to according
shownin

cosets.

their

shading.
the

Table

we

obtain

we denote thesecosets LT(light), and DK(dark) by MD(medium), Table 10.5 then defines a binary operation on these shadings, as 10.6. Note that if we replace LTby 0,MD by 1, and DK by 2 in Table 10.6, of shadings forms a group! We will see in table for Z3. Thus the table

10.5 Table
+6

10.6Table
3 3
1

0 0
3

4
4

\"1

LT
LT

MD MD

DK

5
^

2 0

LT

DK

4 1
5
\342\200\224

MD

MD DK DK
LT

LT

\342\226\240

DK

MD

.1

2~

'

Section 10

Cosetsand
abelian

the

Theorem

of Lagrange

99

Section the group.

14 that

for a

partition

of an

group

table

according

to

the

elements

in the

group into cosets

cosets
always

of a
gives

subgroup, reordering rise to such a coset

10.7Example

Table
the the

10.8 again
subgroup partition

shows Table 8.8 for

the

symmetric
the

(mi) = into right

{p0, /xj} of S3.Find cosets of H.


left

partitions

group S3 on three letters. Let H be of S3 into left cosets of H, and

Solution

For

the partition

into

cosets,

we have

H =
P\\H

{po,Ml),
{P1P0, M1M1} =
{p2po,

{pi, /x3},
M2l-

p2H =
The partition
into

M2M1}

= {P2,

right

cosets is

H =
Hpi Hpl

{Mo,Mil,

= = of H

{poPu MiMi)

= {Pi, M2},
{/02,

{A)P2, M1M2} =

M3l-

partition into left example, the left coset


The

cosets

is
p\\

different

from

the partition
the

into
coset

right

cosets.

For

containing
surprise

is

{p\\, /13},

while
S3 is

right

containing

px is
\342\226\262

{pi, Mil- This doesnot


Referring listed

us since

the

group

not abelian.

in S3. The 10.7, Table 10.9gives permutation multiplication order they appear in the left cosets {po,Mil, {p\\, /13}, {/\302\276. M2} and dark according found in that example. Again, we have shaded the table light, medium, between this table and to the coset to which the element belongs.Note the difference Table 10.5. This time, the body of the table does not split up into 2x2 blocks opposite under the shaded cosets at the left and the top, as in Table and 10.5 and we don't get a cosetgroup. The product of a light element and a dark one may be either dark or medium. = Table 10.8is shaded according to the two left cosets of the subgroup {p\\) \302\260f These is not abelian. are also the two right cosets, even though S3 {po, p\\, /\302\276} ^3-

elementsare

to Example in the

10.8 Table
PO

10.9Table
Pi Pi
Mi M2

M3
M3

Po

Mi

Mi

M3

Po

Po

Pi Pi Po M2
M3

Pi Po
Pi

Mi
M3

M2 Mi MJ

Po
Mi

Po

Mi

Mi

Ms

Pi

Pi

Mz

Mi

Po

^3
A\"

P\\

Pl

Pi
Ml

M2

Mi P2

Pi

Pi
M3

m
Mi Po

11 '

>1
M2

M.i

PO

Pi Po P2

M3

Ml

fli M3 Po

M2 Ms

Mi
M2

Pi
P\\

Pi Po

mi

jjjl

iigsij

Po
M3

Mi

Ml

Ms

Mr

*1

Pi

Mi

Part

II

Permutations, Cosets,and Direct Products

From We

Table will

10.8 it

see in
group

is clear that Section 14 that


when

we the

do have left cosets

a coset group of a subgroup

isomorphic H

to Z2 in

this case.
rise

of a

the partition of G into left cosets as the cosets of H. In such a case, we may simply speak of the cosets partition into right of H, left or right. We discusscosetgroups in detail in Section 14, but omitting the adjective them for you to understand then if you experiment a bit with we think it will be easier a coset
precisely

group G give of H is the same

to

them

now. Some

of the

exercises

in this

section are designedfor

such

experimentation.

The

Theorem have
of H

of Lagrange
of a same
left

Let H bea subgroup


of H
map the

number
coset

onto a
that

coset group G. We claim that every left coset and every right of elements as H. We show this by exhibiting a one-to-one this order, gH of H for a fixed elementg of G. If H is of finite

will show

gH

has the

of such
(See
Our

a map

is taken
0.13.)

as the

same number of elementsas H. If for equality of the size definition

is infinite, of H

the existence
size

and

the

of gH.

Definition

one. Let <j>(h) = gh for a one-to-onemap 0:7/^ gH is the natural for each h e H. This map is onto gH by the definition of gH as {gh \\ h e H}. To show that <j>{h\\) = 4>{h2) for h\\ and h2 in H. Then gh\\ = gh2 that it is one to one, suppose and by the cancellation law in the group G, we have h\\ =/12. Thus 0 is one to one. the right coset Hg can be constructed. Of course, a similar one-to-one map of H onto

choice

(See

Exercise

27.) We

summarize as follows:

Every

coset

(left or

right)

of a

subgroup

H of a group

G has

the same number

of

elementsas H.

We

can

now

prove the

theorem of Lagrange.

10.10

Theorem

of Lagrange) (Theorem H is a divisor of the order

Let H bea subgroup


of G.

of a

finite group

G. Then the

order

of

Proof

Let n
that
of

of G, and let H have order m. The preceding boxed statement Let r be the number coset of H also has m elements. of cells in the every G into left cosets of H. Then n = rm, so m is indeed a divisor of n.
be

the order

shows
partition

\342\231

Note

cosets

that this elegant and important in and the number of elements


to theorem.

theorem each

coset.

comes from the simple Never underestimate results

counting

of

that should

count be

We continue somethingl regarded as a counting


10.11

derive

consequences

of Theorem

10.10,which

Corollary

Every

group

of prime

order is

cyclic. a be an
by

Proof

Let G be of
the cyclic

prime

order
{a)

p, and let
of G

element a has

subgroup

generated

of G different from at least two elements,

the

identity.

Then
But

a and

e.

by

Section

10

Exercises

101

Theorem 10.10,he t
m =

order

and

{a)

= G,

m > 2 of (a) so G is cyclic.

must

divide

the prime

p. Thus we

must

have
\342\231\246

Since

every

one
elegant

group

cyclic group of order p structure, up to isomorphism, follow easily

is

isomorphic

of a

given

to Zp, we see that is only there order Now doesn't this p. prime

result

from

the

theorem

of Lagrange,

underestimate
favorite

a theorem

that

counts

something.

Proving

a counting theorem? Never the preceding corollaryis

examination

question.

10.12 Theorem
Proof

The order of
Remembering
generated

an

element

of a

finite

group

divides

the order

of the

group.

is the same as the order of the cyclic subgroup that the order of an element the element, we see that this theorem follows directly from Theorem 10.10. by
\342\231\246

10.13

Definition

Let H

be a subgroup
of

of

a group

G. The number

of

left cosets

of H

in

is the

index
\342\226\240

(G :7/)
The

HinG.

index

(G : H)
and

just

defined

may be

finite

or infinite.

If G defined

is

finite,

then
\\H\\

obviously
elements.

(G : H)
Exercise

is finite

(G : H)

\\G\\/\\H\\,

since

every

coset of
well

H contains

35 shows the index (G : 77) could be equally cosets of 77 in G. We state a basictheorem concerning to the exercises (see Exercise38). the proof

as the number

indices

of subgroups, and

of right leave

10.14

Theorem

Suppose

77 and
(G

(77: K) and

: 77)

K are subgroups of a are both finite. Then

group

such

that K
and

<

77

<

(G : K)

is finite,

(G : K)

G, and suppose = (G : 77)(77:K).

Theorem shows that if there is a subgroup 77 of a finite 10.10 G, then the group order of 77 divides the order of G. Is the converse of order true? That is, if G is a group a subgroup of order ml We will see in the next section n, andm divides n, is there always that this is true for abelian of groups. However, A4 can be shown to have no subgroup order 6, which gives a counterexample for nonabelian groups.

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

10

Computations

1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Find Find Find Find Find Find

all cosets all cosets all cosets all cosets all cosets all left
the

of the of the of the of the of the

subgroup subgroup subgroup subgroup subgroup the

4Z 4Z

of Z. of 2Z.

(2) of

Z12.

(4) of Z^. (18)

of Z36. {po,
find M2}

cosets of
preceding

subgroup

of the

group D4

given

by Table they

8.12.
the same

7. Repeat

exercise,

but

the

right

cosets this

time. Are

as

the

left

cosets?

102

Part II

a Permutations, Cosets,nd

Direct

Products

8. Rewrite Table 8.12in the order exhibited by the left cosets order 4? If so, is it isomorphic to Z4 or to the Klein 4-group

in

Exercise

6. Do you

seem to get a cosetgroup

of

V?

9. Repeat Exercise 6 for

the

subgroup

{po, Pi\\
find

of -D4.
cosets this
left

10. Repeat the preceding 11. Rewrite Table 8.12in


order

exercise,
the

but

the

right

time. Are
in Exercise

they

the same

as the

left

coset?

order

exhibited by the
to Z4 or

cosets

9. Do you

seem

to get

a coset group

of

4? If so, is
the

it

isomorphic

to the

Klein

4-group

VI

12.
13. 14.

Find

index
index index

of (3) in
of

the

group group group

Z24S3, using D4

Find the Find the

(/^)

in the in the

the notation in Table

of Example

10.7

of (/x2)

given

8.12
S5.

15. Let
16.

a = (1,

2, 5, 4)(2,3)

in S5.

Find the index Find the


index

of (a) in
of

Let (1 =

(1,2,4, 5)(3,

6) in S6.

(/x) in S6.

Concepts
In

Exercises
that

needed, so

of the italicized 17 and 18, correct the definition for publication. it is in a form acceptable
group

term

without

reference

to the

text,

if

correction

is

17. Let G be a
18. Let
19.

and let
and

H c

G be a group Mark each of the a.


Every

let H

G. The left coset < G. The index of


false.
of every

of H
H in

containing

a is number

aH = {ah
of right

\\h

e H}. G.

G is the

cosets of H in

following subgroup

true or

group has left cosets. of a subgroup of a finite divides the order of the group. b. The number of left cosets group c. Every group of prime order is abelian. . d. One cannot have left cosets of a finite subgroup of an infinite group. e. A subgroup of a group is a left coset of itself. f. Only subgroups of finite groups can have left cosets. for n g. An is of index 2 in S\342\200\236 > 1. of Lagrange is a nice result. . h. The theorem the order of the group. i. Every finite group contains an element of every order that divides order that divides the order of the j. Every finite cyclic group contains an element of every
In Exercises
it is

group.

20

through

24,

give an

example of the
G whose

desired

subgroup

and group
cosets

if

possible.

If impossible,

say

why

impossible.
A

20. 22.

subgroup subgroup subgroup subgroup subgroup

of an of a of of

abelian

group

left cosets

and

right

give different partitions


one cell

of G

21. A
A

23. A
24.
A

group G whose left cosets give a partition of G into just a group of order 6 whose of the left cosets give a partition a group of order 6 whoseleft cosets give a partition of the group of order 6 whoseleft
synopsis of
cosets

group into
group group

6 cells
cells cells

into 12 into 4

of a

give a partition

of the

Proof Synopsis

25. Give
Theory

a one-sentence

the

proof

of Theorem

10.10.

26. Prove

that

the relation

~/? of Theorem 10.1is an


of a

equivalence

relation.
map

27. Let H bea subgroup is one to one and

group G and Hg.

let g

e G. Define a one-to-one

of H

onto Hg. Prove that

your

map

is onto

Section 10

Exercises

103

28.

Let

H be

gH is the

a subgroup of a group G such that g same as the right coset Hg.

lhg

e H for

all g

e G and
of

all /j e ff.

Show that every left coset

29. Let

be a
into

subgroup of
right

a group
of H,
then

G.

Prove
g~lhg

partition
Let

cosets

that if the e H for all

partition

G into left
all

cosets of
that

H is the
this

same

as the

g e

G and

/j e

Exercise 28.)
H

H. (Note

is the

converse of
or give

be a

subgroup of

a group

and let

a, b e

G. In

Exercises

30 through

33 prove the

statement

counterexample.

30. If

aH Ha

= bH, = Hb, =
fcff,

31.
32.

If

= Hb. then b e Ha.


then Ha
then

If aH

Ha~l a2ff

= Hb'1. = b2H. pq, where

33. If aH = bH, then 34. Let G be a group

of order

p
of

and

q are

prime numbers.

Show

that

every

proper subgroup of

G is

cyclic.

35. Show
36.

that there are the a one-to-one map of the


by

same number
collection

left as right

cosets of a
the

subgroup

of left
Your

cosets
proof

onto

collection
any

H of a group G; that is, exhibit of right cosets. (Note that this result is

obvious

counting

for finite

groups.
that that

must

hold for

group.)

Exercise 29 of Section4 showed of Lagrange, show the theorem

every finite if n is odd, then

group of evenorder 2n contains an abelian group of order 2n


with

an element
contains

precisely

of order 2. Using one element


be

of order 2.
that

37. Show

a group

with

at least

two elements

but

no proper nontrivial

subgroups
left

must

finite

and of
G and

prime order.
\342\200\242 38. Prove Theorem10.14 Let {atH | i \342\200\224 \342\200\242, the collection of distinct 1, \342\200\242 be [Hint: r} = 1, \342\200\242be the collection of distinct \342\200\242 left cosets of K in H. Show that \342\200\242, s} {bjK | j

cosets

of H

in

{(aibj)K\\i =
is

1,---,rj

= l,---,s}
every

the

collection
that that that
that

of distinct

left

cosets of index

of K in

G.]
group G, then
left coset

39.
40.

Show Show Show

if H if a

is a subgroup

in

a finite

of H is alsoa right
e G.

coset

of H.

41.

x such

group G with identity e has finite order n, then a'1 = Z of the additive group of every left coset of the subgroup 0 < x < 1.
the function
group

e for

all a

real numbers

contains

exactly

one

element

42. Show
of the
value

that

additive

of
H

sine assigns the same value to each elementof any fixed left coset of the subgroup (2jt) real numbers. (Thus sine induces a well-defined function on the set of cosets; the the function on a cosetis obtained we choose an element x of the coset and compute sin x.) when
M of

43. Let
some

and K k e

be

subgroups

of a

group G. Define

~ on G by

a ~ b if

and only if a

hbk

for

some

h e

and

K.
~ is an on G. equivalence relation the elements in the equivalence class containing a

a. Prove that
b. Describe

e G. (These

equivalence

classes

are called

double cosets.)

44. Let

SA be

the group

of all
\\ a{c)

permutations

of the

set

A,

and

let c

be one particular

element

of A.

b. Let
not?

a. Show that {a e SA d ^ c be another


c. Characterize

= c}

is a subgroup
element (b) in of A.

Sc.c ofSA.

particular

Is

Sc_d

{a e SA I a (c) = Scx of

d} a subgroup

of SA ?

Why or why

the set Sc,d

of part

terms of the

subgroup

part (a).

104

Part II

Permutations,

Cosets,

and

Direct

Products

45.

Show

that the

a finite subgroups

are all
less

cyclic group it has.


n

of order

n has

exactly one subgroup

of each

order d
is the that

dividing

n, and

that these

46. TheEuler phi-function


than or

is defined that

for positive

equal to

are relatively

integers n by ip(n) = s, where s prime to n. Use Exercise 45 to show


d\\n

number of positive

integers

Note that the number of generators sum being taken over all positive integers d dividing n. [Hint: <p(d)by Corollary 6.16.] of solutions x of the 47. Let G be a finite group. Show that if for each positive integer m the number 10.12 Exercise 46 to show that and xm = e in G is at most m, then G is cyclic. [Hint: Use Theorem contain an element of order n = | G |.] the

of Zj

is

equation G must

section

11

Abelian Groups Direct Products and Finitely Generated


Direct

Products

Let us take a groups,


for each A\342\200\236

moment to review
the

our

present

stockpile

of groups.

Starting

with

finite

alternating group group the dihedral groups Dn of Section 8, and the that subgroups of these groups exist. Turning to Klein setsof numbers under the usual addition or infinite groups, we have groups consisting of elements as, for example, Z, ffi, and C under addition, and their nonzero multiplication, We have the group U of complexnumbers of magnitude 1 under under multiplication.
cyclic

we have

group

the Z\342\200\236,symmetric

and S\342\200\236,the

positive integer n. We also V. Of course we know 4-group

have

Ec under addition modulo c, groups have the group set A, as Sa of all permutations of an infinite formed from matrices. well as various groups as building blocks One purposeof this section is to show a way to use known groups to form more groups.The Klein 4-group will be recovered in this way from the cyclic this procedure with the cyclic groups gives us a largeclass abelian of groups.Employing to include all possible structure for a finite abelian group. groups that can be shown types Definition 0.4. We start by generalizing

multiplication,
where

which

is isomorphic

to each

of the

c e ffi+.

We

also

11.1 Definition

The Cartesian product


(\302\253i, 02,---, by

of

sets
S,-

an),

where

a,- e

for

is the Si,S2,---.Sn \342\226\240 i = 1, 2, \342\226\240 The n. \342\226\240, S2 x

set

of

all ordered

n-tuples

Cartesian

product is

denoted

either

Si x
or by

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 x S\342\200\236

n
1=1

s,

\342\2

We could
definition
Now

the
we

group

can

the Cartesian of an infinite number of sets, but the product more sophisticated and we shall not need it. \342\226\240 and let us use multiplicative let G\\, G%, \342\226\240 be groups, notation for all \342\226\240, Gn the G,- as sets, we can form Y[\"=i ^,- Let us show that Regarding operations. of multiplication make J~[\"=1 Gt into a group by means of a binary operation by

also define

is considerably

Section

11

Direct

Products

and

Finitely

Generated

Abelian

Groups

105

components. Note again that


group as for
11.2
the

we

are being

sloppy

when

we

use the

same

notation

for

set

of elements

of

the

group.

Theorem

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 Let Gl5 G2, \342\226\240 be groups. For (^, a2, \342\226\240 and (b\\, ,G\342\200\236 \342\226\240, a\342\200\236) \342\226\240 \342\226\240 to be the element \342\226\240 define {a\\, a2, \342\226\240 \342\226\240, \342\226\240, a\342\200\236)(bi, b2, b\342\200\236) (a\\b\\, the direct product of the groups G;, under Yi\"=i Gi is a group,

b2,

\342\226\240 in \342\226\240 \342\200\242, b\342\200\236) YYi=i

^/,

a2b2, this

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 Then \342\226\240, a\342\200\236b\342\200\236).

binary

operation.

Proof

Note that
definition

a,- e G,, bt e G,, and G,- is a group, we have a,-fc,- e G,. Thus the makes binary operation on ]~~[;=i Gt given in the statement of the theorem sense; that is, Yl'-=i Gi is closed under the binary operation. in each The associative law in \\Yl=i Gt is thrown back onto the associative law since of the

component

as follows:

{ax,a2,\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240,b\342\200\236)(cuc2, \342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242,(:\342\200\236)] ,a\342\200\236)[(bi,b2,--\342\200\224

(a\\,a2,

\342\226\240\342\226\240 \342\226\240, an)(bicu

b2c2,

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242, b\342\200\236c\342\200\236)

= = = =

(aiihci), {{a\\bi)ci, (aibua2b2,


[(\302\2531,02,

a2(b2c2), (a2b2)c2,

\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240, a\342\200\236(b\342\200\236c\342\200\236)) \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240, (anb\342\200\236)cn)

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242, c\342\200\236) \342\226\240, c2, anbn)(cu \" - \"

, a\342\200\236)(i>l, fc-2,

\" \342\200\242 \"

, fc\"n)](Cl, C2,

---,0,,).

If a is
{e\\,

the

identity

element

e2,

\342\226\240 is \342\226\240 an \342\226\240, e\342\200\236) \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240, a~l);

(aj-1, a^1,

with multiplication in G,-, then by components, clearly, \342\226\240 an inverse of {a\\, a2, \342\226\240 is in YYI=i Gi- Finally, \342\226\240, an) identity Hence is a group. the product by components. compute n?=i Gj
\342\231\246

we sometimes use additive G, is commutative, refer to ]~[\"=1 G, as the direct sum of the groups G,. The notation @\"=1 G,- is sometimes used in this case in place of YYi=i Gi, especially with \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 abelian groups with operation +. The direct sum of abeliangroups ,G\342\200\236 G2, Gj, may \342\226\240 \342\200\242 We leave be written G\\ @ G2 @ \342\226\240 to Exercise 46 the proof that a direct product @ G\342\200\236. is again abelian. of abeliangroups \342\200\242 seen It is quickly that if the 5; has r,- elements for i = 1, \342\200\242 then F]\"=1 5,- has \342\200\242, n, \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 for in an n-tuple, there are r\302\261 choices for the first component from rn elements, r\\ri are r2 choices for the next from S2, and so on. Si, and for each of thesethere component
In the

event that the


J-[\"=1

operation of each

notation

in

G,

and

11.3 Example

Consider the

group

Z2 x

Z3,

which

has

\342\200\242 3 = Z3

(1,

0),

(1,

1), and

(1, 2). We

claim

that

Z2 x

6 elements, namely is cyclic. It is only


Z2

(0, 0), (0, 1),(0,2),


necessary

to find a so

generator. Let us try (1, 1). Here the operations in we do the same in the direct product Z2 x Z3.

and

Z3 are

written

additively,

(1,1) = (1,1)

2(1,1)
=

(1,1)

+ (1,1)

= (0,2)

= + 3(1,1) = (1,1)+ (1,1) (1,1) (1,0) 4(1, 1) = 3(1, 1) + (1.1) = (1, 0) + (1, 1) = (0, 1) 1 5(1, )= 4(1, 1) + (1, 1) = (0, 1)+ (1,1) = (1, 2) 6(1, 1) = 5(1,1)+ (1,1)= (1, 2) + (1, 1) = (0,0)

106

Part II

Permutations,

Cosets,

and

Direct

Products

Thus (1, 1) generates all structure of a given group


11.4

of Z2
order,

x Z3. Sincethere is, up to isomorphism, only we see that Z2 x Z3 is isomorphic to Zg.

one

cyclic

\342\226

Example

Consider Z3 x Z3. This is a group ofnine elements. We claim that Z3 x Z3 is not cyclic. Since the addition is by components, and since in Z3 every element addedto itself three the times gives the identity, the same is true in Z3 x Z3. Thus no element can generate could only give the identity after nine successively group, for a generator added to itself shows summands. Wehave found another argument group structure of order 9. A similar that Z2
The

Z2

is not

cyclic. Thus Z2 examples

Z2 the

must

be isomorphic theorem:

to

the

Klein

4-group.

\342\226

preceding

illustrate

following

11.5 Theorem

ThegroupZm x
prime, that is,
the

is cyclic Z\342\200\236 gcd

if and and is isomorphic to Zm\342\200\236 only if m and

are

relatively

of m

and
of
has

is
Zm

1.
x
Z\342\200\236 generated

Proof

Consider
5.17.

the

cyclic

subgroup

by (1,

As our
(1,
will

previous work
1) that
involve

shown,

the order
(0, 0).

of this
taking

cyclic

1) as described Theorem by is the smallest subgroup


of (1,
addition

powerof
notation

gives

the

identity

Here

a power

1) in

our

additive

the

first

component

adding 1 e Zm

(1, 1) to

itself repeatedly. nder U


after

by components,
so on,

yields 0 only
Z\342\200\236 yields

m summands,

2m summands, and

and the

second component 1 e
them

0 simultaneously, The smallest number that is a multiple of both m and n will be mn if if the gcd of m and n is 1; in this case, (1, 1) generates a cyclic subgroup of and only is cyclic of order mn, which is the order of the whole group. This shows that Zm x Z\342\200\236 to Zm\342\200\236 and n are relatively if m order mn, and hence isomorphic prime. For the converse, suppose that the gcd of m and n is d > 1. The mn/d is divisible we have by both m and n. Consequently, for any (r, s) in Zm x Z\342\200\236,
to yield

so on. For
both

2n summands, and 0 only after n summands, the number of summands must be a multiple

of

and n.

(r, s)

+ (r, s) +
,

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240

(r, s) '

= (0, 0).

mn/d

summands
x
can Z\342\200\236 generate

not cyclic
This

Hence no element(r, s) in Zm and therefore not isomorphic


theorem

the entire

group,

so

Zm x

is Z\342\200\236

to

Zm\342\200\236.

\342\231

can be

extended to a product of more


corollary
and

than

two

factors

by similar
the

arguments. We state this


11.6

as a

without
to
two

going

through

the details

of

proof.

Corollary

The
for

group

Y[l=i

^m, is

cyclic

isomorphic

Zmim2...m;i

if and

only if the numbers

mt

i =

1,

\342\200\242are \342\200\242 n \342\200\242,

such that the

gcd of any

of them
as a

is 1. of powers of distinct
prime

11.7Example

The

preceding

corollary

shows that if n is written n =

product

numbers,

as in

(Pir(P2)n2---(Pr)nr,
X
to

then

is isomorphic Z\342\200\236

to
^(f>l)\"'

^(Pl)\"2 X
7L%

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 X

^{prf

\342\226\240

In particular,

Z72 is

isomorphic

Z9.

\342\226

Section

11

Direct

Products

and

Finitely

Generated

Abelian

Groups

107

the order of the factors in a direct product yields a group one. The names of elements have simply been changedvia a isomorphic original of the components in the n-tuples. permutation Exercise 47 of Section6 askedyou to define the least common multiple of two r and 5 as a generatorof a certain cyclic group. It is straightforward to positive integers that of Z consisting of all integers that are multiples the subset of both r and 5 is prove a subgroup of Z, and hence is a cyclic group. Likewise, the set of all common multiples \342\226\240 of n positive integers r1; r2, \342\226\240 is a subgroup of Z, and hence is cyclic. rn \342\226\240,
that

We remark

changing

to the

11.8 Definition

Let rl,

r2,

\342\226\240 be \342\226\240 \342\226\240, rn

positive

integers. Their least common

multiple

(abbreviated
the

is the positive the cyclic group


FromDefinition is the r\342\200\236

of the generator of all integers

cyclic group
divisible
by

of each

all common rt for i

multiples of

r;,

that

1cm) is,
\342\226\240

\342\200\242 = 1, 2, \342\200\242 n. \342\200\242,

11.8andourwork

smallest

positive integer
multiple.

that

is a

\342\226\240 on cyclic groups,we seethat the 1cm ofr1; r2, \342\226\240 \342\226\240, \342\200\242 of each r,- for i = 1, 2, \342\200\242 hence n, \342\200\242, multiple

the name
11.9

least common

Theorem

\342\226\240 Let (ax, a2, \342\226\240 e YYi=i Gi- ^ \342\226\240, a\342\200\236) \342\226\240 in \342\226\240 \342\226\240, n?=i ^/ is e(3ual a2, (a\\, an)

a<

*s

fimte \302\260f

order

r,-

in

G,,

then

the order
rt.

of

t\302\260 the

least

common

multiple of all the

Proof

in the proof of Theorem 11.5. or a This follows by a repetition of the argument used F \342\226\240 \342\226\240 of (flj, a2, \342\226\240 to give {e\\, e2, \342\226\240 the power must simultaneously be a \342\226\240, \342\226\240, an) en), power of r\\ so that this power of the first component will yield e\\, a multiple of r2, a\\ multiple so that this power of the second component2 will yield e2, and so on. \342\231\246 a

11.10

Example

Find the

order of (8,4, 10)in


gcd we

the

group

Z12 x

Z60

Z24.

Solution

Since
Similarly,

the

of 8andl2is4, find that 4


12 is

of 3, Zm.

15, and

we see that 8 is of order ^ = 3 in Zj2. (See Theorem 6.14.) is of order 15in Z60 and 10 is of order 12 in Z24. The 1cm 5 \342\200\242 3 \342\200\242 60, so (8, 4, 10)is of order 60 in the group 4 = Zj2 x Z60 x A
by

11.11 Example

The

group

Z x

Z2 is generated

the

elements

(1, 0)
is

and

(0,

1). More
Zm

generally,
some

the

of n cyclic groups, each integer m, is generated by the n n-tuples


direct

product

of which

either

Z or

for

positive

(1,0,0,---,0),

(0,1,0,---,0),

(0,0,1,---,0),

\342\200\242\342\200\242-, (0,0,0,---,1).

Such a direct product might also be generated by fewer the single element (1, 1, 1). Z4 x Z35 is generated by
Note

elements. For example,Z3 G,,


then

x
\342\226\262

that if

Yil-i Gi is the

direct

product

of groups

the

subset

Gi = {(<?i,e2, that is,


the

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240, <?,_!,

at, ei+i,

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240, en) \\ at

e G,},
but

set

of all

n-tuples
It

with

the

identity

elements

in all places

the

/th,

is a

subgroup of n^i just rename

Gt.

is also

clear that this

subgroup

G,- is naturally

isomorphic to G,-;

(eue2, --/,-1,^,^1,

\342\200\242 \342\226\240-,\302\243\342\200\236) by a,-.

108

Part II

a Permutations, Cosets,nd

Direct

Products

The group G,- is mirrored the other components just

in

the

/th

component
We

of

the

elements
to

product of these

Yl1=i Gi The direct product given by Theorem 11.2 and external, external direct product of the groups The terms internal G,-. we are regarding the a direct product of groups, whether or not (respectively) just reflect We shall usually the words as subgroups of the product omit group. component groups and just say direct product.Which term we mean will be clear from external and internal
be subgroups

ride along.
G,.

consider

of G,, and the the internal

e,- in

direct is called the as applied to

the context.

= Historical
his

Note
various

Indemonstrated
theory
number theory.

Disquisitiones

Carl Gauss Arithmeticae, in what is today the results


the

of abelian groups in Not only did he classes of quadratic equivalence

context

of
with

be developed out of the analogies. As could theory he wrote in 1870, \"these principles [from the work of Gauss and Kummer] belong to a more general, to free

deal extensively
forms,

but he

also

considered residueclasses modulo he noted that results Although

a given integer. in these two areas

abstract realm of ideas.It is therefore appropriate their development from all unimportant so that one can spare oneself from restrictions,
in of repeating the same argument This advantage already appears in the and the presentation gains in itself,
if it

the

necessity
different cases. development simplicity,

were similar,

attempt to develop an abstract of abelian groups. theory In the 1840s, Ernst Kummer in dealing with ideal numbers noted that his results were in complex
he

did not

is given

in

the

most

manner, since the


with

most

important

general admissible features stand out


develop

many respects
student in

analogous to thoseof
in

Gauss.

(See

the

clarity.\"
and

Kronecker
was

then proceeded to
theory
and

Historical Note
Leopold Section

Section

26.) But it was

Kronecker
finally

(see
realized

Kummer's the Historical Note


that

the basic

principles of the
able

of finite
prove

groups

to state

a version

abelian of

29) who

an abstract

Theorem 11.12restricted

to finite

groups.

The
Some

Structure
theorems

of Finitely Generated
of abstract

Abelian Groups
and use, although their This is one sectionin
proofs the

algebra are easy to


time-consuming

understand

may

be quite

technical

and

to present.

text

and significance we explain the meaning of a theorem but omit its proof. The whose our understanding, and meaning of any theorem proof we omit is well within with it. It would we feel we should be acquainted be impossible for us to meet someof these to insist on wading through facts in a one-semester course if we were fascinating all theorems. The theorem that we now state gives us complete of complete proofs about all sufficiently small abelian groups, in particular, structural information about all

where

finite

abelian

groups.

11.12 Theorem

generated

Abelian Groups) Generated (Fundamental Theorem of Finitely abelian of cyclic group G is isomorphic to a directproduct
Z(piyi

Every

finitely

groups in the
Z,

form

Z(p,)-2

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 X X Z Z(P(|)r\342\200\236

X Z

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 X

Section

11

Direct Products and Finitely

Generated

Abelian

Groups

109

where
number unique.

the

pt

are primes,
unique

not necessarily
except

distinct,

and

the

r,-

are

positive
the

integers.
that

The
is, the

direct product is
(Betti

for possible

rearrangement of
and

factors;

number

of G)

of factorsZ is unique

the

prime powers

{pif are
\342\231\246

Proof

The

proof is omitted

here.
up

11.13

Example

Find all abelian groups,

to isomorphism,

of order
be

360. The phrase


structurally

up

to isomorphism

signifies to one of the


that

any

abelian of

groups

group of order 360should order 360 exhibited.


groups
shown

identical

(isomorphic)
360, no
11.12,

Solution

We

make

use
will

factors Z
First

of Theorem 11.12. Since our appear in the direct product


product

are to
in the

be of

the

finite

order
theorem. Theorem

statement

of

the

we get

we express 360 as a as possibilities


Z2 Z2

of prime

powers 23325.Thenusing

1.
2.
3.

x x

Z2 x Z4
Z2

Z2 x x Z3 x
x

Z3 Z3

x x

Z3 x Z5

Z5

Z2 x
Z2 Z8 Z8

Z2 x Z9 x Z5

4. 5. 6.

x x x

Z4 x Z9 Z3

x Z5 x Z3 x Z5 Z5
abelian

Z9 x

Thus there are six different


Applications

groups

(up to

isomorphism) of order

360.

\342\226\262

We conclude
regarding

this section with


groups.

a sampling

of the

many

theorems

we could

now prove

abelian

11.14 Definition

group

G is

subgroups.
11.15

to a direct product of two decomposable if it is isomorphic Otherwise G is indecomposable.


abelian

proper

nontrivial
\342\226\240

Theorem

The

finite

indecomposable prime.

groups

are exactly

the

cyclic

groups

with order a

power of a
Proof

Let G be a finite indecomposable abelian group. Thenby Theorem 11.12, Gis isomorphic to a direct product of cyclicgroups of prime power order. Since G is indecomposable, this direct product must consist of just one cyclic group whose order is a power of prime number. Conversely, let p be a prime. Then Zpr is indecomposable, for if Zp>- were x ZpJ, where i + j = to then element would have an order at most isomorphic every Zpi
\342\200\236max(rj) <

r,

^
order

11.16 Theorem

If m divides the

of a finite
can

abelian
of G

group

G,

then

G has a

subgroup

of order

m.

Proof

w By Theorem11.12,e

think
Z0>,)\">

as being
*\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\200\242 xZ0>\342\200\236)''\">

xZ(kP

110

Part

II

Permutations,

Cosets, and Direct Products

where then

all primes m must be of the


not

pt need be distinct.
form cyclic

Since

(piY1 (P2)Sl

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240

{piY^iPiY1 where 0 (PnY\",

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240

<

st

(pnY\" < r,-.

the

{Pi)r'~s> generatesa gcd of (pi f- and


a cyclic

generates

of Z^.y,- of order equal subgroup But the gcd of (pt f' and (pt fsubgroup Z(Piy, of order
(p, )r> ~s'.

to the

~s- is

order of G, 6.14, quotient of (Pi)ri by


is the By Theorem
Thus

(pt f- ~s>.

(pt f

~s>

[(pi)r'i/[(piY'-Sii

= (piyigenerated

Recallingthat
is
11.17
the

{a)

denotes

the cyclic

subgroup

by a,

we see that

tors,)x((ftr-)x-xten
required

subgroup

of order

m.
not

\342\231\

Theorem

If m

that is, m is is a square free integer, of order m is cyclic. abelian group every abelian

divisible

by the

square of

any

prime,

then

Proof

Let G be an
to isomorphic

group

of square

free orderm. Then

by

Theorem

11.12, G is

Z(piyi where

Z(p2yi

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 X \342\200\242 X

, Z(pn)r\342\200\236

m =
distinct

{p\\)ri

(P2Y2

\342\226\240 \342\200\242 \342\226\240 \342\200\242 Since

(PnY\"

m is

square free,
that

we must

have

all

r,-

1 and

all pi

primes.

Corollary

11.6 then shows

G is

isomorphic

to ZpiP2...Pa,so G

is cyclic.

\342\231\

EXERCISES

11

Computations

1. List the

elements Exercise
through

of Z2
1 for

x Z4. Find
Z3

the

order

of each

of the

elements.

Is this

group cyclic?

2.
3.

Repeat

the group

x Z4.
the

In Exercises 3

7, find

the order of

given
(2*

element

of the

direct x

product.

(2, 6) in Z4 x Zi2
Z4

4x
Zi5

3)in

Z6 x Z15

5. (8, 10)in
x Z,2
Z20

Z12

x Z18

6. (3, 10,9) in 8. What is the

x Z12

7.

(3, 6,

12, 16) in
the

Z4

x Z24
Z&

largest

order

among the orders of

all

cyclic

subgroups

of

x 7L%>. of Zj2

x Z15?

9.

Find

all proper
all all

nontrivial
nontrivial of Z2 of Z2 order
is

10. Find 11. Find

proper subgroups

subgroups of Z2 subgroups of Z2 x x x
Z4 Z2

x Z2.
Z2

x Z2.

of order x Z4

4.

12. 13.

Find

all subgroups the


product

that are

isomorphicto

the

Klein

4-group.

Disregarding

resulting

direct of the factors, write products to Z60 in as many ways as isomorphic

of two or

more groups

of the

form

so that Z\342\200\236

the

possible.

14. Fill

in the

blanks.
of Z24

a. The cyclicsubgroup b. Z3 x Z4 is of order

generated

by

18 has

order

Section 11

Exercises

111

c.
e.

The

element
Klein

(4, 2)
4-group
Z4

of Z12 x
elements

Z8

has

order

d. The

is isomorphic

to Z

Z2 x Z x
the the

has

of finite

order.
of Z4

15. 16.
17.
18.

Find Are

maximum groups

possible order for

some element
isomorphic?

x Z6.
why

Z2 x

Zl2

and

Z4

%&

Why
of Z8

or

not?
Z24. why

Find the maximum


Are the

possible order for someelement


x Z10

x Z10 x

Z40 isomorphic? groups Z8 Why or 19. Find the maximum possible orderfor someelement of Z4 x Z18 x Z15. 20. Are the groups Z4 x Z18 x Z]5 and Z3 x 1^ x Z10 isomorphic?Why or

x Z24 and

Z4

x Zi2

not?

why not?
given

In Exercises
order.

21 through

25,

proceed

as in Example

11.13to find

all abelian

groups, up to isomorphism,of the


23-

21. Order 8 24. Order


26.

22- 0rder 16

0rder

32

720
abelian

25. Order
groups (up to

1089

isomorphism) are there of order 24? of order 25? of order (24)(25)? the idea suggested in Exercise 26, let m and n be relatively 27. Following prime integers. Show that if positive r abelian groups of order m and 5 of order n, then there are (up to isomorphism) there are (up to isomorphism) rs abelian groups of order mn.
How
many

28. UseExercise 27

to determine

the number
Fill

of abelian groups of the


table

(up

to isomorphism)

of order (10)5.
of abelian

29. a. Let
up

p be a

prime number.

in the

second row

to give

the number

groups of order

p\",

to isomorphism.

number of groups
b. Let
up

p, q,

and

r be

distinct prime numbers.

Use the

table

you created

to

find

the

number

of abelian

groups,

to isomorphism,

of the

given

order.

i.
30.

p3q4r7
schematically
Cayley the Figure

ii. (qr)1
a Cayley
regular
digraph

iii.
for the Z\342\200\236

q5r4q3

Indicate
Consider

for

Zm x

generating
with

set S =

{(1, ),(0, 1)}. 0


one with
no

31.

digraphs

with two arc


n-gons,
n-gon
with

types,

a solid

one

an

arrow

and a dashed

arrow,

and consisting
joining and

of two

vertices 7.11(b)

of the outer shows one


digraph.

counterclockwise)direction
group a.

as those

> 3, with solid arc sides, one inside the other, with dashed arcs to the inner one. Figure shows such a Cayley digraph with n = 3, 7.9(b) n = 4. The arrows on the outer n-gon may the same (clockwise or have on the inner n-gon, or they may have the opposite direction. Let G be a
for n

with

such a Cayley

Under

what circumstances

will

G be

abelian?

b. If G is abelian, to what familiar group is it isomorphic? under c. If G is abelian, what circumstances is it cyclic? d. If G is not abelian, to what group we have discussedis it

isomorphic?

112

Part

II

Permutations, Cosets, and DirectProducts

Concepts

32.

Mark each of the

following Gj

true or are any


in an

false.
then

a. If Gi and

groups,

G\\
product

x G2

is always

isomorphic

to G2
you

b.

Computation

external direct

of groups

is easy

if

know

x G]. how to compute in

each

component

group.
nontrivial

c. Groups of finite order must be used to form an external direct product. d. A group of prime order could not be the internal direct product of two proper e. Z2 x Z4 is isomorphicto Zg. f. Z2 x Z4 is isomorphicto S%. to S4. g. Z3 x Zg is isomorphic h. Every element in Z4 x Zg has order 8. i. The order of Z12 x Zj5 is 60. has mn j. Zm x Z\342\200\236 elements whether m and n are relatively prime or not.
33.

subgroups.

Give an

nontrivial

example illustrating subgroups.


many many example

that

not every nontrivial

abelian
to Z5 x Z x Z?

group

is the

internal direct

product

of two

proper

34. a.

How

subgroups subgroups

of Z5 x of Z

Zg

are

isomorphic

Z6?
and

b. How
35. Give an
nontrivial

x Z are isomorphicto group


or false.
that

of a nontrivial

is not

of prime order

is not

the internal direct

product

of two

subgroups.
of the

36.

Mark

each

following
abelian

true

a. Every

group

of prime

order is cyclic.

b. Every c. Z8 is
d. f.
g.
Zg

abelian

group

of prime power order is

cyclic.

generated abelian finitely

by {4, by {4,

is generated finite two

e. All
Any

6}. 5, 6}. groups are classifiedup generated abelian groups


of order

to isomorphism with

by Theorem

11.12.
are

the same

Betti

number

isomorphic.

Every abelian
Every Every Every

group

divisible
divisible

by

5 contains

a cyclic a cyclic

subgroup of order 5.
subgroup

h.
i.

abelian abelian finite

group group abelian

of order
of order

by 4
by

contains a cyclic
of 0.

of order

4.

divisible

6 contains

subgroup of order 6.
of order

j.
37. Let

group has a Betti

number

p and q be distinct prime numbers. How does the number (up to isomorphism)of abelian comparewith the number (up to isomorphism)of abelian groups of order qr ?
G be

groups

pr

38. Let

an abelian
say

group

of order

72.
or why

a. Can you b. Can you

how many

say how many abelian

subgroups of order 8 G has?Why, subgroups of order 4 G has? Why,


that

not?

or why in G

not? form a subgroup.


This

39. LetGbe an
the

group.

torsion

subgroup

Show of G.

the

elements

of

finite

order

subgroup

is called

Exercises40 through 40.


Find

43

deal with

the concept of the


of Z4

torsion

subgroup

just defined.

the

order

of the

torsion

subgroup

x Z x Z3; of Zn

x Z x Z12.

Section

11

Exercises

113

41. 42.

Find Find

the the

torsion torsion

subgroup of

the

multiplicative

group

E* of nonzero real numbers.

subgroup T of the multiplicative group C* of nonzero complexnumbers. 43. An abelian group is torsion free if e is the only element of finite order. Use Theorem 11.12 to show that abelian group is the internal and of a torsion-free direct product of its torsion every finitely generated subgroup that {e} may be the torsion subgroup, and is also torsion free.) (Note subgroup. 44. Thepart of the decomposition of G in Theorem to the subgroups of prime-power order 11.12 corresponding \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 where r \342\200\224 in the form Zm, x Zm, x \342\200\242 can also be written x Zmr, m, divides mi+\\ f or / = 1, 2, \342\200\242 1. The \342\200\242, to be unique, and are the torsion of G. numbers m; can be shown coefficients

a.

Find

the

torsion

coefficients
coefficients

of

Z4

x Z9.

b. Find

the torsion

of Z6

x Z12 x Z20
coefficients

an c. Describe

algorithm

to find

the

torsion

of a direct

product of cyclicgroups.

Proof Synopsis

45. Give
Theory

a two-sentence

synopsis of

the

proof

of Theorem

11.5.

46. Prove

is abelian. product of abelian groups the all elements subset of G consisting of the identity e together with of 47. Let G be an abelian group. Let H be G of order 2. Show that H is a subgroup of G. for every abelian group 48. Following whether H will always be a subgroup up the idea of Exercise47 determine G if H consists of the identity e together with all elements of G of order 3; of order 4. For what positive for every abelian group G, if H consists n will H always be a subgroup of the identity e together with integers all elements of G of order n? Compare with Exercise 48 of Section 5.
that

a direct

49. Find
Let H

a counterexample

of Exercise

47

with

the

hypothesis

that G is

abelian

omitted. necessary

and K be subgroups of a group G. Exercises 50 and for G to appear as the internal direct product of H and K.

51 ask

you to establish

and sufficient

criteria

50. Let H and


way.

K be

Show

groups and let that these subgroups


of G
all

G=
form

H x K.Recall
H x
hk for

that

both

H (actually

{e})and
h

K (actually

H and K appear as subgroups of G in a natural {e} x K) have the following properties.

a.

Every

element =

is of the
H and k
of a

some

e H

and k

e K.
=
{<?}.

b. hk
51.

kh for

h e

e K.

c. H n K

Let H

exercise. Show the three properties listed in the preceding group G satisfying that for each g \342\202\254 expression g = hk for h e H and k e K is unique. Then let each g be renamed G, the (h, k). G becomes structurally identical (isomorphic)to H x K. Show that, under this renaming,
Show

and K be subgroups

52.
53.

that

a finite
p.

abelian

group

is not

cyclic
order

if

and

only if it

contains a

subgroup

isomorphic

some prime

to Zp x Zp
the

for

Prove that if a finite abelian group is a power of p. Can the hypothesis

has

a power

of commutativity
abelian

of a prime p, then be dropped?Why,


Show

the

order
or why

of every

element
to

in

group

not?
H

54. Let

G, H, and

be finitely

generated

groups.

that

if

G x

K is isomorphic

x K,

then

114

Part II

Permutations,

Cosets,

and

Direct

Products

SECTION 12

^PlANE IsOMETRIES
of E2 is a permutation : E2 \342\200\224> E2 plane E2. An isometry \302\242) distance, so that the distance between points P and Q is the same as the points (f>(P)and 4>(Q) for all points P and Q in E2. If ij/ is the distance between also an isometry of E2, then the distance between i/f(0(P)) and VWK2)) must be the in turn is the distance P same as the distance between and \302\242(0), which between (f>(P) that the composition of two isometries is again an isometry. Since the and Q, showing of an isometry is an isometry, we see that the identity map is an isometry and the inverse isometries of E2 form a subgroup of the group of all permutations of E2. of E2 that carry S onto itself form a Given any subset S of E2, the isometries of isometries. This subgroup is the group of the group of symmetries of S in subgroup of symmetries of an equilateral the group E2. In Section 8 we gave tables for triangle and for the group of symmetries of a square in E2. we have defined in the two preceding paragraphs could equally well Everything but we will concern ourselves have been done for n-dimensional Euclideanspace E\", with chiefly plane isometries here. that every isometry of the plane is one of just four types (see Artin It can be proved that can be carried [5]). We will list the types and show, for each type, a labeled figure of that type. In each of Figs. 12.1, 12.3,nd 12.4, consider the a into itself by an isometry to the left and to the right. We also give line with spikes shown to be extended infinitely
Consider

the Euclidean

that

preserves

an

example

of each

type

in

terms

of coordinates.
point = (x,
about

r: Slide every 12.1.(Example:r(x, y) Fig.


translation
rotation

the

same

distance
P through

in

the

same
3).)

direction.

See

y) +

(2, -3)

= (x + 2,yan

p:

Rotate
=

the plane

a point

angle

6. See

Fig. 12.2.
about

(Example:p(x, y) origin (0, 0).)


reflection

(\342\200\224y, is x)

a rotation

through

90\302\260 counterclockwise

the

/x: point

L, each
reflection.

Map each point into of which is left fixed n(x,

its

mirror

image

(/x for mirror)


line line

x.) and a reflection across aline mapped glide reflection y: product into itself is a by the translation. See Fig. 12.4. (Example: y(x, y) = (x + 4, \342\200\224y) reflection along the a:-axis.) glide
(Example:

y)

12.3.The by = (y,x) is a reflectionacrossthe


/x. See Fig.
of a translation

L is

across a line the axis of

y =

The

that is carried into another arrow in each of curved translation and rotation, the counterclockwise directions of the curved arrows remain the same, but for the reflection and glide reflection,the a clockwise counterclockwise arrow is mapped into arrow. We say that translations and while the reflection and glide reflectionreverse rotations preserve orientation, as any definite orientation. We do not classify the identity one of the four isometry types well be considered to be a translation it could equally listed; by the zero vector or a of 0\302\260. always consider a glide reflection to We rotation about any point through an angle be the product of a reflection and a translation that is different from the identity isometry.

Notice

the little curved


12.4.

arrow

Figs. 12.1 through

For the

This section is not used in the remainder

of the text.

Section

12

Plane Isometries

115

T(P)

r(R)
Q
Translation

r(R)

r-\\Q)

<G)
x.

P-KQ)

12.1Figure
P
>

12.2 Figure

Rotation

p.

lAQ) i

R
\342\226\240

y-HP) s

Y(P)

y
i IMP) \342\226\240

g
\\KG)

\\
y-2(P)
12.4

o.

/
P
\\
y2(P)

Q
Reflection

n(K>
/x.

12.3 Figure

Figure

Glide reflection y.

The theorem that


full

follows

describes

the possible

structures

of finite

subgroups

of

the

isometry
finite

group.
plane

12.5 Theorem

Every

group

group G of isometries of the for some positive integer n. D\342\200\236 show

is isomorphic

to either

or to Z\342\200\236

a dihedral

Proof Outline

First in

we G.

G =

P in the plane that is left fixed by every isometry that there is a point can be done in the following way, using coordinates in the plane. Suppose \342\200\242 \342\200\242. 0m} {0i. 02- \342\200\242 and let

This

(*;.)';) =
Then

0/(0.0).
h x\342\200\236,+ Ji

the

point
Cc, J)
^

'xi +x2-\\
m

)'2

H )'\342\200\236

isometries in G permute then fa(Xj, >'j) = 0,-(0,-(0, )] = points 0 0,0j 0,(.(0. = (\302\276. It can be shown that the centroid of a set of points is uniquely 0) yk). and since each isometry the points, in G just permutes determined by its distances from fixed. Thus G consistsof the identity, rotations the set S, it must leave the centroid (x. y) across a line through P. about P, and reflections in G form a subgroup The orientation-preserving isometries H of G which is either in the same way that we showed that all of G or of order m /2. This can be shown the of S\342\200\236 are a subgroup half the elements of S\342\200\236. even permutations (See containing just in G. If we choose a Exercise 22.) Of course H consistsof the identity and the rotations as small an angle 0 > 0 as possible,it can be rotation in G that rotates the plane through shown to generate the subgroup H. (See Exercise 23.) This shows that if H = G, then to Z\342\200\236,. G is cyclic of order m and thus isomorphic H =\302\243 so that G contains G Suppose
is the
the the

centroid of
in S

set

S =

{(Xj. }'i)\\i =

\342\200\242 1. 2. \342\200\242 The \342\200\242. m}.

among themselves, sinceif

= fa

116

Part II

Permutations,

Cosets,

and

Direct

Products

\342\226\240 some reflections. et H = {i,\\, \342\226\240 L n = m /2. If /x is a reflection in G, then p \342\226\240, with p\342\200\236_i} coset Hfi consists of all n of the reflections in G. Consider now a regular n-gon in the plane having P as its center and a vertex with on the line through P left fixed by /x. The elements of H rotate this n-gon through lying

the

all positions,

and

the

elements

turning
this

the

n-gon

over,

of H/x first reflect and then rotate through

in an
all

axis

through

positions.

a vertex, effectively Thus the action of G on

n-gon
The

is the action

of Dn, so G is isomorphic
gives
groups
the

to D\342\200\236.

\342\231

isometries that arise naturally in decorating and art. Among these are the discrete frieze groups. A discrete friezeconsistsof a pattern of finite width and height that is repeated endlessly in both directions along its baseline a strip of infinite to form but finite height; think of it as a decorative border strip length to the ceiling on wallpaper. We consider that goes around a room next those isometries that carry each basic pattern onto instance itself or onto another of the pattern in the frieze. The set of all such isometriesis called the \"frieze All discrete frieze group.\" and have a subgroup groups are infinite isomorphic to Z generated by the translation that slides the frieze lengthwise until the basic pattern is superimposed on the position in that direction. of its next neighbor pattern As a simple exampleof a discrete frieze, consider integral distances apart and continuing signs spaced equal infinitely to the left and right, indicated schematically like this.
now

We turn

theorem preceding to some infinite

complete

story

about

finite

plane

isometry

groups.

of plane

\342\226\240\342\226\240///////////////////////////////////The symmetry group of this frieze integral signs to be one unit apart. the plane one unit to the right, and by a rotation p by a translation x sliding of 180\302\260 about a point in the center of some integral There are no horizontal or sign. vertical is nonabelian; we can T frieze reflections, and no glide reflections. his group

Let us

consider the

is generated

check that
do
not

= px~l. The a rotation commute,


xp

n-th p\\

dihedral through

group
360/n\302\260

Dn is
of

2 satisfying /?i/x = /xp^1. Thus it is natural to use frieze group generated by x of infinite order and p As another consider the frieze given example,

generated by two elements that n and a reflection /x of order the notation D^ for this nonabelian of order 2. by an infinite string of D's.
order

DDDDDDDDDDD
Its

group

across

group
and

is
It

by a translation x one stepto the right and by a vertical reflection /x line cutting the middle of all the D's. We can check that these through generators commute this time, that is, t/x = /xt, so this frieze group is abelian to Z x Z2. isomorphic can be shown that if we classify such discretefriezes only by whether or not their
is generated a horizontal

groups

contain

a
horizontal

rotation
vertical then there
group in

axis glide

reflection reflection

axis reflection

nontrivial

is one

that

of seven possibilities. A nontrivial in a symmetry glide reflection that is not equal to a product of a translation in that group and a reflection The group for the string of D's above contains glide reflectionsacross group.

are a total

12 Section
the horizontal line
through

Plane

Isometries

117

the

centers
group

glidereflection
that group.

is also

in the

so they

of the D's, but the translation are all considered trivial

component
glide

of each
in

reflections

The frieze group


D

for

D
contains the

group.

case,
group.

is not an element of component glide reflection whose translation exercises exhibit the seven possible cases, and ask you to tell, for each of the four types of isometriesdisplayed above in the symmetry which appear We do not obtain seven obtained different group structures. Each of the groups
a nontrivial

The

can be

shown

to be

isomorphic

to one of
\302\243>oo,

Z,
Equally

x Z2,

or

Doo x Z2.

a pattern in the shape of a square, when study of symmetries or hexagon is repeated by translations along two nonparallel that on wallpaper. These to fill the entire plane, like patterns vector directions appear or the plane crystallographic W groups groups. hile a groups are called the wallpaper itself frieze could not be carriedinto by a rotation through a positive angle less than it of 60\302\260, and for some of these to have rotations 180\302\260 90\302\260, 120\302\260, 180\302\260, is possible
interesting

is the

parallelogram,

rhombus,

where the pattern consists of 12.6 provides an illustration of plane isometries that carry this square onto the group itself or onto another are given by two translations Generators for this group square. a square to the next neighbor to the right and one to the next (one sliding above), by a rotation through 90\302\260 about the center of a square, and by a reflection in a vertical (or line along the edges of the square. The one reflection is all that is needed to horizontal) the plane \"turn After over\"; a diagonal reflection can also be used. being turned over,
plane-filling a

patterns.

Figure

square.

We are

interested

in

the

translations

and

rotations
surely the

can be

used again.

The

isometry
to

in the pattern unit translations

plane
to

contains

a subgroup

isomorphic

Z x

group for this periodic Z generated by

the

those isometries that If we consider all the types of isometries that get

and upward, and a subgroup to \302\243)4 isomorphic generated by into itself. one square (it can be any square) carry to be filled with as in Fig. 12.7, we do not the plane parallelograms
right we

did for

Fig. 12.6. The symmetry

group

this time

is

12.6Figure

118

Part

II

Permutations,

Cosets, and DirectProducts

12.7

Figure

about translations indicated through 180\302\260 by the arrows and a rotation of a parallelogram. of wallpaper patterns when It can be shown that there are 17different they are types classified according to the types of rotations, reflections, and nontrivial glide reflections and that they admit. We refer you to Gallian [8] for pictures of these 17 possibilities a few of them. The situation a chart to help you them. The exercises illustrate identify is more complicated; it can be shown that there are 230 three-dimensional in space in space. The final exercise we give involves rotations crystallographic groups. was an artist whose work included plane-filling M. C. Escher (1898-1973) patterns. of his works of this The exercises include reproductions of four type.

generated

by the

any vertex

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

12
the group of symmetries of a certain which we consider the figure to lie. of a point in (translations, of a line of geometric

1. This exercise shows that of the space in dimension


a. Describe
all

type

figure may depend on

the

symmetries

the real line R; that


reflections,
in in

is, describe

all isometries plane R2.

of R that

leave

one point

fixed.

b. Describe all c. Describe all


d. Describe e. Describe

symmetries symmetries

etc.) of a point

in the

segment
segment

R. R2.

all symmetries of a line segment

some symmetries of a line


for

in R3.
isometry

2. Let P
with

stand

an orientation
the

preserving plane
preserving

and

R for an
property

orientation
of a

reversing

one.

Fill in

the table

P or R

to denote

orientation

or reversing

product.

P
p R

Section

12

Exercises

119

3.

of plane isometries given by a product table to give all possible types of two types. For example, a rotations may be a rotation, or it may be another Fill in the box corresponding to pp with product type. both letters. Use your answer to Exercise 2 to eliminate from consideration. some types. Eliminate the identity
Fill

in the

of two

T P
M

4. Draw a plane

figure

that
that that that

has a one-element
has has has

group as its

group

of symmetries of symmetries of symmetries


Z4 as the

in R2. in R2. in R2.


in

5. 6. 7.

Draw Draw Draw

a plane a plane a plane

figure figure figure


figure

a two-element a three-element a four-element

group as its group group as its group group isomorphicto

group isomorphicto

its group of symmetries 4-group


V

R2.

8. Draw a

plane

that

has a four-element

Klein

as its

group of symmetries
of an

inR2.
isometries (other than the identity), give the possibilities for the order group of plane isometries. 10. A plane isometry cp has a fixed point if there exists a point P in the plane such that 4>{P) = P. Which four types of plane isometries (other than the identity) can have a fixed point?
For

9.

each

of the

four
type

types

of plane

isometry of that

in the

of the

11.
12.

Referring to Exercise 10,which


Referring

types types types

of plane of plane of plane


that

isometries, if isometries, isometries,


leaves
if if

any,

have

exactly

one fixed point?

to Exercise

10, which
that a plane

any, any,

have exactly have an


infinite

two

fixed

points?

13.

Referring to Exercise 10,which


Argue

number
fixed

of fixed be the

points?
map. points,

14.
15.

geometrically

isometry

three noncolinear
and

points
and group

must

identity

Using Exercise 14, show


that is, if
cj>(Pj)

algebraically

that if
points

if (Pi) together

for noncolinear
with the identity with the

two plane isometriescp Pi, P2, and P3, thcncp


form a subgroup form

t/t agree

on three

noncolinear

^ are

the same map. isometries?


Why

16. Do the
not?

rotations,

map,

of the of

of plane

or why

17. Do the 18. Do the

translations,

together about
Why

identity

map,

a subgroup

the

group

of plane

isometries? of the of

Why

or

why not?
rotations

plane isometries?

one particular or why not?


or why

point

P,

together

with the

identity

map,

form

a subgroup

group

of

19. Does the


of plane

reflection

across
Why

isometries?
not?

one particular not?


with

line

L,

together

with the

identity

map,

form

a subgroup

the

group

20. Do the
or why

glide

reflections,

together

the identity

map, form a

subgroup

of the

group of plane

isometries?Why

21.

Which Completing

of the

22.

the
IGI

rotations
=2\\H\\.

subgroup of the group of plane isometries? of the proof of Theorem 12.5,let G be a finite group of plane isometries. Show that a detail in G, together H of G, and that H = G or with the identity isometry, form a subgroup either that we used to show that \\S\342\200\236\\ [Hint: Use the same method =2\\A\342\200\236\\.]
four types
of a finite

of plane isometriescan be elements

120

Part

II

Permutations,

Cosets, and Direct Products

23.

in the proof of Theorem let G be a finite of the identity 12.5, group consisting isometry about one point P in the plane. Show that G is cyclic, generated by the rotation in G that turns the plane counterclockwise about P through the smallest angle 9 > 0. [Hint: Follow the idea of the proof that a subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic]
Completing

a detail

and rotations

Exercises
symmetries.

24

through

Imagine
contains

frieze always
of the

30 illustrate the seven different the figure shown to be continued For each of these translations.

types

of friezes

when
these

they

are
left.

classified
The

infinitely

to the right

and

symmetry

according to their group of a


symmetry

exercises answer

questions

about the

group

frieze.
contain
contain contain

a. Doesthe group b. Does the group


c. Does

a rotation? a reflection a reflection

across a horizontal

line?

the

group

across a vertical line?

d. Does the e. To which


frieze

group of the

contain

a nontrivial

glide reflection?

possible groups Z,

D^, Z x Z2,

or D^,

x Z2

do you

think

the symmetry

group of the

is isomorphic?

24.

FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF

25. TTTTTTTTTT

26.EEEEEEEEEEEE

12.8

Figure

The Study

of Regular Division Escher Foundation-Baarn-Holland.

of the Plane

with

Horsemen

1946 (\302\251

M. C.

All rights

reserved.)

Section 12

Exercises

121

27zzzzzzzzzzzz

28HHHHHHHHHH J J J
29.

11111

30.

u
180\302\260?

n
symmetry

u
group

n
contain
any

u
rotations?

n
the

u
plane by translation

to be used to fill 37 describe a pattern 31 through in each case. these A the specifiedvectors. nswer questions
Exercises

in the

two

directions

given 0 <

by

a. Doesthe

If so,

through

what

possible

angles

where 6\302\273

6 <

r-.^su

/i- --

'#
i~m.
\342\226\240-\"i \342\226\240 \342\226\240\342\226\240A

ft

i.',

.''

'-\342\200\224 \"V-'\"~-

;*tT,--

. ji-

12.9 Figure

The 1936

Study of Regular Division of M. C. Escher Foundation-Baarn-Holland.

the

Plane

with Imaginary Human


All rights

Figures (\302\251

reserved.)

122

Part II

Permutations,

Cosets,

and

Direct

Products

12.10Figure
b. Does the
c. Does

The

Study of Regular

Division of the

Plane

with Reptiles

1939 (\302\251

M. C.

Escher

Foundation-Baarn-Holland.

All rights

reserved.)

symmetry
symmetry

group
group

contain
contain
vertical

any

reflections?

the

any nontrivial
edges

glide reflections?
directions
given

31. A
32. A 33. A
(0,

square
square square

with horizontal
as in as in

and

using

translation

by vectors (0,

(1, 0)
1).

and

(0,

1).

Exercise 31 Exercise 31 Exercise 31 Exercise 31

using with

translation the

directions

given by vectors
using

(1, 1/2) and


directions

letter L at

its center its center its center

translation

given by vectors given by vectors given by vectors


(1,0)

(1,0) (1,0)

and

1).
square

34. A
(0,

as in

with

the

letter E at

using

translation

directions

and

1).
square

35. A
(0,

as in

with

the

letter H at

using

translation

directions

(1,0) and V3).


centroid

1).
hexagon

36. A regular

with a vertex at

the
the

top

using

translation

directions

given by
with

vectors

and (1,
top

37.

regular

hexagon

with a vertex
hexagon, 41

at

at the center Exercises


and

of the
through

using

top containing an equilateral triangle translation directions given by vectors


with

vertex
and

at the
V3).

and

(1, 0)

(1,

38

are concerned
in

assume

the markings

each

invisible due to shading. 36, and also answer this

Answer
part

C. Escher. Neglectthe shading in the figures or horseman are the same, even though they may be figure, reptile, the same questions were asked for Exercises 31 through (a), (b), and (c) that
art

works

of M.

human

(d).
equal

coordinate axes with d. Assuming horizontal and vertical allel directions of vectors that generate the translation of these vectors.

scales

as usual,

give vectors in
yourself

the

subgroup. Do not

concern

two nonparwith the length

Section 12

Exercises

123

12.11
38.
The

Figure

The

Study of Regular Division of the Escher Foundation-Baarn-Holland. with Horsemen with Imaginary with Reptiles in with Human form a group

Plane All

with Human

1936 Figures (\302\251

M. C.

rights reserved.)

Study Study

of Regular of

39. The 41. The

Division of the Regular Division of the


Division of the Regular Division of the
of a cube
the
in

Plane Plane Plane Plane

in Fig.

12.8.
in

Human Figures Fig. 12.10.


in to

Fig.

12.9.

40. The Study


Study

of Regular

of

Figures

Fig.

12.11.

42. Show that the rotations the diagonals through

space

isomorphic

S4. [Hint:

A rotation of the

cube

permutes

center

of the

cube.]

PART

Homomorphisms

and

III

Factor

Groups
Homomorphisms
Factor

Section

13

Section
Section

14
15

Groups
and

Factor-Group Computations -Group


^Applications Action

Simple

Groups

Section

16

on

a Set

Section 17

of G-Sets

to Counting

section

13

Homomorphisms

Structure-Relating Maps
Let

and

G' be
of G

groups. We
the

are

interested

structure
about

to

group

structure

in maps from of G'. Such a map

to

G'

often

relate the group gives us information


that
all

one

G -*'\342\226\240 \302\247

about
the

the group G and group structure of

of the groups from known structural of the other. An isomorphism properties of such a structure-relating map. Ifwe know G', if one exists, is an example
know

that

0 is

an

isomorphism,

G', for it
maps, that

we immediately

know all
consider

about

is structurally

general structure-relating by no longer requiring


the

weakening

just a copy the conditions


onto.

of G. We now from thoseof


You see,

more

the maps

be one to one and


definition

an isomorphism

purely

set-theoretic

portion

of
of G

our

of an

do with
algebra
property of

the

binary

operations

and of
binary

G'. The

which

is the

focus of our

those conditions are to isomorphism, and have nothing are what give us the binary operations
now

study
the

in this

an isomorphism 0 of a

related to
into

text. We keepjust the homomorphism for the definition we operations

make.

13.1 Definition

map

group G

a group

G' is a

homomorphism if

the

homomorphism

property 4>{ab) =

4>{a)(j>{b)

(1)

holds for all a, b


1

e G.
only for for the

B
Sections 17 and 36. remainder of the text.

Section

16 is a prerequisite

Section 17 is not required

125

Part III

Homomorphisms

and

Factor

Groups

Let us
product

now

examine

the

: G \342\200\224>\342\226\240(1), the G'. In Eq. \302\242)


4>{a)4>{b)

idea behind the ab on the product


and hence

requirement
left-hand

side

(1) for a homomorphism takes place in G, while the

side takes place in G'. Thus Eq. (1) gives a relation between the two group structures. operations, at least one homomorphism <f> : G \342\200\224>\342 For any groups G and G', there is always G'', e' is the the trivial homomorphism dennedby 0(g) = e' for all g e G, where namely e' = e'e'. No information (1) then reduces to the true equation identity in G'. Equation from the other group this trivial the structure of G or G' can be gained about using
on

the right-hand

betweenthesebinary

homomorphism. We give onto G' may give structural 13.2 Example

an

example information

how a illustrating about G'.

homomorphism

<f>

mapping

Let \302\247 : G
then

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 G' be a

G'

must

group homomorphism be abelian. Let a!,b'

of G onto
We

G'.

We claim that if

e G'.

G is abelian,
is Since\302\242

must

show

G', there exist a,b e G such that we have ab = ba. Using property (1), = b'a', so G' is indeedabelian? 4>{b)4>{a)
onto
Example

4>{a) = a' and we have a'b'

that a'b' = b'a!. = b'. Since G <j>{b)


<j>{d)<j>{b)

is abelian,

4>{ab) = 4>{ba) =

\342\226\

13.16
about

will give
G via

an

illustration

give information
homomorphisms

a homomorphism

showing : G \302\242

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 G''. We

how information about G' may now give examples of

for

specific

groups.
n

13.3 Example

be the Let S\342\200\236

symmetric

group on

letters,

and let
even odd

: Sn \302\242

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 Z2 be

denned

by

_ JO if a is an 11 if a is an
Show that 0
Solution

permutation, permutation.

is a homomorphism.
that \302\242(0(/)

show operation on the in the group Z2.


We must

+ \302\242(0)

for \302\242((/,)
equation amounts

all choices
is written

of a, (i
additively

Note S\342\200\236.

that

the

right-hand

side of

this

Verifying
(i odd, (i even, (i odd, (i even. case,

this equation

to checking

since it takes just four cases:

place

a odd and
a odd a even a even Checking
and and and

the

first then

if a

and

/x

can

both

be written
product

transpositions,

cr/x can

be written
\302\242((/)

as the
1 +

of an
in

Thus \302\242(0(1) =
similarly.

0 and

+ \302\242(0)

1 =

Z2.

as a product of an odd number of even number of transpositions. The other cases can be checked

\342\226\

13.4

Example

(Evaluation
ffi

into

ffi,

let

0C :
Recall value

F ^that, at x

Let F be the additive group of all functions mapping and let c be any real number. Let group of real numbers, ffi be the evaluation defined by 0C(/) = f(c) for f e F. homomorphism f + g whose by definition, the sum of two functions f and g is the function we have is f(x) + g(x). Thus
Homomorphism)
ffi

be

the additive

4>c(f + and Eq.

8) =

(/ + 8)(c)= f(c)+ g(c)


have

\302\242,(/)

$c{g),

(1) is satisfied,so we

a homomorphism.

\342\226\

Section

13

Homomorphisms

127

13.5 Example

Let E\"
group n

be is of

the additive

factors.)

0(v) = Av E\", matrix algebra shows that 0(v + w) = A(v + linear such a map computed by multiplying algebra, matrix A is known as a linear transformation.
13.6

with n real-number components. (This vectors group of column course isomorphic to the direct product of E under with itself for addition Let A be an m x n matrix of real numbers. : E\" \342\200\224>\342\226\240 Em be denned by Let \302\242) for each column vector v e E\". Then 0 is a homomorphism, since for v, w e
w)

Av +

a column

Aw = 0(v) + vector on the

0(w).
left

In

by a
\342\226\262

Example

Let GL(n, E) be the matrix A is invertible


for

multiplicative if and

group
have

of all invertible
det(A),

x n

matrices.

only if its

determinant,

is nonzero.

Recall that Recall also that

matrices

A, B

e GL(n. E) we

det(AB)

= det(A)

det(fi).

Thismeans that det E* of nonzeroreal


Homomorphisms

is a homomorphism
numbers.

mapping GL(n,
are often

E) into

the

multiplicative

group
\342\226\262

of a group

into

itself

of G. 13.7 Example

Our next examplegives

a nontrivial

useful for studying into of a group homomorphism


\302\242r(n)

the

structure

itself.

Let r e

Z and

let

: Z \302\247r
n)

->\342\226\240 Z be

denned
rm

by

rn for all n
4>r{n)

e Z. For all m,
and

e Z,

wehave0r(m Note that 0O


Let G

r(m

n) =

rn = 4>T(m) +
<j>\\

so0,

is a homomorphism.
0_i

is the trivial
in

homomorphism,
is \302\242,. not

is the

identity

map,

maps

Z onto
\342\226\262

Z. For all other r


13.8

Z,

the map

onto Z.

Example

direct product of groups.The projection map Ttj 7tj(gi. gi. gi is a homomorphism for each \342\226\240 i = n. 2. \342\200\242 This follows immediately from the fact that the binary operation of G \342\200\242. 1, coincidesin the i\\h component with the binary operation in G,\342\226\240. \342\226\262
x

= Gi
:

G2 x

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 x \342\200\242 \342\226\240 \342\200\242 x G,\342\226\240 \342\200\242 be a x G\342\200\236

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 G, where

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 = \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240, gn) gi-

13.9

Example

Let F
additive

be the
group

additive

group

of real

of continuous functions with domain [0, 1] and numbers. The map a : F \342\200\224>\342\226\240 a{f) = fQ E defined by

let

E be

the
for

f(x)dx

f efisa

homomorphism, for
+ \302\260U

8)=

Jo

(f +

8){x)dx = I
Jo

+ [f{x)

g(x)]dx

Jo

f(x)dx

+ /
Jo

g(x)dx= o(f) + o(g)


= r,

for all f, g

e F.
Modulo
remainder

13.10 Example

(Reduction

n)

Let
given

be

the natural

map of Z
algorithm

into

Z\342\200\236 given

by y(m)
by

where r is the
that
y

by the division

when

m is

divided

n. Show

is a

homomorphism.
show

Solution

We need to

that

y(s+t)
for

= y(s)
we let
qxn

+ y(t)

s, t

e Z. Using

the

division

algorithm,

5=

ri

(2)

128

Part III

Homomorphismsand Factor Groups

and

t =

q2n +

r2

(3)

where

0 < r,

<

for

i =

1, 2. If

n + for 0 < r3
<

r2

qin

+ r3

(4)

n, then

adding Eqs. 5+
t

(2) and
=

(3)

we see that

(qi +

q2 +

+ qi)\302\253

r3,

so that y(s + t) From Eqs.

r3.
(3)

(2) and

we see that

y(s) =
y(t),

r\\

and

y(t)

= r2.

Equation

(4)

shows

that

the sum r\\

y(s Consequently + t) =
of the different
is,

r2 in

is equal Z\342\200\236

to r3
y(s)

also.
+

so we

do indeedhave

a homomorphism.

\342\226\2

Each
That

homomorphisms in the points of the domain


the

three examples is a many-to-one map. preceding of the map may be carriedinto the same point. it\\ :
\"L2

Consider, for
have

illustration,

homomorphism

Z4

->\342\226\240 Z2 in

Example

13.8 We

7^(0,

0) =

7Tl(0, 1) =

7^(0,2) = 7Ti(0,
0 in

3)

= 0,

so

four

elements

Composition
: G \302\242)

in Z2 x Z4 are mappedinto of group homomorphisms

X2 by

Tt\\.

is

again

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 G' and

y :

G'

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 G\" are

both group

(y 0

: \302\242)G

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 G\", where

(y 0 0)(^)

y{4>{g))

That is, if homomorphism. homomorphisms then their composition for g e G, is also a homomorphism.
a group

(See Exercise

49.)

Properties
We

turn

to

of Homomorphisms some structural features of G and


a

G'

that

: G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 G''. First we \302\242)


when

we

apply

review set-theoretic definitions. function to a subset of its domain.


of a set X

axe preserved by a homomorphism Note the use of square brackets

13.11

Definition

Let 0
of

be a

mapping

into a set Y,

and

let A

c
the

and

BcF.
of 0.

in Y under

0_1[B]ofBinX is
The

0 is {0(a)| a
{.x e

e A}.

The

set 0[X]

is

range

The image 0[A] The inverse image

X | 0(*)

e B}.

\342\226\2

first three properties of a homomorphism in the theorem that follows stated have been encountered for the special case of an isomorphism; namely, in Theorem already 28 of Section4, and Exercise 41 of Section 5. There they were 3.14, Exercise really obvious because the structures We will now see that of G and G' were identical. they if the maps are not one to one and onto. hold for structure-relating maps of groups, even We do not consider them obvious in this new context.

13.12 Theorem

Let 0 be a
1.
2.

homomorphism identity

of a group element

into

a group 0(e)

G'.

If e is the
If a

in G,

then

is the identity

element e'

in

G''.

e G,then0(a_1) = 0(a)\"1.

Section13
3. If H

Homomorphisms

129

is a

subgroup subgroup

of of

G, then G', then

0[H] is a

subgroup

of

G'.
of

4. Loosely

If K' is a

0_1 [K'] is a subgroup


element,

G.

speaking, 0
homomorphism

preservesthe
of G

identity

inverses,

and subgroups.

Proof

Let 0 be a

into G'.

Then

0(a) = 0(ae)= 0(a)0(e).


Multiplying

on
in

element e'

G'.

the left by 0(a)-1, The equation

we see that

e' =

0(e). Thus

0(e)

must

be

the identity

e' =
shows

= 0(e) = 0(aa_1) 0(a)0(a_1)


H be a
=

that
Turning

0(a_1)

= 4>{a)~x.
(3), let
Then
the 4>[H].
<j>(a)<j>(b)

to Statement

two elements in
completes

under 0[H] is closed

operation
for Statement

of G, and let 0(a) and 0(fo) be any e 0[H]; thus, we see that 0(a)0(fo) of G'. The fact that e' = 0(e) and 0(a_1) = 0(a)-1
subgroup

<j>(ab), so
of

the

proof

that 0[H] is a
way

subgroup

G'.

of G'. Suppose a and b are subgroup = The equation <j>{ab) e K' sinceK'is a subgroup. in0_1[.Sr'].Then0(a)0(fo) 0(a)0(fo) shows that ab e 0~' [\302\243']. Thus in G. Also, 0~' [.ST'] is closed under the binary operation

Going the other

(4), let

K' be a

K' must 0(a) e


Let {e'}

contain
7T,

the identity 0(a)-1 is a

so

Hence0_1[K1]
0 : G

element e' e Z'. But 0(a)-1 subgroup of G.


homomorphism to the
study

= 0(e), so e e 0_1[^']. a If = 0(a_1),so we must have


and let e'

e 0_1[.Sr'],

a-1

then e 0_1[^'].
\342\231\246

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 G' be a

be the

identity

element

of G'.

Now

is a subgroup

of G',

13.12. This subgroup


13.13 Definition

so 0_1[{e'}] a is

subgroup

H of

G by

Statement

(4) in

Theorem

is critical

of homomorphisms.

Let

(f> : G |

G'
= e'} 13.5

be a
is
the

homomorphism

of

{x e
where

groups.
by

The

subgroup

0_1[{e'}] =
\342\226\240

(j){x)

kernel

of 0,

denoted

Ker(0).

the homomorphism 0 : E\" \342\200\224>\342\226\240by 0(v) = A\\ Em given In this context, Ker(0) is called the null space of A. It consists of all v e ffi\" such that Av = 0, the zero vector. Let H = Ker(0) for a homomorphism G''. We think of 0 as \"collapsing\" 0 : G ->\342\200\242 onto e'. Theorem 13.15 that follows H down shows that for g e G, the cosets gH and Hg are the same, and are collapsed onto the single element is 0(g) by 0. That = ,?# = Hg. (Besure that you understand the reason for the uses of (), [], 4>~l [{0(g)}] and to symbolize We have attempted this collapsing in Fig. 13.14, {} in 0_1[{0fe)}]-) where the shaded rectanglerepresents G, the solid vertical line segments representthe of H = Ker(0), and the horizontal cosets line at the bottom represents G'. We view of G, which are in the shaded 0 as projecting the elements rectangle, straight down of G', which onto elements are on the horizontal line segment at the bottom. Notice the downward arrow labeled at G and ending at G'. Elements of 0 at the left, starting H = Ker(0) thus lie on the solid vertical line segment in the shaded box lying over e', as labeled at the top of the figure.
Example

discussed
n

A is an m

matrix.

130

Part

III

Homomorphisms

and Factor Groups

-'[(\"'ll

l,H

Hx

<*>-%'}]

G'

a'

\302\242(6)

e'

ftx)

y'
\302\242.

13.14 Figure

Cosets

of H

collapsed by
let

13.15

Theorem

Let

G'

be a group

homomorphism,

and

\342\200\224

Ker(0).

Let a

e G.

Then the

set
0-1[{0(a)}]

= {*eG|0(x) also
into

= 0(fl)}
Consequently,
same.

is the
partitions

left

coset
of

aH

G into

of H, and is left cosets and

the right coset Ha of H. right cosets of H are the

the two

Proof

We want to

show

that

{x e

G | <f>{x)

0(a)}

= aH.

There is a standard

way

to show that

two sets are equal;

show

that each

is a subset

of the

other.

Suppose

that

<j>(x)

\342\200\224

4>{a).

Then

0(a)~V(*)

= e',

where e' is
so we

the

identity

of G'.

By Theorem

13.12, we = e.

know

that

4>{a)~x

\342\200\224

4>{a~x),

have

0(0-1)^)

Since0 is a

homomorphism,

we have

4>{a~l)(p{x) =
But this shows that a~lx ah e aH. This shows that
is in

4>{a~lx),
H =

so

4>{a~lx)

e'.

Ker(0), so a~lx = h
00)

for

some

h e

H,

and

x \342\200

{x

&G\\

= 0(a)}

c aH.

Section

13

Homomorphisms

131

To
h

show

containment

in the

other direction, let

e aH,

so that

ah

for some

& H.

Then

(p(y)
so that

\342\200\224

(p(ah)

= 0(a)0(/j)

= 4>{a)e'=

4>{a),

y e {x We leave

e G | \302\242^)=
the

similar

0(a)}. demonstration

that {ieG

4>{x)=

4>{a)}

Ha

to Exercise
\342\231\246

52.
13.16

Example

Equation

5 of Section 1 shows This means that the absolute numbers of nonzerocomplex


under
that

that

\\z\\Z2\\

IZ1HZ2I

f\302\260r complex

numbers
of

value function |
under

| is a homomorphism onto
the

z\\ and the group

z2. C*

multiplication

group

M+ of

numbers

multiplication. complex

Since

{1} is a

subgroup

of

M+, Theorem
that

positive real 13.12 shows


that

again

the

numbers

of magnitude

1 form

a subgroup

U of C*.Recall
and

the

the coordinate plane, as filling complex numbers can be viewed from the origin. Consequently, of a complex number is its distance

the magnitude

the cosets

of U are
onto its
\342\226\262

circles with
point

center

at the

of intersection

by origin. Each circleis collapsed with the positive real axis. from of Theorem13.15

this

homomorphism

We

give

an illustration

calculus.

13.17

Example

Let D be the

be the
additive

additive group

group of all

of all differentiable

: D map \302\242) for \302\242(/+

\342\200\224*F, where

functions mapping \342\200\224 \302\242(/) /'for / e F.


\342\200\224

g)

\342\200\224

(/

+ g)'

/'

+ g'

\302\242(/)+

R, and let F differentiation gives us a see that 0 is a homomorphism, We easily the derivative of a sum is the sum 0(g);
functions

mapping

M into

into

M. Then

of

the

derivatives.

/' = 0, the zero constant function. Thus Ker(0) consistsof all constant functions, which form a subgroup C of F. Let us find in G mapped into x2 by \302\242, is, all functions whose derivative all functions that is x2. Now we know that x3/3 is one such function. 13.15, all such functions By Theorem
Now

Ker(0) consists

of all functions

/ such that

form

the coset will

x^/3 +

C. Doesn'tthis
the

look

familiar?

\342\226\262

We

often use

following

corollary

of Theorem

13.15.
if Ker(0)
\342\200\224

13.18Corollary
Proof

group

homomorphism

0 :

G ^-

G' is

a one-to-one

map if and

only

{e}.

If Ker(0)

= {e},then elements of the left

the into

a e G, the elements into \302\242(0) precisely are the mapped shows that \302\242 one to one. is a{e] = {a}, which Conversely, suppose is one to one. Now by Theorem 13.12, we know that 0(e) = e', \302\242 element is of G'. Since \302\242one to one, we see that e is the only element mapped identity = {e}. so e' by \302\242, Ker(0) \342\231\246
for

every

coset

In showing

view that
and

of Corollary a map 0 is
G'.

13.18, we modify
an

the

outline

given prior to
when

Example 3.8 for


structures

isomorphism

of binary

structures

the

are

groups G

132

Part

III

Homomorphisms and Factor Groups

To Show

<f>:

G ->

G' Is an Isomorphism

Stepl
Step

Show 0 is a

homomorphism. Show Ker(0) = {<?}.


Show
\302\242) maps

Step

G onto

G'.

Theorem

13.15

shows
left

that the

subgroup
We

H of
see in

G whose

will

Section 14 that

and right cosets left and when

kernel of a group homomorphism coincide, so that gH = right cosets coincide,we

: G \302\247

\342\200\224*G' is

Hg for all g
can see

e G.

form that

group, as
way.

discussedintuitively in Section 10. Furthermore, we will of G onto this coset group appears as the kernel of a homomorphism
Such
and

a coset H then

subgroups
are

a group,

given

H whose left and right cosets coincide are very a special name. We will work with them a lot

useful
in

in a very natural in studying


Section

14.

\342\226\240 Historical

Note
subgroups

Normal Galois in
a given
radicals.

1831

polynomial
Galois

noted

by Evariste for deciding whether equation was solvable by that a subgroup H of a group
were

introduced

of

permutations

of

the roots
then

of
one

an

equation

has

as a tool

proper decomposition,

can solve

the given

equation if one
corresponding

can first
subgroup
the

solve

to the

and

an equation then an equation

of permutations induced two decompositions G into what we call left cosets and cosets. right If the two decompositions coincide,that is, if the left cosets are the same as the right cosets, Galois G of

corresponding to
Camille

cosets.

Jordan,
1865

Galois'sworkin ideas considerably.


subgroups,

called the
giving

decomposition

proper.

Thus a subgroup

although this

a proper

decomposition

is

what

we if

call

as on

page
group

his commentaries on elaborated on these He also defined normal without using the term, essentially and likewise gave the first definition
in
and 1869,
(page

normal

subgroup. Galois stated

that

the

group

of a simple

149).

13.19 Definition

subgroup

of a group

G is normal if of abeliangroups

its

left

and right

cosets coincide,that

is,

if

gH =

tfgforallg
that

eG.
are

\342\226

Note

all subgroups
a group

normal.

13.20 Corollary

If
This

: G \302\242)

->\342\200\242 G' is

homomorphism,
from the last

then

Ker(0)

is a normal

subgroup of

G.

Proof

follows

Definition

immediately 13.19.

sentence in

the

statement

of Theorem

13.15 and

\342\231\

For any group homomorphism <f> : G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 G'', two things the kernel of \302\242, the image 0[G] of G in G'. We have and

are of primary indicated the

importance: importance

of

Section

13

Exercises

133

S Ker(0).ection to

14 will

show

that

if

\\G\\

is finite,

indicate the importance then |0[G]| is finite

of the
and

0[G]. image is a divisor of

Exercise
\\G\\.

44 asks us

EXERCISES

13

Computations
In

The straightforward 1 through the given map 0 is a homomorphism. [Hint: 15, determine whether if we should to proceed is to check whether <p{ab) = <p{a)cp{b) for all a and b in the domain of 0. However, way happen to notice that 0_1 [{e'}] is not a subgroup whose left and right cosets coincide, or that 0 does not satisfy the properties given in Exercise 44 or 45 for finite groups, then we can say at once that 0 is not a homomorphism.] Exercises

1. Let0

\342\200\224y R under

addition be addition be

given given

by

cp(ri) =

n.
integer

2. Let0 R

\342\200\224>\342\200\242 Z under

3. Let0 R*

\342\200\224>\342\200\242 R* under

multiplication
by

= the greatest by <p(x) be given by cp{x) = \\x\\.

< x.

4.
5.

Let0

\"Lb \342\200\224y 1j be Zg \342\200\224y 7Li be

given

cp{x)

= the
the

remainder of x when
remainder

divided
divided

by 2,
by by

as in

the

division
division

algorithm.
algorithm.

Let0

given by R is x

<p(x) =
additive

of x

when

2, as in

the

6. Let0

\342\200\224y R*, where

and

R* is

multiplicative, be given
by

<p{x) = 2J'.

7. Let0; G; ^* Gt and ej is the identity 8. Let G be any group 9. LetF be


given by 10. Let
numbers, the

x Gi

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 x

G, x

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 x

G, be given
injection
<f>{g)

0;(g,)

= (ex.

ei....,

gi,..., er), where


13.8.

gt

e G,

element and let group


<f>

of Gj. This is an
G be : G ->\342\200\242

map.
=

Compare
for g

with

Example

given by
of /.

g~'

&G,

additive

= \302\242(/)

of functions f\", the second derivative


group

mapping

R into

R having derivatives mapping R


into

of all

orders.

Let

cp

F be : F \342\200\224>\342\200\242

F be the
and

additive

of

all

continuous

functions

R.

Let R

be

the

additive

group

of real

let

cp

R be : F \342\200\224y

given by
=

\302\242(/)

f/ /o
Jo with for

f(x)dx.
and

11. LetF be the


12. Let
13.

additive

group

of

all

functions n x

mapping

R into R,
real

let <p : F \342\200\224>\342\200\242 by \302\242(/)= F be given

3/.

be the M\342\200\236

additive group

of all
the

numbers. Let 0(A)


Let
and M\342\200\236 R elements

det(A),

n matrices determinant of A,

entries,

and let R

be the

additive

group

of real

A e M\342\200\236.
tr(A)

be as in Exercise on the main diagonal

12. Let <p{A) = tr(A) the trace for A & Mn, where of A, from the upper-left to the lower-right corner.

is the

sum of

the

14. Let GL(n, R) be the multiplicative group of invertible n x n matrices, and let R be the additive group R be numbers. Let cp : GL(n, R) \342\200\224y given by cp{A) = tr(A), where tr(A) is defined in Exercise 13.

of real

15. Let

F be

the multiplicative
multiplicative 24, -+

group of all

continuous

functions

mapping R
Let

into

R that

are nonzero
by

at

every =

x &R.

Let R* be the
In Exercises

group of nonzero compute

real numbers.
quantities

R* be cp : F \342\200\224y

given

\302\242(/)

f0 f(x)dx.

16 through

the indicated

for

the given

homomorphism

cp.

(See

Exercise

46.)

16. Ker(0) for0

: S3

Z2 in
<j>

Example 13.3
-+
Z7 Zi0

17. Ker(0) 18. Ker(0)

and and

0(25) 0(18)

for

: Z

such such

that 0(1) that 0(1)

= 4 = 6

for 0

: Z -+

134

Part III

Homomorphisms

and

Factor

Groups

19. Ker(0) and

0(20)

for 0 for 0 :

: Z -+ Zl0

S&

such

that 0(1)

= (1, 4,2,

6)(2,5, 7)

20. Ker(0)
21. Ker(0)

and and

0(3) 0(14)

-\342\226\272 such Z20

that 0(1)

= 8
= -5
and and

Z24 -\342\226\272 Sg where 0(1) = (2, 5)(1,4, 6, 7) 22. Ker(0) and 0(-3, 2) for 0 : Z x Z -* Z where 0(1, 0) = 3 and 0(0,1) 23. Ker(0) and 0(4, 6) for 0 : Z x Z -* Z x Z where 0(1, 0) = (2, -3)
for 0 : Ker(0)

0(0,

1) =

(\342\200\2241,5)

24.

and 0(3,
many
many many

10) for 0 : Z x Z ^
are there
are there are there

Sw

where onto
into into

0(1, 0) = (3, Z?
Z? Z2 ?

5)(2,4)

0(0,1)

= (1,

7)(6, 10, 8,9)

25. How
26. How
27.

homomorphisms
homomorphisms homomorphisms

of Z
of Z of Z

How

G. Let G be defined G be a group, and let g \342\202\254 0g : G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 a homomorphism? 0g G be 29. Let G be a group, and let g & G. Let 0g : G ->\342\200\242 defined is 0g a homomorphism?

28. Let

by

<pg(x)

= gx

for x e

G. For

which

g e

G is

by

<j)g{x)

= gxg~l

for x e

G. For

which

geG

Concepts
In

Exercises
that

30 and
it is

31, correct the


in a form

definition

of the

italicized term

without

reference

to the

text,

if

correction

is

needed, so
30.

acceptablefor publication.
that

A homomorphism

is a map such

<p(xy) =

0(*)0(;y).
The

31. Let0
inG'.

:G

\342\200\224y G' be

a homomorphism true or

of false.

groups.

kernel

o/ 0 is

{* e

G\\

<j>{x)

= e'}

where e' is the

identity

32. Mark

each of the a.

following

subgroup of S\342\200\236. G and G', there exists a homomorphism of G into b. For any two groups G'. c. Every homomorphism is a one-to-onemap. is one to one if and only if the kernel consists of the identity element alone. d. A homomorphism e. The image of a group of 6 elements under some homomorphism have 4 elements. (See Exercise may
is a normal A\342\200\236

44.) f. The image h.


i.
There A It

of a group

of 6 elements
of some

under

a homomorphism
elements

may

have

12 elements.

g. There is a homomorphism
is a

into some group of 12 elements. group of 6 of 6 elements into some group of 10 elements. homomorphism of some groups homomorphism may have an empty kernel.

j.
In Exercises

is not

possible to have a nontrivial


43,

homomorphism

of some

finite

group

into some

infinite

group.

33
such

through

give an

example of a nontrivial
why <P <P

homomorphism

exists. If
33.
<j> <P <P

no

homomorphism

exists, explain

that Z12

is so. You

may

use

0 for the Exercises

given groups, 44 and 45.

if an

example

Z12

->\342\200\242 Z5 ->\342\200\242 Z2 xZ,

34.

-+ z4
*

35.

Z2 x Z4 Z3^S3

36.

z3-

37.

38.

z^

S3

39. <P

Z x

Z^

41. <P D4^-S3 43. <P S4 -+ S3

40. <P 2Z- \342\226\240* Z x 42. <P S3- + s4

Section 14

Factor Groups

135

Theory

44.

Let

<p

: G

-+ G'

be a group

homomorphism.

Show

that if that

\\G\\

is finite,

then |0[G]| is

finite

and

is a divisor

of|G|.

45. Let <f> :


of|G'|.

G -+

G' be a group

homomorphism.

Show

if

|G'|

is finite,

then,

\\cp[G]\\

is finite

and is a

divisor

46.

Let a group G be generated set and a,- e Gforalh' e /.Let</> : G \342\200\224y G' some indexing by {a,- \\i e /}, where/is = G' be two homomorphisms from G into and /x : G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 a group G', such that </>(\302\253,) /x(a,) for every i \342\202\254 I. Prove that cp = /x. [Thus, for example, a homomorphism of a cyclic group is completely determined by its value on a of the group.] [Hint: Use Theorem7.6 of course, Definition 13.1.] and, generator
Show that any group homomorphism or a one-to-one map. cp :

47.

G -+

G' where | G | is a prime


the

must

either

be the
is

trivial

homomorphism

48. The sign of

an

even

permutation
by

is +1

and

sign

of an

odd

permutation

\342\200\224 1. Observe

that the

map

\342\200\224>\342\200\242 defined : 5\342\200\236 \342\200\2241} {1, sgn\342\200\236

sgnn(ff) = is a homomorphism
13.3.

sign

of a

of S\342\200\236 the onto


G\"

multiplicative and if

What group {1, \342\200\2241}.

is the

kernel? Compare with


are

Example

49. Show

that

if G,

G', and

are

groups

<f>

: G

-+ G'

and

y : G'

-+

G\"

homomorphisms,

then the e G, we have


that

compositemap y<p : G -+ G\" is a homomorphism. H be a group 50. Let cp : G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 homomorphism. Show *)a_1;y_1 e Ker(0).

that

0[G]

is abelian

if

and

only if

for

all

x, y

51. Let
52.

of G. Let <f> : Z -+ G be defined any group and let a be any element by homomorphism. Describe the image and the possibilities for the kernel of \302\242.
G be
(j) :

0(\302\253)

= a\".

Show

0 is a

Let

<t>{a)}

G -+ = Ha.

G' be a homomorphism
Let h,k

with

kernel

H and

let a

e G. Prove

the

set equality

{x e

G | (j>{x)

53. Let
54.

e G and let <f> : Z x Z ->\342\200\242 defined by 0(m, n) = /jmfc\". Give a necessary and G be h and k, for 0 to be a homomorphism. Prove your condition. condition, involving Find a necessary and sufficient condition on G such that the map \302\242) described in the preceding exerciseis a for all choices of h, k e G. homomorphism

G be a

group,

sufficient

55. Let
your

G be a

0<i

< n. Give

group,

h an

element of

a necessary

: Z\342\200\236 G, and n a positive integer. Let \302\247 -+ G be defined by 0(i) = h' for and sufficient condition (in terms of h and n) for 0 to be a homomorphism. Prove

assertion.

section

14

Factor

Groups
subgroup element

Let H be a
of G,
listing

of a finite heads this

group G. Supposewe
and

write

a table
they

for

the

group

operation

at the top

at the

left as
of

occur

in the left

cosets of

table may break up into blocks to the cosets (Table 10.5), giving a group on the cosets, or they corresponding operation not break up that way (Table 10.9). We start this section by showing that if H is the may kernel of a group homomorphism that left G', then the cosets of H (remember 0 : G ->\342\200\242 and right cosets then coincide) are indeed elements of a group whose binary operation
We

H.

illustrated

in Section

10. The body

the

is derived from

the

group

operation

of G.

136

Part III

Homomorphisms

and

Factor

Groups

from Homomorphisms Let G be a group and let S be a set having the same cardinality *> to-onecorrespondence between S and G. We can use *> to
Factor

Groups

as G. define

Then there is a onea binary

operation

on S, making

S into

to renameeach
if x

a group isomorphic to G. Naively, use the correspondence we simply of G by the name of its corresponding element in S. element (under \302\253\302\273)
the

We can describeexplicitly
\302\261* gi

computation

of xy for
and

x,y e

S as
then

follows: xy

and

y *>

g2

z *>

g\\g2,

= z.

(1)

The direction
gives

\342\200\224\302\273\342\200\242 of the

one-to-one
/x

us

a one-to-one
inverse

function
function

gives us the
for

s & S and g e G correspondence s -^ g between ^- of *> S onto G. (Of course,the direction /x_1). Expressed in terms of /x, the computation (1) of xy mapping

ijei

becomes
and

if/i(x) = gi

/x(;y)

= g2

and

(i(z) =

gig2,

then

*;y

= z.

(2)
onto the
required

an isomorphism mapping the group S The map /x : S \342\200\224*G now becomes = /x(z) = g\\g2 = /x(*)/x(;y), the (2), we obtain ^{xy) groupG. Noticethatfrom property. G' be and let H = Let G and G' be groups, let <j> : G ->\342\200\242 a homomorphism, = aH = Ha. We Theorem 13.15 shows that for a e G, we have 0_1[{0(a)}] of H in G and elements cosets one-to-one correspondence aH *> 0(a) between
homomorphism

Ker(0).
have

of the

x = ah for some h & H, then that if x e aH, so that subgroup 0[G] of G'. Remember = = of 0[G] 0(;t) = 0(a/j) = 0(a)0(/j) 0(a)e' 0(a), so the computation of the element corresponding to the coset aH = xH is the same whether we compute it as 0(a) or as Let us denotethe set of all cosets of H by G/H. (We read G/H as \"G over H\" or (j>{x). as \"G modulo H\" or as \"G mod H\" but never as \"G divided by H\ In the preceding a homomorphism G' having with : G \302\242) \342\200\224*paragraph, we started kernel H, and we finished with the set G/H of cosets in one-to-one correspondence with the elements of the group In our work above that, we had a set S with elements 0[G]. in one-to-one correspondence with a those of a group G, and we made S into a group isomorphic

to G with
that

0[G]
that

in

construction,

isomorphism

an isomorphism /x. we can consider /x. In terms of G/H and

Replacing

S by
be

G/H
0[G],

to

a group

the

G by G/H and replacing isomorphic to 0[G] with (2) of the product computation

(xH)(yH)

for xH,
if fi(xH)
then

yH e

G/H becomes
and

= (j>(x)
(xH)(yH)

ix(y

H)

(j>(y)

and

fi(zH)

= (j>(x)(j>(y),

= zH. we
in

(3)
can easily
find

But because
4>(x)4>(y)\\

0 is

homomorphism,

z e

G such

that

ii{zH)

namely,

we take

z = xy

G,

and find that


ftxy)

fiizH) =
This shows
that

n(xyH) =

= cosets

0W0(y). is the

the

product
and

the product xy on our depend

of x

y in

of two (xH)(yH) G. While this


and

coset (xy)H

that

contains
to

computation

of (xH)(yH)

may seem

choices x from xH
again

We demonstrate it xh\\ is an element

here
and

of xH

our work above shows it does not. because it is such an important e H so that point. lfhi,h2 there exists hj, e H such yh2 is an element of yH, then
y from

yH,

Section 14

Factor Groups

137

that

h\\y

= yh3

because Hy =

yH by
=

Theorem

13.15.

Thus we have
\342\202\254 (xy)H,

(xhl)(yh2) =
so we

x(Iny)h2

x(yh3)h2

= (xy)(h3h2)
product

cosets is accomplished of the cosets, the coset in G of the choices. that contains the product Any time we define something (like a to show that it is well defined, which in terms of choices, it is important means product) that it is independent of the choices made. This is precisely what we have just done. We this work in a theorem. summarize
the

obtain

same

coset.

Computation

of

the

of two

by

choosing

an element

from each coset and

taking,

as product

14.1 Theorem

Let

: G \302\242)

\342\200\224*G' be

a group

a factor

group,

G/H.

homomorphism where (aH)(bH) =

with

kernel

H. Then
the

the cosets of H form


/x
:

{ab)H.Also,

map

G/H and

-*- 0[G] /x are

= 4>{a) is an isomorphism. Both cosetmultiplication defined by /i(aH) a and b from the cosets. defined, independent of the choices

well

14.2Example

13.10 considered the Example m is divided by n in accordance

map

where Z\342\200\236, y : Z \342\200\224>\342\226\240 y{m) is the remainder when with the division algorithm. We know that y is a

= nZ. By Theorem 14.1, homomorphism. Of course, Ker(y) to The group Z/nZ is isomorphic Z\342\200\236. cosets of nL are the residue example,taking n = 5, we see the cosets of 5Z are

we see that
classes

the

factor

modulo n.

For

5Z=
1+5Z={---

-10,-5,0,5, {\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242

10

-9,-4,

1,6, 11,

2 +

5Z=
5Z=
/x :

{\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242 {\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242 {\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242 \342\200\224*Zg of

-8,-3,2,7, 12,

3+5Z=
4 +
Note

-7,-2,3,8, 13,
Theorem
=

-6,-1,4,9,14,
/x(5Z)

that
its

the isomorphism nonnegative

Z/5Z

5Z

smallest

element.

That is,

0,

14.1 assigns to each /x(l + 5Z) = 1, etc.

coset

of
\342\226\262

It is (add)
them

two
and

very important that we learn how to compute in a factor group. We can multiply cosets by choosing any two representative elements, multiplying (adding) the resulting product (sum) lies. finding the coset in which
factor

14.3

Example

Considerthe
(4

group

Z/5Z
and

with the
finding add these

5Z)

by

choosing 2

4,

2+4

1 +
in 4

5Z. We couldequally well + 5Z; the sum 27 + (-16)


The

cosets shown = 6, and two cosets by


the

above. noticing choosing

We can that 27 in

add (2 +
6 is
in

5Z) +
coset
\342\200\22416 \342\226\262

the

2+

5Z and

= 11is alsoin

coset

1 +

5Z.

factor groups L/nL in the preceding example are classics. Recallthat we refer n. Two integers cosets of nL as residue classesmodulo in the same coset are is carried over to other factor groups. A factor congruent modulo n. This terminology called the factor group of G modulo in the same H. Elements group G/H is often H. By abuse of notation, coset of H are often said to be congruent modulo we may as the and of sometimes write Z/nZ = Z\342\200\236 think of Z\342\200\236 additive group of residueclasses

to the

Z modulo

(n), or

abusing

notation

further,

modulo

n.

138

Part III

Homomorphisms

and

Factor

Groups

Factor

Groups

from Normal Subgroups

So far, we have obtained factor groups from homomorphisms. Let G be a group and only let H be a subgroup of G. Now H has both left cosets and right cosets, and in general, a left coset aH need not be the same set as the right coset Ha. Suppose we try to define

a binary

operation on

left

cosets

by defining

(aH)(bH)

= (ab)H
4 attempts

(4)
to define left

as in
by
it

the

statement

of Theorem

14.1Equation
and

coset multiplication
meaningless
elements

choosing representatives a well-defined gives operation,


the

b from

the cosets.
the

Equation

4 is

unless
a and b

independent of
that

representative

chosen from
binary

cosets. if and

The theorem

follows

shows

that Eq.
of G.

4 gives a well-defined

operation

only if H is a normal G. Then


left

subgroup

14A Theorem

Let H be a
equation

subgroup

of a group

coset

multiplication

is well defined

by

the

(aH)(bH)

= (ab)H
G. on left
use

if and
Proof

only

if H
that

is a normal
(aH)(bH)
want

subgroup

of

Suppose first cosets. Let


standard

a e G. We

we have Let x&aH. a^&a^H, Choosing representatives x e aH and (xH)(a~lH) = (xa~1)H.On the other hand, choosing representatives a e aH and = eH = H. Using our assumption a'1 e a~lH, we see that (aHXa^H) that left coset = h e H. Then is well defined, we must have xa~l by representatives multiplication x = ha, sox & Ha and aH c Ha. We leave the symmetric proof that Ha c aH to Exercise 25. turn now to the converse:If H is a normal We then left coset multiplication subgroup, is well-defined. Due to our hypothesis, we can simply say cosets, by representatives to compute (aH)(bH). omitting left and right. Suppose we wish Choosing a e aH and
b e bh2

technique of showing

= (ab)H does give a well-defined binary to show that aH and Ha are the same that each is a subset of the other.

operation

set.

We

the

bH, we
h\\b

obtain

the

coset

{ab)H.
=

Choosing
We

different

representatives

ah\\

e aH
same

and

\342\202\254 we bH,

obtain the bH, so

coset ahibh2H.
h\\b

must
hj,

show
e

Now

= \342\202\254 Hb

bhj, for
a(h\\V)hi

some
=

that these H. Thus = {ab){h^hi)

are the

coset.

(ahi)(bh2)
and

a(bh3)h2

(ab)(h3h2) Theorem

\342\202\254 (ab)H.

Therefore,

ah\\bh2

is

in

(ab)H.

\342\231\24

14.4
binary

well-defined
with

shows that if left and right cosets on cosets. We wonder operation

of H
whether

coincide,
the

then

cosets

Eq. 4 gives a do form a group

such

coset multiplication.

This is indeed true.


the

14.5 Corollary

Let

be a normal

binary

G. Then = (ab)H. operation (aH)(bH)


subgroup of

cosets

of H form a

group

G/H

under

the

\342\226\26

Section

14

Factor

Groups

139

Proof

Computing,

(aH)[(bH)(cH)]

= (aH)[(bc)H]

[(aH)(bH)](cH)
G.
the

Because
identity

= [(ab)c]H, so associativity = (ae)H = aH = (aH)(eH)


element
shows

= [a(bc)]H,
in

and

similarly,

we

have

G/H
=

(ea)H

in G/H.
thata^H
the

Finally,

(a~lH)(aH)

from associativity in we see that eH = H is (eH)(aH), = (a~la)H = eH = (aa^)H =


follows
\342\231\246

(aH)(a~lH)

= {aHTx. corollary

14.6

Definition

The group

G/H

in

preceding

is

the

factor

group

(or quotient

group) of
\342\226\240

G by
14.7

H.

Example

nZ is a normal subgroup. Corollary 14.5allows us to Since Z is an abelian group, construct the factor group with no reference to a homomorphism. As we observed Z/nZ \342\226\262 in Example 14.2, Z/nZ is isomorphic to Z\342\200\236.

14.8

Example

Consider the abelian group of E contains as elements

under

addition,

and let

c e

E+. The
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242.

cyclic

subgroup

(c)

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\224 \342\200\242 3c, \342\200\2242c, 0, c, \342\200\224c,

2c, 3c,

Every

coset

of (c) contains just


their

one elementof
the

x such

that 0
in

<x <
E/(c),

c. If

we

choose

these

o elements as representativesf computing

cosets

when computing
the

we find that

we are
1.

sum

modulo

c as
the

discussedfor
sum

For example, if

c=

computation

in Ec

in

Section

5.37,then

of the

is

the

coset

8.07
with

Working

these

contains 8.07 + (5.37), which coset elements x where 0 <

cosets 4.65 + (5.37)nd 3.42 + (5.37) a - 5.37 = 2.7,which is 4.65 +5.37 3.42.

x < c, we

thus

see that

the

group

Ec

of

Example

to 4.2 is isomorphic

E/ (c)

under

an

isomorphism

all x e
numbers

Ec. Of
have

course,

of magnitude We

to is then also isomorphic E/(c) 1 under multiplication.

-f where -fy (x) the circle group

= x

+ (c) for

U of

complex
\342\226\262

seen that the

Z\342\200\236 {0, shows

1, 3,

4,

group \342\200\242\342\200\224 \342\200\242 n \342\200\242,1}, the

Z/(\302\253)

is

isomorphic

to the
integers

group

and Z\342\200\236,

as a set,

set of

nonnegative

less

than n.

Example 14.8

E/(c) is isomorphic to the group Ec. In Section 1, we choosethe than the conventional [0, c) for the half-open interval of nonnegative less than c. We did that to bring out now the comparison real numbers of these factor groups of Z with these factor groups of E.
that

the group

notation

Ec rather

The Fundamental
We

Homomorphism Theorem
factor G/H

have

seen

(Theorem

to a

natural

G' gives rise to a natural : G homomorphism \302\242) \342\200\224*We now show that each factor group 14.1), namely, G/Ker(0). H as kernel. homomorphism having

that every

group

gives

rise

14.9Theorem Let H be a
homomorphism

normal

subgroup

of G. Then

: G

G/H

given

by

y(x)

= xH is a

with kernel

H.

Proof

Let x, y

G. Then

y(xy) =

(xy)H = (xH)(yH)

y(x)y(y),

Part

III

Homomorphisms and Factor Groups

G/H

14.10 Figure

so

is a

y is indeed

homomorphism. H.
in

Since xH

= H if

an

only

if x

\342\202\254 H, we

see that the

kernel of

\342\231\2

We
then

have seen

Theorem

14.1 that if

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 where n(gH) G/H 0[G] that defined by y{g) y : G -*- G/H these groups and maps. We see that

/j,:

where y is a homomorphism as a theorem.

and

jx

is

with kernel H, G' is a homomorphism 0 : G \342\200\224>\342\226\240 = 4>{g)is an isomorphism. 14.9 shows Theorem = gH is a homomorphism. Figure 14.10 shows the homomorphism \302\247 be factored, 0 = fiy, can an isomorphism of G/H with 0[G]. We state this

14.11

Theorem

(The Fundamental
homomorphism

Homomorphism

Theorem)

Let

<f>

G' be : G \342\200\224*-

a group

with

kernel

H. Then
isomorphism.

/i(gH) = 0(g) y(g) = gH, then


The

is an
0(g)

= /xy(g)

and 0[G] is a group, If y : G \342\200\224*- is G/H for each g e G.

/x : G/H

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 0[G] given given

by
by

the homomorphism

to as a natural 14.11 is referred or canonical are used to describethe homomorphism y. There isomorphism, but the maps be other isomorphisms and homomorphisms for these same groups, may with are uniquely determined by Theorem 14.11. /x and <f> and y have a special status In summary, every homomorphism with domain G gives rise to a factor group G/H, and every factor group G into gives rise to a homomorphism mapping G/H G/H. isomorphism
and

the

/x in Theorem same adjectives

Homomorphisms
how

and

factor

groups

are closely

related. We

give

an example

indicating

useful

this relationship
the

can be.
to the

14.12Example Solution

Classify

generated
The Z4 group

group abelian

(Z4 x groups

Z2)/({0} x Z2)according (Theorem 11.12). x


Z2 \342\200\224>\342\200\242 Z4 given

fundamental

theorem of finitely

projection x Z2

map

it\\ : Z4
kernel

by

it\\{x,

y)

= x

onto Z4 with

{0} x

we Z2. By Theorem14.11,

know

is a homomorphism of that the given factor

is isomorphic

to Z4. and

\342\226\2

Normal
We

Subgroups some
an

Inner

Automorphisms
subgroups,

derive
with

alternative way to

characterizations of normal

which
and

us

easier

check normality

than

finding

both the left

the

often provide right coset

decompositions.

Section 14

Factor Groups
e H for all g
claim & H.

141
and

Suppose

that

is a subgroup

of G
e H}
obtain
and

such

that

heH.

Then gHg~l

gHg~l
g-1

= H. We
/i

= {ghg~l\\ h
show

ghg~l

e G
that

all

c H for all g
for

e G. We

must

that H

c gHg~l

all g

in the

relation ghg~l
=
that

e H, we

Consequently,
Suppose
and

ghig~l = Hg gH

e gHg~l,

g-'/iC?-1)-1 we are done.


=

e G. Let h = g~lhg

hi

actually Replacing g by where hi e H.


all g

for all g e

G. Theng/j
G,

/ii g,
that

so ghg^1
gHg^1 so
that

e H for
h\\g

e G
&

all

A e

Conversely,

//. By the if gHg~1


But

preceding

paragraph,

this means
then
g~'/jg

= H g/j =
/jg

for all g
e

G.

gH c

Hg.

also,

= H for all g & = H giving g~lHg

ghg~1 = hi = h2, so

Hg,

and

= gh2

and Hg

gH.
We

summarize

our work

as a theorem.

14.13Theorem

The

following
subgroup

are three
of

equivalent

conditions

for a subgroup

H of a

group

to be a

normal
1.

G.

H for 2. gHg'1 = H for


ghg~l e
3.

all all

g e g

G
&

and

A e

H.

G.

gH = Hg for all geG.


of Theorem

Condition

(2)

14.13 is

often

taken

as the

definition of a

normal

subgroup

H of a group

G.
abelian
so, of

14.14Example

Every

subgroup

H of an
and

group

is normal.
h

We need
e H

only

note

that

for

all h

e H

all g & G,

course, ghg^1 =

gh =
all

hg

for all g

e G and

&

H.
\342\226\262

Exercise

29 of

Section 13 shows that

the

map

is a homomorphism of G into itself. We see that is one to one. Since g(g~lyg)g~1 = y, we see that ig of G with itself.

G ^- G denned gag~l = gbg^1 if


^ :
ig

by and

^(x)

= gxg-1

is onto

G, so it

only ifa = b, so is an isomorphism

14.15

Definition

An isomorphism 0
automorphism
automorphismof

:G

\342\200\224*G of

a group

ig : G G by

\342\200\224*G, where

g. Performing ^ on x is calledconjugation
of conditions

^(x)

G with itself is an automorphism = gxg-1 for all x e G, is the inner


of x

of G. The
\342\226\240

by g.

(1) and (2) in Theorem 14.13 shows that gH = Hg = Hforallg e G, that is, if and only if His invariant for all g e G if andonly if ig[H] = H is an all inner automorphisms of G. It is important to realize that ig[H] under = h for all h e H. That is ^ may perform in sets; we need not have a equation ig{h) G are nontrivial permutation of the set H. We see that the normal subgroups of a group K of G is under all inner automorphisms. A subgroup precisely those that are invariant = ig[H] for someg & G. a conjugate subgroup of H if K
The

equivalence

142

Part

III

Homomorphisms and Factor Groups

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

14

Computations
In

Exercises

1 through

8, find

the order of the

given

factor

group.
2.

1.
3.

Zfi/<3)

(Z4 x
(Z3

Z12)/\302\2532)

<2\302\273

(Z4 x Z2)/<(2,
(Z2 (Z2

1))
1)) A))

4.

x Z5)/({0}

x Z5)

5.

x Z4)/((l, x 53)/<(l,

7.
In

6. (Z12x 8- (Zn x 15, give


the

Z18)/((4, 3)) Z15)/<(1, 1))

Exercises

9 through
Z12/(4)

order

of the

element

in

the

factor

group.

9. 5 + (4) in
11.

(2, 1) +

((1,1)) in

(Z3

x Z6)/((l,

1))

13. (3, 1)+ ((0,2))in (Z4 x Z8)/((0, 2)) 15. (2, 0) + ((4,4)) in (Z6 x Z8)/((4,4)) = 16. Compute iP] [H] for the subgroup H

26 + (12) in Z60/(12) 12. (3,1) + ((1, )) in (Z4 1 14. (3, 3) + ((1, 2)) in (Z4
10. of the

x Z4)/((l,
x Z8)/((l,

1))
2))

{po,

/xi}

group S3 of Example

8.7.

Concepts

In Exercises

17 through
it is
subgroup

19, correct

the definition of
for

the

italicized

term without

reference

to

the

text, if correction

is needed, so that
17.

in a form
H

A normal
A An What

18. 19. 20.

normal

subgroup

acceptable of G is one satisfying of G is one satisfying


of a normal

publication. hG g~lhg

= Gh

for

all all

h e

H. H and G.
all

e H

for

h e

g e

G.

automorphism is the often

of a group

G is a homomorphismmapping
subgroup

G into

importance
to one

of a

group G?
factor

Students

write

to call attention

nonsense when first proving basic type of error.

theoremsabout
subgroup

groups.

The next

two

exercises

are designed

21. A

student

is asked
proof show does should

to

show

that

if H

is a

normal

of an

abelian

group

G, then

G/H

is abelian. The

student's

starts

as follows:

We must

that G/H the instructor

is abelian. Let a reading have written?


this

and

b be

two elements to
find

of G/H.
from

a. Why
b.
c.
What

proof

expect

nonsense

here on

in

the

student's

paper?

the student

Complete
torsion

the proof.

22.

A group is torsion order. group is a group all of whose elements have finite the only element of finite order. A student is asked to prove that if G is a torsion group, H of G. The student writes every normal subgroup We must show that each element of G/H is of finite Let x e G/H. order. Answer the same questions as in Exercise 21.
A

free if
then

the

identity

is

so is

G/H for

23. Mark

each of the a. b.
It

following

true or

false.

makes

sense

to speak
of an

of the

factor

group
G is a
group

G/N if and only

if N

is a normal

subgroup

of the

group

G.
Every

subgroup inner

abelian

group

normal subgroup
must

of G.
map.

c. An

automorphism

of an abelian

be just

the identity

Section

14

Exercises

143

d. Every
e. Every

factor

group
group

of a
of a

finite

group

is again

of

finite

order.

factor
factor factor
factor

torsion group is a
group

torsion

group.

(See Exercise

22.)

f.

Every

group group
group

of a torsion-free of an abelian
group

is torsion is abelian.
nonabelian.

free. (See

Exercise 22.)

g. Every
h. Every
i.

of a nonabelian

group is
nR =

Z/nZ
R/nR

is cyclic
is cyclic

of ordern.
of order
n,

j.
Theory

where

{nr | r e

R] and

R is

under addition.

24. Show

that

is a A\342\200\236

normal subgroup of
of Theorem

and compute S\342\200\236

that is, S\342\200\236/A\342\200\236;

find a known
of

group

to which

is S\342\200\236/A\342\200\236

isomorphic.

25. Complete

the

proof

14.4

multiplication (aH)(bH)

26. Prove

that

the torsion

free. (SeeExercise 22.)

= (ab)His well defined, then Ha c aH. subgroup T of an abelian group G is a normal


K of a
group

by

showing

that

if if

is a

subgroup

a group of G,

G
that

and

if left

coset

subgroup

and

G/

T is

torsion such

27.

A that

subgroup ig[H]

H is conjugate to a subgroup = K. Show that conjugacy is an


the

G if
relation

there exists
on the

an

inner

automorphism

equivalence
terms

collection
they

of

subgroups

of

ig of G G.

28. Characterize

normal

subgroups
in find

by the conjugacy

relation
27,
subgroup

the all

of a group G in exercise. preceding


subgroups of 53
and

of the

cells where
are

appear

in the

partition

given

29.
30.

Referring

to Exercise

(Example 8.7) that


m = (G

conjugate
that

to {p0, /x2}-

Let H
Show

be a normal
that any

of a group

G,

let

: H). Show
again

am e

for

every

a e

G.

31.

an intersection subset
[Hint:

of normal
group

subgroups G,

of a group

G is

a normal

subgroup of G.
smallest

32. Given
33. Let

S of a
Use

show

that it makes

sense to speak of the

normal

subgroup

that

contains S.

Exercise

31.]

G be a

group.
in

An element
G.

commutator
containing

The preceding in G; all commutators

of G that can be expressed in the form aba~lb~l for somea, b e G is a exercise shows that there is a smallest normal C of a group G subgroup the C is the commutator subgroup of G. Show that G/C is an subgroup
exactly

abelian
34.

group. if

Show
Show

that
that

a finite

group G has
N

one

subgroup

H of a
N is

given

order,
in

then H

is a normal
N

subgroup

of G.
Show

35.

if H

and
that

are

by

an example

HON

subgroups need not

of a group

G,
in G.

and

normal

G, then

H n

is normal

in H.

be

normal

36. Let

G be a
for

group

containing

at least
normal

one subgroup
subgroup

of a

fixed

finite

order fact

s. Show that if

that

the

intersection
then

of

all

subgroups

of G
all

of order 5 is a
G.]

of G.

[Hint: Use the under


to

H has order s,

so does

x~lHx

x e

37. a.

Show

that

all automorphisms

of a group

G form

a group

function

composition.

b. Show that

the inner
function

automorphisms

of a group

of G 38. Show that

under

composition.

G form a [Warning: Be sure


ig : G
\342\200\224*G is

normal
show

subgroup of the group of all automorphisms that the inner automorphisms do form a ie is

subgroup.]
the

set of all

g e

G such

that

the

identity

inner

automorphism

a normal

subgroup

of a group

G.
G'

39. Let G and


homomorphism

H'. (This fact

be groups, and let H and H' be normal of G into G'. Show that 0 induces a natural is used constantly in algebraic topology.)

subgroups of G
homomorphism

and

G',

respectively.

Let 0

be a
c

: (G/H) 0\342\200\236

\342\200\224\302\273\342\200\242 {G1 /H')\\i(j)[H]

Part

III

Homomorphisms and Factor Groups


= det(A)
determinant

Use

the

properties

det(AB)

\342\200\242

det(S)

and

det(7\342\200\236) 1 normal

for n

matrices

to show

the

following:

a.

The n

matrices

with determinant
with

1 form a
\302\2611 form

subgroup

b. Then
Let

x n

matrices
and

a normal
subsets

W). subgroup of GL(n, W). For


any

of GL(n,

G be a group, subset AB = \\ab\\a


Show

let

dP{G)

e A,b

be the set e B}.

of all

of G.

A, B

e 3?{G), let us

define

the

product

a. b.

c.

this multiplication of subsets is associativeand has an identity element, but that i/\\ G) is not a under this operation. group of G, then the set of cosetsof N is closed under the above Show that if N is a normal subgroup operation on 2P(G), and that this operation agrees with the multiplication given by the formula in Corollary 14.5. Is Show (without using Corollary 14.5) that the cosets of N in G form a group under the above operation. its identity element the same as the identity element of 3\\ G)?
that

section

15

Factor-Group
Factor computation

Computations and SimpleGroups


tough topic for students
in

groups

can be a

to grasp.

There is

nothing

like

a bit
to

of

understanding improve attempting concerning factor groups. Sincewe will be dealing with normal subgroups a subgroup of a group this section, we often denote G by N rather than throughout by H. the subgroup N acts as Let N be a normal of G. In the factor group subgroup G/N, element. We may regard N as being collapsedto a single element, either to 0 in identity additive notation or to e in multiplicative notation. This collapsing of N together with the algebraic structure of G require that other subsets of G, namely, the cosets of N, also collapse into a single element in the factor group. A visualization of this collapsing is providedby Fig. 15.1. Recall from Theorem 14.9 that y : G \342\200\224>\342\226\240 by defined G/N = aN for a e G is a homomorphism of G onto G/N. Figure 15.1 is very similar to y(a) the homomorphism under is actually formed Fig. 13.14, but in Fig. 15.1 the image group at the bottom of the figure as obtained by collapsing from G. We can view the \"line\" G/N each coset of N in another to a point of G/N thus corresponds copy of G. Each point to a whole vertical line segment in the shaded portion, representing a coset of N in G. It is crucial to remember that multiplication of cosets in G/N can be computed by in G, using any representative of the cosets as shown elements in the figure. multiplying
mathematics.

to strengthen

We start by

our intuition

i'

I I /~</\\T

I I

I I

aN

bN

(cN)(bN) = (cb)N Figure

(ab)N

cN

=(aN)(bN)

15.1

Section

15

Factor-Group Computations and Simple Groups

145

two elements of G will collapse into the same element of G/N if they an element of N. Multiplicatively, a and b collapse by together if ab~v is in N. The degree of collapsing can vary from nonexistent to catastrophic. We illustrate the two extreme cases by examples.
Additively, differ 15.2

Example
Solution

The

trivial

subgroup

N =

{0} of

is,

of course,

a normal subgroup.
one all,

Compute Z/{0}.
element.

Since N =
the

{0}has

only

one Z is

cosets

are of

Z/{0}
15.3

~ Z. Each m

the form {m}


e

element, every coset of N has only for m e Z. There is no collapsing at


{m}

That is,
\342\226\262

and consequently,

simply renamed

in

Z/{0}.
.

Example

Let and

n be a it is

positive integer. The set nE = {nr normal since E is abelian. Compute


shows

\\ r

is a subgroup

of E under

addition,

E/nl
x

Solution

A bit

of

thought

that actually

nE =

each E, because

e E nE.

and x/n e E. Thus E/nE a trivial group consisting

has only
only

one element,the
identity element.

subgroup

is of the form The factor

n{x/n)
group

is
\342\226\262

of the

G As illustrated in Examples 15.2 and 15.3 for any group G, we have G/{e] of the identity e. where is the trivial element and G/ G ~ {e}, {e} group consisting only We would like knowledge These two extremes of factor groups are of little importance. about the structure of G. If N = {e}, of a factor group G/N to give someinformation G the factor has the same structure as G and we might as well have tried to study group structure to supply information If N = G, the factor has no significant directly. group about of G, then is a G. If G is a finite and N / {e}is a normal group subgroup G/N have a more simple structure than smaller group than G, and consequently G. The may multiplication of cosetsin G/N reflects the multiplication in G, since products of cosets can be computed in G representative elementsof the cosets. by multiplying We give two examples that even when has order 2, we may be able to G/N showing If G is a finite deduce some useful results. and G/N has just two elements, then group H containing we must have \\G\\ =2\\N\\. Note that every subgroup half the elements just of a finite group G must be a normal subgroup, since for each element a in G but not in both the left coset aH and the right coset Ha must consist of all elements in G that H, are not in H. Thus the left and right of H coincide and H is a normal subgroup cosets

of G.

15.4Example

Because

\\Sn\\

\\A\342\200\236 |, we

Let a be
An
\"even\"

an

odd permutation and the element

see that An is a normal subgroup of Sn, and Sn/An = in S\342\200\236, so that S\342\200\236/A\342\200\236 A\342\200\236}. {An, a Renaming

has order

2.

the element

A\342\200\236 \"odd,\"

the multiplication

in

shown in S\342\200\236/A\342\200\236

Table 15.5

becomes

15.5Table
(even)(even)

= even

(odd)(even)

odd

An
An

aAn

(even)(odd) = odd

(odd)(odd)
properties

= even.
for all

An

oAn
An

Thus the
Sn.

factor

aAn

oAn

group

reflects these

multiplicative

the

permutations

in

146

Part III

and Homomorphisms

Factor

Groups

that while knowing the product of two cosets in G/N does Example 15.4 illustrates us what the product of two elements of G is, it may tell us that the product in G of two types of elements itself is of a certain type.
not

tell

15.6 Example

(Falsity

of

the

Converse
of

of the Theorem
a finite

of Lagrange)

The

theorem

of Lagrange

states if 77 is a subgroup We show that it is false

H of G having
subgroup

order

group G, then the order of 77 divides the order of G. there must exist a subgroup that if d divides the order of G, then no that d. Namely, we show A4, which has order 12, contains

of order
15.4,
have

6.

Supposethat
Example
would

of order
(crH)(crH)

2,

77 were a subgroup of A4 having order 6. As observed before in of A4. Then A4/H it would follow that H would be a normal subgroup only two elements, H and crH for some a e A4 not in H. Since in a group we would have 7777 = 77 and the of each element is the identity, square = H. Now in a factor group can be achieved by computing computation
in

with representatives

the

original

a e H we

must

have

a2 e

H
A4

and

square of

every elementin
(1,2,3)

group. Thus, computing in A4, we find that for each each P e oH we must have is, the P2 e H. That must be in H. But in A4, we have
for
and

= (1,3.2)2
in and

(1,3,2)

= (1,2,3)2

so (1, 2, 3) and

(1, 3),

3, 2) (2, 3,

are 4),

H. (2,

A similar 4, 3)
the

(1,3,4), (1,4,
least

8 elements
We

in H,

contradicting

computation shows that (1, 2, 4), (1, 4, 2), are all in H. This shows that there must be at 6. \342\226 order fact that H was supposed to have
compute
its

now

turn to
generated

several examplesthat
and abelian,

factor group

with is finitely factor group

then

factor

groups. If the group will be also. Computing

we

start
such

means classifying it

according

to the

fundamental theorem (Theorem 11.12). 1)). Here

15.7

Example

Let

us compute
Z4

H of

Z(,

the factor group (Z4 x Zg)/((0, generated by (0, 1). Thus

((0, 1))is

the

cyclic

subgroup

H = {(0.), 0
Since

(0,

1), (0.
H have

2), (0, 3), (0, 4),(0,5)}.


6 elements, all cosets 4. Since Z4 x Zg
group

Z4

x Zg

6 elements,

(Z4 x Zg)/7/ (remember, from the original group).


// =

has 24 elements and and (Z4 x Z(,)/H must


we

has

of H
is

must

have

order

abelian,

so is

compute

in a factor
notation,

by

means

of representatives

In additive

the

cosets
(2,0)

are
+ 7/,

(0,0) + 7/,

(1,0)+

7/,

(3,0) +

7/.

we Since can compute by choosing the representatives (0, 0), (1, 0), (2,0), and (3, 0), it is clear that (Z4 x Zg)/7/ is isomorphic to Z4. Note that this is what we would expect, since in a factor group modulo 7/, everything in 7/ becomes the identity that is, element; in 7/ equal to zero. we are essentiallysetting Thus the whole second factor everything \342\226 the first factor Z4. Zg of Z4 x Zg is collapsed, leaving just

Example

15.7 is a
acquire

We

should

an intuitive
element.

special case of a general feeling for this

theorem
theorem

that we
in terms

now

state

and prove.
the

of collapsing one of

factors

to the

identity

Section

15

Factor-Group

Computations and Simple Groups

147

15.8

Theorem

Let G

= HxK
~ H
in

be

the direct

is a
G/K

normal

subgroup a natural

of G. way.

product of groups H Also G/H is isomorphic x K


H

and

K. to

Then

K in a

H = {{h, e)\\h e 7/} natural way. Similarly,

Proof

Consider
13.8). n2

the

homomorphism

7t2 : H

->\342\200\242 where K,

Because

Ker(7T2) = H,

we see that
us

is a normal

is onto
We

K, Theorem

14.11tells

that

(H x

K)/H ~

= k. (See Example subgroup of H x K. Because


Jt2(h, k)

K.

\342\231\246

continue
it

how easy

is to

compute

with additional computations of abelianfactor if we can compute in a factor group


theorem.

groups.
in

To illustrate

the

whole

group, we

prove the
15.9 Theorem Proof
A

following

factor

group

of a cyclic
with

group

is cyclic.

Let G
the

be cyclic
aN
in

generator

a, and let N

be a

normal

subgroup

coset

generates
G,

computing,
in

all

G/N. We must compute powers of the representative

all powers of a and all these all cosets

of G. We claim aN. But this amounts to powers give all elements


G/N

G.

Hence

the powers
factor

of aN
group

certainly

give

of N
(0,

and

is cyclic.

\342\231\246

15.10

Example

Let us

compute the

(Z4 x
7/

Z6)/((0, 2)). Now

2) generates

the

subgroup

= ((0,0),(0,2),(0,4)}

of Z4 x Z(, of order 3. Here the first factor Z4 of Z4 x Z(, is left alone. The Z(, factor, on the other hand, is essentially collapsed by a subgroup of order 3, giving a factor group in the second factor of order 2 that must be isomorphic Z2. Thus (Z4 x Zg)/((0, 2)) to to Z4 x Z2. \342\226\262 is isomorphic
15.11

Example

Let us
temptation

compute the
to

factor

group

say that

we are setting

the

(Z4 x Z6)/((2. 2 of Z4 and


to Z2 Z3.

3)). Becarefull
the

There

is a great
to

3 of Zg

both equal
isomorphic
that

zero,

so that

Z4 is collapsed to a factorgroup isomorphic a total factor group isomorphic to Z2 x


7/ = is of

and Zg This is wrong]

to one Note

to Z3, giving

((2, 3)) =
3)) has
to zero

{(0,

0),

(2,

3)}
6.

order 2, so (Z4
make

Z6)/((2.

order 12, not


individually,

Setting

doesnot

(2, 0)

and (0, 3) equal


groups

so

the

factors

(2, 3) equal to zero do not collapse


Z2

separately.

The possible abelian


must

of order
factor

12 are

Z4

Z3 and

Z2 x
two

Z3,

and we
are most

decide

to which that

one

our

easily

distinguished

not. We
To find must,
the
by

claim the

in that Z4 x Z3 the coset (1. 0) +

group is isomorphic. These has an element of order 4, and

groups

Z2

x Z2
(Z4

x Z3 does
x Ze)/H. 7/, we that is in

7/ is

of

order

smallest

power of a
representatives,

coset giving
find the

the

4 in the factor group in a factor group identity

modulo

choosing

smallest powerof
+ (1, 0) +

a representative

subgroup

7/. Now,

4(1. 0) =

(1,

0)

(1, 0)

(1,

0)

(0, 0)
(Z4

is the first time that (1, 0) addedto itself gives an element of 7/. Thus of order 4 and is isomorphic has an element to Z4 x Z3 or Zj2.

x Z6)/((2,

3))
\342\226\262

148

Part

III

Homomorphisms

and Factor Groups

15.12

Example

11.12 the group (Z x Z)/((l, We (that is, classify as in Theorem may Z x Z as the points in the plane with both coordinates as indicated integers, of those points that lie on the the dots in Fig. 15.13. The subgroup ((1, 1)) consists by 45\302\260 line through the origin, indicated in the figure. The coset (1, 0) + of 1)) consists those dots on the 45\302\260 through the point (1, 0), also shown line in the figure. Continuing, lines we see that each coset consists of those dots lying on one of the 45\302\260 in the figure.
Letus

compute

1)).

visualize

((1,

We may

choose

the representatives
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242, (-3,

0), (-2,

0), (-1,0), (0, 0), (1,0), *-axis, we seethat


the

(2,

0), (3,

0),--correspond

of these cosetsto
precisely
is

compute of Z

in the

factor group. Since these representatives


factor

to the

points

on the

group (Z x

Z)/((l, 1))
A

isomorphic

to Z.

15.13Figure

Simple

Groups

As we

mentioned in the about crude information


may

section, preceding the structure of the

one feature of a factor group is that it gives whole Of course, sometimes there group.
10.10
any

be

no nontrivial

a group

of prime

order

Theorem proper normal subgroups. For example, can have no nontrivial of proper subgroups

shows

that

sort.

Section

15

Factor-Group

Computations and SimpleGroups

149

15,14

Definition
Theorem

group

is simple

if it is
An

nontrivial

and

has no
>

proper

nontrivial

normal

subgroups.

\342\226\240

15.15

The alternating

group

is simple

for

5.

Proof

See Exercise 39.


There

\342\231\246

order 60 and
The

are many simple A& is of order


orders.

168, betweenthese
complete

groups other than those given above. For example,Ag is of of nonprime 360, and there is a simple group order, namely

determination and classification of all finite were simple groups Hundreds of mathematicians worked on this task from 1950 to 1980. completed. recently It can be shown that a finite has a sort of factorization into group simple groups, where are unique up to order. the factors The situation is similar to the factorization of positive The new knowledge of all finite integers into primes. simple groups can now be used to some problems of finite solve group theory. We have seen in this text that a finite abelian simple group is isomorphic to %p for some prime p. In 1963, Thompson and Feit [21] published their proof of a longstanding that is of even every finite nonabelian simple group conjecture of Burnside, showing strides toward the complete classification were made order. Further great by Aschbacher in the 1970s. Early in 1980, Griess announced that he had constructed a predicted \"monster\" simple group of order

808, 017,424, 794, 512,875,886,459,

904,

961,

710, 757,

005, 754,368,

000,000, 000.
of the classification in August 1980. The research entire classification fill roughly 5000 journal pages. paperscontributing We turn to the characterization of those normal Nofa subgroups group G for which is a simple group. First we state an addendum to Theorem 13.12 on properties of G/N
Aschbacher

added

the

final details

to the

a group 15.16 Theorem

homomorphism.

The

proof is left

to

Exercises

35 and

36.
G, then 0LV] then 0_1 [N']

Let \302\247 : G
is a normal

->\342\200\242 G' be

subgroup

a group homomorphism. If N is of 0[G]. Also, if N' is a normal

a normal
subgroup

subgroup

of

of 0[G],

is a

normal

subgroup

of G.

be viewed as saying that a homomorphism G' : G \342\200\224*\302\247 subgroups between G and 0[G]. It is important to note that 0[iV] may in G', even though N is normal in G. For example, not be normal : Z2 \342\200\224*S3, where \302\242) = 0(0) = po and \302\242(1) /xi is a homomorphism, and Z2 is a normal subgroup of itself, but of 53. {p0, /xi} is not a normal subgroup We can now characterize when G/N is a simple group.

Theorem 15.16 should


normal

preserves

15.17Definition

A maximal

such

normal subgroup that there is no proper normal

of a group G is a
subgroup

normal

subgroup
containing

M not
M.

equal

to

G
\342\226\240

N of

G properly

150

Part

III

Homomorphisms

and Factor Groups

15.18

Theorem

is a maximal

normal

subgroup

of

G if

and

only

if G/M

is simple.

Proof

Let M be a
y :

maximal

\342\200\224*G/M

given

normal subgroup of by Theorem 14.9. Now

G. Considerthe
y~l

subgroup

of

G/M

maximal,

so

this

Conversely,

containing M,

is a proper normal subgroup of can not happen. Thus G/M is simple. Theorem 15.16 shows that if N is a normal subgroup If also N / G, then then y [N] is normal in G/M.
y[N]

canonical homomorphism of any nontrivial proper normal G properly containing M. But M

is

of

G properly

G/M
no

and

y|W]

{M}.

Thus, if G/M is simple so that


maximal.
The
Every

such

y[N]

can exist, no such N

can exist, and

is

\342\23

Center
nonabelian

and

Commutator
G has
subgroup two

Subgroups
important

group

normal is denned

subgroups, by
all

the center
the

Z(G) of
word

and

the commutator

of G.
Z(G)

(The letter Z comes from


g e

German

zentrum, meaning center.) The center Z(G) =

{z&G\\zg = gz for

G}.

Exercise 52 of

Section we

Gandz e Z(G)
subgroup

of

G. If

Z(G) is an abelian subgroup of G. Since for eachg e = zgg-1 = ze = z, we see at once that Z(G) is a normal = G; in this case, the center is not useful. G is abelian, then Z(G)
5 shows that have

gzg-1

15.19

Example

The center of a group in which case we say


for

that

G always contains the identity the center of G is trivial.

the

group
Exercise

shows ,\302\276

case of

for primes p and which is isomorphic to Z5.


Turning

us that Z(&) = which shows that 38, q is trivial.) Consequently,

= {e}, It may be that Z(G) examination of Table 8.8 example, so the center of ,\302\276trivial. is (This is a special {/?oK of every nonabelian group of order pq the center elements.
For
the

center

of S3

Zg

must

be

x {/\302\276}

^5,

\342\22

modulo

equal

to

to the commutator subgroup, recall that in forming a factor group a normal subgroup element in G that N, we are essentially putting every in the factor group. This indicates another e, for N forms our new identity

of is in use

N
for

the structure of a nonabelian information about the structure of all 11.12 group G. Since Theorem gives complete sufficiently small abelian groups, it might be of interest to try to form an abelian group as much like G as possible,an abelianized of G, by starting with G and then version that ab = ba for all a and b in our new group To require that ab = ba structure. requiring is to say that aba~lb~l = e in our new group. An element aba~lb~l in a group is a commutator of the group.Thus we wish to attempt to form an abelianized version of G of G by e. By the first observation of this paragraph, we by replacing every commutator to form the factor group of G modulo the smallest normal should then attempt subgroup we can find that contains all commutators of G.
factor groups.
we

Suppose, for example,that

are studying

15.20

Theorem

LetGbeagroup.Thesetofallcomrnutatorsafca-1^1

commutator subgroup) of if N is a normal subgroup Furthermore,


C

(the

G. This
of

G,

G generates a subgroup normal subgroup of subgroup then G/N is abelianif and only if C <
fora, b e C is a

G.

N.

Section15 Exercises
The

151

Proof

commutators
that

G. Note
bab~la~l.

precisely

for all g
inserting

it is normal in C; we must show that certainly generate a subgroup of a commutator is again a commutator, (aba~lb~l)~l namely, Also e = eee~1e~lis a commutator. Theorem 7.6 then shows that C consists of all finite products For x e C, we must show that g~lxg e C of commutators. so is g~lxg e G, or that if x is a product of commutators, for all g e G. By the

inverse

e =

gg~l
show

is sufficient

to

between each product of commutators for each commutator cdc~ld~l

occurring
that

in x,

g~1(cdc~1d~l)g

we see that it is in C. But

g-\\cdc-ld-l)g

= (g-lcdc-l)(e)(d-lg)

= (g-lcdc-l)(gd-ldg-l)(d-lg)
=

[(g-1c)d(g-lc)-ld~l][dg-1d-1g],

which

is in C. Thus The rest

C is normal
theorem

in

G.

of the

is obvious
in this

v groups. Onedoesn'tisualize

if we have way, but writing

acquired the
out

that G/

for factor feeling proper C is abelian follows from

(aC){bC)

= abC

= ab{b~la~lba)C
=

= = (abb~l Tl)baC baC c


Furthermore, (b-lN)(a-lN); C < N, then if N is a normal subgroup that is, aba~lb~lN
of G

(bC){aC).
(a~1N)(b~lN)

= N, so

and G/N
aba~lb~l

is abelian,then
e N,

=
if

and C < N. Finally,

(aN)(bN)

= abN

= ab{b~laTlba)N
=

= (abb~la~l)baN= baN
15.21 Example

(bN)(aN).

For the

S3 in Table group = M3M2 /?2-We similarly

commutator S3/A3

subgroup is abelian, Theorem

that one commutator is /?i/xi/?j~'/x^' = = M2M3 = Pi- Thus the find that paMiP^Vi\"1 = P2M1P1M1 C of S3 contains A3. Since A3 is a normal subgroup of S3 and

8.8, we find

Pi^iPi^i
\342\226\262

15.20 shows that

= A3.

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

15

Computations
In

Exercises

1 through

12, classify

the

given

group

according 2. (Z2

to

the

fundamental

theorem

of

finitely

generated

abelian

groups.
Z4)/((0,1)) Z4)/((l, 2))

1.
3. 5.

x (\302\276 x (\302\276

4.

x 24)/((0, 2)) (Z4 x Z8)/((l, 2))


(Z

Z4 x Z8)/((l, 2,4)) x Z)/((l, 2)) 7. (Z


(Z4 x

6.
8.

x Z)/((0,

1))

(Z x Z x
x Z

9.

(Z

x Z

x Z4)/((3,

0, 0))

10. (Z
12.

x Z8)/((0,4,

Z)/((l, 1, 1)) 0))

11. (Z x Z)/((2,)) 2

(Z x Z

x Z)/((3,

3, 3))

152
13.

Part III

Homomorphisms

and

Factor

Groups

Find

both

the center

Z{D^) and and


the the

and

the

commutator

subgroup of Z3 x of S3 x

C of the

group

D4 of

symmetries of the

square

in

Table 8.12.

14.

Find

both both

the center the center


all

commutator commutator

subgroup subgroup

53.

15. Find

D4.

16. Describe
the the

subgroup subgroup

of order < 4 of Z4 x Z4, and in each case classify the factor group of Z4 x Z4 modulo subgroups of Z4 x Z4 modulo by Theorem 11.12. That is, describe the subgroup and say that the factor group is isomorphic to Z2 x Z4, or whatever the case may be. [Hint: Z4 x Z4 has six different cyclic

of subgroups of order 4 that

order 4. Describe them to the is isomorphic

by giving
Klein

a generator, such as the subgroup There are three subgroups 4-group.

((1, 0)).
of order

There is one subgroup

2.]

Concepts
In

Exercises

17 and
it is

18, correct the


in a form
group

definition

of the

italicized term
commute
\\a,b

without

reference

to the

text,

if

correction

is

needed, so that
17.

acceptablefor publication.
all elements

The center

of a

G contains

of G that

with every

element of G.

18. The

commutator

subgroup
following factor

of a group true group

19. Mark

each of the a.
Every

G is {a~lb~lab or false.
group

e G}.

of a cyclic
a noncyclic
has

is cyclic.

b. A

c. R/Z

factor group of under addition

d. R/Z under addition e. M/Z under addition f. If the commutator g. If G/H is abelian,
h. The commutator i. The commutator

group is again noncyclic. of order 2. has elements of order n for all n e Z+. has an infinite number of elements of order 4. G is {e}, then G is abelian. subgroup C of a group
no element
then

j.
In

All

nontrivial

subgroup of C of G contains H. subgroup group G must be G itself. G must be G itself. of a nonabelian simple group subgroup finite simple groups have prime order.
the commutator of a simple

Exercises

20 through group be the

23, let F
all

be the
of F
consisting

additive
that

group

multiplicative

of

elements

do not of

of all functions mapping assume the value 0 at any point

into

R, and let

F* be the
F/K

of R.
of F

20. Let
21. Let

subgroup of F

the constant

functions.

Find

a subgroup

to

which

is

isomorphic.
K*

be

F*/K*

the subgroup of is isomorphic.

F* consisting

of the

nonzero constant
in F.

functions.

Find

a subgroup

of F*
order

to

which

22. Let K
or why
23.

be the not?

subgroup of
subgroup

continuous

functions

Can

you

find

an element

of F/K
find

having

2? Why

Let K*
having

be the
order

of F*

consisting of the
not?

continuous

functions

in F*.

Can you

an element

of F*/K*

2? Why

or why
let U

In Exercises

24 through
U. Show \342\202\254 group

26,

be

the

multiplicative
\\ z \342\202\254 U) is in

group a subgroup

{z

C \342\202\254 | \\z\\
and

1}. U/zoU.

24. Let zo 25. To what 26. Let


27.

that

zqU =

{zqz

of U,

compute

we have

mentioned

the

text is
n e

U/{\342\200\224 1) isomorphic?

= f\342\200\236

cos(2jr/n)

+ i sin(2jr/n)
in the

where the

Z+. To what
group

group

we have

mentioned is

isomorphic? U/{!;\342\200\236}

To what group

mentioned

text is

additive

R/Z isomorphic?

Section 15

Exercises

153

28.
29.

Give

an

example
elements

of a group
are of
finite

G having
order.

no

elements

of finite

order > 1 but


showing

having

a factor

group G/H, all of have H

whose

Let H
G/H

and K be normal subgroups of a is not isomorphic to G/K.

group

G.

Give an

example

that

we may

while

30.

Describe the
a. abelian

center of every
group.
commutator

simple

group
subgroup

b.
31.

nonabelian

Describe the

of every

simple

a. abelian group
b.

nonabelian

group.

Proof Synopsis

32. Give

a one-sentence most

synopsis of

the

proof

of Theorem
proof

15.9. 15.18.

33. Give at Theory

a two-sentence

synopsis of the

of Theorem

34. Show
35.

that
cj> :

if a finite

group G contains
group

a nontrivial

subgroup of

index

2 in subgroup

G, then G is not
of G.

simple.
that

Let

G ->

G' be a

homomorphism,

and let N

be a normal

Show

cj>[N]

is normal

subgroup of 0[G].

36. Let

<f> : G -> G' be a group normal subgroup of G.

homomorphism,

and let

N' be a normal

subgroup

of G'.

Show

that

<j>\"1

[N1]

is a

37. Show
positive,

that

if G

is nonabelian,
37, show
that

then

namely, that if G/Z{G) is


Exercise
that

38.
39.

Using

group G/Z{G) is not cyclic. [Hint: Show the equivalent G is abelian (and hence Z(G) = G).] cyclic nonabelian p and q are primes has a trivial group G of order pq where
the factor
then

contra-

center.

Prove

is simple A\342\200\236 contains A\342\200\236

for n > 5, following

the

steps

and hints given. 3. [Hint:


that

a.

b.

every 3-cycle if n > 3. Show is generated A\342\200\236 by the 3-cycles for {a, c){a, b) = {a, b, c).]
Show

n >

Note

{a, b)(c,

d) =

(a, c, b){a,c, d)
by the
n

and

c. Let
by

r and

5 be of the

3-cycles

\342\200\242 is generated fixed elements of {1,2, \342\200\242 for n > 3. Show that A\342\200\236 \342\200\242, n} form (r, s, i) for 1 < i < n [Hint: Show every 3-cycle is the product

\"special\"

of \"special\"

3-cycles

computing

(r, s,if, and


(r,

(r,s, j)(r,s,i)2,

(r. s, jf(r,

s,i),

5. i)2{r,

s, k)(r,

s, j)2(r,s, i).
N =
A\342\200\236. [Hint:

Observe that these products give all possible types of 3-cycles.] for n d. Let N be a normal subgroup of A\342\200\236 > 3. Show that if N contains a 3-cycle,then \342\200\242 n by that (r, s, i) e N implies that (r, s, j) e N for j = 1, 2, \342\200\242 computing \342\200\242,

Show

((r,s)(i,mr,s,i)2((r,s)(ij))-1.]

e. Let N

be a

and conclude

nontrivial normal in each case that

subgroup

of A\342\200\236 for n
A\342\200\236.

> 5.

Show

that

one of the

following cases must

hold,

154

Part

III

Homomorphisms

and Factor Groups

Case

N contains
Af

a 3-cycle.
[Hint: ShowCT-1(ai,

Casell

containsaproductofdisjointcycles,atleastoneofwhichhaslengthgreaterthan3.
the

Suppose

N contains
and

disjoint

product

a =

/x(\302\253i, 02,---,0.,.).

02, a3)o{a\\,a.2,
Show

03)-1 isin Af,


02, aA)
2-cycles.

compute
contains

it.]
a disjoint

Caselll

product of the
N,

former

= (1(04,0$, = (i(a\\,

0^)(01,02, a3). [Hint:


(i is a

o~l(a\\,

a(a\\, a.2,a4)_1 is in

and compute

it.] a2, a3) where


product of disjoint

CaselV
Case
V

contains

[Hint: number

a disjoint product of the former Show a2 e N and compute it.] a disjoint of disjoint

product a of the former = (i(a3, 04)(01,02), where /x is a product of an even a 2-cycles. [Hint: Show that o~Y(ai, C12, 3)a(a\\, ai, a3)~lis in N, and compute it to deduce that a = (02, 04)(01, a3) is in N. Using n > 5 for the first time, find i ^ a\\, a.2, a3, a4 \342\200\242 in {1, 2, \342\200\242 Let /J = (ai,a3, 0- Show that j}~xafia e A7, and compute it.] \342\200\242, \302\253}.
N contains

40. Let N be HN is a normal


42. Show and fc

a normal
subgroup

of G. Let HN = {hn subgroup of G and let H be any subgroup of G, and is the smallest subgroup containing both N and H.
the

\\h e

H,n
that

&

N}.

Show

that

41. With reference to


subgroup

preceding

exercise,

let M

also be a
group

normal

subgroup

of G.

Show

NM

is again a
e ff

of G.

that

if H

e K.

and ^f are normal [Hint: Consider the

subgroups of a
commutator

G such

hkh~lk~x

t that H n K = {e},hen M = kh for = (hkh~l)k~l = h{kh'lk~1).]

all

/z

section 16

tGROup

Action seen

on

a Set of
how the

We

have

examples
or of a
and section

groups

of a

triangle

acting on ffi\", set. The next


The
Definition into 52

so on. In

square, group this section, we give will give an application to

may act on of rotations


the

things,

like

the group
general
group

of symmetries
linear
action

of a cube, the
general

group
on a

notion of

counting.

Notion
2.1

of a
defines

Group Action set S to


be

S. The in S

function

a binary operation * on a * gives us a rule for \"multiplying\" si *


any

a function

mapping S
and

xS

an element

si in S

an element

to yield an element generally, for defining a \"multiplication,\"


More
value

52 in

S.

sets where

A, B,

and C,

we can
a of
A

view times

a map

* :A

\342\200\224>\342\20 C as

any element

any element

some

element

c of

section, we will be a map *:GxX->I

concerned

C. Of course, we write a * b = c, or simply with the case where X is a set, G is a group, We shall write *(g, x) as g * x or gx. action of G on X is a
map

b of B has as ab = c. In this
and

we have

16.1

Definition

Let

X be a

set

and

G a

group. An

*:GxI^I

such

that

\342\226

1.

ex =

x for all x e X,
for

= 2. (gig2)(x) gi(g2x)
Under these

all x

X and \342\202\254

all gu

g2

G.

conditions, X

is a

G-set.

This section is a

prerequisite only

for Sections

17 and 36.

Section 16

Group Action

on

a Set

155

16.2 Example

Let X be any
Then X is an Sx, so
that

set,

and

let H

be a
the

subgroup

of

the group
X

Sx of all
is

permutations

of element

X. of

//-set, where
= o{x)

action

of a

e H on

its action

as

an

for all x e X. Condition 2 is a consequence of the of definition as function and Condition 1 is immediate from permutation multiplication composition, the definition of the identity as the identity function. Note that, in particular, permutation \342\200\242 is an \342\200\242 \342\226\262 set. Sn {1, 2, 3, \342\200\242, n}
ax

that for every G-set X and each g e G, the map = gx is a permutation of X, and that there is a homomorby ag{x) the action the Example 16.2action : G -+ Sx such that of G on X is essentially phism \302\242) of Sx on X of the image subgroup H = 0[G] of Sx on X. So actions of subgroups all possible actions on X. When the set X, actions using describe studying subgroups group G via a group action of G on X. a of Sx suffice. However, sometimes set X is used to study 16.1. Thus we need the more general concept given by Definition
Our

next
X

theorem

will

show

ag : X

-+

defined

16.3 Theorem

For each g e G, the function ag : X -+ X defined for x \342\202\254 a permutation of X. Also, the map 0 : G -+ Sx defined by X is with the property that <j>{g){x) = gx. homomorphism

Let

be

a G-set.

by

og{x)

0(g)

= gx is a crg

Proof

To show
of

show that it is a one-to-one map ag is a permutation of X, we must X. Then itself. Suppose that ag{x\\) = ag(xi) for x\\, X2 \342\202\254 gx\\ = gX2= g~1(gX2)- Using Condition 2 in Definition 16.1, we see that g~l(gx\\) Consequently, = (g~1g)x2, so ex\\ = ex2- Condition 1 of the definition then yields x\\ \342\200\224 xi, (g_1g)xi so ag is one to one. The two conditions of the definition show that for x e X, we have = g(g~l)x = (gg~l)x = ex = x, soag maps X onto X. Thus ag is indeed a ag(g~Xx) that

X onto

permutation.

To show

show

that

that $ 4>{g\\g2) =
in

: G -+ Sx defined
4>{g\\)4>{gi)

by

4>{g) =

for

all gi,

g2
carry

&

G.

permutations
Using obtain

Sx

by showing

they both

ag is a homomorphism, we must the equality of these two into the same element. anieX
We show for
rule

the

two

conditions

in Definition

16.1 and

the

function

composition, we

0(gig2)(*)

agig2(x)

= (gig2)x
=

= gi(g2x) gi(Tg2(x) =
=

agt(ag2(x))

(\302\2760\302\276)^)

(\302\276\302\276)\302\276 (0(\302\243l)0(,g2))(*).

Thus 0 is a homomorphism. The stated = we have 4>{g){x) og{x) definitions,


It follows

= gx.

property

of

follows \302\242)

at once

since

by

our
\342\231\246

from the preceding theorem and Theorem13.15 that if X is G-set, then of G leaving every element of X fixed is a normal subgroup NofG, we and of a coset gN on X is given by (gN)x = gx can regard X as a G/N-set where the action for eachx e X. If N = {e}, then the identity element of G is the only element that leaves every x & X fixed; we then say that G acts faithfully on X. A group G is transitive on
the

subset

a G-setX if
transitive

for

each

x\\,X2

\342\202\254 X, there

exists g & G

on

Exercise
We

49

and only of Section 8.


X if with

if the

subgroup

such that gx\\ of Sx is transitive 0[G]

X2-

Note

that

G is
in

on

X, as

defined

continue

more examples

of G-sets.

Part III
16.4 Example

Homomorphisms

and

Factor

Groups

Every

group

G is where

itself a G-set, where

the

action If H

multiplication.

That is,

as
16.5

an

//-set,

*(gi, g2) = *(/i, g) = hg.

gig2-

on g2 e G by is a subgroup of

gi

e G

is given
also

by

left

G, we can

regard

G
A

Example

Let//be
for

a subgroup
and

g e G

/j e

of G. Then G is an //-set under conjugation //. Condition 1 is obvious, and for Condition
(hih2)g(hih2r1

where

*(h,
that

g) =

hgh~x

2 note
*(hu*(h2,

*(hih2,

g) = this

hx{h2gh~^)h~x

g)).
abbreviation

We

always

write

action of
definition

H on G by
would

conjugation

as hgh\"x.

The
the

hg

described

before the

cause

terrible

confusion

with

group

operation

ofG.
16.6

\342\2

Example

For students who have studied vector spaces with real (or complex) scalars, we mention that the axioms (rs)\\ = r(s\\) and lv = v for scalars r and 5 and a vector v show that for the multiplicative group of nonzero the set of vectors is an R*-set (or a C*-set) \342\2 scalars. Let H
a G-set,

16.7

Example

be a
that

subgroup the

of action

where

Observe shows
G-sets
that

this

action

and g{yH)

= (gy)H
every

= = (gxh)H (gx)(hH)
is isomorphic to

let L# be the set of all left cosets of H. Then LH is = (gx)H. e G on the left coset xH is given by g(xH) = xh for some h e //, is well defined: if yH = xH, then y
G, and of g
=

(gx)H
may

= g(xH).
be formed
17.)

series

of exercises
left

G-set

one that

as building

1 blocks. (SeeExercises 4through


Z)4 =

using these

coset

\342\2

16.8

Example

Let G
described
in

be

the

group

{p0, p\\,
Fig.

p2,

Fig.

horizontal
that

pi

1, 2, 3, 4 as sides the and d2, vertical and si, 52, s3, s4, d\\ diagonals axes m\\ center point C, and midpoints P,- of the sides 5,-. Recall to rotating the square counterclockwise corresponds through ni/2 radians, /x,in Example 8.11. We also

8.10. In label the and m2, the

pi, /xi, [i2, 16.9 we show

h\\, the

S2]

of of symmetries with vertices square

the

square,

16.9

Figure

Section

16

Group

Action

on

a Set

157

16.10 Table
1
Po

2 2 3

Si \342\200\24251
S\\ S2 S3

S3

m\\ \342\200\24254 S4

m2 tn2

di

di di di d2 di di
dx

Pi

Pi Pi P3 P4
Pi

P3

P4 P4

Pi

4 1 2

4 1
2

S3

mi m2

Si
S3

\342\226\24054 S\\ S2 \342\200\242Si

Pi
P-i

Mi M2 Si S2

4 2 4 3 1

4 1 1 3 2

S4 Si S4

S4 Si s3

mi \342\200\24252 mi \342\200\242S3
Si \342\200\242S3

3 1

mi

2 1 3

Si Si S3

\342\200\242S4 \342\200\24251 m\\

Si
S4

S4 Si

ffjT \342\200\242S3

mi m2 mi mi m2 mi
nil

di d2

Pi

p3

Pi

P4

di di

di
di

P3 P4
Pi

P4

Pi Pi P3
Pi

di

di

P3

Pi

mi \342\200\24251

di

di

Pi P4

Pi

P4

Pi Pi P3 Pi P4 P3
Pi

p3

Pi

corresponds

to flipping
X

on

the

axis

m,, and 5,- to


53, 54,

flipping

on di.

the diagonal

di. We let

{1, 2,

3, 4, si,
as a

52,

mi, mi,

d\\,

C, P\\,

P2, P3, Pn).


the

ThenX can
action

be regarded
X

in \302\243>4-set

a natural

way. Table

16.10 describes completely

of D4 on
be

and

We should

sure

is given to provide geometric illustrations of ideas to be introduced. this table is formed before continuing. \342\226\262 that we understand how

Isotropy

Subgroups
be

Let let

a G-set.

Let x

&

X and

g e

G. It

will

be important

to

know

when

gx =

x.We

{x e 16.11 Example

gx

= x]

and

GA

{g e

gx

= x}.

For the

Z)4-set

X in

Example 16.8, we have


XPI={C],

Xpo=X,

XIM={sl,S3,mum2,C,PuP3}

Also,

with

= D4,

Gi = We leave the
Note
subgroups

lp0,S2},
of the

GJ3={po,Mi}other Xa
in and

Gdl Gx

= {p0,p2,Si,S2}.

computation

to Exercises

1 and

2.
in

\342\226\262

that
of

the subsets Gx given

the

preceding

example

were,

each

case,

G. This

is

true

in general.

16.12 Theorem

Let X

be

a G-set.

Then Gx is a
g\\,

subgroup

of

G for

each ieX,

Proof

Let x

&

g\\{g2x) =

courseex
g~lx,
16.13
and

= Then g\\x = x and g2x = x. Consequently, (gig2)* e Gx, and Gx is closed under the induced of G. Of x,sogig2 g\\x operation = = = If g e Gx,then gx = x, sox Gx. (g~lg)x g~l(gx) e Gx. Thus Gx is a subgroup of G. \342\231\246 g~l consequently and

let

g2

e Gx.

x, soe e
and

= ex =
isotropy

Definition

Let X be a

G-set

let

&

X.

The

subgroup

Gx is

the

subgroup

of x.

\342\226\240

158

Part

III

Homomorphisms

and Factor Groups

Orbits
For

the

ZVset

X of

Example 16.8with
carried
the

action

table

in Table
same

16.10, the
under

elements

in the
by

subset {1,
Furthermore,

2, 3, 4} are
each of
the

into

elements
1, 2,

of

this

subset

action

Z)4.

elements

3,

and

the subset by
be partitioned

various

elements

of D4. We
type.

carried into all the other to show that every proceed


4 is

elements

of
can

G-set

into subsets of this

16.14

Theorem

Let
gX\\

be
X2-

a G-set.
Then

For

x\\,

~ is an

xi if and equivalence relation on X.


X2 & X,

let

x\\

only

if there

exists geG

such

that

Proof

For

each

x e

X, we have
x\\ ex\\

(g~lg)xl =
Finally,

Suppose
if*

~ =
1

ex = x, so x ~ x so gx\\=X2 for X2, so X2 ~ x\\, and ~ is x\\, X2 and

and

is reflexive.
Then

^2 ~

some g&G. symmetric.


X3

g~lX2

= g~~l(gxi)

X3,

thengi*i =

Then

(g2gi)xi

= g2(gixi)

\302\2432*2

*3, so *i

= X2 and g2X2 ~ and ~ is

~ xi for some g{, g2 transitive.


relation

\342\202\254 G.

\342\231\2

16.15

Definition

Let X be a G-set. Each cell in the partition in X under G. Theorem 16.14 is an orbit of x. We let this cell be Gx. between
that that

of the

equivalence
cell

described

in
orbit

If x e

X, the

containing

x is

the

\342\226\2

The

relationship

the
appear

orbits

in

X and

heart

of the

applications
of a

in Section

the group structure 17. The following


the

of G
theorem

lies
gives
in

at

the

this
and

relationship. Recall (G : H) is the index 16.16 Theorem

for

X, we use |X| for subgroup H in a group G,


a set

number

of elements

X,

Let X be a
divisor of

G-set

and let

leX.

Then

\\Gx\\

(G

Gx).

If

\\G\\

is finite,

then

\\Gx\\

is a

\\G\\.

Proof

We define

Let
left choice

x\\

Gx.

a one-to-one map -f from Then there exists g\\

Gx e

onto

the collection

of left cosetsof
define

Gx

in G,
the

G such that

gi* =

*i. We

i/{x\\)

to be

coset

g\\ Gx

of g\\

of Gx. We e G such that


from

must g\\x

show =

and giGA = g\\'Gx. = To show the map -f is one to one, suppose & Gx, and \\jr(x\\) x\\,X2 = = ft^, and ,\302\276 gi Gx. Then there exist g\\, g2 e G such that x 1 e gi x. *2 some g e Gx, so ^2 = ^2-^ = gi(gx) = g\\x = x\\. Thus \342\226\240f to one. is one

8i\\gix)

so g\\

= gil(gi'x),

which

e giG.r,

map ty is well defined, independent of the = g\\x, so xi. Suppose also that g\\x = xi.Then, g\\x = (gilgi')x. Therefore we deduce x g^x g{ e Gx, Thus the map ^ is well defined.
that this
^(\302\276). ,\302\276

Then

^1 g

for

Finally,

we

show

that each

left

coset

of Gx in
=

a'i e

Gx. Let giG* be a left coset. Then if g\\x maps Ga:one to one onto the collection of right
If \\G\\

is finite,

then the

equation

\\G\\

G is of the form ^f(^i) for some = x\\, we have g\\Gx i/r(xi). Thus ^ = (G : so \\Gx\\ cosets \\GX\\(G : Gx) shows that \\Gx\\ = (G : Gx)

Gx).

is a divisor

of IGI.

\342\231\2

Section

16

Exercises

159

16.17 Example

Let X be the
G

Z)4-set

in Example

(G : GO
that
g\\

= Z)4,wehaveGl
=
should

= {1,

2, 3, 4}andG[= {p0,
the
into
cardinality

16.8,

with

action

table

S2}. Since

4.
remember

given by Table 16.10. With = 8, we have \\G\\ |G1| = A


in Theorem

We
Gx.

not only

equation

16.16

but

also

the elements
Namely,

then gi\\g2x)

x of G carrying if g e G^then^g)* = x so (gil g2)x =

= gi(gx) = g\\x.

g\\X are

precisely
On

the

elements

of the left

coset
g\\x,

the other

hand, if g2x

x. Thus

g~lg2 e Gx so g2

e g^Gx.

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

16

Computations
In

Exercises

1 through

3, let
X

{1, 2,

3, 4,
action

S].s2,s3,s4,m\\,m2,
table

dud2,

C, Pu
the

P2, P3, P4)


where G

be the

ZVset fixed

of Example sets Xa

16.8 with

in Table

16.10.Find
G2,

following,

= D4.

1. The
3. The

for each a

e D4,

that

is, X^

,XPi,---,X^
is,

2. Theisotropy
orbits

subgroups in X

Gv for each x

&X,

that

Gj,

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242, Gpt GP,,

under D4

Concepts
In

Exercises it is

so that
4. A

4 and 5, correct the definition of the italicized term in a form acceptablefor publication.
on X if
on

without

reference

to the

text, if

correction

is needed,

5. A 6. LetX be a
G-set
X

group G actsfaithfully G is transitive group


G-set in terms

and only if gx X
if

= x implies

that

g =

e.

a G-set

and

only if, for


all s

and let S c X. If Gs c of orbits in X and G.

S for

some g e G, gx can be every other x. C a eS, then S is a sub-G-set. haracterize

sub-G-set

of a

7.
8.

Characterize Mark

a transitive

G-set
true

in

terms or false.

of its

orbits.

each

of the

following

a. Every G-set is alsoa group. b. Each element of a G-set is left c. If every element of a d. Let X be a G-set with e. Let
X

fixed

by the

identity

of G.

G-set x\\,x2

is left
& X

fixed by
and g
g\\,

the

same
gxi
g\\x

element g of
= gx2,
=
thenx\\

G, then
=

g must

be the

identity

e.

e G. If
G. If

x2.

be a

G-set
of

with

jel
let

and
transitive

g2 e

g2x, then gi

= g2.
way
in

f. Each orbit
g. Let X

a G-set X is a

sub-G-set.
X

be a G-set and

H <

G. Then

can

be regarded

in a

natural

as an

ff-set.
G.

h. With reference to (g), the orbits in X under H are the same i. If X is a G-set, then each element of G acts as a permutation Let X be a G-set and let x e X. If G is finite, then \\G\\ = j.
9. Let
if X

as the
of X.

orbits

X under

\\Gx\\

\342\226\240

|G.V |.

and

Y be
to

G-sets
onto

with

that is
such

one

one,

an isomorphism

between 7 G-sets X and 7 is a map cj> : X \342\200\224>\342\200\ group G. An isomorphism Two G-sets are isomorphic for all * e X and geG. 7, and satisfies g0(.x) = cpigx) between them exists. Let X be the ZVset of Example 16.8.
the

same

160

Part III

Homomorphisms

and

Factor

Groups

a.

Find Show

two that

distinct

orbits of

that

are isomorphic
fashion

sub-Z)4-sets.
are
n\302\260t isomorphic

b.

the orbits
acts

of G that

c. Are

the

orbits

{1, 2, 3, 4} and {s\\ in an essentially different you gave for your answer
Example

,\302\25321*314} *

sub-Z)4-sets.

[Hint: Find an element

on the

two orbits.]
only

to part

(a) the

two different

of isomorphic sub-Z)4-sets XI

10.

Let

X be

the Z)4-set in
Z)4

16.8.

a. Does

act

faithfully

on XI
which

b.

Find

all orbits

in X on

Z)4 acts

faithfully as a

sub-Z)4-set.

Theory

11. Let
12. Let 13. Let
the

X be a

G-set. Show

that

G acts

faithfully on
=

if and

only
=

if

no

two distinct

elements of G have
GY

the

same

action on
X

each element
a G-set
Theorem

of X.
Y

be

and let

X. Let

GY

{g e

G | gy
action

y for of 9

all

y e

Y}. Show

is a

subgroup

of G,

generalizing

16.12.

G be the
plane

additive group counterclockwise

of real numbers. about the origin

Let the
through

9 radians.

e G on the real plane M2 be given by rotating Let P be a point other than the origin in the

plane.

a. Show R2 is a G-set. b. Describe geometrically

the

orbit containing

P.
up to
fl Xj

c.

Find

the

group

Gp.
17 show

Exercises 14 through G. the group


14.

how

all

possible

G-sets,

9), isomorphism(seeExercise can


= 0 for
i

be

formed

from

Let

{Xt

\\i

e 7}

be a disjoint
can

collectionof sets,so Xj
natural

^ j.

Let each Xt
of the

be

a G-set

for

the

same

group

G.
that that
\\Ji\342\202\254lXj

a.

Show Show

be viewed in a
union
xo

way

as a G-set,

the

union

G-sets Xt.

b.
left

every G-set X is the G-set,


described

of its

orbits.
that X is isomorphic (see Exercise to the G-set L of 9) For igl, suppose x = gxo, and define <f> : X -> L
and all by

15. LetX be a
cosets
=
Xt <f>{x)

transitive

and let

X. Show \342\202\254

of

GXo,

gGXo. Be
for i e 7

sure

to

in Example 16.7. [Hint: show <f> is well defined!] same


have

16. Let
X'i

{{x, i)\\x
way. 7^

be G-sets for the e Xj] for each ;' e


(The

group G,
simply

suppose are

the sets
i

X-,

are

not necessarily
still

disjoint. Let
as a G-set in

7. Then
Xj

the sets X\\

disjoint,

and each can

be regarded

an obvious Xj for;

elements

of

j.)

The G-set

1J.\302\243/Z-

is the

disjoint

been tagged by union of the G-sets

to a disjoint union of left coset G-sets, every G-set is isomorphic show 17. The preceding exercises that every G-set X is isomorphic question then arises whether left coset G-sets ofdistinct subgroups Note that the map defined in the hint of Exercise 15 depends on the
by goXQ and if form distinct GXo

to distinguish of them from the elements Xt. Using Exercises 14 and 15, show that as described in Example 16.7. a disjoint union of left H and KoiG can themselves
to

coset

G-sets.

The

be isomorphic. If xq

choice

of xq as

\"basepoint.\"
cosets

is replaced
\342\200\224

G-sets

that

GXo Gffii0,thenthecollectionsL^ofleftcosetsofi? must be isomorphic, since both LH and Lk are isomorphic to X.

\342\200\224and

L% of left
K =

of K

GgoXo

a. Let X be a
and go-

transitive

G-set

and let

xq

& X

and go
subgroups

e G. If

GXo

describe

GgQXo

in terms

of H

b. Basedon
and

part

K are

(a), conjecture isomorphic.


conjecture

conditions (b).

on

H and

K of G such that

the

left coset

G-sets of H

c. Prove your

in part

Section 17

Applications

of G-Sets

to Counting

161

18. Upto

isomorphism,

how many
listing the set

of each isomorphism type, so on for the elements in

transitive Z4 sets X are there? (Use the preceding exercises.)ive an example G an action table of eachas in Table 16.10. Take lowercase names a, b, c, and
X.
1,(,.

19. Repeat Exercise18for


20. Repeat
(1,2).

the the

group group

Exercise 18for

&. List

the

elements

of & in

the order (, (1,2, 3), (1,3,2),(2,3),(1,3),

section

17

Applications
This

of G-Sets
presents
to count

to Counting

an application of our work with G-sets to counting. Suppose, for how many distinguishable ways the six faces of a cube can be marked with from one to six dots to form a die. The standard die is marked so that the 6 is on when placed on a table with the 1 on the bottom and the 2 toward the front, top, the 3 on the left, the 4 on the right, and the 5 on the back. Of course,other ways of
section

example,we wish

a distinguishably different die are possible. between the faces of the cube for the moment and call them the can have any one of six marks bottom, top, left, right, front, and back. Then the bottom from one dot to six dots, the top any one of the five remaining marks, and so on. There the cube faces can be marked in all. Some markings yield the same are 6! = 720 ways can be carried into another die as others, in the sense that one marking by a rotation die described of the marked cube. For example, if the standard above is rotated 90\302\260 as we look down counterclockwise on it, then 3 will be on the front face rather than 2, but it is the same die. There are 24 possiblepositions of a cube on a table,for any one of six faces can be \342\200\242 and then any one of four to the front, down, placed giving 6 4 = 24 possible positions.

marking
Let

the cube to

give

us

distinguish

Any

position

can
G,

form a group
We the

which

be achieved from is isomorphic

any to

other

by a

rotation of
of
S%

the

die.

These

rotations

a subgroup

(see

Exercise

45 of

Section 8).

the 720 possibleways of marking the cube and let G act on X by rotation of two markings to give the same die if one canbe carried into the other under action by an element of G, that is, by rotating the cube. In other words, we consider each orbit in X under G to correspond to a single die, and different to orbits of the number of distinguishable dice thus leads give different dice. The determination to the question of determining the number of orbits under G in a G-set X. The following theorem of orbits in a Gthe number gives a tool for determining set X under G. Recall that for each jeGwe let Xg be the set of elements of X left = {x e X | = x}. Recall also that fixed for each x e X, we let by g, so that gx Xg = {g \342\202\254 = x], and Gx is the orbit of x under G. G | gx Gx
let

X be

cube.

We consider

17.1Theorem (Burnside'sormula) F
of orbits in X

Let
then

G be

finite

group

and X

finite

G-set.

If r

is the

number

under G,

r-\\G\\

J2\\Xg\\g\342\202\254G

(1)

This section is

not used in

the remainder

of

the text.

162

Part III

Homomorphismsand Factor Groups


all pairs (g, x) where gx = x, e G there are \\Xg\\ pairs having g as g N be

Proof

We

consider

and first

let

the number of such pairs. For


Thus,
(2)

each

member.

N =

J2\\Xg\\-

?eG

On the other

hand,

for

each

x e

there

are | Gx |

pairs

having

x as

second member. Thus

we also have
n

=
Y,\\\302\260*

x&X

By Theorem

16.16 we have
\\GX\\

\\Gx\\

(G

Gx).

But we

know

that

(G

Gx)

\\G\\/\\GX\\,

so we

obtain

\\G\\/\\Gx\\.

Then

k\\G*\\
Now

\\k\\Gx\\)
in

l/\\Gx\\

has the

same value for all x

the

same

orbit, and if

we let O be any

orbit,

then

y z_^ xeO
Substituting

\342\200\224 = Irj-v-1 X] I

\\n\\ x<=0 ^1

y \302\243-j

\342\200\224 =

i-

(4) w

(4)

in

(3),

we obtain
of orbits

N = | G | (number
Comparison
17.2

in X under

r. G) = |G \\ \342\226\240

(5)

of Eq.
group

2 and

Eq.

5 gives

Eq. 1.
G-set,

\342\231\2

Corollary

If G

is a finite

and X

is a finite of
orbits

then

(number

in X

under G)

\342\200\224\342\200\224 \342\200\242 T^ IX,,I.

Proof

The proof of this


Let example.

corollary

follows

immediately
the

from

the

preceding

theorem.

\342\231\2

us continue

our computation of

number

of distinguishable

dice as our first

17.3

Example

We let
number

be

the set

of 720

different

markings

dots. Let G be the


For g
element

group

of 24

rotations of the
number =

e G where

of distinguishable dice is the g ^= e, we have \\Xg\\


changes
identity

0,

any one
element

of the

720

markings

of a cube using from one to six above. We saw that the = 24. of orbits in X under G. Now \\G\\ because any rotation other than the identity into a different one. However, | Xe | = 720
of faces
cube

as discussed

sincethe

leaves all 720 markings (number

fixed. Thenby
30,

Corollary

17.2,

of orbits) =

\342\200\224 \342\200\242 = 720

so there are 30 distinguishable

dice.

\342\226\26

Section

17

Applications

of G-Sets to Counting

163

Of

course

the number

of

distinguishable

dice

could

be counted

without

using

the

machinery of the preceding in a freshman finite taught


by

but by corollary, In math course.

rotation

if necessary,

assume

the

face

for
the

the top
remaining

(opposite) face. By rotating

as using elementary combinatorics often marking a cube to make a die, we can, marked 1 is down. There are five choices the die as we look down on it, any one of

choices

are3

four faces could be brought to the front position, so there are no different involved for the front face. But with respect to the number on the front face, there \342\200\242 2 \342\226\240 1 possibilities forthe remaining three side faces.Thus there are 5 \342\200\242 1 = 30 3 \342\200\242 2 \342\200\242
in

possibilities
The
elementary

all.

next two
means.

examples appearin some finite We use Corollary 17.2so that

math texts and are easy to solve we have more practice thinking

by

in

terms

of orbits.

17.4 Example

seven people be seated at a round table, where table? Of course there are 7! ways to assign peopleto the different chairs. We take X to be the 7! possible assignments. A rotation of each person to move one placeto the right results in the same people achieved by asking Such a rotation generates a cyclicgroup G of order 7, which we consider arrangement.
How

many

distinguishable

ways can

there is no

distinguishable

\"head\"

to the

to act on X in the obvious way. Again, only the identity e leaves and it leaves all 7! arrangements fixed. 17.2 By Corollary

any

arrangement

fixed,

(number of orbits)
17.5

\342\200\242 7! =

6! =

720.

\342\226\262

Example

no clasp) How many distinguishable necklaces (with can be made using seven differentcolored beads of the same size? Unlike the table in Example the necklace can be 17.4, turned over as well as rotated. Thus we considerthe full dihedral group Dq of order 2 \342\200\242 as acting on the set X of 7! possibilities.hen the number of distinguishable 7 = 14 T

necklaces is
of orbits)

(number

\342\200\224 = \342\200\242 7!

360,

\342\226\262

17.2, we have to compute using Corollary and the exercises, | G | will pose no real examples
In

\\Xg | is

not as trivial

to compute elementary

as in

knowledge of very
17.6 Example

\\Xg\\ for each g e G. In the Let us give an example where problem. the preceding examples. e will continue to assume W
\\G\\

and

combinatorics.

Let us find
be painted

of distinguishable ways the edges of an equilateral triangle can colors of paint are available, assuming one color is used only on each edge,and the same color may be used on different edges. Of course there are 43 = 64 ways of painting the edges in all, since each of the three be any one of four colors. We considerX to be the set of these 64 edges may The group G acting on X is the group of symmetries of the possible painted triangles. which is isomorphic to .\302\276 which we consider to be .\302\276. use the notation for and We triangle,
the

number

if four

different

164

Part III

Homomorphisms

and

Factor

Groups

elements
inS3. -^ Pol

in

53 given

in Section

8. We

need

to compute

\\Xg

for

each

of the

six elements(

= 64

xPl\\

=4
=

triangle is left fixed by p0. To be invariant under p\\, all edges must be the same colors. color, and there are 4 possible
Every

painted

Xpi\\

Same

reason

as for

p\\.

xM,l = 16

The

edges

that are interchanged must

be the

same

(4 possibilities) and the other edge may also be any of the colors (times 4 possibilities).
color

xMJ =
Then

\\x,

= 16

Same

reason

as for

\\i\\.

^2\\Xg\\
g\342\202\254S3

= 64 +

4 + 4+16+16+16=

120.

Thus
(number
and

of orbits)

\342\226\240 120 =

20,

there

are 20

distinguishable painted triangles.

17.7 Example

We The

repeat number

17.6 with Example of possible ways all edges

the assumption that of painting the edges


triangles.

the set
to

of 24 possiblepainted
53. Since

Again,
color,

be

are a

different

color is used on each edge. 4 \342\200\242 24, and we let X be 3 \342\200\242 2 = on X can be considered the group acting = 0 for we see |ZW| = 24 while \\Xg\\
a different

is then

/ p0. Thus
(number

of orbits) triangles.

\342\200\242 24 =

4,

so there are four

distinguishable

\342\22

EXERCISES

17

Computations
In

each

of the

by more

elementary
the the the

following exercisesuseCorollary methods.


of orbits of orbits
in in

17.2

to work

the problem,eventhough
the the can

the answer

might be obtained

1. 3. 4.

Find

number number number

{1,2, {1,

2. Find
Find

2,

of distinguishable
tetrahedron,

7, 8}under 3,4, 5,6, 7, 8} under tetrahedral dice that


3,4,

5, 6,

cyclic

subgroup

((1,3,5,6))
by

of 58.
(1,

subgroup be made

of 58 generated

3) and

using one, two,

three,

and four

(2,4,7). dots on the

faces
Wooden many

of a

regular

rather

than a

cube.
make

cubes

of the

distinguishable

same size areto be painted a different color on eachface to blocks can be made if eight colors of paint are available?

children's

blocks. How

Section 17 Exercises

165

5.

Answer

Exercise identity,

4 if 9 that

of the
and

colors may be repeated different on faces at will. [Hint: The 24 rotations leave a pair of opposite faces invariant, 8 that leave a pair of opposite
edges invariant.]
be tipped with one of distinguishable the

of a cube consist vertices invariant,

6 leaving

a pair

of opposite

6. Each of the
one to
all

eight

corners corners.

eight

of a cube is to Find the number


ways

of four

colors,

each of

which may be usedon


hint

from

markings possible.
of cardboard

(See the
painted

in Exercise
if six

7.

Find

the

number

of distinguishable

edges

of a

square

can be

5.) colors of paint

are

available

and

b. the

a. no color is usedmore than once. same color can beusedon any


wires

number

of edges.
with

8. Considersix straight Either a 50-ohm or

100-ohm resistor
2
ft

of equal

lengths
is to
many

ends

soldered
in

be inserted
essentially

the

middle

together to form edges ofa regular of each wire. Assume there wirings are

tetrahedron. are

at least

six

of eachtype

of resistor

available. How
long

different

9.

rectangular

colors.How a. no color
b. each

prism
many

with

distinguishable

1-ft square ends is to have each of painted prisms are possible if


faces,

possible? its six faces painted with

one of

six possible

is to be repeated on different color may be usedon any number

of faces?

PART

Rings

and

Fields

IV

Section

18

Rings

and

Fields

Section

19

Integral Domains

Section 20

Fermat'sand
The
Rings Field

Euler's

Theorems of an Integral

Section 21
Section

of Quotients

Domain

22

of Polynomials

Section

23

Factorization

of

Polynomials Examples Fields

over

a Field

Section 24

!Noncommutative
fOrdered

Section25

Rings and

section

18

Rings
All

and Fields
work

thus far has been concernedwith sets on which a single binary operation defined. Our yearsof work with the integers and real numbers show that a study of sets on which two binary operations have been defined should be of great importance. t Algebraic structures of this type are introduced in this section. In one sense,his section more intutive than those that precede seems for the structures studied are closely it, related to those we have worked with for many years. However, we will be continuing with our axiomatic approach. o,from another this study is more complicated S viewpoint than to deal with. group theory, for we now have two binary operations and more axioms
our

has been

Definitions

and
general

Basic

Properties
structure with two
binary

The most
called
with

algebraic

operations

that

a ring.
rings

As Example 18.2following since grade school.


is a \342\226\240}

Definition

18.1 indicates,

we shall study is we have all worked

18.1 Definition

ring

{R. +,
and

set R together
defined

with

two

binary
that

operations
the

and

which \342\200\242,

we call

addition

multiplication,

on R such

following

axioms

are satisfied:

^\302\276). {R,

+} is an

abelian group.
is associative.

J%2. Multiplication
For \342\226\240M3. all

the right

c e R, the left distributive law (a +


a, b,
for the

distributive
b) \342\226\240 c =

law, a
\342\226\240

\342\226\240

(b + c)

c) =

(a

\342\226\240

b) +

(a

\342\226\240 and

c)

(a

c) +

(b

\342\226\240 hold.

\342\226\240

Sections

24 and 25 are not required

remainder of the

text.

167

168

Part IV
18.2 Example

Rings

and

Fields

We

are

well

aware that axioms


that

^gj, Jl?2, and


under
addition

for \302\253^83 and

a ring

complex

numbers

is a group
(Q, +, \342\200\242>,

that is

hold in closed under

any

subset

of the

multiplication.

For example,

(Z, +,

(ffi, +, \342\200\242>,

and (C, \342\200\242>,

+,

are rings. \342\200\242}

\342\226

\342\226\240 Historical

Note invited
secure
of

of two of rings grew out of the study theory The particular classes of rings, polynomial rings in n variables over the real or complex numbers
(Section 22)

her to

Gottingen

in

1915,

but his

efforts

to

her a paid her sex. Hilbert

because position were blocked complained, \"I do not see that

and the \"integers\"

of

an

algebraic

number
first

field. It was
introduced
latter

David Hilbert (1862-1943)who


in connection
not

example,
the

the term ring, but it was

with the

until

the second
fully

decade

her candidate is an argument against [to the faculty]. After all, we are a not a bathing establishment.\" Noether was, university, however, able to lecture under Hilbert's name.

the sex of the


admission

of

twentieth appeared.

definition

that a century The theory of

abstract

commutative rings

was given a firm axiomatic foundation by Emmy Noether (1882-1935) in her monumental paper \"Ideal Theory in Rings,\" which appeared in 1921. A

chain of this paper is the ascending concept condition for ideals. Noether provedthat in any ring in which every ascending chain of ideals has a maximal element, every ideal is finitely generated. the Emmy Noether received her doctorate from of Erlangen, Germany, in 1907. Hilbert University
major

the political changes accompanying First World War reached Gottingen, she was given in 1923 a paid positionat the For the next decade, she was very influential University. in the development of the basic concepts of modern with other lewish faculty members, algebra. Along however, shewas forced to leave Gottingen in 1933. She spent the final two years of her life at Bryn Mawr College near Philadelphia.
Ultimately, the

after

end

of the

It is customary of a
\342\226\240 b. We

before addition becomes

in a ring to denote multiplication shall also observe the usual convention in the absence of parentheses, so the

by

using ab in place juxtaposition, that multiplication is performed left distributive law, for example,

a(b + c) = ab

ac,

without the parentheses on the right side of the equation. Also, as a convenience analogous to our notation in group theory, we shall somewhat incorrectly refer to a ring R in place of a ring {R, +, \342\200\242}, that no confusion will result. on Z In particular, from now provided and will always be (Z, +, \342\200\242},Q, ffi, and C will also be the rings in Example 18.2. We on occasion refer to (/?,+) as the additive may group of the ring R.
18.3

Example

Let

be as

of R
and

any ring and entries. The matrices

multiply

let M\342\200\236(R) the collection of all n x n matrices having elements be and in R allow us to add operations of addition multiplication in the usual in the appendix. We can quickly fashion, explained
an

check that {Mn(R), and the two distributive


straightforward

+} is

abelian

laws

The associativity of matrix group. in Mn{R) are more tedious to demonstrate, that they follow

multiplication

but

calculations

indicate

from

the

same

properties

in R.

We will

Section

18

Rings and

Fields

169

assume rings

from

now

on that we

know

that

Mn{R)

and Af\342\200\236(Z), Af\342\200\236(Q), Af\342\200\236(R),

Note M\342\200\236(\302\243).that
n

is a ring. In particular, is not multiplication

we have
a commutative

the
\342\226\262

operation
18.4

in
the usual

any

of these

rings for

>

2.

Example

Let F be under the

set

of all
function

functions f
addition,

E. We : E \342\200\224*-

know that {F,

+} is an

abelian

group

if +
We

8)(x) =

f(x) + g(x).

define

multiplication

on F

by

(fg){x)

= f{x)g{x).

That is,/g is the


ring;

function

whose

value at x is
cr(p,(x))

f(x)g(x).
have

It

is readily

checked

that F is a
notation

we

leave

the demonstration to Exercise 34.We


function

used

this juxtaposition

a/x

for the

composite
both

when

we were

to use
notation

function

multiplication
the

If discussing permutation multiplication. and function composition in F, we would

use
Greek

the

f o g

for
usual

composite
with

function.

However,

we

will

be

using
by

compositionof

functions

almost

exclusively
product

homomorphisms,

which

we will denote
when

letters,

and the

defined
confusion

in this

example chiefly
result.

multiplying
\342\226\262

polynomial
18.5

function f{x)g{x),
theory,

so no
is the

should

Example

of Z under addition consisting of cyclic subgroup n. Since {nr){ns)= n{nrs),e see that nL, is closed w integer assure under The associative and distributive laws which hold in Z then multiplication. on in the text, we will consider us that {nL, +, \342\200\242} is as ring. From now nL to be this ring.

Recall that in group

nZ

all integer multiples

of the

\342\226\262

18.6

Example

remainder

the cyclic group the product ab as the (Z\342\200\236, If we define for a,b e Ln +}. of the usual product of integers when that divided by n, it can be shown is a ring. We shall feel free to use this For example, in L\\q we have fact. +, (Z\342\200\236,\342\200\242} is multiplication on modulo n. We do not check the ring (3)(7) = 1. This operation Z\342\200\236 axioms here, for they will follow in Section 26 from some of the theory we develop will there. From now on, Z\342\200\236 always be the ring \342\226\262 (Z\342\200\236 ,+,\342\200\242}.
Consider
If Rx,

18.7

Example

\342\226\240 \342\200\242 of all ordered \342\200\242 x Rn Rn the set R\\ x R2 x \342\200\242 \342\200\242. R2, \342\226\240 are rings, we can form \342\200\242 where \342\200\242 addition and multiplication of n-tuples e Rt. Defining rt r\342\200\236), n-tuples (rj, r2. \342\200\242, as for groups), we seeat once from the ring axioms in each by components (just component that the set of all these n -tuples forms a ring under addition and multiplication by \342\200\242 \342\200\242 The ring R\\ x R2 x \342\200\242 is the direct product of the rings /?,-. x R\342\200\236 \342\226\262 components.

Continuing

matters
inverse a sum

ring. The

additive

of notation, we shall of an element a

always

let 0 is

be

the

additive

identity

of a

of a
+

ring

\342\200\224a. We

shall

frequently

have

occasion to refer to

a +

a+

\342\200\242 \342\226\240 \342\200\242 a \342\226\240 n a using the dot. However, \342\226\240 the ring, for the integer n may

having n summands. We shall let this sum is not to be constructed a multiplication as not be in the ring at all. If n < 0, we let
n \342\226\240 a =

be n
ofn

a,

always

and

in

(-a)

+ (-a)

\\-

(-a)

170

Part IV

Rings and

Fields

for

\\n\\

summands.

Finally,

we define

Q-a = 0
left side of the equations and 0 e R on the right side. Actually, the holds also for 0 e R on both sides. The following theorem this proves and various other elementary but important facts. Note the strong use of the distributive laws in the proof of this theorem. Axiom for a ring concerns only and addition, c%j This shows that in order to prove axiom ^%2 concerns only multiplication. that anything to have to use axiom between these two operations, we are going gives a relationship For show in Theorem 18.8 is that 0a = 0 for the first thing that we will ,^B3. example, element a in a ring R. Now this relation and multiplication. involves both addition any The multiplication 0a stares us in the face, and 0 is an additive Thus we will concept. law to prove this. have to come up with an argument that uses a distributive
for

0 e

Z on
0a

the

equation

= 0

18.8 Theorem

If

R is a

ring with additive

identity

0,

then

for

any

a,b

e R

we have

1. 0a
2.

= aO

0,

a(-b)

= (-a)b
=

= -(ab),
by

3. (-a)(-b)
Proof

ab.

For Property

1, note that

axioms

&x

and

\302\253>g2, aO

aO +

aO =
the

a(0 + 0) =
additive

0 +

aO. we have aO =

Then by

the

cancellation

law for
0a

group

(/?,+},

0. Likewise,

+ 0a

= (0 +

0)a = 0a = 0 + 0a
remember
to

0. This provesProperty 1. to understand the proof of Property 2, we must is that when added to ab gives 0. Thus \342\200\224(ab) the element = 0. By the left we must show precisely that + a(\342\200\224b) ab
implies

that

0a =

In order

that, by that

definition,
=

show

a(\342\200\224b) \342\200\224(ab),

distributive

law,

a(-b)

+ ab

= a(-b + b) = (-a + a)b

aO =

0,

since aO= 0 by

Property

1. Likewise,

(-a)b

+ ab

0b =

0.

For Property 3, note

that

(-a)(-b)
by

= -(a(-b))

Property

2. Again

by Property

2,

-(a(-b)) = -(-(ab)),
and

is the \342\200\224(\342\200\224(ab)) and \342\200\224(ab) It is

of

element that when added to \342\200\224(ab) 0. This is ab by definition gives = ab. the uniqueness of an inverse in a group. Thus, (\342\200\224a)(\342\200\224b) by that you understand rules for signs.
the

\342\231\

important

preceding

proof. The

theorem allows us

to

use

our usual

Section 18

Rings

and

Fields

171

Homomorphisms
From

and Isomorphisms
theory,

our

work

into

a ring

in group R' should be

it is

quite clear

how

a structure-relating

map of a ring

defined.
: R \302\242)
->\342\226\240 R' is

18.9Definition

For

rings
are

R and

R', a map

a homomorphism

if the

following

two

conditions

satisfied b) =
=

for alla,b
+

e R:
0(fe),
\342\226\240

1.
2.

<t>(a <j>{ab)

<t>(a)

(p(a)(f>{b).

that 0 is a definition, Condition 1 is the statement relate group {R, +} into (/?', +}. Condition 2 requires that \302\242) is the multiplicative structures of the rings R and R' in the same way. Since \302\242) also a group homomorphism, all the results concerning group homomorphisms are valid is structure of the rings. In particular, \302\247 one to one if and only if its for the additive kernel Ker(0) = {a e R | 0(a) = 0'} is just the subset {0} of R. The homomorphism of {R, +} gives rise to a factor group. We expect that a ring \302\242) the group This is indeed the case. We delay of will discussion give rise to a factor ring. homomorphism this to Section our treatment of factor groups in will 26, where the treatment parallel
In

the

preceding

homomorphism mapping

the abelian

Section

14.

18.10 Example

Let F be the ring of all functions mapping E into E defined in Example 18.4. For each : a e E, we have the evaluation homomorphism \302\247aF ->\342\200\242 E, where 0a(/) = /(\302\253)for e F. We definedthis homomorphism for the group (F, +) in Example 13.4, but we f
did not rest of
precisely
with

do
this

much
text,

for finding

with it in group a real

theory. solution

We of

will

be working a great

a polynomial

to finding

ael

such that
equations.

4>a{p)

= 0.

Much of the
the

deal with it in the equation p(x) = 0 amounts remainder of this text deals
of the

solving

polynomial

We leave

demonstration

multiplicative
\342\226\262

homomorphism property
18.11

2 for 4>a to Exercise

35.

Example

n is a ring is the remainder of a modulo n. We know + b) = 4>{a)+ <j>{b) by group theory. <j>(a positive integer To show the multiplicative property, write a =qxn + r\\ and b = qin + r2 according to the division algorithm. Then ab = n(qiq2n Thus + r\\q2 + q\\ri) + r\\r2. (j>{ab) is the remainder of rxr2 when divided by n. Since 4>{a) = n and 4>{b)= r2, Example 18.6 indicates that 0(a)0(fo) is also this same remainder, so (f>{ab) = 0(a)0(fo). From group to a factor ring Z/nZ. This theory, we anticipate that the ring Z\342\200\236 be isomorphic might in Section 26. is indeed the case; factor rings will be discussed \342\226\262

The map

: Z where Z\342\200\236 4>{a) \302\242) \342\200\224>\342\226\240

for homomorphism

each

We

realize

that in the
concept

study

of

any sort

of mathematical

structure,

an

idea

importance is the just like the other

except

systems being structurally this concept is for names. In algebra

of two

identical,
always

that is,
called

of basic one being

isomorphism.

172

Part IV

Rings and

Fields
things being just alike exceptfor
the

The

concept

of two
to

names

of elements

leads us,

just

as

it did

for groups,

following

definition.

18.12 Definition

An to

isomorphism one

: R \302\242)

\342\200\224*R' from

a ring R

to a ring

R'

is a homomorphism

that is

one

and onto

R'. The rings group

R and

R' are
we

then

isomorphic.

\342\226

From

our work in

theory,

expect

relation

on

any

collection

of rings.
the

We need to

check

that isomorphism gives an equivalence that the multiplicative property of an

isomorphism

is satisfied for
Similarly,

inverse

argument).
multiplicative
transitivity

we

check

that if
the

R (to map 0_1 : R' \342\200\224*- complete the symmetry : R' \342\200\224*- also a ring ismorphism, then R\" is the \\i composite

requirement
argument).

holds for you


to

map

: \\l\302\247R

\342\200\224*R\" (to

complete

the

We ask

do

this in

Exercise 36.
0 :Z
=

18.13Example

As

(Z, +} groups, with $(x) = 2x for ieZ. = 4>{x)4>{y) 2x2y = Axy.


abelian

and

(2Z,

+}

are isomorphic
a ring

under

the

map

->\342\200\242 Z,

Here

is \302\242)not

isomorphism, for

4>{xy)

2xy,

while
A

Multiplicative
Many

Questions:

Fields

of the rings we have mentioned, such as Z,Q, and R, have a multiplicative identity Note also element 1. However, Z does not have an identity element for multiplication. 2 in the matrix rings in Example 18.3. that multiplication is not commutative described the zero It is evident that {0}, with 0 + 0 = 0 and (0)(0) = 0, gives a ring, ring. Here 0 acts as multiplicative as well as additive identity element. 18.8, By Theorem this is the only case in which 0 could act as a multiplicative for from element, identity 0a = 0, we can then deduce that a = 0. Theorem 3.13 shows that if a ring has a it is unique. a multiplicative We denote element, multiplicative identity identity element in a ring by 1.

18.14 Definition

ring

in which

the

multiplication

is commutative
with

is a commutative
the multiplicative

ring.

ring

with

multiplicative

identity element is a ring

unity;

identity element

1 is called \"unity.\"
In

\342\226

a ring with

unity

1 the

distributive

laws show

that

(1 +

\342\226\240 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\226\240 1 + \342\226\240 (1 + 1 + \342\226\240 = (1 + + 1) + 1) n summands m summands nm

1+

\342\200\242 \342\226\240 \342\200\242

1),

summands

that is,
observation.

(n

\342\226\240\342\226\240 =

l)(m

1)

(nm)

\342\226\240 1. The

next example

gives an

application

of this

18.15

Example

We claim

that

for

integers
they

isomorphic.Additively, 1 and (1, 1) respectively.


additive
group

r and 5 where gcd(r, s) = the are both cyclic abelian groups

1,

rings

Zrs

and Zr x Zs
rs with

are

of order
<j>{n

Thus

<f>

: Zrs

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 Zr x

Zs denned

by

isomorphism.

To check

the

multiplicative

Condition

generators \342\226\240n \342\226\240 is an 1) = (1, 1) 2 of Definition 18.9,

Section 18
we use the observation and compute.
=

Rings

and

Fields

173

preceding

this example for

the

unity

(1, 1) in

the

ring

Zr

x Zs,

4>{nm)

(nm)

\342\226\240

(1,

1) =

[n

\342\226\240

(1,

l)][m

\342\200\242

(1,

1)] =

0(n)0(m).

\342\226\262

Note if and

that a direct

product
unity

Ri

R2 x

\342\226\240 of \342\200\242 \342\200\242 x R\342\200\236 rings unity,

is commutative or has

unity

R* of nonzero if closed under elements, 1/0, if multiplicative will be a multiplicative inverses exist. ring multiplication, group A multiplicative 1 / 0 is an element inverse of an element a in a ring R with unity = 1. Precisely as for groups, a~l e R such that aa~l a multiplicative =a\"la inverse for
the an

only if each Rj In a ring R with

is commutative

or has the set

respectively.

element

a in R

is unique,
have

if it

exists at all (see

Exercise 43). Theorem


the

18.8

shows

that

it would

0 + 0 = 0 and We are thus led


in

be hopelessto
(0)(0)

a multiplicative

inverse for 0 exceptfor


and

= 0, with

to discuss
unity.

0 as both additive the existence of multiplicative


There

multiplicative
inverses

for

ring {0}, where identity element. nonzero elements


to be

a ring

with nonzero
section

is unavoidably

a lot
done.

of terminology

defined in

this

introductory

on rings.

We are almost

18.16

Definition

Let

be

inverse in

a ring with unity 1/0. R. If every nonzero


field skew

An element

in R

element of R
division
ring.

is a A

field).A
a \"strictly
18.17

is a commutative field.\"

is a unit of R if it has a multiplicative unit, then R is a division ring (or skew noncommutative division ring is called
\342\226\240

Example

Let us
see

find

the

units

in Z14.

Of course, 1 and
= 11 \342\200\2243

= 13 \342\200\2241

are units; elements of Z14 remaining be one more than a multiple


that

3 and 5

therefore can

and

= 9 \342\200\2245
multiple

are units. Since are also units.


of

(3)(5)= 1 we
None
or

of the
10

be units,
they

since no
all

of 14;
that

have

a common

14.

Section

20 will show
\\.

the

units

in

gcd(m,

ri) =

are Z\342\200\236 precisely

6, 7, 8, factor, either 2 or 7, those m e Z\342\200\236 such


2, 4,

can
with

that
A

18.18

Example

Z is in Z.
strictly

not

a field,

because
units

The only
skew

in Z

2, for example, has no multiplicative are 1 and \342\200\224 1. However, Q and


in

inverse,
ffi

are

fields.

so 2 is not a unit An example of a


\342\226\262

field

is given

Section

24.

of a
ring;

for

a of this set, field, integral domain, vectorspace,nd so on), then any subset a natural an algebraic structure induced algebraic structure that yields of the same type, is a substructure. If K and L are both we shall let K < L denote structures, K is a substructure of L and that K < L denote that K < L but K / Exercise 48 of R. gives criteria for a subset S of a ring R to form a subring

have the natural concepts of a subring of a ring and subfield of a field.A subring induced from the whole ring is a subset of the ring that is a ring under operations a subfield for a subset of a field. In fact, let us say here once and is defined similarly all that if we have a set, together with a certain specified type of algebraic structure
We

(group,

ring,
with

together

L.

174

Part IV

Rings and

Fields

Finally, the

be

careful

not to

confuse

our

use
unit

of the
is any

words
element

unit

and

unity.

Unity is

multiplicative

inverse.
unity.

Thus
For

element, identity the multiplicative identity element -1 is a unit in Z, but -1 is example,

while a

having a
but

multiplicative

or unity
not

is a unit,
that is,

unity,

-1

/ 1.

not every unit

is

\342\226\240 Historical

Note

fields were implict Although the on


Galois,
who first

in

the early

work
and

solvability

of equations

by Abel

it was

in connection published

Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891) with his own work on this subject he called in 1881 a definition of what
\"The

a \"domain
(/?', rationality
quantities quantities

of rationality\":
which

domain
every

of of those

R\", R'\",

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 contains \342\200\242)

\342\226\240 \342\200\242 one \342\200\242

are rational
\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 with

functions of the
integral

R',

R\", R'\",

coefficients.\"
that

Kronecker, however, who


mathematical

insisted

any
in

subject

must
not

many steps, as a complete took

did

be constructible the domain of view

finitely

rationality

entity, but merely as a regionin which place various operations on its elements. Richard Dedekind (1831-1916), the inventor of a real number, of the Dedekind cut definition

considered a field as a completedentity.

In

1871,

in his definition edition of Dirichlet's text on of number theory: \"By a field we mean any system which in infinitely many real or complex numbers, that the addition, itself is so closed and complete, and division of any two subtraction, multiplication, numbers always produces a number of the same system.\" Both Kronecker and Dedekind had, however, dealt with their varying ideas of this notion as early as the 1850s in their university lectures. A more abstract definition of a field, similar to the one in the text, was given by Heinrich Weber (1842-1913)in apaper of 1893. Weber's definition, that of Dedekind, specifically included fields unlike with finitely many elements as well as other fields, such as function of fields, which were not subfields the field of complexnumbers. he published
supplement to the

following

the

second

EXERCISES

18

Computations
In

Exercises 1.

1 through

6, compute

the

product

in the

given

ring.

(12)(16)

in Z24
in

2. (16)(3)n i
4. (20)(-8) x Z9
13,

Z32

3. (11)(-4)

Zis Z5
through

in Z26
in

5. (2,3)(3,5) in
In Exercises 7 (closed) on
state the

6. (-3,5)(2,-4)
decide

Z4

x Zn

whether
structure.

the
If a

indicated

operations formed, and

of addition

and
the

multiplication

are

defined

set,

and give a

ring
and

whether
nZ

the ring the usual


the
with

is commutative, addition
addition and

whether multiplication
multiplication

ring is not it has unity,

tell why this is whether it is a field.

case.

If a ring

is formed,

7.
9.

with
with

8. Z+

usual
addition

Z x Z

and multiplication and multiplication

by components by components

10. 2Z x Z with

addition

Section 18

Exercises

175

11.
12. 13.

[a

+ b*/2
b\\fl

\\a,b e Z} with
|

the the

usual usual

addition and addition and

multiplication multiplication for

[a +

a, b e pure

Q}

with

The set

of

all

imaginary

complex numbers ri all units


Z in

reR

with the usual

addition

and

multiplication

In Exercises

14 through

19, describe

the

given

ring 16. Z5

14. Z 17. Q 20. Consider the a.


Find

15.
matrix

x Z x Z

18. Z x Q
ring M2(Z2).
that

19. Z4

the
all

order
units

b. List

of the ring, in the ring.


an example

is, the

number of

elements in

it.

21. If possible,ive g
1'

/ 0',

and

where

0(1)

/ 0' and

of a homomorphism 0(1) / 1'.

R R' where \302\242): \342\200\224>

R and

R' are rings


determinant

with

unity

1/0
A

and

22. (Linearalgebra) Considerhe t


A e
M\342\200\236 (M). Is

map det of det a ring homomorphism?

M\342\200\236 (M) into Why

M where

det(A) is the

of the

matrix

for

or why

not?

23. Describe all

ring ring ring

homomorphisms homomorphisms homomorphisms

of Z into

Z. x Z.
Z. x Z
Z into

24. Describe all 25. Describe all


26.

of Z into Z of Z x Z

How

many

homomorphisms solution

are there of the


X2

of Z x
X2

into Z?
ring

27. Considerhis t
whence
Is this

equation
/3

I3 in

the

M3(R).

X2 = 73 implies
either

\342\200\224 =

0, the
=

zero matrix,
error,

so factoring,

we have (X

\342\200\224

h)(X

+ 73) =

X = /3

or

\342\200\224/3.

reasoning
solutions

correct? If not,
of the

point

out the

and

if possible,

give a counterexample

to

the

conclusion.

28. Find
with

all

equations2 +x

\342\200\224 6 =

OintheringZubyfactoringthequadraticpolynomial.Compare

Exercise

27.

Concepts

29 and 30, correct the definition of the italicized term without reference to the needed, so that it is in a from acceptablefor publication. 29. A field F is a ring with nonzero unity such that the set of nonzero elementsofF is a group
In Exercises

text, if

correction is

under

multiplication.

30.

unit

in a ring
example

is

an

element

of magnitude

1.
b such
subring

31. Give an

of a ring having
with

two elements a and


unity

that ab
with

= 0 but
nonzero

neither

a nor

b is zero.
Consider

32. Give

an example of a ring direct product, or a subring

1/0

that has a

unity 1'

/ 1. [Hint:

of 1^.]

33. Mark

each of the a. b.
c. d.
Every Every Every Every

following field ring ring ring

true or

false.

is also a

ring.
at at

has a multiplicative with unity with

has unity has

least

identity. two units.


two units.

most

176

Part

IV

Rings

and

Fields

e.
g.

f. The distributive h.
i.

j.
Theory

to be a ring but not a subfield, under are not very important. Multiplication in a field is commutative. Thenonzero elements of a field form a group in under the multiplication Addition in every ring is commutative. element in a ring has an additive inverse. Every
It

is possible

for a subset
laws

of some field

the induced

operations.

for a ring

the

field.

34. 35.

Show

that

the multiplication the evaluation

defined on

the

set

F of

functions

in

Example

18.4 satisfies

axioms .M2 and

,i%3

for a ring.
Show

that

map 0fl
outlined

of Example

18.10 satisfies the

multiplicative

requirement

for a homomorphism.
equivalence

36. Completethe argument on a collection of rings.


37.

after Definitions
units

18.12to

show

that isomorphism

gives an

relation

Show
sure

that

if

U is

to show
that

the collection of that U is closed under + b)(a

all

in a ring

(R, +,

with unity, \342\200\242)

then (U,

is a \342\226\240)

group. [Warning:

Be

multiplication.] b)

38.

Show

a2 \342\200\224 (a b2 =

\342\200\224 for Show

all a

and

b in a

ring R ring
that
if

if

and

only if R

is commutative.

39. Let (R, 40. 41.


42.
Show (Freshman

+) that

be anabelian the rings

group.
and

that

(R,+,

is a \342\226\240)

we

define

ab =

0 for all
C are

a, b

e R.

2Z

3Z

are not

a, b

e Zp.

[Hint:

exponentiation) Observe element

Let p that the

isomorphic. Show be a prime. Show that usual binomial expansion of a field


must

the fields

and

not isomorphic.

in the ring Zp we have (a + b)p = ap + bp for (a + b)\" is valid in a commutative ring.]


unity

for

all

Show that

the unity

in a subfield

be the

of the

whole field, in

contrast

to Exercise

32

for
43.

rings.

Show
An

that the

multiplicative

inverse

of a unit a ring
if

with

unity

is unique.

44.

element
Show Find

a of a ring R
that

is idempotent
idempotent

a2

= a.

a.

the set

of

all

elements

of a commutative

ring

is closed

under multiplication.

b.

all idempotents algebra)

in the ring 2,(, x

Z12.
column

45. (Linear
P =

Recall
AT

is the j'th

row of A.

A(ATA)~]

that for an m x n matrix A, the transpose AT of A is the matrix whose jth that if A is an m x n matrix such that ATA is invertible, then the projection is an idempotent in the ring ofnxn matrices.
Show

matrix

46.
47.

An

element

a of a ring R
then

is

nilpotent

if a\" =

0 for
element

some n
if and
R

e Z+.

Show
if 0

that

if a

and b
solution hold:

are nilpotent
of x2

elements

of a commutative

48.

ring, Show that a ring R has no nonzero Show that a subset S of a ring R

a + b

is also
nilpotent

nilpotent. only

is the

only

= 0 in

R.

gives

a subring

of

if and

only if the
OeS;

following

(a-fe)e

5 for

all

a,

fee

5; e S. of R.
of F. = 0}.

ab e

S for

all a, b

49. a. Show b. Show 50. Let R be

that that

an intersection an intersection

of of

subrings sub

of a

fields

ring R is again of a field F is again of R.

a subring a subfield
R \\ ax

a ring,

and let a

be a

fixed

element

Let Ia = [x e

Show

that

Ia is a

subring of

R.

Section 19 IntegralDomains
51.

177

and let a be a fixed element of R. Let Ra be the subring of R that is the intersection of all of R generated 49). The ring Ra is the subring by a. Show that the containing a (seeExercise abelian group {Ra, +} is generated (in the sense of Section 7) by [an \\ n e Z+}. 52. (Chinese Remainder for two congruences) Let r and .s be positive integers such that gcd(r, s) = 1. Theorem the 18.15 to show that for m, n e Z, there exists an integer x such that x = m Use isomorphism in Example (mod r) and x = n (mod s).

Let fibea
subrings

ring,

of R

53. a. State

54.

18.15 n factors. for a direct product with prove the generalization of Example \342\200\242 n Let a,, bt e Z+ for i = 1,2, \342\200\242and let gcA{bt, bj) the Chinese Remainder Theorem: \342\200\242, \342\200\242 i / j. Then there such that x = a; (mod b{) for i = 1,2, \342\200\242 n. exists ieZ+ \342\200\242, \342\200\242 Consider (S, +, \342\200\242), S is a set and + and are binary operations on S such that where and

b. Prove

= 1 for

(S, +)
(S*,

is a group,
group where
+ (ac)
of S* consists

is a \342\200\242)

all elements

of S
for

except the
all a,b,c

additive
\342\202\254 S.

identity

element,

a(b
Show that
tativity

+ c) = (ab)
{S, +,

and

(a + b)c = (ac)+ (be)


[Hint:

is a \342\200\242)

division ring.
a2

Apply

the distributive

laws

to

(1 +

\\){a +

b) to

prove

the commu-

of addition.]

55. A ring R is a Boolean ring if Boolean ring is commutative.

= a

for

all

a e

R, so

that

every

element

is idempotent.
SP(S)

Show

that

every

56.

(For

students

subsets of S.Let

having
binary

some knowledge of the laws of set theory) For a on SP{S) be defined by + and \342\200\242 operations B =

set S, let

be the

collection of all

A +

{A\\JB)-{AC\\B) = {x\\x&Aovx
=ADB

\302\243Bbu\\.xi{AC\\B)}

and

A-B

for A,B&

SP{S).
tables for + for any has four elements.] and \342\200\242 for SP{S), where S = [a, b). [Hint: SP{S) is a Boolean ring (see Exercise 55). set S, {^(S), +, \342\200\242)

a. Give
b.
Show

the that

section 19

Integral Domains
While motivation

a careful we

shall

treatment of polynomials is not make intuitive use of them

given in this

until Section section.

22, for purposes

of

Divisors
One

of Zero
the

and Cancellation

most important algebraic propertiesof our usual number system is that a is 0. We have used of two numbers can only be 0 if at least one of the factors product times in solving equations, perhaps without that we were using this fact many realizing for example, we are askedto solve the equation it. Suppose,
of

x2
The

- 5x + 6 = 0.
side:

first

thing

we do

is to factorthe
x2

left

- 5x +

6 = (x

2)(x

- 3).

Part

IV

Rings

and

Fields

Then

we

conclude

that the

only

possible

values

for* are
2){a

2 and
3)

3. Why?

if x

is replaced
and

is 0 if 19.1 Example Solve

only

a, the product (a by any if either a \342\200\224 0 or a \342\200\224 0. 2 = 3 =


number x2
\342\200\224

\342\200\224 \342\200\224 of

The reason is that the resulting numbers

the

equation

5x

+ 6

= 0 in

Z12.

Solution

The factorization

x2

\342\200\224

5x

+ 6
in

= (x
Zj2,

\342\200\224 \342\200\224 is

2)(x

3)

for

any

number

in Zi2. (2)(6)

But

not only

is 0a

still valid if we think = 0 for all a e aO


= =

of x

as standing
also

Zj2, but

= (6)(2) =

= (3)(4)= (4)(6) = (6)(4) =

(4)(3)= (3)(8) (4)(9)= (9)(4)


(10)(6)

(8)(3) (6)(6)

= (6)(8)

= (8)(6) =
We

= (6)(10)

(8)(9)

= (9)(8)

= 0.
6 and

for (6 -

find,

2)(6-

in fact, that
3)

our equation has not only 2 and 3 as solutions, but also - 3) = (9)(8) 0in Z12. = 2)(11 (4)(3) = 0 and (11
importance

11,
A

These ideas 19.2 Definition

are of such

that we

formalize them
R such that

in

a definition.

If a

and

b are

divisors of
Example

0 (or

two nonzero 0 divisors).

elements of a

ring

ab

\342\200\224 0, then

a and b

are

\342\226

19.1
that

shows that in Z12


are exactly
not

the

elements
in

2, 3, Zn

4, 6,
that

8, 9, and
relatively this

10

are divisors

of 0. Note
that

these

the numbers
1. Our

that are

not

is,

whose

gcd with 12 is

next theorem shows

is an

to 12, example of a
prime

generalsituation.
19.3

Theorem

In the
relatively

ring

the Z\342\200\236, divisors

of 0

are preciselythose

nonzero

elements

that are

not

prime

to n.

Proof

Let m

e Z\342\200\236, where

m ^

0,

and

let

the gcd

of m

and

nbed

1. Then

-(2)-(^)and

(m/d)n

is 0, so m is On the
ms =

gives a divisor
other

0 as a multiple

of n.

Thus m{n/d)

= 0 in

while Z\342\200\236,

neither

m nor

n/d

of 0.
is relatively suppose m e Z\342\200\236 prime to the product ms of m and s as elements 1 following

hand,

n. If for s
in

we e Z\342\200\236have

0,

then

n divides

the

ring
that

Z. Since
n divides

is

relatively

so s
19.4

= 0 in

prime to m, boxedProperty
Z\342\200\236.

Example

6.9 shows

s,

\342\231\

Corollary

If p

is a prime, then
corollary

Zp

has no

divisors of 0.

Proof

This

is immediate indication

from Theorem

19.3.
shown

\342\231\

Another

of the
be

following theorem. R if ab = ac with

Let R
a ^

of 0 divisors is importance of the concept and let a,b,c e R. The cancellation implies b = c, and ba = ca with a ^ 0 implies a ring,

in

the

laws
b

hold in = c. These

Section 19

Integral Domains
laws hold

179

are

multiplicative

cancellation

laws. Of

course, the

additive

cancellation

in

R,

since

{R, +) is a group.
cancellation

19.5 Theorem

The

laws

hold in a ring

if and

only if R has no

divisors of 0.

Proof

a ring in which the cancellation laws hold, and R. We a or b is 0. If a 0,thenafo a, b \342\202\254 must show that either cancellation laws. Similarly, b ^0 implies that a = 0, so by
Let

be

suppose ab
=

= 0 for
divisors

some

a0 implies

that b

= 0
of

there can be no
that

0 if the
a ^

cancellation laws hold.


suppose

Conversely,

that

R has no

divisors of 0, and
a(b
\342\200\224 =

suppose

ab =

ac

with

0. Then

ab
Since a
A

\342\200\224 ac =

c)

0.
\342\200\224 =

^ 0, and
that R
at

since

i? has

similar

argument

shows that

no divisors of 0, we must have b = ca with a ^ 0 implies b = c. ba


no divisors

0, so b

= c.
\342\231\246

Suppose

is a ring
x\\

with

of 0. Then an
for if
ax\\

equation and

ax
fc,

= b,
then

with

in i? can have
and

most

one solution
=

in

i?,

fo

ax2 =
R has

a ^ 0, = a^2, ax\\
and

by

Theorem

19.5

X2, since R
in

has no divisors of 0. If
the

a unit in R with case that i? is


and

multiplicative inverse a ~1,then


particular

solution

of ax = b is a ~1 In b.

unity

1^0

a is the

commutative,

if R

are equal by commutativity) notation must not be used in the event that know whether denotes a~lb or ba-1. In b/a element a nonzero a of a field may be written
ba~l

(they

is a field, it is customary to denote a~lb This quotient by the formal quotient b/a. R is not commutative, for then we do not the multiplicative inverse a-1 of particular,
I/a.

Integral

Domains

The integers are really our most familiar number system. In terms of the algebraic we are discussing, Z is a commutative with unity and no divisors of 0. ring properties this is responsible for the name that the next definition to such a structure. Surely gives

19.6 Definition

An

integral

domain

D is a commutative ring

with

unity

1^0

and

containing

no divisors
\342\226\240

ofO.
Thus, a polynomial

if the

are from an integral domain, one can solve coefficients of a polynomial in which the polynomial can befactored in the into linear factors equation

usual fashion by setting each factor equal to 0. In our hierarchy of algebraic structures, an integral domain commutative with unity and a field, as we shall show. Theorem ring cancellation laws for multiplication hold in an integral domain.

belongs between a 19.5 shows that the

19.7Example

have seen that Z and Zp for any prime p areintegral is not but Z\342\200\236 an integral domains, domain if n is not prime. A moment of thought shows that the direct product R x S of two nonzero rings R and S is not an integral domain. Just observe that for r e R and s & S both nonzero, we have (r, 0)(0,s) = (0,0). \342\226\262
We

Part

IV

Rings

and Fields

19.8Example Solution

Show

that

although

Z2 is

an

integral

domain,

the matrix

ring

M2(%2)

has divisors

of zero.

We

need

only

observe

that

0
field is

0 0
Our

next richest)

theorem one we

is,

the

shows that the have defined.


domain.

structure

of a

still

the

most

restrictive

(that

19.9Theorem
Proof

Every

field

F is

an

integral

Let a,b

e F, and

suppose

that a

^ 0. Then if ab
-W)

= 0, we = 0.

have

(-)0) \\a

But then

0=

(ab) =

\\a

lb
b =
unity,

a ^ 0 implies that We have shown that ab = 0 with of 0 in F. Of course,F is a commutative ring with Figure having

0 in F,
so our

theorem

so there are no divisors is proved. algebraic structures


In Exercise
of the

\342\231\24

19.10

gives a Venn

diagram view

of containment

for the
concerned.

we ask
will It

which we will two binary operations with this figure to include strictly to redraw you
far

be

chiefly

20

skew

fields

as well. next theorem

Thus
exhibit is done

the

only

some

fields we fields of finite


Counting

know

are

order! is one

Q, M, and C. The corollary The proof of this theorem

by counting.

of the

most powerful

is a personal favorite. in mathematics. techniques

19.10 Figure

A collection

of rings.

Section 19

Integral Domains

181

19.11

Theorem

Every

finite

integral

domain is a field.

Proof

Let 0, l,ax,
be

all

the elements

of a

finite

domain

D. We

need

to

show

that for

a e

D, where

a ^

0,

there exists b

e D such

that

ab

= 1. Now
a\\, aa.\\.

consider
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 aan. \342\200\242,

We claim that all

these elements of D are


hold

distinct,

for acn
that is,

the cancellationlaws that

in an

integral domain. Also, sinceD has

of these elements
1, a\\,

is 0.

\342\226\240 in some \342\200\242 \342\226\240, a\342\200\236

Hence by counting, order, so that either al


inverse.

we find

= 1, that

aj, by divisors, none \342\226\240 al, aa\\, \342\226\240 are elements aan \342\226\240, a = 1, or act; = 1 for some i.
at no 0
\342\231\246

= aaj implies that

Thus a has a multiplicative


19.12

Corollary

If p

is a prime, then

a 7LP is

field.
from

Proof

This corollary follows immediately


Theorem
The

the fact that

7LP

is an

integral

domain

and

from
\342\231\246

19.11.
preceding
about

talking

a ring the

corollary shows that when of matrices over afield. In

we
the

consider
typical

the

ring

Mn(Lp),

we

are

undergraduate

linear algebra
much

course,only
rule, a matrix

work. Such notions


eigenvalues

field properties of the real or complex as matrix reduction to solve linear

numbers are usedin

of the

systems, determinants,
to
try

Cramer's to diagonalize
the

and eigenvectors, and


using

similarity
any

transformations they

are

valid

matrices

over
solutions

field;

depend
involving

only on
notions

arithmetic
magnitude,

of a field. properties such as least-squares


fields

Considerations of linear
approximate
an

algebra or orthonormal

of

bases, only

make senseusing

where

we have

idea

of magnitude. p.1=1+

The
1 +

relation

... + 1 = 0
of magnitude
in

p
indicates

summands

that there

can be no

very

natural

notion

the

field

Zp.

The
Let

Characteristic
R be

of a Ring

any ring.
18. For

for

all a

We might ask whether there is a positive integer n such that n \342\226\240 a \342\200\224 0 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 a means a + a + \342\200\242 for n summands, as explainedin e R, where n \342\226\240 + a
example,
the

Section

integer

m has

this

property

for

the ring Zm.

19.13 Definition

If for a ring R a positive integer n exists such positive integer is the characteristic exists,then R is of characteristic 0.
We
us

such

that n
of the

0 for all a e R, then the least R. If no such positive integer ring


\342\226\240 a = \342\226\240

shall

to show

of a characteristic be using the concept chiefly for that the characteristic of an integral domain is either

fields. Exercise29 asks 0 or a prime p.


\342\226\262

19.14

Example

The

ring

is of Z\342\200\236

characteristic

n,

while

Z,

Q, M,

and C all have characteristic 0.

182

Part

IV

Rings and

Fields

At

unless
of that

the if

first glance, of a ring seems to be a tough determination of the characteristic job, the ring is obviously of characteristic Do we have to examine every element a 0. Definition theorem 19.13? Our final of this section shows ring in accordance with it suffices the ring has unity, to examine only a = 1.

19.15 Theorem

Let R
n

be

a ring with

unity.

1 ^ 0 If n \342\226\240

for all

e Z+,

\342\226\240 1 =

0 for

some n
n

e Z+,

then the

smallest such integer n we cannot


R

then R has characteristic is the characteristic of


\342\226\240 a =

0. If
R.

Proof

If

n \342\200\242 1 ^ 0

for all

e Z+,

then surely

have

positive

integer n, Suppose that

so by n is a

Defimtion

19.13,

has
that

characteristic
n \342\200\242 1 = 0,
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 +

0 for all 0.
any

a e
a

for

some

positive integer such

Then for a(n


1)

e R,

we have

n-a = a + a + ---+a
Our theorem followsdirectly.

= a(l + 1+

1) =

\342\200\242 =

aO =

0,
\342\231\246

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

19

Computations

1.

Find

all solutions equation solutions

of the
3x = of the
x2

equation

x3 \342\200\224\342\200\224 0 in Zn2x2 3x \342\200\224 the

2. Solve the
3. Find
4.
all

2 in

field Z7; in

the

field

Z23.

Find

all solutions of

equation x2 + 2x + 2 + 2x + 4 = 0 in Z&.
the characteristic of

\342\200\224Z&, 0 in

In Exercises

5 through

10, find

the

given

ring.

5. 2Z

6.
x Z3
R

x Z

7. Z3 x

3Z
b)4 for a, b + b)g for a, b
for

8.

Z3

9. Z3 x Z4 commutative commutative 1

10.
4. Compute and 3. Compute and
3. Compute

Z6

x Zi5

11. Let

be a

ring
ring
ring

with with

unity unity

of characteristic of characteristic

simplify simplify
simplify

(a + (a

12. Let
13.

R be a

e R. e R.
R.

Let R be a commutative
Show

with unity

of characteristic
of zero in

and

(a + b)6

a, b e

14.

that

the matrix

2 4

is a

divisor

M2(Z).

Concepts
In

Exercises

15 and
it is

16, correct the


in a form
a and b

definition

of the

italicized term

without

reference

to the

text, if correction is

needed, so that
15.

acceptablefor publication. of zero.


R, then n is
the in

If ab

= 0, then

are divisors

16. If

n \342\200\242 a = 0

for all elementsa


following

a ring

characteristic

of R.

17. Mark each of the

true or

false.

a. nZ has zero divisors if n is not prime. b. Every field is an integral domain. c. Thecharacteristic of nZ isn.

Section 19

Exercises

183

d.
e.

As The

a ring,

Z is isomorphicto
law holds
in

nZ

for all n

> 1.
to

cancellation

. f. Every integral domain g. The direct product of h. A divisor of


. i.
.

any ring that is isomorphic of characteristic 0 is infinite. integral

an integral

domain.

two

domains

is again
unity

an

integral

domain.

zero in

a commutative of Z.

ring

with

can have

no

multiplicative

inverse.

nZ is a

subdomain

j.

ZisasubfieldofQ.
six

18. Each
ring the

of the

numbered circle),

in each commutative students

of the six
who have

to regions in Fig. 19.10 corresponds a certain type of a ring. Give an cells. For example, a ring in the region numbered 3 must be commutative

example of a (it is inside

have

unity,

but

not be an

19.

(For

had a semesterof linear


are divisors

integral domain. Let F be a field. Give five algebra)


to strictly

different

characterizations

of the

elements A
Fig.

of M\342\200\236(F) that

of 0.
skew fields.

20. Redraw

19.10 to

include a subset

corresponding

Proof Synopsis

21. Give

a one-sentence

synopsis of

the

proof

of the

\"if\"

part

of Theorem

19.5,

22. Givea one-sentence synopsis


Theory

of the

proof of Theorem 19.11,

23.

An element

a of a ring

R is

idempotent
subdomains

if

a2

= a.

Show

that

a division

ring contains
a subdomain

exactly

two

idempotent

elements.

24. 25.

Show

that

an intersection

of

of an

integral domain

D is again

of D,

Show that a finite ring R with unity 1/0 and no divisors of 0 is a division a field, although ring. (It is actually In your proof, to show that a / 0 is a unit, commutativity is not easy to prove. See Theorem 24.10.)[Note: inverse\" of a / 0 in R is also a \"right you must show that a \"left multiplicative inverse,\"] multiplicative R R

26. Let

be such

be

a ring that that aba R has bab

contains

at least

= a. no divisors of 0.
unity. division

two elements. Suppose for

each

nonzero

\342\202\254 R, there

exists a unique

a.
c.
d.

Show

that that that

b. Show
Show

= b.

R has

Show

that R is a

ring. of a

27.

Show that the


Show

characteristic

subdomain

of

an

integral

domain

D is

equal

to the

characteristic in every
If the

of D.
subdomain

28.
29.

that

if D

is

an

integral

domain,

then [n

\342\226\240 n

11

e Z} is a

subdomain

of D

contained

ofD.

Show

that

the

characteristic (m
that

of D is mn,
characteristic

consider

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 in

\\){n

of an integral domain 1) D.]


R

D must

be either

0 or a prime
to a ring
if R Z\342\200\236

p.

[Hint:

characteristic the same

30. This exercise shows


as R.
usual

every

Let S

x Z

ring R can be enlarged (if if R has characteristic

necessary) 0, and

with

unity,

having

R x

has characteristic n.

Let addition

in S

be the

addition

by components,

and let multiplication


=

be defined
\342\226\240 +

by

(n, ni)(r2, n2)


where

(r\\r2 + 18.

n\\

r2

n2

\342\226\240

n,n\\n2)

\342\226\240 r has

the meaning explained

in

Section

Part

IV

Rings and

Fields

a. Show
b.
c.
Show

that that

S is a S has
and

ring.
unity.

Show
Show

that S
that

R have

the same characteristic.


\342\200\224>\342\200\242 5 given

d.

the

map 0 : /?

by 0(r)

(r,

0) for

r e

maps

R isomorphically

onto a subring

of S.

SECTION

20

FERMAT'SAND
Fermat's

EuLER's

THEOREMS

Theorem
that

are naturally isomorphic, with the coset in Z/nZ of cosets Zn. Furthermore, addition them in Z, and finding the be performedby choosing may any representatives, adding can be made into a ring by coset of nZ containing their sum. It is easy to see that Z/nZ cosets in the same fashion, that is, by multiplying any chosen representatives. multiplying While we will be showing this later in a more general situation, we do this special case is well defined, because the now. We need only show that such coset multiplication of multiplication and the distributive laws will follow immediately from associativity of the chosen representatives Z. To this end, choose representatives in those properties a + rn and b + sn, rather than a and b, from the cosets a + nZ and b + nZ. Then
as additive

We know

groups,
for

and Z\342\200\236 Z/nZ

a + nZ

corresponding to a

each

a e

which

is also

an

(a + rn){b+ sn) = ab element of ab + nZ. Thus

+ the

(as

+rb

+ rsn)n,
is well-defined,
18.
and

multiplication
Section

our

cosets

form a ring
The

following

isomorphic to the ring Z\342\200\236. is a special case of Exercise in 37

For

any

field,

the nonzero

elements form a group

under

the field

multiplication.

In

particular,

for Zp,

the elements

1,2,3,---,/7form

element in have bp~l


form

we must

under multiplication modulo p. Since the order of any we see that for b ^ 0 and b e Zp, we divides the order of the group, = 1 in Zp. Using the fact that Zp is isomorphic to the ring of cosets of the a + pZ described above,we see at once that for any a e Z not in the coset 0 + pZ,
a group

of order

\342\200\224 1

a group

have

ap~l

= 1 (mod

p).
Fermat.

This gives
20.1

us

at once

the so-called Little Theoremof


If a

Theorem

(Little Theorem

ap~l
20.2

- 1,that
then

of Fermat)
= a

e Z

and

p is a

prime not
p).

dividing

a,

then

p divides

is, ap~l

= 1 (mod

p) for a
any

# 0 (mod
p.

Corollary

If a

e Z,

ap

(mod p) for

prime

Section

20

Fermat's and Euler's Theorems

185

Proof

The corollary follows from

Theorem 20.1if

#0

(mod p). If a

= 0 (mod

p),

then both
\342\231\246

sides reduce to 0 modulo

p.

\342\226\240 Historical

Note
of Theorem

statement

20.1 occurs

in

a letter

this

correspondence

that

Fermat's
of

interest
perfect

in

this

to Bernard The from Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665) 18 October 1640. Fermat's Frenicle de Bessy,dated was that for any prime version of the theorem p and
any

result the

came

from his

study

numbers.

geometric

progression

a, a2,

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 there \342\226\240, \342\226\240, a',

is a least

number aT of the 1. Furthermore, divides aT \342\200\224 p also divides all numbers


(It is

progression

such that p T divides p \342\200\224 1 and of the form aKT \342\200\224 1.

curious
that

that

Fermat

failed

to note

the

it was fails in that case.) Fermat did not in the letter or elsewhere of the result and, in fact, never indicate a proof But we can infer from other parts of mentioned it again.
conditionthat

p not

divide a;
result

perhapshe felt

that

obvious

the

is a positive (A perfect number integer m that is sum of all of its divisors less than m; for 6=1 Euclid + 2 + 3 is a perfectnumber.) example, if 2\" - 1 is had shown that 2n~x(2n - 1) is perfect prime. The question then was to find methods for whether 2\" \342\200\224 prime. Fermat noted 1 was determining \342\200\224 1 was composite if n is composite, and that 2\" from his theorem the result that if n then derived 1 are is prime, the only possible divisors of 2\" \342\200\224 those of the form 2kn + 1. From this result he was 1 was to show, for example, that 237 \342\200\224 able quickly \342\200\242 = 2 \342\200\242 + 1. 3 37 divisible by 223

20.3 Example

Let us compute
have

the

remainder

of 8103 when

divided

by 13.

Using Fermat's theorem, we

gl03

s (812)8(37) s
=

e87e (1^)(87)

(-5)7

(25)3(-5)s
divisible

(-l)3(-5)EE5(modl3).
by 11.

20.4 Example
Solution

Show

that

211213

- 1 is

not

By Fermat'stheorem,

210

10 = 1 (mod 11),
10-.1,121
[(21U) 23

so
23]-l

_ 211.213 l

= [lU21
11).

23]- 1

-1

8- 1 = 7 (mod

Thus

is prime,
2P
20.5

\342\200\224 the remainder of 211-213 1 when divided by 11 is 7, not 0. (The number 11,213 1 is and it has been shown that 21L213 \342\200\224 a prime number. Primes of the form

\342\200\224 1

where

p is

prime areknown
the

as Mersenne

primes.)
\342\200\224 n is

\342\226\262

Example

Show that for

every integer n,
an

number

n33

divisible

by 15. 233
\342\200\224 333 \342\200\224 \342\200\224 433

Solution

This seems like


etc.

incredible

result. It means
shall

that

15 divides

2,

3,

4,

Now 15 by both 3
and

= 3-5,
5 for

and

we

use Fermat's
n33

theorem to show
n(nn
\342\200\224

that

n33

\342\200\224 n is

divisible

every

n. Note that

\342\200\224 n =

1).

Part

IV

Rings and

Fields

If

3 divides

n, then
=
n32

surely

3 divides

n(n

\342\200\224 If

1).

3 does

not

divide

n, then by

Fermat's theorem, n2

1 (mod

3) so

1 ee

(n2)16 \342\200\224 n =

1 = 116
0 (mod

0 (mod

3),

and hence 3 divides n32 \342\200\224 1. If n = 0 (mod 5), then n33 theorem, n4 = 1 (mod 5), so
n32 \342\200\224 n =

5). If
1

0 (mod

5),

then

by

Fermat's

1 =

(n4)8

- 1=

18

s 0 (mod 5).
^

Thus

n33

0 (mod

5) for every

n also.

Euler's from our


as in

Generalization
theorem.
by

Euler gave a generalization of Fermat's


next

His generalization using

will

follow

at once

theorem,

which

is proved

counting,

essentially

the same argument

Theorem

19.11.
elements

20.6 Theorem

The

set

of nonzero G\342\200\236

of

that Z\342\200\236

are

not 0

divisors

forms

a group

under

multiplication modulo n.

Proof

under multiplication modulo n. Let a, b \342\202\254 is closed Gn. If G\342\200\236 would exist c ^ 0 in Z\342\200\236 that (ab)c = 0. Now (ab)c = 0 implies such = 0. Since b e G\342\200\236 c ^ 0, we have be ^ 0 by definition But and of G\342\200\236. then that a{bc) that a ^ Gn contrary to assumption. Note that we have shown that a{bc) = 0 would imply for any ring the set of elements that are not divisors ofO is closed under multiplication. other so far. No structure of Z\342\200\236 than ring structure has been involved n is associative, We now show that Gn is a group. Of course,multiplication modulo and 1 e G\342\200\236. It remains to show that for a e G\342\200\236, is b e G\342\200\236 that ab = 1. Let there such
First

we

must

show that

ab

Gn, \302\242.

then there

1,a.\\,
be the

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240, ar

elements of

The G\342\200\236.

elements

a\\, aa\\,
are all

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240, aar

different, for if aat


have aa,-

a divisor of 0, we must either a 1 = 1, or some

= aaj, then
a,\342\200\224 =

a,-

= a (a,- \342\200\224 a,) 0 or a,- =


has

must

be 1, so a

and 0, and since a & G\342\200\236thus is not Therefore by counting, we find that a;-. \342\231\2 inverse. multiplicative

Note that the only property of Z\342\200\236 in this last theorem, other than used the fact that it was a ring with unity, was that it was finite. In both Theorem 19.11 and Theorem 20.6 a counting argument. we have (in essentially the same construction) employed Counting are often simple, but they are among the most powerful toolsof mathematics. arguments Let n be a positive integer. Let <p(n) be defined as the number of positive integers less than or equal to n and relatively to n. Note that q>(\\) = 1. prime

20.7 Example

Let n = 12. The positive integers less than 1,5, 7, and 11, so \302\242)(12)= 4.

or equal

to 12

and

relatively

prime

to 12 are

\342\226\2

Section

20

Fermat's

and Euler's

Theorems

187
are
now

By

Theorem

19.3,
function

<p(n) q>

is

the

divisors of
describe

0. This

: Z+

number of -> Z+ is the

nonzero elements of
Euler

that Z\342\200\236

not

phi-function.

We can

Euler's

generalization
a is

of Fermat's an integer

theorem.
prime

20.8Theorem Proof

(Euler'sTheorem) If
by n,
If that

relatively

to n,

then

av{n)

\342\200\224 1 is

divisible

is,

avin)

= 1 (mod
to

n).
the coset

a is

relatively

prime
modulo

n, then

a + nL of
the

nZ

containing

a contains

an

integer

b < n

and

relatively

prime

to n.

Using

fact

that

multiplication
have

of these

cosets by

multiplication

n of

w representatives is well-defined,e

a<p(n) ^

bVln)

(mod

ny

But by Theorems
group

19.3 and
<p(ri)

20.6,

b can of the

be viewed
<p{ri)

as an
of

element
Z\342\200\236 relatively

of the

of order G\342\200\236

consisting

elements n),

prime

multiplicative to n. Thus

b^
and our
20.9

= 1 (mod

theorem follows.

\342\231\246

Example

Let n = relatively
74 (mod

12. We

saw

(49)2= 2, 401=
12),
so \342\200\2245

prime to 12, then


12(200) without

in Example a4 =
+

20.7

that

\302\242)(12)

4. Thus

if we

take
way In

any

integer

1 (mod

1, so Euler's

12). For example,with 74 = 1 (mod 12).Of course, the


theorem,

a =

7, we have 74
to compute Z12,

easy

using

is

to

compute

it in

Z12. 1.

we have

7 =

72 =

(-5)2 = (5)2 =

and

74

12 =

Application
Using

to ax = b
20.6, we
work

(mod
all

m)

Theorem

can find

solutions

We prefer to

with

an equation
and

in
a e

Zm

and

interpret

of a linear congruence ax = b (mod m). the results for congruences. prime to

20.10Theorem Let m
the

be

a positive

integer
a unit

let

Zm

equation

ax = b has a unique in
Zm

solution and

be relatively in Zm.

m. For eachb e

Zm,

Proof

By Theorem20.6,a is
Multiplying

5 =
the

a~lb is
by

certainly

a solution is

both

sides

of ax

= b on

left

a~l, we see this

the

of the equation. only solution.


\342\231\246

Interpreting

this theorem

for congruences, we obtain


intergers,
in

at once

the following
b, the

corollary.

20.11 Corollary

If

a and

m are
m)

relatively

prime

then for
precisely

any

integer

b (mod

has as

solutions all integers


as a

one residue case.

congruence ax class modulo m.

Theorem20.10serves
20.12 Theorem

lemma for

the

general

Let m
ax

= b has a

has

integer and let a, b e Zm. Let d be the gcd of a and m. The equation solution in Zm if and only if d divides b. When d divides b, the equation exactly d solutions in Zm.
be

a positive

Part

IV

Rings and

Fields
= b in Zm unless d divides b. Suppose e Zm is 5 so b = as \342\200\224 Since d divides both a and m, we qm. the right-hand side of the equation b = as \342\200\224 and hence divides qm, 5 can exist only if d divides b. that d does divide b. Let
solution

Proof

First

we

show

there is no
b

of ax

a solution.

Then as

\342\200\224 =

qm in Z,

see that d divides b. Thus a solution


n Supposeow

a = aid,
Then

bid,

and

mid.
as d{a\\s
\342\200\224 =

b\\) dqmi. We see of m^. Thus the solutions 5 of ax = b in Zm are precisely the elements that, read modulo mi, yield solutions of = = bi in be the unique solution of a\\x \302\2531* fci in Zmi. Now let 5 e Zm, given by Zmi in Zm that reduce to 5 modulo mi Theorem 20.10. The numbers those that are precisely can be computed in Zm as the

thatas

\342\200\224

as equation Ms a multiple

\342\200\224 =

qm in Z

can be rewritten
\\fais

of m if and

only

\342\200\224

bi is a

multiple

Thus

there
Theorem

+ mi, s + 2m 1, s are exactly d solutions of the


s, s
20.12

\342\226\240 s + + 3m 1, \342\226\240 (d \342\226\240,

\342\200\224

l)mi.

equation

in Zm.

\342\23

gives us

at

once

this

classical

result on

the

solutions

of a linear

congruence.

20.13 Corollary

Let d be the
solution exactly d
Actually,

gcd

if and
distinct

of positive integers a and m. The congruence ax = b (mod m) has a if d divides b. When this is the case, the solutions are the integers in only
residue

classes

modulo

m.
more

our

proof

of Theorem

20.12 shows a bit

about

stated in this corollary; namely, it shows that are precisely all elementsof the residue where mi = m/d and k runs through the integers from 0 to d can find such an 5 by finding a\\ = aid and b\\ = b/d, and solving a\\x To solve this congruence, we may consider a\\ and b\\ to be replaced by modulo mi and solve the equation a\\x = b\\ in Zmi.
(mod then

m) than we the solutions

the solutions of ax = b if any solution 5 is found, classes (s + km\\) + (mZ) \342\200\224 1. It also tells us that we
= their b\\ (mod

mi).

remainders

20.14 Example

Find

all

solutions

of the 18 is

congruence 6, and
6 is

Ylx

27 (mod

18).
by

Solution
20.15

The gcd of

12 and

not a divisor

of 27. Thus (mod 18).

the preceding

corollary,

there are no
Example
Solution

solutions.
of the
18 is congruence

\342\226

Find all solutions


The

15*

= 27
divide

as explained before 27. Proceeding consider the congruence 5ih9 Example everything by (mod 6), which amounts to solving the equation 5x = 3 in Ze- Now the units in Zs are 1 and Thus in this group of units. the solution in Z(, is 5, and 5 is clearly its own inverse x = (5_1)(3)= the solutions of 15* a 27 (mod Consequently, 18) are the in the three residue classes. integers
gcd
and

of 15

3, and 3

does

20.14,

we divide

3 and

= (5)(3) 3.
3 +
9 + 15

18Z =
18Z = 18Z =

\342\200\242 -33. \342\200\242, {\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242, -27, {\342\200\242 \342\200\242 -21, \342\200\242, {\342\200\242

-15, -9,

3, 21, 9, 27,

\342\200\242 39, \342\200\242 \342\200\242}, \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242}. \342\200\242},

45,

-3,

15, 33, 51,--

Section

20

Exercises

189

illustrating

Corollary

in the three

3+

6Z modulo

20.13. Note the d = m displayed residueclassesodulo


6, for

solutions 18 can

they came from

the

solution

3,9, and 15 in be collected in * = 3 of 5* =

Zi8 the
3

\342\200\242 All the

solutions

one residue

class
A

in 1,(,.

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

20

Computations We will
see

later that

the multiplicative
for the

group

of nonzero
field.

elements of a finite

field

is cyclic.

Illustrate

this

by finding

a generator 1. Z7
4.

for

this

group

given

finite

2. Zn Fermat's

3.
of 347 when it

Z17

Using

theorem,

find

the

remainder

is

divided

by

23.

5. Use

Fermat's theorem
the

to find

the remainder of 3749 when


+ 1 when

it is
[Hint:

divided by 7.
You

6.

Compute

remainder

of 2(2' * of

divided by 19.

will need

to compute the

remainder

of

217 modulo

18.]
of values
<p{n)

7. Makea table 8.
Compute Compute

for

n <

30.

<p{p2) <f>(pq)

where where

p is a prime. both p
and

9.

q are

primes.
find

10. Use Euler'sgeneralization


In

of Fermat's

theorem to
of the

the

remainder

of

71000

when did

divided

by 24.

Exercises

11 through

18, describe all

solutions

given congruence,as we
12.

in Examples

20.14

and

20.15.

11.

2* =
=

6 (mod

4)

22* = 5

(mod 15)
24) 9) 130)
\342\200\224

13. 36*
15. 17. 19.

15 (mod

24)
9) 65) >3.

14. 45* =
16. 18. Use Exercise
find find find

15(mod
125 (mod 52 (mod
of (p

39* =

125 (mod be a prime


Exercise Exercise Exercise

41* = 39* =

155* = 75 (mod Let p


Using

28 below to
remainder remainder remainder

find

the

remainder

2)!

modulo

p.

20.

28 below, 28 below, 28 below,

the the the

of 34! modulo of of

21. Using 22. Using Concepts

37. 49! modulo 53. 24! modulo 29.

23. Mark

each

of the

following

true

or false.

a. ap~l
b. ap~l

= 1 (mod s 1 (mod
< n for

p)

for all

p) for all

integers a integers a

and such

primes that

p. a ^

0 (mod p) for

a prime

p.

c.

<p(ri)

all n e

Z+. Z+. less than


a unit. a unit. a unit.
n and

d. (p{n) e. The
f. The

< n \342\200\224 1 for units

all n e
units

in

are the Z\342\200\236

positive integers
in
is always Z\342\200\236
in

relatively prime

to

n.

product of two
of two of a

g. The product h. The product

nonunits

Z\342\200\236 be may

unit and a nonunit

in Z\342\200\236 is never

190

Part

IV

Rings

and

Fields

i.
j.

Every

congruence

Let d
has

be the

exactly
multiplication

b (mod p), where gcd integers a and d incongruent solutions.


ax = of positive
table

p is a m. If

prime, has a solution. d divides b, then the congruence in Zi2.

ax = b

(mod m)
4 is
it

24.

Give the
isomorphic?

group

for the

multiplicative

group

of units

To which

group

of order

Proof

Synopsis
of the

25. Give a one-sentence synopsis

proof of Theorem 20.1.


proof

26. Give
Theory

a one-sentence

synopsis of the

of Theorem

20.8.

27. Show
28.
Using

that

1 and

\342\200\224 1 are

Consider the
Exercise

equation

x2

\342\200\224 1 =

the only elements 0.]

of the

field

Zp that

are

their

own

multiplicative

inverse. [Hint:

1 theorem that states that if p is a prime, then (/? \342\200\224 \342\200\22 27, deduce the half of Wilson's 1)! = \342\200\224 1 (mod n), then n is a prime. >1 such that (n half states that if n is an integer (mod p). [The other think what the remainder of (n \342\200\224 Just 1)! would be modulo n if n is not a prime.]

1)!s

29. UseFermat's
383838

to show that theorem = (37)(19)(13)(7)(3)(2).]


to Exercise

for any

positive integer n,

the

integer

n37

\342\200\224 n is

divisible by 383838. all positive

[Hint:

30.

Referring

29,

find

a number

larger than 383838

that

divides

n37

\342\200\224 n for

integers

n.

section

21

The
If

Field
integral

of Quotients
domain

of an Integral
every integral
It

Domain

an

is such

that

then

it is a

field. However, many


is not

field. This dilemma


domain

too serious.

element has a multiplicative inverse, such as the integers domains, Z, do not form a to show that every is the purpose of this section
nonzero

in integral regarded as being contained a certain field, afield of quotients the integral domain the integral domain. This field will be a minimal field containing of in a sense that we shall describe. For example, the integers are contained in the field can all be expressed as quotients of integers. Our construction of a Q, whoseelements field of quotients of an integral domain is exactly the same as the construction of the

can be

rational

from the integers, which often in a course in foundations numbers or appears advanced calculus. Tofollow this construction is such a good exercise the use in through of definitions and the concept of isomorphism that we discuss it in some detail, although to write out, or to read, be tedious. We can be motivated at every every last detail would step by the
way

Q can

be formed

from Z.

The Construction
Let

D be

an integral

outline

of the

domain that steps we take is as


the
binary

we

desire

to enlarge

to

a field

of quotients

F.

coarse

follows: of F

1.
2.

Define what
Define the

elements
operations

are to

be.

of addition

and

multiplication

on

F.

Section

21

The Field of

Quotients

of an

Integral Domain

191

3.
4.

Check

all
that

the field
F

axioms

to

show

that

F is a field
D

under

these

operations.

Show

can be

viewed as containing
and

as an

integral subdomain.

Steps 1,2, and


proceed

with

4 are very interesting, the construction.

Step

3 is

largely a mechanical

chore. We

Step 1 Let D be a

given

integral

domain,

and form the

Cartesian

product

DxD
We

= {{a,b)\\a,b
pair

e D]
quotient for

are

going

to think

of an
pair

ordered
will

(a, b)

that

is, if D

= Z,
subset

as representing a formal
represent
we

a/b,

the

(2, 0) representsno
Let S

(2, 3) element of Q of D

eventually

and suggests that


by

the number cut the set D

x D down

us.

The pair a bit.

be the

x D

given

S =

{{a,b)\\a,b

\342\202\254 D,b

^0}.

Now S is
different

number.

element

going to be our field as is indicated by the fact that, with D = Z, of integers such as (2, 3) and (4, 6) can represent the same rational pairs the same We next define when two elements of S will eventually represent of or, as we shall say, when two elements of S are equivalent.
still

not

F,

21.1 Definition

Two

elements

(a, b)

and

(c,

d) in

only

if

ad = be.
that this

S are equivalent, denoted

by

(a, b)

(c, d),

if

and
\342\226\240

definition is reasonable, sincethe criterion for (a,b) ~ (c, d) is an ad = be involving elements in D and concerning the known in multiplication equation of equality of definition D. Note also that for D = Z, the criterion gives us our usual | = since (2)(6) = (3)(4).The rational that we usually with f\302\260r number example, 2-, \302\247 f of as the collection of all quotients of integers that reduce denote by | can be thought
Observe

to, or 21.2 Lemma


Proof

are equivalent

to,

|. elements

Therelation

~ between

of

the

set

S as just

described is an relation.

equivalence

relation.

We must check the

three

properties

of an equivalence

in D is commutative. Reflexive(a, b) ~ {a,b) since ab = ba, for multiplication If {a,b) ~ (c,d), then ad = be. Since multiplication in D is Symmetric ~ {a, b). that cb = da, and consequently we deduce commutative, (c, d)
Transitive

If

{a, b)
and

~ (c,
the

d)

and

(c,

d)

~ (r,

5), then
in

ad

foe

and

cs =

these relations

fact

that multiplication

is commutative,

dr. Using we have

asd =
Now in

sad = sbc = foes

bdr

= ford.

d the

^0,

and

Z)

argument.

is an integral domain, so cancellation valid; is this is a crucial step Hence from asd = brd we obtain as = br, so that (a, b) ~ (r, s).
\342\231\246

192

Part

IV

Rings and

Fields

t of Theorem 0.22,hat ~ gives a partition of S into equivalence To avoid long bars over extended classes. we shall let [(a, b)], rather than expressions, class of (a, b) in S under the relation ~. We now finish Step 1 (a, b), be the equivalence by defining F to be the set of all equivalence classes[(a,b)] for (a, b) e S. We

now

know,

in view

Step 2 Observe that


Q give 21.3 Lemma
the

The

next

lemma

serves to define

addition

and

multiplication

in F.
applied

if D

= Z and
operations. d)] in

[(a, b)] is viewed

as (a/b)

e Q,

these definitions

to

usual

For [(a, b)] and

[(c,

F,

the

equations

[(a, b)]
and

+ [(c, d)]

= [(ad + be, bd)]


= [(ac,bd)]

[(a,b)][(c,d)]
operations give well-defined

of

addition

and multiplication

on F. (c, d)

Proof

Observe

first

that if

integral domain, bd ^ 0, soboth (ad + be, bd) and (ac, bd) shows are in 5. (Note the crucial use here of the fact that D has no divisors of 0.)This are at least in F. that the right-hand sides of the defining equations It remains for us to show and multiplication that these operations of addition are in S of elementsof well defined. That is, they were defined by means of representatives that if different representatives in S are chosen, the same element F, so we must show of F will result. To this end, suppose that (a\\, b\\) \342\202\254b)] and (ci, d{) \342\202\254d)]. We [(c, [(a,

and d

Z ^0. Because)

[(a, b)]
is an

and

[(c,

d)] are in

F,

then

(a,

b) and

are in

S, so fo ^

must

show

that

(a\\di
and

+ b\\Ci, b\\di) e

[(ad +

be, bd)]

(axci,bidx)
Now

e [(ac,bd)].
b\\)

b\\) (\302\253i,

e [(a,

b)] means

that

(a\\,

~ (a,
b\\a.

b); that

is,

a\\b =
Similarly,

(c\\, d\\)

e [(c, d)] implies

that

c\\d = d\\c.

To get a \"common denominator\"


(a\\,b\\),

(common

second

(c,

d), and

(c\\,

d\\),

we multiply

by

b\\b.

Adding

the resulting
a\\bd\\d

the first equations, we obtain


+

member) for the equation by d\\d and the


the +
that

four

pairs

(a, b),

second

equation

following d\\cb\\b.

equation

in D:

c\\db\\b

b\\ad\\d

Using various

axioms for an

integral

domain,

we see

(a\\d\\

+ b\\C\\)bd

b\\d\\(ad

be),

Section

21

The Field of

Quotients

of an

Integral Domain

193

so
(a\\d\\

+ b\\C\\,

b\\d\\) ~

{ad +

be,bd),
care
and

giving

{axd\\ in

+ b\\Cx, b\\d\\) F, on

multiplication

T e [{ad + be, bd)].his takes the a\\b = b\\a equations multiplying

of addition
c\\d = d\\c,

in

F.

For

we

obtain

a\\bc\\d

= b\\ad\\C,

so,

using

axioms

of D,

we get
a\\C\\bd

b\\d\\ac,

which implies

that

(aiCi,

b\\d\\)

~ (ac,

M).
proof.
\342\231\246

Thus (aiCi, fci^i)


It is

[(ac,

M)],

which completes the


the Step but

important to understand our it. This completes proving Step 3

meaning

of the last

lemma

and

the

necessity

for

2. it is
we

Step 3 is routine,
reason

good for us

details.The
what

for this

is

that

cannot

we have

this construction.

Therest are
1. Proof
Now

done. Thus working We list the things left to the exercises.


in

through

to work a few of these through work through them unless we understand them will contribute to our understanding

of

that must

be provedand

prove

a couple

of them.

Addition

F is

commutative.
[{ad + be, bd)]. Also to show that {ad + be,
bd

[{a,

definition

is

true,

[{c, d)] is by definition [{cb + da, db)].We need ad + be = cb + da and since


b)] + Addition

= db, by

the

[{c,d)] + [{a,)] b bd) ~ {cb + da, db). axioms of D.

is

by
\342\231\246

This

2.

is associative.
an

3.
4.
5.

[(0, 1)]is
[(\342\200\224a, b)]

identity

element

for

addition

in F. F.

is an

additive inverse for


in F is
in F

[{a,b)] in

Multiplication
Multiplication

associative.

6.

is commutative.

7. The distributive laws hold in F. 8. [(1, 1)]is a multiplicative identity element in F. 9. If [{a, b)] e F is not the additive identity element, [{b, a)] is a multiplicative inverse for [{a,b)].

then

^ 0 in

and

Proof

Let

[{a,

b)] e

F. If a

= 0, then
a\\

=^0

= 0,

so

{a,b) ~ (0, 1).

194

Part

IV

Rings

and Fields

that

is,

[(a, b)]
the Now

= [(0, 1)].But
identity b)][(b,

[(0,

1)] is

the
^

additive

identity

is not in F.

additive [(a,

a)]

we have a = [(ab, ba)]. But


in F,

0, so it makes in D we have

by Part sense to

3. Thus talk about


(ab)l

if

[(a, [(b,

b)] a)]

ab =

ba, so

= (ba)l,

and

(ab,ba)~(l,
Thus

1).
=

[(a,fe)][(fe,a)]
and

[(l, 1)],

[(1, This

1)] is

the

multiplicative

identity

by Part

8.

\342\23

completes
It

Step 3.
D. To do to show that F can be regarded as containing of F. Then if we is an isomorphism i of D with a subdomain of D, we will be done. of D under i using the names of the elements We use the letter i for this isomorphism to us this isomorphism. gives D into F. the footnote on page 4); we will inject (see

Step 4
this, we
The next
show

remains

for us

that image

there

renamethe

lemma

suggest injection 21.4 Lemma


The

map

i : D \342\200\224>\342\226\240 F given by

i{a) =

[(a, 1)]is

an

isomorphism

of D

with

a subring

off.

Proof

For a Also,

and

b in

D, we

have

i{a + b) i(a) + i(b) = [(a.1)] so *'(a


while
+ fe) = z'(a) +

[{a +

b, 1)].

[{b. 1)]

= [(al

lfe,

1)]

[(a + b,

1)].

+ i{b). Furthermore,
i(ab)=

[(ab.

1)],

i(a)itf>) = so j'(afc)
=

[(a, l)][(fe,
that i is

1)]

[(ab, 1)],
= i(b),

i(a)i(b).
to

It remains for us

show

only

one to one. If
[(ft,

i(a)

then

[(a, 1)] =
so (a.

1)],

1) ~ (b, 1) giving

al

lfo; that

is,

a =
Thus i

b.
of course,

is

an isomorphism

of D

with

;'[\302\243>], and,

i[D] is

then

a subdomain

off.
Since

\342\23

[(a.
now

b)] =
proved

[(a, 1)][(1,&)]
the following

[(a.

l)]/[(fc.

1)] =

i(a)/i(b)

clearly

holds

in F,

we have

theorem.
(or

21.5 Theorem

Any

integral

domain

element

of F

D can be enlargedto can be expressed a quotient as


D.)

embedded

of two

in) a field F such that elements of D. (Such a field

every

F is a

field of

quotients of

Section

21

The Field

of Quotients

of an

Integral

Domain

195

Uniqueness
We

said

in the
D.

beginning
This

that

could
evident,

containing

is

intuitively

be regarded in some sense since every field containing


theorem b ^ 0. The next which is a field of quotients

all elements

a/b for every a,b


D

with

field
two

containing

contains

a subfield

as a minimal field D must contain will show that every of D, and that any

fields

of quotients
field

of D are

isomorphic.

21.6

Theorem

Let F
map

be a

of quotients

of D

and

let

L be

any

field
with

containing
a subfield

ty : F

\342\200\224> L that

for a

e D.
subring

gives an isomorphism

of F

D. Then there exists a of L such that \\jf(a) = a

Proof

The

and mapping

diagram

in

Fig.

21.7

may help

you

to visualize

the situation

for
b e /l

this

theorem.

An element of F is of the form a /F b where /f denotesthe quotient of a e D by to map a /r b onto a /i b where D regarded as elementsof F. We of course want the quotient of elementsin L. The main job will be to show that such a map denotes
We

is well defined.
must

define

ir :

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 L, and

we start

by

defining

\\jf{a) = a
Every

for
two

a e
elements

D.
a and

e F
to

is a

quotient

/r

b of

some

b, b ^

0, of

D.

Let us

attempt

define

ty by
if

(a

/F b) =

^ (a)

/L

if(b).

We must first onZ),


forfo

sense. If a
the identity

show that this map if is sensible and well-defined. of ir (a /F ^ Owe have i/{b) ^ 0, so our definition b = c /f d in F, then ad = be in D, so ir{ad) /F on D,

Since

ir is
/i

the

identity

b) as i/r(a)
=
\\jr{bc).

ir (b) makes But since \\jr is

ir{ad) = ir{a)ir{d)
Thus

and

ir{bc)

ir{b)ir{c).

ir{a)
in

/L

ir(b)

= f{c)

/l f{d)

L, so ir

is well-defined.

The equations
ir(xy)

= ir{x)ir{y)

21.7 Figure

196

Part

IV

Rings and

Fields

and

follow

easily

If \\jf{a

/f

from the definition of ty on F b) = \\j/(c If d), we have

and

from

the fact that

ty

is the

identity

on D.

t(a)/l
so

t(b) = t(c)/L t(d)

i/{a)i/{d)

=
deduce

i/r(b)i/r(c).
that ad

Since ty is one to

is the one.

identity

on D,

we then
a

= be,

soa /p b = c /p

d.

Thus

By definition,

i/r(a) =

a for

e D.

\342\231

21.8

Corollary

Every field

containing

an integral

domain element

D contains a field of quotients of


the

of

D.

Proof

In the proof of Theorem of elements of D. Any two fields


Suppose
be

21.6

every

subfield

ty [F]

of L is a quotient

in L

\342\231

21.9

Corollary

of quotients

of an

integral

domain D

are isomorphic.
of D,

Proof

in Theorem 21.6 that L is a field of quotients in the form a /L b for a,b e D. expressed of Theorem 21.6 and is thus isomorphic to F.
can

so that every
field

ThenL is the

element x of L i/r[F] of the proof

\342\231

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

21

Computations

1. Describe the

field

F of quotients

of

the

integral

subdomain
{n

D =

+ mi

\\ n,

m e Z} up the field

of C. \"Describe\"

means

D are

give the of Exercise

elements of C that 1) the


field

make

of quotients
subdomain

of D

in C.

(The elementsof
\\n,m&Z}

the

Gaussian
the sense

integers.)
F of

2. Describe(in ofR.

quotients of the

integral

D =

{n

+ m-j2

Concepts

3.

Correct

the

definition

of the

italicized term

without

reference

to the

text,

if

correction

is needed,

so

that

it is

in

a form
A field

acceptablefor publication.
domain

of quotients of an integral element of D is a unit in F.

D is a

field

in which

D can be embedded that so

every

nonzero

Section

21

Exercises

197

4. Mark

each

of the

following
field

true

or false.

a. Q is a

of quotients of quotients of quotients

of Z. of Z. of E. of E.
to

b. c. d. e.

R is a field R is a field

C is a field of If D is a field,
fact
that

quotients
then D

times in the construction domain D. integral quotients of D. g. Every element of an integral domain D is a unit in a field F of quotients D is a unit in a field F of quotients of of an integral domain h. Every nonzero element D' of an integral domain D can be regarded i. A field of quotients F' of a subdomain of some field of quotients of D. j. Every field of quotients of Z is isomorphicto Q. f. The

of D is isomorphic any field of quotients has no divisors of 0 was used strongly several

D. of a

field

F of

of the

D.
as a

subfield

5. Show by an

example

that

a field

F' of

quotients

of a

proper subdomain

D' of an

integral

domain

D may also

be a field Theory

of quotients

for D.

6. Prove

Part

2 of
3 of 4 of 5 of 6 of 7 of

7. Prove Part 8. Prove Part 9. Prove Part 10. Prove Part 11. Prove Part 12. Let R
this
this

Step 3. You Step 3. You


Step 3. Step 3. Step 3. Step 3.
You You You You

may may may may may may

assume assume assume assume assume assume

any preceding any preceding any preceding any preceding any preceding any preceding

part part part part part part

of Step of Step of Step of Step of Step of Step

3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3.

be

a nonzero

containing
for

section, 15

and subset of R closed under commutative ring, and let T be a nonempty multiplication the construction in neither 0 nor divisors of 0. Starting with R x T and otherwise following exactly we can show that the ring R can be enlarged to a partial ring of quotients T). Think about Q{R, and see why things still work. In particular, show the minutes or so; lookbackover the construction if R

following:

a. Q(R,
b. 13.

T) has unity

even

does

not.

In Q(R,

Prove

T), every nonzero from Exercise 12 that


to Exercise to Exercise

element every

of T

is a unit.
a that is ring containing an element 30 of Section 19. Compare with Exercise are there in the ring Q(Z^, {1,3})? {2n | n
not

nonzero
ring

commutative
elements
ring

a divisor

of 0

can be enlargedto a commutative

with unity.

14. 15. 16.


17.

With With

reference reference

12, how

many

12, describe the 12, describe the

g(Z,

e Z+}), by

describing

a subring

of R
of R

to

which

it

is isomorphic.
With

reference

to Exercise

ring

<2(3Z,

{6\"

n e

Z+}) by describing a

subring

to which

it

is isomorphic. the condition that T have no divisors of zero and just require reference to Exercise 12, suppose we drop that nonempty T not containing The attempt to enlarge R to a commutative 0 be closed under multiplication. of T is a unit must fail if T contains an element element a that is a ring with unity in which every nonzero of 0, for a divisor of 0 cannot where a construction parallel to that in the divisor also be a unit. Try to discover text but starting with R x T first runs into trouble. In particular, for R = Z6 and T = {1, 2, 4},illustrate the
With

first difficulty

encountered. [Hint:

It

is in

Step 1.]

198

Part

IV

Rings

and

Fields

section

22

Rings

of Polynomials
in an

Polynomials
We in

Indeterminate

a pretty workable idea of what constitutes a polynomial in x with coefficients R. We can guesshow to add and multiply such polynomials and know what is with meant by the degree of a polynomial. We expectthat the set R [x] of all polynomials in the ring R is itself a ring with the usual operations of polynomial addition coefficients and that R is a subring of R[x]. with and multiplication, However, we will be working different than the approach in high school algebra from a slightly viewpoint polynomials or calculus, and there are a few things that we want to say. rather than a variable. Suppose, for In the first place, we will call x an indeterminate in the ring Z[x] is Ix, our ring of coefficients is Z. One of the polynomials that example which we shall write simply as x. Now x is not 1 or 2 or any of the other elements of Z[x]. Thus from now on we will never write such things as \"x = 1\" or \"x = 2,\" as we have
all have a ring done change.

in other Also,
\342\200\224 4 is

courses. We callx an
we
will

indeterminate

never

write

an expression such

in our ring not the zero polynomial and will be a polynomial equation,\" \"solving refer to it as \"finding a zero of a polynomial.\" our text discussing this, but we will always of algebraic structures not to say in In summary, we try to be careful in our discussion context that they are not equal. one context that things are equal and in another

x2

than a variable to emphasize this 4 = as \"x2 \342\200\224 0,\" simply because to speaking of Z[x], We are accustomed a lot of time in the remainder of spending
rather

\342\226\240 Historical

Note
x

use of

and

other letters near

the

end

of

false

everything
it

The the alphabet to represent an \"indeterminate\" is due to Rene Descartes (1596-1650). Earlier, Francois Viete (1540-1603) had used vowelsfor indeterminates

since

was

of which he had that he who necessary therefore I


am.\"

the

least was

doubt; thinking of

but, was

\"something,\" he conceived his first


philosophy:

principle The

\"I think,

most

and

consonants

for known
the

quantities.

Descartes

is also

responsible for
appeared

first

of the factor theorem The Geometry, which

(Corollary23.3)in
as an
This

publication his work

appendix to
work

his Discourse on Method contained the first publication

(1637).
of the

also

of analytic
geometric

geometry; curves

Descartes to

basic concepts showed how


family

Discourse on Method, however, The Optics, The Geometry, appendices: It was here that Descartes and The Meteorology. provided examples of how he actually applied his method. Among the important ideas Descartes discovered and published in these works were the sine law of refraction of light, the basics of the theory
enlighteningparts

of the

arethe

three

can be

described algebraically.
born

Descartes was
La Haye,

a wealthy

in

of delicate France; since he was always health, he formed the habit of spending his mornings in bed. It was at these times that he accomplished his most productive work. The Discourse onMethod was Descartes' to show the proper attempt procedures for \"searching for truth in the sciences.\"The first step in this process was to reject as absolutely

of equations, and a geometric explanation of the rainbow. In 1649, Descartes was invited by Queen Christina of Sweden to come to Stockholm to tutor her. Unfortunately, the Queen required him,
contrary hour.

to his He

soon

long-established contracted

habits,
a lung

to

rise

at an

early
in

disease and

died

1650.

Section 22

Rings of Polynomials

199

If a person

knows

nothing

about

polynomials,

it is

not

precisely

the

nature

such a polynomial

of a polynomial in to be a finite formal


n

x with sum +

coefficients

an easy task to describe in a ring R. If we just define

22aix'

= ao

a\\x

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242

+ anx\",

where a,- e R, we get ourselves into a bit of trouble. For surely 0 + a\\x and 0 + a\\x but we want to regard them Ox2 are different as formal as the same polynomial. sums, as an infinite formal sum solution to this problem is to define a polynomial practical

+
A

oo

2^ajXl
(=0

flo

+ a\\x

+ '

''

+ anx\"

' '

'

where
more

a,-

than

there is no problem of having number of values of i. Now 0 for all but a finite one formal sum representwhat we wish to consider a single polynomial.

22.1 Definition

Let

R be a

ring.

polynomial
oo

f{x) = ao

with coefficients

in

R is

an

infinite

formal

sum

2_\\ciix' (=0

a.\\x

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 + a\342\200\236x\" \342\226\240 + \342\226\240 \342\226\240,

at e R and a,- = 0 for all but a finite number of values of i. The a,- are coefficients of f{x). If for somei > 0 it is true that a,- ^ 0, the largest such value of i is the degree J of f{x). If all a,- = 0, then the degree of f{x) is undefined
where
To

\342\226\240

simplify

\342\226\240\342\226\240 has + \342\226\240 at a\342\200\236xn

working with polynomials, let us agree that = 0 for i > n, then we may denote f(x)
1 ^

if f{x)
by

= ao
+ Q\\x

+
+

a\\x

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240

a0

1- a\342\200\236xn.

lxk in such a sum as xk. For example, Ix as 2 + x. Finally, we shall agree that we may omit altogether from the formal sum any term Ox', or a0 if ao = 0 but not all at = 0. Thus 0, 2, x, and 2 + x2 are polynomials with coefficients in Z. An element of R is a
Also,
in

if R

has

unity

0, we

will

write

a term

Z[x],

we will

write

the

polynomial

2 +

constant
Addition in

polynomial.
and

multiplication

of polynomials

with

coefficients

in a ring R

are defined

a way

familiar

to us. If

f(x) =
and

a0

+ axx

h anx\"

g(x)
then

= bo

biX

--- +

+ \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240, b\342\200\236xn

for polynomial
f(x)

addition, we have = co +
C]_x H

+ g(x)

h cnxn

where

c\342\200\236 + b\342\200\236, a\342\200\236

The degree of the zero polynomial is sometimes defined to be \342\200\224 1, which is the first integer less than 0, or to be \342\200\224that the degreeof f(x)g(x) oo so will be the sum of the degrees of f(x) and g(x) if one of is zero. them
defined

'

200

Part IV

Rings and

Fields

and

for

polynomial

multiplication,
d0

we have
H

f(x)g(x) =
Observe definitions

+ dxx

h d\342\200\236x\" H
but

where

d\342\200\236

^=0

aib\342\200\236-i

that

make

both c, and dt are 0 for all sense. Note that J2'i=oa'bn-i

a finite

need

number of values of i, not equal J2\"=obian-i if

so these
R

is not

commutative. theorem.

With these definitions

of addition

and multiplication,

we have

the

following

22.2 Theorem

The set R[x]


ring

of

all polynomials

in an indeterminate

x
If R

with

coefficients

under
if

polynomial

addition

and
1 is

multiplication.

is commutative,

then

in a ring R is a so is R[x],

and
Proof

R has

unity

1^0.

then

also

unity

for

R[x].

That {R[x], +) and the distributive We illustrate by


Applying

law is apparent. The associative but slightly cumbersome, straightforward, the associative law. proving to at, bj, ck e R, we obtain axioms ring

is an

abelian

group

for

multiplication computations.

laws

are

2>*'')

2>,v

J=0

ckx

J2
,,=0

ckx \302\243*'\342\226\240*\302\273-'\342\226\240*\"

\\ ('=0

.4=0

J2
n=0

(Ea'fc\302\253-''

\\ i=0

E(

aibJck)xs
Efc
,;=o

E
5-0

E^-\342\204\242 m=0

J^m-j

m=0 \\ j=0
oo

/
\\

\302\260\302\260

./=0

/ \\i=0

Whew!!
should

under value

the fourth expression, having computation, just two summation signs, as the value of the triple product f (x)g{x)h(x) of thesepolynomials this associative we view f(g(h(x))) as the fashion, multiplication. (In a similar of the associative composition (f o g o h){x) of three functions f, g, and h.)
In

this

be

viewed

The distributive
The ring

if

definition

are similarly proved. (See Exercise26.) to the statement of the theorem show that R [x] is a commutative R is commutative, and a unity 1 ^ 0 in R is also unity for R[x], in view of the in R[x]. of multiplication \342\231
laws comments

prior

Thus

Z[x]
ring

is the

ring

of polynomials

Q[x] the

of polynomials

in x

with

rational

in the indeterminate x with integral and so on. coefficients,

coefficients,

Section22

Rings

of Polynomials

201

22.3 Example

In la

[x

], we

have

(x +
Still working
in

1)2= {x+ l)(x+ 1)


obtain

x2 +

(1 +

l)x + 1 = x2

1.

7Li\\_x\\, we

(x +
Ifi?

1) + (x + 1)= (1+ l)x


and

(1 +
then

1) = Ox +
we

0 = 0.
the ring
(/?[>])[)>],

\342\226\262

is a ring
ring

and*
of

y are

two inde terminates,

can form

that

is, the

polynomial
naturalway

in

that are polynomials in x. Every in y with coefficients polynomials that are polynomials in x can be rewritten in a with coefficients in x
with

as a polynomial

coefficients

that

are polynomials

in

y as

illustrated

to (/?[)>])[;t], 20. This indicates that isomorphic (R [*])[>'] is naturally a careful these rings by means of this natural although proof is tedious. We shall identify isomorphism, and shall consider this ring R[x, y] the ring of polynomials in two inde\342\226\240 in in R. The ring R[xi, \342\226\240 of polynomials terminates x and y with coefficients \342\226\240, x\342\200\236] the n indeterminates defined. xt with coefficients in R is similarly We leave as Exercise 24 the proof that if D is an integral domain then so is D[x]. In is not a field, for if F is a field, then is an integral domain. Note that F[x] F[x] particular, x is not a unit in F[x]. That is, there is no polynomial f(x) e F[x]such that xf(x) = 1. of F[x]. Any element F{x) By Theorem21.5,one can construct the field of quotients in F{x) can be represented as a quotient of two polynomials in F[x] with f{x)/g{x) of F[x\\, define F(x\\, \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240, of quotients to be ---,.\302\275]. g(x) ^ 0. We similarly x\342\200\236) the field \342\226\240 This field F{x\\, \342\226\240 is the field of rational functions in n indeterminates over F. \342\226\240, x\342\200\236) These fields play a very important role in algebraic geometry.

by Exercise

The
We

Evaluation
are

Homomorphisms
used to study what we F be fields, with F the existence of very important will be the fundamental tools
can be
Let

to proceed to show how homomorphisms to as \"solving a polynomial equation.\" a subfield of E, that is, F < E. The next theorem asserts of F[x] into E. These homomorphisms homomorphisms for much of the rest of our work.
now ready

have

always

referred

E and

22.4 Theorem

(The Evaluation E, let a be any


defined

Homomorphisms element

for

Field Theory)
an

Let F
The

be a

subfield
4>a

of a field
: F[x]
\342\200\224*E

of E,

and let x be

indeterminate.

map

by

4>a(aa +axx
for
+ (\302\253o
and (f>a

h anxn)

= a0

+ axa -\\

\\-

anan

a\\x
maps

a,

homomorphism

e + anxn) F isomorphically 4>a is evaluation

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240

F[x] is ahomomorphism of F[x] into E. Also, 4>a{x) = that is, 4>a{a) = aforae f. The by the identity map; at a.
in

Proof

The

subfield

and mapping

diagram
an

Fig.

22.5

may help us

to

visualize is really

this

situation.

The dashed

lines indicate

element

of the

set. The theorem

an immediate

IV

Rings and

Fields

[fix]] N

a = <pa{x)

\"\342\226\240 a = (pa{a)

22.5

Figure

consequence

of our
that

definitions

of

addition

well defined,

is,

independent

of our

representation of f{x) e F[x]as


H

and multiplication

in

F[x].

The

a finite

map 0a is sum

a0 + axx
since

h a\342\200\236x\",

such

a finite which

of terms
If

Ox',

f(x) + g(x)= co

f(x) =

sum representing f(x) can be changed does not affect the value of 4>a(f(x))+

only

by insertion
+ bmxm,

or deletion
and

+ \302\253o axx

+ cxx +

\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240 = bo + a\342\200\236xn, g(x) \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240

b\\x

\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240

h{x) =

crxr,

then

\302\242(^(/^)

+ g(x))

= 4>a{h{x)) =

Co

qa

crar,

while =

0\302\253(/(^))

+ Mg(x))

(a0 +

aia + ---+ anan)


addition

(b0 +

bxa +

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240

+ bmam).

Since by definition

of polynomial
Mf(x)

we have c,-

a,-

+ fc,-, we

see that

+ g(x)) =
we see that
= d0

Mf(x)) +
if

$a(g(x)).

Turning

to multiplication,

f(x)g(x)

dxx

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240

+ dsxs,

then

t>a{f{x)g{x)) = d0 +
while

dia + ---+ dsas

[<M/(*))H<MS(*))]

+ (\302\253o

axa

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 + a\342\200\236a\") (bo

+ bxa

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240

+ bmam).

Section

22

Rings of Polynomials

203

Since by

definition

of polynomial
fa(f(x)g(x))

multiplication dj = X!/=oaibj-i,
= [0a

we seethat

(/(*))] [0a(g(* ))]\342\200\242 F[x], where a


Again

Thus

4>a is a

homomorphism.
definition polynomial by the identity

of 0a applied to a constant so 0a maps F isomorphically gives 4>a{a) of 0a, we have 4>a{x) = <j)a{\\x) = la = a.

The

very

a e

e F.
\342\231\246

= a,

map.

by definition

with the identical proof if F point out that this theorem is valid commutative rings with unity rather than fields. However, we shall be they are fields. primarily in the case in which We

and

are

merely

interested

It is hard to overemphasize the importance of this simple theorem for us. It is the very It is so simple that it could justifiably foundation for all of our further work in field theory. a little misleading to write be called an observation rather than a theorem. It was perhaps that notation makes it look so complicated out the proof because the polynomial you it is a difficult theorem. may be fooled into thinking

22.6

Example

Let F be Q and E be E 0o : QM -+ E. Here


+ 0o(\302\253o Thus

in

Theorem

22.4,

and consider

the

evaluation

homomorphism

a\\x +

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 = + a\342\200\236x\")ao

+ \302\253i0

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242

+ anQ\"

\302\253o-

every

polynomial
E

is mapped onto its Theorem 22.4

constant

term. the evaluation

\342\226\262

22.7

Example

be Q and : QM -+ K02
Let F

be E in

and

consider

homomorphism

Here = + a\342\200\236x\")a0

+ 02(\302\2530 Note

a\\x

+ a{l

a\342\200\2362\".

that +x

4>2{x2

- 6)
of 02-

22

2-6

= 0.

Thus x2 + x

\342\200\224 6 is

in the

kernel TV
x2 +x

Of course,

-6 = (x -2){x + 3),
that

and

the reason

that 02(;t2

+x

- 6) = 0 is
22.4

02(;t

-2)

2-2 = 0.

\342\226\262

22.8

Example

Let F

be Q and E be C 0; :Q[x] -+ C.Here


0,-(ao

in Theorem

and

consider

the evaluation

homomorphism

+ a\\x

1-

anxn)

= a0

+ axi

-\\

\\-

anin

and 4>i{x)

= i.

Note that
kix2

+ 1)

= i2+1

= 0,

so x2

1 is

in the

kernel TV* of

204

Part

IV

Rings and

Fields

22.9Example

Let
0JT

F be
: Q[x]

and

let

E be

in

Theorem

22.4

and consider

the

evaluation

homomorphism

-> E.

Here
H

fa(a0 + a^x
It can
Thus

h anx\")

= a0

aXTZ

-\\

+ if a,- =

an7tn.

be provedthat the kernel of


in

a0

+ a\\Tt +

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 = 0 + a\342\200\2367t\"

if and

only

Ofon

= 0,

\342\200\242 n. 1, \342\200\242 \342\200\242

polynomials
way

it =

is map. This {0}, and \302\242^ a one-to-one with rational coefficients form a ring isomorphic
4>M is

shows that

all formal

to Q[x] in a

natural

with

n. (j>\342\200\236(x)

\342\226

The

New

Approach
the connection

We now
solving

complete a polynomial

shall

refer to finding
F

a zero

equation. of a

between our Rather than speak

new

ideas

and

of solving

the classical concept of a polynomial equation, we

polynomial.
and

22.10Definition

Let

be a subfield
22.4.

of a field E,

a\\x

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 be in + a\342\200\236x\"

of Theorem

Let

element of E. Let f{x) = a0 + E be F[x], and let 0a : F[x] ->\342\200\242 the evaluation homomorphism f(a) denote
let

a be an

4>a{f{x))=
If f(a)
In

a0

+ axa

h ana\".

= 0, then
terms

a is a

zero of

f(x).
can rephrase

\342\226

of this
that

definition,

we

, numbers

r such

r2

+ r

- 6=

0 by

letting

F =

the classical problem of finding Q and E = E and finding

all alia

real e E

such

that

4>a{x2
that

+x

- 6)

= 0,
the

is, finding

all zeros

6 in of x1 + x \342\200\224E. Both problems have


6)

same

answer, since

{a e
It

E |$a{x2 x +
that we have
In fact,

0} =

[r e

E | r2
phrase

- 6

= 0} = {2,-3}.
problem seem quite
in

may

seem

in merely succeeded

making

a simple the problem


that

complicated.

what we have
use
its

done is to

the

language

of

mappings, and we can now to develop for will continue


Our

all the
solution.

mapping machinery

we

have

developed

and

Basic

Goal
to

We continue
concerned
and

attempt
in

to put
ring

our

with topics
rings

theory

homomorphisms

for group will

in perspective. Sections 26 and 27 are on factor groups analogous to the material theory. However, our aim in developing these analogous
future

work

that are

from our aims in group theory. be quite different In group the concepts of factor groups and homomorphisms to study the structure of a given group and to determine the types of group structures of certain orders that about homomorphisms and factor could exist. We will be talking rings in Section 26

conceptsfor
theory

we

used

Section22
with an eye to
fundamental

Rings

of Polynomials

205

finding

zeros

of polynomials,

problems

in algebra.
history,

mathematical

using

which is one of the Let us take a moment to talk about the language of \"solving polynomial

oldest

and most
in

this aim

the

equations\"

light of to which

we are accustomed.
start with the Pythagorean We school of mathematics 525 B.C. The of about that all distances are commensurable: that Pythagoreans worked with the assumption a and b, there should exist a unit of distance u and integers ;; and m is, given distances and b = (m)(u). In terms such that a = {n){u) of numbers, then, thinking of a as being one unit of distance, they maintained that all numbers are integers. This idea of comcan be rephrased according our ideas as an assertion that all numbers to mensurability are rational, for if a and b are rational numbers, then each is an integral multiple of the For example, if a = reciprocal of the least common multiple of their denominators. -^ = (35)(^) and b = (76)(^). and b = |f, then a The Pythagoreans knew, the Pythagorean of course, what is now called theorem; of length that b and a hypotenuse c, is, for a right triangle with legs of lengths a and a2 +

b2 =

c2.

had to grant the existence of a right triangle two also of a hypotenuse having of such a right triangle would, say one unit each. The hypotenuse legs of equal length, consternation and as we know, have to have a length of V2. Imagine then their one of their society\342\200\224according himself\342\200\224 to some stories it was Pythagoras dismay when in our terminology in the following is stated came up with the embarrassing fact that
They

theorem.

22.11 Theorem

The polynomial
number.

x2

\342\200\224 2 has

no zeros

in

the

rational

numbers.

Thus y/2 is

not

a rational

Proof

Suppose that
that
lowest

m/n

for m, n
any

e Z is a rational
factors

number

such

that (m/n)2

= 2. We

assume

we have canceled
terms

common

to m and n,

so that

the

fraction

with gcd(m, n)

= 1. Then
m
\342\200\224 2n ,

m/n

is

in

where

both m2

and

2n2 we

factor of 2n2, m2 has as factorsthe 2n2 must have two as a factor. We have
2 is a
contradicting
for

are integers. see that 2 of m

Since m2 and
must

2n2

are the

same

integer,

and

since

be

one

of the

factors of m2.

But

as a square.

factors

factors
deduced
that

2, so n2
the

the fact

repeated twice. Thus m2 must have two factors 2. Then must have 2 as a factor, and consequently ;; has 2 from m2 = 2n2 that both m and n must be divisible by 2, fraction terms. Thus we have 2 ^ (m/n)2 m/n is in lowest
\342\231\246

any m, n e
Thus

Z.
ran
right

the Pythagoreans

into

equation, x2

- 2

= 0. We

the question

of a solution
3],

of a

polynomial

refer

the student
Pythagorean

to Shanks
dilemma

[36, Chapter
and its

for a lively
in

and

totally

delightful

account

of this

significance

mathematics.

206

Part

IV

Rings and

Fields

\342\226\240 Historical

Note
of polynomial mathematics developed

solution

equations

has been a

carry

out

the

computation rational
fact,

to as

many

places the

as

The goalof
Babylonians

for nearly 4000 years. The versions of the quadratic

necessary
distinction between

and could

thereforeignore

quadratic equations. For example, to solve x2 \342\200\224 870, the Babylonian scribe x = to take half of 1 (|), square it instructed his students and add that to 870. The squareroot of 870|, (|), is then added to | to give 30 as the namely 291, was the scribes did not discuss, answer. What however, what to do if the square root in this process was not a rational number. Chinese mathematicians, however, from about 200 B.C., discovered a method similar to what is now called Horner's method to solve since they used numerically; equations quadratic a decimal system, they were able in principle to
formula

to solve

Chinese, in
techniques

extended

and irrational solutions. The their numerical


Persian

to

polynomial
world,

In the

Arab

Omar Khayyam for solving cubic equations geometrically by of intersection of appropriately finding the point(s) while Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi chosen conic sections, (died u 1213)sed, in effect, techniques of calculus to or not a cubic equation had a real determine whether positive root. It was the Italian Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576)who first published a procedure for solving cubic equations

equations of higher degree. poet-mathematician methods (1048-1131) developed


the

algebraically.

In our of a group, we commented on the of motivation of the definition necessity such as x + 2 = 0 might have solutions. having negative numbers, so that equations caused a certain amount of consternation in some The introduction of negative numbers circles. We can visualize 1 apple,2 apples,and even j| apples, but how can philosophical and say that it is \342\200\22417 consideration of the equation we point to anything Finally, apples? of the number i. The very name of an \"imaginary x2 + 1 = 0 led to the introduction number\" this number was regarded. Even today, students many given to i shows how are led by this name to regard i with some degree of suspicion. The negative numbers were introduced to us at such an early stage in our mathematical that we development

accepted them
We first

without

question.

in high school freshman algebra. The first there problem in both freshman was to learn how to add, multiply, and factor polynomials. Then, algebra in the second course in algebra and in high school, considerable emphasiswas placed on solving polynomial equations. These topics are exactly those with which we shall be concerned. The difference is that while in high school, only polynomials with real

met polynomials

shall be doing our work with for polynomials coefficients from any field. Once we have developed the machinery of homomorphisms and factor rings in Section with our basic goal: to show that given any polynomial of 26, we will proceed of the polynomial may be from degree > 1, where the coefficients any field, we can find a zero of this polynomial in some field containing the given field. After the machinery is developed in Sections 26 and 27, the achievement of this goal will be very easy, and is really a very elegant piece of mathematics. All this fuss may seem ridiculous, but just think back in history. This is the than 2000 years of mathematical in working with polynomial culmination of more endeavor the After achieving our basic goal, we shall spend the rest of our time studying equations.

number coefficients were considered, e w

Section

22

Exercises

207

nature

of these

this material. should

solutions of polynomial equations. We need have no fear in approaching We shall be dealingwith familiar topics of high school algebra. Tins work-

seem much In conclusion,


really

more natural we remark

than that

group theory. the machinery of factor rings


basic

is not
ideas

necessary
[27,

in order for us to achieve our

goal.

and ring homomorphisms For a direct demonstration,

see Artin
that

p. 29].

However, factor rings

we should

grasp,

and

our

basic

are fundamental ring homomorphisms once we have goal will follow very easily
and

mastered them.

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

22

Computations
In

Exercises

1 through

4,

find

the

sum and

the

product

of the

given polynomials

in

the

given

polynomial

ring.

1. f(x) = Ax Ax + 2 in Z8[x}. = x + 1,g{x) = x + 1 in Z2[x]. 2. f(x) 3. f{x) = 2x2 + 3x + 4, g(x) = 3x2 + 2x + 3 in Z6[x]. 4. f{x) = 2x3 + Ax2 + 3x + 2, gix) = 3x4 + 2x + A in
- 5,

g{x) = 2x2 -

Z5[x].

5. How

many

polynomials

are there

of degree <

in Z2M? Z5 [x]?

(Include 0.) (Include 0.)


for

6.
In

How

many

polynomials

are

there of degree< 2 in
in Theorem

Exercises

7 and
+ 3)

8, F

= \302\243 C =

22.4. Compute

the indicated

evaluation homomorphism.

7.

faix2

8. ^i2x3

-x2+3x
the

+ 2)
evaluation

In Exercises

9 through

11, F
3x2

= E = Z7

in Theorem

22.4. Compute for 10. 05[(x3

indicated

homomorphism.

9. &[ix4

+ 2x)ixi + 5x\"

+ 3)]
[Hint:

2)iAx2

+ 3)(x7

+ 3x2

+ 1)]

11. 04(3x106

+ 2x53)
15, find
way

Use

Fermat's

theorem.] finite field of


the

In Exercises 12 through that field. [Hint: One 12. x2


14. x5

is simply

all zeros in the indicated to try all candidates!]

given

polynomial

with coefficients

in

+ 1 in

Z2
2x

13. x3
in Z5

+ 2x +

2 in

Z7

+ 3x3 + x2 +
where

15. fix)gix)
16.

fix)

= x3

+ 2x2 + 5 and

gix)

= 3x2

+ 2x
in

in

Z7

Let

ipa

: Zs[x]

\342\200\224> Z5 be

an evaluation homomorphism as

Theorem

22.4.

Use Fermat's theorem

to

evaluate

03 ix231

+3x111 -2x53
theorem

+ l).
find

17.

Use

Fermat's

to

all zeros

in Z5 of 2x219 +

3x1A

+ 2x51

+ 3x44.

Concepts
In

Exercises

18 and
it is

19, correct the


in a form

definition

of the

italicized term

without

reference

to the

text, if correction is

needed, so that

acceptablefor publication.

208

Part

IV

Rings and

Fields
R is an =

18. A

polynomial

with coefficients

in oo

a ring

infinite

formal

sum

y]atx'
i=0

flo

+ o\\x

+ a2X2

+ a\342\200\236xn + \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240

where
19.

a,-

/? for \342\202\254 2

0, 1,2,

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242.

Let F is the

be a field and let f(x) e f[i]. Aze/wo//(x)isana x into a. evaluation homomorphism mapping
element

e F such

that

0a(/(x))

= 0, where

0a

: F(;c)

-\302\273 F

20. Considerthe

f{x,
of

y) =

(3x3 +

2x)y3

(x2 -6x+

l);y2 + (x4 -

2x)y

(x4

- 3x2 +

2)
of the

(QM)[;y]the

Write

f(x, y) as it

would

appear

if viewed

as an

element

of (Q[j])M.
in

21. Consider
05homomorphism

evaluation

homomorphism

05 : Q[x]

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 R. Find

six elements

the

kernel

22.

Find a polynomial

of degree>0 in
following

Iii[x]

that is a unit.

23. Mark each of the

true or
(anxn

false.
+
1-

a. Thepolynomial
b. If R

a\\x

flo)

\342\202\254 R[x]

is 0

if

and

only if

a,-

0, for

0, 1,

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 n. \342\200\242,

R[x] is commutative. ring, then D[x] is an integral domain. c. If D is an integral domain, d. If R is a ring containing divisors of 0, then has divisors of 0. R[x] e. If R is a ring and f(x) and g(x) in R[x] are of degrees3 and 4, respectively, then f(x)g(x) may be of degree 8 in R[x]. f. If Ris any ring and f(x) and g(x) in R[x] are of degrees 3 and 4, respectively, then f(x)g(x) is

is a commutative

then

always

of degree

7.
E and

g. If F is a subfield all g(jc) e F[x].

\342\202\254 a \302\243 is

zero of

/(x) e F[;c],then

a is a

zero of

h(x) =

f(x)g(x)for

h. If F is a field,
i. If
R

is a

j.
Theory

If

R is a

in F. then the units in F[x] are precisely the units then x is never a divisor of 0 in R [x ]. ring, the ring, then the zero divisors in R[x] are precisely zero

divisors

in R.

24. Prove
25. Let

that

if D

is

an

integral

domain,

then D[x] is
an

an

integral

domain.

D be an

integral

domain
in D[x].

and x

indeterminate.

a. Describe b. Find

the units the units in


the
left

Z[x].
Z7

c.
26. 27.

Find

units

in

[x].

Prove the

distributive

law for

Let F be a field

of characteristic D(oq

R is a ring and x is an indeterminate. R[x], where D be the formal polynomial differentiation zero and let

map, so that

a.\\x

+ a2X2

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242

+ anxn)

a\\

+ 2

\342\226\240 \342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242 + +n \342\200\242 \302\2532* a\342\200\236x\"~l.

a.

ShowthatD

: F[x]

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 F[x]

isagroup

homomorphism

of {F[x], +) into

itself.

Is Da ring

homomorphism?

Section 23

Factorization

of Polynomials

over a

Field

209

b. Find
c.
28.
Find

the the

kernel image
subfield

of D. of F[x]
of a
under

D.

Let F be a

field E.
homomorphism
: F[xu ---,\302\276] 0\302\253,,...,\302\253\342\200\236 ->

a. Define an

evaluation

for

a,-

\342\202\254 \302\243,

stating

b. With
c.

the analog of Theorem 22.4. = F = Q, compute + \302\242-3,2(^1\302\2763

3^14\302\276).

the concept in the text definition


Define
R be a

of a zero of
of a RR

a polynomial

{x\\,

\342\226\240 \302\243 \342\226\240 \342\226\240, F[x\\, xn)

\342\226\240 in \342\226\240 \342\226\240, xn]

a way

analogous

to

the

zero of

f(x).
functions

29. Let
by

ring, and let

be the

set of all

mapping

R into

R. For

e \302\242,^/

RR, define

the sum \302\242+11/

(0+^)(r)
and

= 0(r)

+ ^(r)

the

product

\342\200\242 \342\226\240f by

(0

\342\200\242

i;){r)

= 0(rW)
that

for r efi. 30.


Referring

Note

that

\342\200\242 is not

function composition.

Show

(RR, +,

is a \342\200\242)

ring.
function

to Exercise that

29, let F
0(a)

be a

field.
all

An element
a e

of \302\242)FF

is a polynomial
of

on

F, if there

exists

f(x) e F[x]such
a.
Show

= f(a) for
polynomial

F. on F forms a
subring

that

the set

Pf of all

functions

FF.
that

b. Show that

the

F[x] don't

PF is not necessarily isomorphicto F[x]. ring even have the same number of elements.]

[Hint:

Show

if F

is a

finite

field,

PF and

31. Refer

to Exercises
many

29 and

30 for the
(Z3 Zl,

following

questions.
Z^z,l

a. How

elements

are there in

Z2Zi? in

b. Qassify

(Z2Zl, +} and

+} by Theorem
then FF

11.12,the

Fundamental

Theorem

of

finitely

generated

abelian

groups.

c.

Show

Note

if F is a finite that if .
that

field,

= PF. [Hint:

Of course,

PF c

FF. LetF have

as elements

a \\,

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240, a\342\200\236.

f,(x) =
then

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 c(x - a{) \342\226\240 at-i)(x - ai+l) \342\226\240 a\342\200\236), (x (x

fi(cij)

= 0
function

for

j on

that every

j^ i, and the value ft (at) F is a polynomial function.]

can be controlledby

the

choice

of c

e F. Usethis

to show

SECTION

23

Factorization
Recall

of Polynomials
concerned
that with

over a Field
zeros

that

we are

finding

with F
g(x),h(x)

< E.

Suppose

f{x)

e F[x]

factors

\342\202\254 F[x]

and let

a e

E. Now

for

of polynomials. Let E and so that f(x) = in F[x], the evaluation homomorphism


(pa(g(x))(t>a{h(x))

be fields,
we

g{x)h(x) for
<j>a,

have

f(a)

= = <t>a{f{x))

= (pa(g(x)h(x))

g(a)h(a).
attempt f(x).

Thus if a e E, then f(a) and only if find a zero of f(x) is reducedto the problem is one reason why it is useful to study factorization
= 0 if

either g(a) = 0 or h(a) = 0.The of finding a zero of a factor of of polynomials.

to This

Part IV

Rings and

Fields

The Division Algorithm in F[x]


The

following

theorem
algorithm

is the

basic tool for our


Z given in

work

in this
the

section. Note
importance

the

similarity

with

the division

for

Theorem 6.3,

of which

has

been amply
23.1

demonstrated.

Theorem

(Division Algorithm

for F[x]) Let

f{x) = anxn
and

H a\342\200\236-i*\"_1

H \302\253o

g(x)

= bmxm +
and a\342\200\236bm

bm~\\xm~l

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240

b0

be two
where

elements of F[x], with there are unique polynomials


either

q(x)
degree

and
of

r(x)
set

= 0 or

the

elements of F and m > 0. Then + r(x) in F[x] such that f(x) = g{x)q{x) r{x), r(x) is less than the degree m of g(x).
both nonzero
there

Proof

Considerthe
such
that

f{x) done.

we are
for

S = {f(x) - g(x)s(x) s(x) e F[x]}. If 0 e S then \\ = q{x) g(x)s(x) = 0, so f(x) = g(x)s(x). Taking

exists

s{x) and
S. Then

r(x) = 0,

an s(x)

Otherwise,

let r{x)

be an

element

of minimal

degree

in

f(x)
some

= g(x)q(x)
that the

q(x)

e F[x].

We must

show

+ r(x) degree of r(x) is lessthan


1-

m.

Suppose

that

r(x) =
with
Cj

H c,x' + c,-xx'~l

co,

F and

c, ^

0. If
form

t >

m, then

f(x)-q(x)g(x)-(ct/bm)x'-mg(x)
and

= r(x)-(ct/bm)x'-mg(x),
of lower degree),
the degree of r (x). However,

(1)

the

latter

is of

the

r(x)
which

\342\200\224

(c,x'

+ terms

is a

polynomial

in Eq.

(1) can be written


in S,

of degree lowerthan
in the

t, the

polynomial

form

fix)
so

fact

+ g{x)[q{x) (c,/bm)x'-m],
that r(x) was selected to m of g(x). the degree
= g(x)ql(x)

it is
the

contradicting

the

have minimal

degree

in S.

Thus

degree

of r(x)

is less than

For uniqueness,if
f{x)
and

+ rl(x) + r2(x),
-

fix)
then

= g(x)q2(x)

subtracting

we have

g(x)[qi(x) Because either r2(x)


\342\200\224

- q2(x)]=
or
the

r2(x)

r^x).
\342\200\224

rx(x)

= 0

degree

of r2(x)

r\\{x)

is less than

of g{x),this
r2(x)
\342\200\224

the degree
must

can

hold

only if q\\{x)
r\\{x)

\342\200\224

q2(x)

= 0

so

q\\{x)

q2(x).

Then we

have

ri(x)

= 0

so

r2(x).

\342\2

We

can

compute

the polynomials
in M.[x]

q(x) and
in high

r(x)

of Theorem

23.1

by

long

division

just as

we divided polynomials

school.

Section23

Factorization

of Polynomials

over a

Field

211

23.2Example

Let

us work with

polynomials

in

Z5 [x]

and divide
3x3

f(x) =x4
by

2x3 + Ax

- 1 23.1. The long


example,
Ax

g{x)

= x2

\342\200\224

2x

+ 3

to

find

q{x)

andr(x)

of Theorem
Zs[x],

division

should

be easy to follow,

but

remember

that we x

are in
x

so, for

\342\200\224 = (\342\200\2243.v> 2x.

\342\200\224

x-2x

,-4 + 3 ;r -

3x3

2x2

+ Ax

- 1

x4

\342\200\224

2x3

+ 3x~

- x3
\342\200\224

x2

Ax
3x

x3

+ 2x~

\342\200\224

- 3x2

3x2

+ 2x -- 1 x - -4 + x +
3

Thus
q{x)

= x2

\342\200\224 \342\200\224

3,

and

r(x) = x

+ 3.
first

We

give

three

important
the

school algebrafor
mapping

(homomorphism)

corollaries of Theorem23.1.The case F[x] = Rpc]. We phrase special 22. approach described in Section
element

one

our proof

appears in high in terms of the

23.3 Corollary

(Factor Theorem) An a factor of f(x) in F[x].


Suppose that

a e

F is a zero of f(x) f{a) =

e F[x]

if

and

only

if x

\342\200\224 a is

Proof

for a
such

&

we

have

0. By

Theorem

23.1,

there

exist

q(x),

r(x)

\342\202\254 F[x]

that

f(x) = (x
where for

-a)q(x) + r(x),
is less
than

either c e

r(x)

= 0 or

the

degree

of r(x)

1. Thus

we must have

r(x) = c

F, so

/(-*) =
Applying

(-^

a)q(x)
:

+ c.
\342\200\224>\342\226\240 F of

our

evaluation

homomorphism,
0 =

4>a

F[x]

Theorem

22.4, we find

/(a)

= 0q(a)

+ c,
f{x).
applying

so it

must

be that
if

c=
x

0. Then
\342\200\224 a a is

Conversely,

= (x \342\200\224 so x \342\200\224a factor of a is a)q(x), /(x) factor of f{x) in F[x], where a e F, then

our
\342\231\246

evaluationhomomorpohism4>a

to f{x)

= (x \342\200\224 a)q(x),v/ehave

(a) = 0q(a)

= 0.

212

Part

IV

Rings and

Fields

23.4Example

Working

again

in Zs[x], note

that

1 is a

zero of eZ5W.
factor

(x4 +
Thus
by

3x3

+2*+4)

Corollary

23.3,
find

we should
factorization

be ableto

x4 +

3x3 +

2x + 4

into

(x

Y)q

(x)

in Zs[x].

Let us

the

by long

division.
Ax

x3 +
x ~l

Ax2

+ +

+ 1
2x +

x4 +

3x3

4x3

4x3 --4x2
4x2

2x

4x2

- 4x

x+
x

Thus x4 + 3x3 a zero of x3 +

2x +

4 = (x
+

4x2 + 4x

- 1)03+ 4x2
r +4

4x +
this

1) in

Z5[x].

Since by x

1 is

seen
get

to

be

1 also,

we can divide

polynomial

\342\200\224 1 and

x~

x3

4x2

+ 4x

+ 1

+ 4x + 1
4x

-4

Since x2 +

4 still

has

1 as a

zero, we

can divide
x + 1

again

by x

\342\200\224 1 and

get

+4 x+
x
4

0 Thus x4 +
The
3x3

2x +
should

4 = (x
also

- l)3(x+ 1)in
look

Z5[x].

next corollary
polynomial

familiar.

23.5 Corollary

nonzero

f(x)

e F[x]

of degreen

can

have

at most

zeros

in a field

F.

Section 23

Factorization

of Polynomials

over a

Field

213

Proof

The

preceding

corollary

shows that if
f(x)

a\\

F is a

zero of

fix),

then

= ix

-ai)qiix),
\342\200\224 1. A

where, of course,the
factorization

degree

of qiix)

is

zero a2

&

of q\\(x)

then results

in

fix)
Continuing

= ix
at

- ai)ix -

a2)q2ix).

this process,

we arrive
fix)

= ix

- ai)
side

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242

ix

ar)qrix),
of fix)

where qr(x) has no further \342\200\224 ix a,-) can appear on the

zeros right-hand

in F.
F, then

Since

the

degree

is n,

at

most

n factors

of the

preceding equation,

so r

< n.

Also, if

b ^ a; for

i =

1,

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 r and \342\200\242,

&

fib)

= ib-ai)---ib-ar)qrib)^Q,
and

since F
the
Our

has

no

divisors

of 0

none
the

of b
zeros

\342\200\224 or

a;

\342\200\242 r \342\200\242, a,- for i = 1, \342\200\242< n are all

in F

qr (b) are 0 by of fix).

construction.

Hence
\342\231\246

final

corollary

nonzero elements of a
surprising

that
that

the result inZ.

of the multiplicative F* of the structure group than with factorization in F[x]. It may at first seem such a result follows from the division in F[x], but recall that algorithm a subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic follows from the division algorithm
field

is concerned with
F, rather

23.6 Corollary

If G is a

finite

subgroup
the

of the

multiplicative

group

{F*,

of a \342\200\242)

field F,
finite

then

G is

In particular,

multiplicative

group

of all nonzero

elements of a

field

cyclic. is cyclic.

Proof

as By Theorem11.12

a finite abelian group, G is isomorphic to a directproduct Z,*, x where each dt is a power of a prime. Letus think of each of the Z^. as a Zdr, notation. Let m be the least common cyclic group of order dt in multiplicative multiple \342\200\242 of all the d; for i = 1, 2, \342\200\242 note that m < d\\d2- \342\226\240 a,- e Z^, then a; ' = 1, so If -dr. \342\200\242, r; a.m = 1 since d; divides m. Thus for all a e G, we have am = 1, so every elementof

Zd2 x

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 x

G is

zero of
in

xm

\342\200\224 But

1.

G has
prime

d\\d2

\342\226\240 \342\226\240

dr

elements,
> d\\d2

while xm
dr.

\342\200\224 1 can

have at most m
d\\d2 \342\226\240 so \342\226\240 \342\226\240

zeros

the

field

F by Corollary
in

23.5, so m

\342\226\240 Hence \342\226\240 \342\226\240

m =
and

dr,

the primes involved

the

isomorphic to
Exercises

the

cyclic

powers group Zm.

d\\,d2,--,dr

are distinct,
of

the group

G is
\342\231\246

5 through

some finite fields. The fact has been appliedin algebraic


Irreducible

8 ask us to find all generators that the multiplicative group


coding.

the

cyclic

groups

of units for
field

of units

of a finite

is cyclic

Polynomials
definition

Our next
importance school

to us. algebra

out a type of polynomial in singles The concept is probably already familiar. in a more general setting.

F[x] We

that

really

will be of utmost are doing high

214

Part

IV

Rings and

Fields
e F[x] isirreducible over be expressedas a product

23.7Definition

A nonconstant
polynomial

in

polynomial f(x) F[x] if f(x) cannot


in F[x]

g(x) and
is over

h(x)

both of

lower degreethan
not

the

is an irreducible of two polynomials g{x)h{x) of f(x). If f(x) e F[x] degree


F or

a nonconstant F.

polynomial

that is

irreducible

over

F, then

f{x) is

reducible
not

\342\226

just

that the preceding Note the concept irreducible.


if

definition A

concerns

polynomial

f(x)

be irreducible

viewed

over

a larger

field E

the concept irreducible over F and may be irreducible over F, but may F. We illustrate this. containing

not

23.8 Example

2 viewed in Q[x] has no zeros in Q. This shows that that x2 \342\200\224 2 = over Q, for a factorization x2 \342\200\224 (ax + b){cx + d) for a,b,c, 2 viewed in R[x] is not 2 in would give rise to zeros of x2 \342\200\224 Q. However, x2 \342\200\224 deQ \342\226 2 factors in R[x] into (x - */2)(x + V2). irreducible over R, because x2 \342\200\224
Theorem

22.11

shows

x2

\342\200\224 2 is

irreducible

It is worthwhile to remember that F. Thus we could have denned of

the

units

in F =

an irreducible f{x)

polynomial

such that in

any

factorization

the [x] areprecisely nonzero elements polynomial f{x) as a nonconstant g(x)h(x) in F[x], either g(x) or h(x)

is a unit.
23.9

Example

Let us show 3x +

that

f(x)

= x3

+ 3x

+ 2 viewed

in

Zs[x]

is irreducible

over Z5. If
would
then

x3

= -2, /(2) = 1, and /(0) = 2, /(1) = 1, = \342\200\2242, has no zeros in Z5. Thus f(x) is irreducible over that f(x) /(-2) showing and cubic Z5. This test for irreducibility by finding zeros works nicely for quadratic \342\226 over a finite field with a small number of elements. polynomials

2 factored in Zs[x] least one linear factorof be 0, by Corollary 23.3.

into
f(x)

of lower degree then there polynomials a for of the form x \342\200\224 some a e Z5. But

exist at would

f{a)

However,

/(-1)

Irreducible

polynomials
of determining
now

The problem
difficult.
illustrated

We

give for

will play a very important role in our work from now on. irreducible F may be whether a given f(x)&F[x]is over that are useful in certain cases. some criteria for irreducibility irreducibility

One technique

determining

of

quadratic

and

cubic

polynomials

was

in Examples

23.8 and

23.9. We

formalize

it in a

theorem. is reducible over F if


and

23.10 Theorem

Let f(x) e F[x],nd a


only if it has a

let F.

f(x)

be of

degree 2 or

3. Then

f(x)

zero in

Proof

is reducible so that f(x) = g(x)h(x), where the degree of g(x) and the degree of or cubic, h(x) are both less than the degree of f{x), then since f(x) is either quadratic either g(x) or h(x) is of degree 1.If, say, g(x) is of degree 1, then except for a possible factor in F, g(x) is of the form x \342\200\224 that f{a) = 0, so a. Then g{a) = 0, which implies f(x) has a zero in F.
If f(x)

Conversely, Corollary23.3shows of f(x), so f(x) is reducible.

that

if f(a)

= 0 for a

e F, then

a is x \342\200\224a

factor

\342\231

We turn to some conditions for irreducibility most important condition that we shall give is not this theorem here; it involves clearing prove

over

Q of

polynomials
the

in

Q[x].

The

contained in
denominators

next

theorem.

We shall
messy.

and gets a bit

Section

23

Factorization

of Polynomialsover

a Field

215

23.11 Theorem

If f(x)
r
and

e Z[x],then
and

f(x)
only

factors
if it

s in

Q[x] if and
s in 7L\\x\\.

into a product of has such a factorization

two

polynomials with

of lower

degrees

polynomials

of the

same
\342\231\246

degreesr
Proof 23.12

The proof If f(x) Q, then


If But

is omitted here.
x\"

Corollary

+ an-ixn~l

+
in Z, Q,

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240

it has a

zero m
a
in

+ a0 is in Z[x] and m must divide

with

a0

0, and if

fix) has a zero in 23.3. so for

a0\342\200\224

Proof

f(x) then

has a zero

then

/(x)

has a linear factor x

am

somem

by Theorem 23.11, e Z we must have

f(x) has a factorization with

a linear

Q[x] by Corollary factor in Z[x],

f(x) =
Thus ao/m

{x-

m)(xn~l

ao/m).
\342\231\246

is in

Z,

so m

divides oq.

23.13

Example

2 2 over Q, for x2 of the irreducibility of x2 Corollary 23.12 gives us another proof in Q[x] if and only if it has a zero in Q by Theorem 23.10. By factors nontrivially i Corollary23.12,t has a zero in Q if and only if it has a zero in Z, and moreover the only are the divisors \302\261 none of these numbers 1 and \302\2612 2. A check shows that of possibilities
\342\200\224

\342\200\224

2. is a zero of x2 \342\200\224

\342\226\262

23.14

Example

Let us

use Theorem23.11 to

show

that

f{x)
viewed

=x4-2x2

+ 8x +

zero in
either

has a linear factor in Q[x], then it has a Q[x] is irreducible over Q. If fix) and by Corollary 23.12, this zero would have to be a divisor in Z of 1, that is, Z, = 8, and /(-1) = \342\200\2248, But /(1) \302\2611. so such a factorization is impossible.
in
factors

If fix)
factorization.

into

two

quadratic

factors

in

Q[x],

then

by Theorem

23.11, it

has

ix2 +
in Z[x].
Equating

ax + b)ix2

ex +d)
that 2,

coefficients

of powers

of x, we find
b

we must and

have
a +

bd=l,
for

ad + be = 8,

ac+

+ d

\342\200\224

c= 0

In any

e Z. From either bd = 1, we see that b = d = lor b = d b = d and from ad + be = 8, we deduce that dia + c) = 8. But case, a factorization into two quadratic impossible since a + c = 0.Thus polynomials and is irreducible over Q. fix) impossible
integers

a, b,c,d

=
this

\342\200\224

1.

is

is also
\342\226\262

We
irreducibility.

conclude
An

additional

our irreducibility criteria with the famous Eisenstein useful criterion is given in Exercise 37. very
Let

criterion for

23.15 Theorem

(Eisenstein Criterion)
in Z[x], and
an

e Z
but

be a prime. Supposethat

fix)

= anxn
with

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242

+ a$

is

^k 0 (mod

p),
over

at = 0

(mod p) for all i < n,

ao

# 0

(mod p2).

Then fix)

is

irreducible

Q.

216

Part

IV

Rings

and

Fields

Proof

By Theorem23.11we need lower degreein Z[x]. If


f{x) is a factorization
that in

only

show that f(x)

does not

factor

into

polynomials

of

(brxr +
^ 0,

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240

b0)(csxs

c0)

Z[x],
not

bo and cq

are

both

co = 0 (mod Let m be the

p).

Now

smallest

cs ^0andr,s < \302\253,thenao # 0 (mod p2) implies that modulo p. Suppose \302\243>o0 (mod p) and congruent # = brcs. 0 (mod p) implies that br,cs a\342\200\236 ^0 (mod p), sincea\342\200\236 ^ value of k such that q ^ 0 (mod /?).Then
withfor

to 0

<Zm \342\200\224 boCm

+ b\\Cm-\\

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242

fcmCo if

m, brcm-r if r < m.

r >

The

\342\200\242 \342\200\242, cm_i, \342\200\242 are all co p while congruent to 0 modulo s = n, congruent to 0 modulo p implies that am ^ 0 modulo p,som =n. Consequently, was nontrivial. contradicting our assumption that s < n; that is, that our factorization

fact

that neither

fo0

nor

cm are

\342\231\

Note

that

if we take

p = 2, the
Q.

Eisenstein

criterion

gives us

still

another

proof

of

the 23.16 Example

irreducibility

2 over of x2 \342\200\224

Taking

= 3,

we see by

Theorem

23.15

that
9x4

25x5 is irreducible over (


23.17

3x2

12

Corollary

The polynomial

<M*) =
is

x-l
prime

= xp~l

+XP~2 + .

+x+ I

irreducible

over Theorem
Theorem

Q for

any

p
only

Proof

Again following

by

23.11,
22.5
commutative

we need
that its
It

consider
actually

factorizations
shows

in Z[x].

We remarked

can be
phism

used for
: Q[x]

proof

that

0X+1

-+ Q[x].

Here we want to rings. is natural for us to denote

evaluation homomorphims use the evaluation homomor<j>x+i{f{x))

by f(x

+ 1) for

f{x)

6 QM.Let

g{x) =
The

= + $\342\200\236(x 1)

coefficient
by Thus

of xp~r
p

(x + 1)- 1 for 0 < r < p is the binomial


p divides

(x +

l)p - 1

xp

PX

is divisible 0 < r < p.

because

pi

but

does

coefficient p\\/[rl(p not divide either r! or

\342\200\224which

r)!]

(p \342\200\224 r)! when

g{x)

= xP-1

+ (PA Xp-2 +

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242

+ p

Section

23

Factorization of Polynomials

over

a Field

217

satisifies the
$>p(x)

Eisenstein

h{x)r{x)

for the prime criterion were a nontrivial factorization


$>p(x

and

is thus

of

&p(x)

irreducible in Z[.r]. then

ever Z.

Br: r

+ 1)

= g(x)

= h{x + l)r(x+ 1)
$p(x)

would

give a nontrivial

factorization of g(x) inZ[x].Thus


0>p(x) in Corollary

must

also be

irreiuc:rle
\342\231\246

over Q.
The

polynomial

23.17 is thepth

cyclotomic

polynomial.

Uniqueness
Polynomials

of Factorization
in

in F[x]
a product

F[x]

can be

factored into
For

of irreducible
that

in an

f(x), g{x) divides essentially unique way. if there exists q(x) e F[x]such that f(x) = g(x)q(x). Note the similarity F[x] theorem that follows with boxed Property (1) for Z following 6.9. Example
irreducible

g(x) e F[x] we say

polynomials in
fix

F[x]
i

in

of the

23.18 Theorem

Let p{x) be an

polynomial

F[x], Proof
23.19
We

then

either

p(x)

divides r(x) or
this

If p(x) divides divides s(x). p(x)


in F[x].

r(x)s(x)

for r(x),

s(x) e

delay

the proof

of

theorem

to Section

27. (See Theorem27.27.)


\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\226\240rn(x)forri(x)

\342\231\246

Corollary

Ifp(x)isirreducibleinF[x]andp(x)dividestheproductr1(x) then p(x) divides rt(x) for at least one i.

F[x],

Proof
23.20

Using mathematical induction,


If F
into

we

find that

this is immediate from f(x) e


irreducible factors

Theorem

23.18.

\342\231\246

Theorem

is a field,
a product

then

every

nonconstant

polynomial
the

F[x] can

be

factored

in F[x]

of irreducible
for

except for order and


Proof

unit

(that is,

polynomials, nonzero constant)


polynomial.

polynomials in F.
irreducible,

being

unique =

Let f(x) e F[x]be a nonconstant g(x)h(x),wi\\h the degree ofg(x)


If into

If f(x)

is
both not,

not

then

f(x)

and the

degree ofh(x)
here. If
this

less

than the

g{x)

and

h(x) are

both

irreducible,

we stop
Continuing

polynomials

of lower

degree.
f(x)

process,

at least one we arrive at

degree of f(x). of them factors


a factorization

= Pl(x)p2(x)---pr(x). 1, 2,
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 r. \342\200\242,

where pt{x) is irreducible


It remains

for
to

i =

for us

show

uniqueness.

Suppose

that qi(x)q2ix)
\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240

fix) =
are two

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 pr{x) pi(x)p2(x) \342\226\240 =

qs(x)

factorizations of
some

fix)

into

irreducible

polynomials.
Since

Piix)

divides

qj(x),

let us

assume q\\(x). qiix) =

Then by Corollary is irreducible, q\\{x)

23.19,

uiPiix),
substituting

where

u\\ ^

0, but

u\\

is in

F and

thus

is a

unit. Then

u\\P\\{x)

for q\\(x)

and

canceling, we get
Piix)
\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240

Prix)

= u\\qiix)

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240

qs(x).

218

Part IV

Rings and

Fields
= u2p2ix),so

By a

similar

argument,

say q2(x)

Pi(x)-- -Pr(x)= uiu2q?,(x)---qs(x).


Continuing

in this

manner, we eventually
1 =

arrive
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242

at
\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240

uiu2

urqr+\\{x)

qs(x).

This

possible if s = r, so that irreducible factors pt{x) and qj{x)


is only

this equation is actually were the same except

1 =

mm

\342\200\242Thus \342\200\242 \342\200\242

ur.

possiblyfor

order

and

the unit

factors.
23.21

\342\231\246

Example

is (x \342\200\224 + 1). of x4 + 3x3 + 2x + 4 in Zs[x] \\)3(x Example 23.4 shows a factorization These irreducible factorsin Zs[x] are only unique up to units in Zs[x], that is, nonzero \342\226\262 constants in Z5. For example,(x \342\200\224 + 1) = (x \342\200\224 \342\200\224 + 3). l)2(2x 2)(3x \\)3(x

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

23

Computations
In with

Exercises r(x)

1 through

4,

find

q(x)

= 0

or of degree less than


+ Ax2-3x+2 +4x2 + 3x
3x2

and r(x)
the

as describedby degree of g(x).

the

division

algorithm so

that

f(x)

= g{x)q{x)

+ r(x)

1. f{x) =x6 + 3x5 2. f(x) =-xb + 3x5 3. f{x) = x5 - 2x4


4. f(x) In Exercises (Review

andg(x)

= x2 + 2x = 3x2

in Z7[x].
3

- 3x

+ 2 and
g(x)

g{x)

2x -

in Z7[x].

- 5
and

and

= 2x

+ 1 in

Z\342\200\236 [x]. Z\342\200\236 [x].

=x4 + 5x3 5
through

g(x) = 5x2

- x + 2 in
the

8, find

all generators of
6.

cyclic

multiplicative

group of

units

of

the given
8.

finite

field.

Corollary 6.16.)
Z7
linear

5.

Z5 polynomial polynomial

7.
factors

Z17 Find in

Z23

9. The 10. The

x4 x3 2x3

+ 4

can be factored into + 2x


Ix

in Zs[x].

this

factorization. Find this

+ 2x2

+ 1 can
5 can

be factored

into linear factors


into

Z7[x].

factorization.
factorization.
polynomials

11. Thepolynomial
12. Is x3
ofZsM.

+ 3x2

\342\200\224 \342\200\224

be factored

linear Express

factors

in Zn

[x].

Find

this

+ 2x + 3

an irreducible

polynomial

of Zs[x]? Why?
in Z5 [x]?
over

it as a

product of irreducible
it as a

13. Is 2x3
polynomials

+ x2 + 2x + 2 an
in Ijs[x]. fix)
that

irreducible

polynomial

Why?

Express

product of C?

irreducible

14. Show

= x2

+ 8x

- 2 is irreducible
= x2

Q. Is

fix)

irreducible

over

E? Over

14 15. Repeat Exercise with


16. Demonstrate
17. Demonstrate In Exercises
that that

x3 + x4

21,

+ 6x + 12in place - 8 is irreducible over Q. 3x2 22x2 + 1 is irreducible over Q.


gix)

of fix).

ducibility over

18 through Q.

determine

whether the

polynomial

in

Z[x]

satisfies an Eisenstein

criterion

for

irre-

Section23 Exercises

219

18.

x2

12
- 9x3

19. 8x3 + 6x2 -9x+2A +


2Ax

20. 4x10
22. Find

18

21. 2x10-

25x3

\\0x2 school

- 30
algebra problem.
You

use a bit

of 6x4 + 17x3+ lx2 + x \342\200\224 Q. (This is a tedious 10 in of analytic or and calculus and make a graph, geometry best candidates for zeros.)
all zeros

high

might

use Newton's

method

to

see

which

are the

Concepts
In

Exercises

23 and
that

24, correct the


in a form
\342\202\254 F[x]

definition

of the

italicized term
F if

without

reference

to the

text,

if

correction

is

needed, so
23.

it is

acceptablefor publication.
is irreducible

A polynomial g(x),

f(x) h{x) e F[x].

over

the

field

and only
the field

if f(x)

^ g(x)h(x) for
only if in

any

polynomials

24. A
25.

nonconstant

in F[x],
Mark

one of the
of the

polynomial
factors

f(x)
is in
true

e F[x] is irreducible F.
or false. over

over

if

and

any

factorization

of it

each

following
6 is

a. x
b. 3x

- 2 is irreducible
\342\200\224

Q.

over Q. c. x2 \342\200\224irreducible over Q. 3 is d. x2 + 3 is irreducible over Z7. the units of F[x] are precisely the e. If F is a field, f. If F is a field, the units of F[x] are precisely the
irreducible

nonzero nonzero

elements elements

of F. of F.
at at

g.

polynomial

f(x)
that

of degree
< E. of degree
in F[x]

with

coefficients

in a field F can have in a field F can have

most most

n zeros

in

F.
any

h. A

polynomial f(x) of degree such


F polynomial
polynomial such

n with

coefficients
has at
most

n zeros in

given

field E

i. 26.
In

Every

1 in

F[x]
at

j. Each
Find

can have
x +

least one zeroin the field F. finite number of zerosin the


+ x3, +
the

field F.

all prime

numbers p

that

2 is a factor

of x4

x2

\342\200\224 1

x +

in Zp[x]. in the
given

Exercises

27 through
in in

30,

find

all irreducible

polynomials

of
28.

indicated
in in

degree
Z2[x] Z3[x]

ring.

27. 29. 31.

Degree 2 Degree 2

Z2[x] Z3 [x]

Degree 3

30. Degree 3

in Zp[x], where Find the number of irreducible p is a prime. [Hint: quadratic polynomials of reducible polynomials of the form x2 + ax + b, then the number of reducible quadratics, from the total number of quadratics.]

Find

the

number

and

subtract

this

Proof Synopsis

32. Give
33.

a synopsis

of the proof

of Corollary
of Corollary

23.5.

Give a synopsis

of the

proof

23.6.

Theory

34. Show that 35. If F is a


an

for p a
field

prime,
a ^
a0xn.

the

polynomial

xp +
f(x)

a
=

in flo

Zp[x]

is not

irreducible
+ anxn

for

any

a e
show

Zp.
that 1 /a

and

0 is a zero of

+ a\\x H

in F[x],

is a zero

of

+ an_\\x

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 +

220

Part IV

Rings and

Fields
field, and let a e F. Show algorithm, is /(a).
by

36. (Remainder
fix)

Theorem)

Let f(x)

e F[x]

where with

F is a the

that

the remainder

r(x)

when

is divided by
am : Z

x
be

\342\200\224 in

a,

accordance

division
given

37. Let

->

Zm

the natural

for a

e Z.
that

homomorphism
given
H

amia)

= (the remainder

of a

when

divided

by m)

a.

Show

5^

: Z[x]

->\342\200\242 Zm[x]

by
1-

ff^(a0 +
is a homomorphism b. Show
that

flix onto

anxn)

ffm(a0)

am(tfi)*

1-

^(aj*\"

if fix)

of ZLr] e Z[x] and

7Lm\\x\\.

ffm(/(;c))
then

both have
fix)

degree

\302\253 and

a^ifix))

does not

factor

in Zm[x]

into two

polynomials

c. Usepart
the

(b)

less than n, to show that x3 + 11x


of degree

is irreducible

in Q[x]. [Hint: Try a prime


value

+ 36is irreducible

in Q[x].

of m

that simplifies

coefficients.]

SECTION

24

^NoNCOMMUTATrVE EXAMPLES
Thus

ring
nothing

the only example we of M\342\200\236iF) all n x n matrices


far, with

have

presented

of a ring that

is
We

not

commutative

is the

with

entries
strictly

in a field
skew

F.

shall

be doing
there

almost
are other
several

noncommutative

rings and
rings

fields.

important noncommutative of such rings. examples

occurring

very

naturally

To show that in algebra,

we

give

Rings
Let

of Endomorphisms
the

into itself is an endomorphism Since the composition of two such a homomorphism, we define multiplication of A into itself is again homomorphisms on End(A) is associative. by function composition, and thus multiplication we have to describe the value of (0 + xjs) on To define addition, for 0, xjs e End(A), each a e A. Define
A be

of A.

Let

any abelian group. A homomorphism set of all endomorphisms of

of A

be

End(A).

(0 + f){a) = 4>ia)
Since

f{a).

(0 +

f)ia + b)

= =

$ia ma)

+ b) +

+ fia 0(i>)] +
Vr(fl)]

+ b)
[Vr(fl)

irib)]

= [^a)

[00)
+

+ irib)]

=
we see
that <f>

i<t>

ir)ia)

i4>

ir)ib)

\\[r

is again

Since A

is commutative,

in End(A). we have
+

(0 +
for all a

f)ia) = 4>ia)
=
xjs

ir{a)

= ir{a)
in

4>ia)

(i/r +

0)(a) The

A,

so

+ \302\242)xjs

+ 0

and addition

End(A)

is commutative.

of addition associativity

follows

from

This section is

not used in

the remainder

of

the text.

Section

24

Noncommutative Examples

221

+ [\302\242

(^+

6)](a)

= 0(a)

=
=

+ [(^ + 0)(a)]
+

0(a)

[Vr(a) if (a)]

+ 9(a)]

[\302\242(^+

+ 0(a)

If

e is

the additive

identity

of A,

then

= (0 + i/O(a) + 0(a) = M + is) + e](a). the homomorphism 0 defined


0(a)

by

= e
Finally,

for a

is an

additive

identity

in End(A).
0 e

for

End(A), = -0(a)
=

defined \342\200\2240

by

(-0)(a)

is inEnd(A),

since

(-0)(a

+ b)

= -0(a = -0(a)

+ ft)

-[0(a)
=

+ 0(fo)] + (-0)(^),

0(fo)

(-0)(a)

and

= 0 + (\342\200\2240) 0.

are homomorphisms except Thus the set AA of all functions homomorphisms. definition of addition, and, from A into A is an abelian group under exactly the same in AA. of course, a nice associative multiplication function composition again gives are homomorphisms now to However, we do needthe fact that these functions in End(A)
to

Thus (End(A), +} is an abelian group. Note that we have not yet used the fact that our functions
that 0

show

i/r

and

are \342\200\2240

again

prove satisfies

the left

all the

distributive law in axioms for a ring.

End(A).
Let

0,

xjs,

law, (AA, +, Except for this left distributive and 0 be in End(A), and let a e A. Then
=

\342\200\242}

+ (0(0 + f)){a)= 0((0 yr)(a))


Since 0 is a
homomorphism,

0(0(a)

+ f{a)).

0(0(a)

+ Vr(fl)) =
=

0(0(a)) +
(00)(a)

0(Vr(a))

+ (0V)(a)

= (00 + 0iA)(a).
Thus

0(0

+ i/r) =

00 +

0i/f.

The

right

distributive

law causes no = ^(0(a))

trouble,

even

in AA,

and follows from


((Vr

+ 0)0)(a)

(Vr

0)(0(a))
+

=
Thus

(Vr0)(a)

(00)(a)

= (Vr0

+ 0(0(a)) + 00)(a).

we

have

proved the
of

following

theorem.

24.1

Theorem

The set End(A)


homomorphism

addition

all endomorphisms and homomorphism

of

an

abelian

group

A forms a

ring

under

multiplication

(function

composition).

to show relevance to this section, we should give an example that Again, showing Since function composition is in general not End(A) need not be commutative. in some seems reasonable to expect. However, nd(A) be commutative commutative,this E may

cases. Indeed,Exercise asks 15

us

to show that

End((Z, +}) is commutative.

222

Part

IV

Rings and

Fields

24.2Example

Consider

verify

the abelian group (Z x Z, +} discussed that two elements of End((Z Z, +}) are

in Section
<f> and xjs

11. It is
defined
\302\253))

straightforward

to

by
=

\302\242((171, n))

\342\200\224 +

(m

n, 0)
first

and

ir((m,

(0, n).
xjs

Note that <f> maps factor. Thus

everything

onto the

factor

of Z

x Z,

and

collapses

the

first

(\\[r4>){m, while

n)

\\[f(m

+ n,

0) =

(0, 0).

(0i/O(m,

n) =

0(0, n) = (n, 0).

Hence0i/r
24.3

^\302\242.

\342\226\262

Example

Let F
ring

be a field of characteristic
of polynomials

F[x]

additive element

and let {F[x], +} be the additive zero, group of the with coefficients in F. For this example, let us denote this O this notation. We can considerEnd(F[x]). ne group by F[x], to simplify in F[x] of End(F[x]) acts on each polynomial by multiplying it by x. Let this

endomorphism be X, so
X(ao

+ a\\x

+ \302\2532*2

1- a\342\200\236x\")a$x

a\\x

+ \302\2532*3

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242

+ anxn+

Another
formula is differentiation

\"the derivation

element of End(F[x]) is formal of a sum is the an endomorphism of F[x].)

differentiation sum

of the
be

Let Y

with respect to x. derivatives\" guarantees this endomorphism, so

(Thefamiliar
that

Y(ao +
Exercise

a\\x to

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 = + \342\200\242 + a\342\200\236x\")a\\ + \302\2532*2

+ 2\302\2532*

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 + na\342\200\236x\"~l.

1, where 1 is unity (the identity map) in in F[x] of End(F[x]). Thus XY ^ YX. Multiplication of polynomials by any element F also gives an elementof End (F[x]). The subring ofEnd(F[x]) generated X and Y by and is important and multiplications of F is the Weyl algebra in quantum by elements
17 asks

us

show

that

YX

\342\200\224 = XY

mechanics. and
e

\342\226\262

Group

Rings

Group
any

Algebras
written

Let G = {gi\\i
ring
with

1} be unity.

group

nonzero

Let RG

be the

set

multiplicatively of all formal

and let

be

any commutative

sums.

iel
for

at

\342\202\254 R and

two elements

gi e G, where all but of RG by

a finite

number

of

the

at

are

0. Define

the

sum

of

( J2a'Si \\ iel

( J2biSi )
\\

= J2(a> + b^Siiel
of indices
group

is/

Observe
is again

that in

(at RG.

0 except for a + b{) \342\200\224 It is immediate that {RG,

finite

number

i, so
with

Sj-\302\243/(a,' +

bfigi

+} is an abelian

additive

identity

E/6/0&.

Section 24

Noncommutative

Examples

223

Multiplication
in

G and R

of two as follows:

elements

of RG

is defined by

the

use

of the

multiplications

\\

iel

J \\

iel
sum

iel
in G.

\\gjgk=gi

the sum E,e/fc,gj and rename a over Since at and bt are 0 for all but a finite of nonzero summands number of i, only a finite number \342\202\254 R and may thus be viewedas an element of R. Again, at most a finite number of cijbk are nonzero. Thus multiplication is closed on RG. such sums Y,g.gt=g.ajbk The distributive at once from the definition of addition and the formal laws follow Naively, term a
distribute

we formally

the

E,\302\243/a,g,-

by a-jbkgi where g}gk = gt the a, sum Ss \342\226\240 bt contains gt=giuj

way we

used

distributivity

to define

multiplication.

For

the

associativity

of multiplication

=
!>\342\226\240

iel

J2b'Si)(j2CiSi) iel I \\

iel

/J
=

!>\302\243<)
\\

iel

I L iel

I]

J2
\\gjgi.=gi

bJCk

jSi
.

I]( iel

I]
\\ghgjgk=g,

ahbjCk\\gi

'

J2\\ iel

J2
\\gi,gj=g,

ahbj\\gi

[J^CigA
\\

iel

.(\302\247o*)tehs')]tec'4 Thus we have


proved

the following

theorem.
and

24.4 Theorem

If G is any group written multiplicatively is a ring. unity, then {RG, +, \342\200\242}

R is a

commutative ring

with

nonzero

Corresponding
1g

to

each {RG,-}

with g,

we see that

g e G, we have an element Ig in RG. If can be considered to contain G naturally


abelian,

we identify
as a

(rename)

multiplicative

subsystem. Thus, if G is not


24.5

RG

is not a

commutative ring. over R. If


F

Definition

The ring
the

group

RG defined aboveis the of G over F. algebra


the

group

ring

of G

is a field,

then FG is
\342\226\240

24.6

Example

Let us give

addition

and

G=

{e,a}is

cyclic

of order

tables for the multiplication 2. The elements of Z2G are


Oe +
in the

group

algebra

1aG,

where

Oe +

Oa.

la,

le + Oa,
natural

and

le +

la.

If we denotethese

elements

obvious, a,

way e +

by

0,

e,

and

a,

224

Part IV

Rings and Fields

24.7
+

Table

24.8

Table

e e+a
respectively,

a 0 e e+ a a 0 e e+ a e a 0 e+ a a e e+ a 0 e e+ a a 0
we

0 a e e+ a
For example,

0 0 0 0 0

a e 0 0 e a a e e+ a e + a
(e +

e +

e+ a

e+ a 0
a) = 0,

get Tables

24.7

and

24.8.

to see that l)a =

a)(e +

we have
(le
This

+ \\a)(le

+ la)

= (1 +

\\)e

(1 +

Oe+ 0a.
Indeed,
this

example

shows

that a group

algebra may

have

0 divisors.

is usually

the

case.
The

\342\226\2

Quaternions
not

We have

yet are

of Hamilton

given an example of the standard example

a noncommutative of a strictly

division skew

ring.

The quaternions

field;

let us

describe them.

Historical
William

Note
Rowan

Hamilton in

years earlier he had numbers abstractly as pairs (a, b) developed the complex of real with addition {a, b) + {a'+ numbers = + b') and multiplication (a + a',b (a, b){a'b') \342\200\224 for an bb', ab' + a'b); he was then {aa' looking for 3-vectors that was analogous multiplication and distributive such that the length of the product of the lengths of the vector was the product factors. After many unsuccessful attempts to multiply of the form a + bi + vectors 1, i, j are (where

Sir discovered quaternions searching for a way (vectors in E3). Six

to

(1805-1865) 1843 while he was number triplets multiply

along

the

Royal

Canal

in

Dublin

on October

16,

b') =

k 1843, that he needed a new \"imaginary symbol\" to be perpendicular to the other three elements. He could not \"resist the impulse ... to cut with a knife on a stone of Brougham the fundamental Bridge\" these defining formulas on page 225for multiplying

quaternions.

The
exampleof

quaternions

were

the

first known
many

a strictly

skew field.

Though

others

were subsequently discovered, it was eventually noted that none were finite. In 1909 Joseph Henry

Maclagan Wedderburn
tor at Princeton
University,

(1882-1948), gave

thenaprecepthe

cj

mutually

perpendicular),

he realized

while

walking

Theorem24.10.

first proof

of

Let

group

the set H, for Hamilton, under addition by components, operation

be E

x E x E x E. Now

(E

x E

x E
addition

the direct of addition

four times. This gives the H. We shall let

product of E under on H. Letus rename

x E, +} is
with elements

certain

itself of

1=

1 j = (0,0, ,0),

(1,0,0,0),

i = (0,l,0,0),
and

= \302\243 (0,0,0,1).

Section

24

Noncommutative Examples

225

We

furthermore

agree

to let

(ai,0,0,0), = (0, 0, a3,0) a3j


In view of our
definition

ai =

a2i and

(0, a2,
a4k

0,0), a4).

= (0,0,0,

of addition, (a.\\, a2,

we

then

have + o.2i

a3, a4) =

a\\

+ a3j

+ a4k.

Thus

(ai

+ a2i
=

+ a3j

+ a4k)

+
b2)i

(b\\ +
+ by

b2i +
(a3 +

(a\\ +

bi) + (a2 +

b3j + b4k) b3)j + (a4 + b4)k.

To

define

multiplication

on H, we start
la =
a\\

defining

for

aei,

and

ij Note
to

= k,

jk = i,

ki

j,

ji =

\342\200\224k, kj

and \342\200\224i,

ik =

\342\200\224j.

remember

the similarity with if we think

the so-called crossproduct

of

vectors.

These formulas

are easy

of the

sequence

i, j,

k, i, j, k.

Theproduct

from is the next one to the right. The left to right of two adjacent elements of the next one to the from right to left of two adjacent elementsis the negative product it must be to make the left. We then define a product to be what distributive laws hold,

namely,
(a\\

+ a2i ~

+ a3j

a4k)(b\\

b2i +
a4b4)

b3j +
+ (a\\b2

b4k)

(aib\\

\342\200\224 \342\200\224 \342\200\224

a2b2

a3b3

a2b\\

+ a3b4

\342\200\224

a4b3)i

+ (a\\b3

\342\200\224

a2b4

+ a3b\\
\342\200\224

+ a4b2)j
+ a4b\\)k.

(a\\b4

+ a2b3

a3b2

are isomorphic to a subring Exercise 19 shows that the quaternions of M2(C), so we multiplication is associative. Since ij = k and ji = \342\200\224k, see that multiplication is not so H is definitely not a field. Turning to the existence of multiplicative commutative, inverses, let a = a\\ + a2i + a3j + a4k, with not all a,- = 0. Computation shows that
(a\\ If we

+ a2i

+ a3j

+ a4k)(a\\
0

\342\200\224 \342\200\224\342\200\224

a2i

a3j

a4k)

a^ + a22 +

a3 +

a4~-

let 0
\\a\\

0
ax

0 + a2

+ a3 + ai

0
a4

and

a =

a\\

\342\200\224 \342\200\224\342\200\224

a2i

a3j

a4k,

we see that

a
12

/\302\2532

._

\302\253

._

U.
Via12

i\342\200\236|2

\\\\a\\2

Vial2/

226

Part

IV

Rings

and

Fields

is a

multiplicative

inverse

for a.

We consider that

we

have

demonstrated

the

following

theorem.

24.9

Theorem

The

quaternions

H form G =

a strictly

skew field

under

addition

and multiplication.
quaternion

Note
This multiplication.

that

is \302\261i, {\302\2611, \302\261j, \302\261k]


by

group

is generated

i and

a group of j, where
and

order 8 under
= i3j.

i4 =

1,

j2 = i2
proof.
finite

ji
the

There are no
Wedderburn,

finite

which

skew strictly we state without

fields. This is

content

of a famous

theorem of

24.10Theorem
Proof

(Wedderburn's heorem) T
See Artin,
Nesbitt,

Every

division

ring is a field.
theorem.

and Thrall

[24] for proof of Wedderburn's

\342\231

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

24

Computations
In

Exercises

1 through

3, let
in

G=
the

{e,a, b}
re

be

a cyclic

group of order 3 with for

identity

element

e. Write

the

element

in the

group algebra Z5G


,.

form + sa+tb
2-

r,s,(eZ5.
+ 2a

1. <2e

+ 3a

+ Ob) + 4 through

(4e + 2a+ 3b)


7, write
k)

(2e +
in the

3\302\253 0b)(4e +

+ 3b) +
a$k

3. (3e+ 3a+ 3b)4


for

In Exercises 4.

the

element

of

EI

form

a\\

+ aii

+ a3j

a;

\342\202\254 ffi.

(i +

3/)(4 +

2/ -

5.

ffkji5

6. (i+JT]

7. [(1+30(4/
to the

+ 3^-1
+ 1/ii + 0fl2
+

8.

Referring

group S3 given
lyoi

in Example

8.7, compute
lfl2

the

product

(Opo +

+ 0p2

+ 0/ii

l/i3)(lpo

+ lPi + 0p2

l(l3)

in the

group

algebra

Z2S3.
group

9. Find the
Concepts

center of the

(H*,

where \342\200\242),

H* is

the set of nonzero

quaternions.

10. Find two subsets of


the

EI

induced

addition

different from C and from and multiplication from EL

each other,

each

of which

is a

field

isomorphic

to C

under

11.

Mark

each of the

following

true or

false. of 0 for any


with

a. b.
c.

has M\342\200\236(F)
Every End(A)

no divisors element a ring

n and

any field F. every abelian


group

nonzero

of M2CZ2) is a unit.
unity
=\302\243 0 for =\302\243 0 for group

is always

A. A.

d. End(A)

is never a ring

with

unity

any abelian

Section

25

Ordered

Rings and

Fields

227

e. The
End(A)

subset

Iso(A)

for every

of End(A), consisting of abelian group A.


to (Z,

the

isomorphisms

of A

onto

A,

forms

a subring

of

f. R(Z,
g. The
unity.

+) is isomorphic
ring

+,

for every \342\200\242)


group

commutative commutative

group

RG

of an abelian

G is a

ring R with unity. ring for any commutative

ring R

with

h. The

i.
j.

quaternions are a field. is a group where HI* (HI*, \342\200\242) No subring of HI is a field. following
by

is the

set of nonzero

quaternions.

12.

Show

each

of the

giving
with

an example. in a strictly
skew

a.

polynomial

of degree n

coefficients

skew

field

may

have more

than

n zeros

in the skew

field.

b.
Theory

finite

multiplicative

subgroup of a

strictly

field need

not be cyclic.

13.

Let

be \302\242)the

element of
that is \302\242also

of 0. Show

End((Z x Z, +)) given a left divisor of 0.


for

in Example

24.2. That
these

exampleshowedthat
units.

0 is a

right divisor

14. Show
0 and
15.

that 1.]
that

M2(F)

has at least six units +)) is

every

field F.
to (Z,

Exhibit

[Hint: F has

at

least

two elements,

Show
Show

End

((Z,

naturally

isomorphic

+,

and that \342\200\242)

End((Z\342\200\236, +))

is naturally

isomorphic

to

(Z\342\200\236,+,-).

16. 17.

that End((Z2

Z2,

+))

is not

Referring

to Example
group^of

24.3,
K e

show

isomorphic that YX - XY show


that
that

to

(Z2

x Z2,

+,

\342\200\242).

= RG
HI

1. is isomorphic M2(C) ^

18. If G

= {e},he t

one element,

to

for

any ring

R.

19. Thereexists

a matrix

M2(C) such
+ cj

0 : a

-^

defined _, n

by

(f>{a

+ bi

dk)

\342\200\236+ i

~*~c '

~*~ ^^'

for all a,

b,c,d e
matrix

K,

gives

an isomorphism

of

HI

with

0[HI]

a. Find the
b. What 8

K.
should

equations

you

check

to see
to

that

\302\242) really 4>

is a homomorphism? an isomorphism

c.

What

other

thing should you check

show

that

gives

of

HI

with

0[H]?

section

25

^Ordered
We

Rings and Fields


relation

on any subset of E. (We Definition 0.7.) We regard < as providing an ordering of the real numbers. In this section, we study orderings of that the rings this section under discussion and fields. We assume throughout have rings 1. nonzero unity < a is In the real numbers, a < b if and only if b \342\200\224 positive, so the order relation We use the determined if we know which real numbers are positive. on E is completely the notion of orderin a ring. to define idea of labeling certain elements as positive are

familiar

remind

with the inequality that relations were you

< on

the set E

and

discussedin

Section

0. See

This section is

not

used in

the remainder

of the text.

228

Part IV

Rings and

Fields
subset P are in
P. following

25.1Definition

An

ordered

ring is a

ring

together

with a nonempty and ab

of

R satisfying

these

two properties.

Closure
Trichotomy

For

all

a, b e

P,
R,

both

a + b

For each

a e
a e

one

and only

one of the
\342\200\224a e P.

holds:

P,

a = 0,

Elements
It is

of P

are called\"positive.\"
see that
P if R
then

\342\226\24

is an ordered ring with set P of positive elementsand S is in satisfies the requirements for a set of positive elements the This is the induced an ordering of S. (SeeExercise 6.) gives 2 ring ordering from the given ordering of R. We observeat once that for each of the rings Z, Q and ffi the set of elements that we satisfies the conditions of closureand trichotomy. have always considered to be positive We will refer to the familiar and the induced ordering on their ordering of these rings as the natural ordering. We now give an unfamiliar illustration. subrings easy to
a subring

of R, S, and thus

D S

25.2

Example

elements. There are two Let R be an ordered ring with set P of positive define an ordering of the polynomial R[x]. We describe two possible ring in R[x] of positive elements. A nonzero polynomial can be written Aiigh,

natural

ways

to

sets, Pjow and in the form

f(x) =
where

arxr + ar+\\Xr+l

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 + a\342\200\236x\"

that and anx\" are the nonzero terms of lowest and arxr Let Ptow be the set of all such f(x) for which ar e P, highest degree, respectively. e P. The closure and trichotomy and let Phigh be the set of all such f(x) for which an that P\\ovl and Phigh must satisfy to give orderings of R [x] follow at once from requirements of addition and multiplication those same properties for P and the definition in R[x].

ar ^

and

a\342\200\236 ^

0, so

Illustrating
would not
same

in

Z[x],

with

ordering

given

by

Piow,

the polynomial
With

f(x) =
given

\342\200\2242x + 3x4 Phigh,

be positive because\342\200\2242 positive is not would be positive because3 is polynomial


now element

in Z.

ordering

by

this

positive

in Z.
in

\342\226\262

Suppose
any

nonzero

that P is the set of positive of R. Then either a or


elements

elements
\342\200\224a is in

an
by

ordered
closure,

P, so any

ring R. a2 =
particular,

Let a be
is (\342\200\224a)2 1 =

also in

ring has characteristic zero. must be positive, we see that the natural are precisely the ordering of E is the only possible ordering. The positive real numbers and the set could not be enlarged without destroying squares of nonzeroreal numbers 1 + 1+---+1 Because must be positive, the only possible trichotomy. ordering of Z is the natural ordering also. All ordered rings have characteristic zero so we can, by identification consider every ordered ring to contain Z as an ordered (renaming), subring. \342\200\224 If a and b are nonzeroelements of P then either \342\200\224a is in P and or a either b or \342\200\224 either ab or ab is in P. By trichotomy, b is in P. Consequently by closure, ab cannot be zero so an ordered ring can have no zero divisors. We summarize these observations in a theorem and corollary.
an ordered

is positive. By closure,we seethat 1 + in P, so it is never zero.Thus is always

P. Thus all squares of nonzero

of R

are positive. In

12

1 +

\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242 finite + 1 for

number

of summands

Because squares

of

nonzero

elements

Section

25

Ordered Rings and

Fields

229

25.3Theorem
25.4 Corollary

Let

R be an

ordered

ring.

characteristic 0, and
We

there

All squares are no zero

of nonzero

elements of

are

positive.

R has

divisors.
ring R,
possible
and

can

consider
R

Z to

Z from
ordering.

is

the natural

be embeddedin any ordered ordering of Z. The only

the

induced

ordering
the

of

ordering

of 5 is

natural

be ordered, because that the field C of complex numbers cannot i2 are squares. It also shows that no finite can be ordered ring is zero. because the characteristic of an ordered ring The theorem that follows defines a relation < in an ordered ring, and gives properties of <. The definition of < is motivated that, in the real numbers, a < b by the observation

Theorem
1=12

25.3 shows
\342\200\224 1 =

both

and

if

and

only

if b
terms

\342\200\224 a is

positive.

The theorem <


having

also shows

that

ordering

could have

been

definedin
25.5 Theorem

of a relation

the

listed

properties.
read

Let R
the

be

an ordered on R

relation

ring defined

with by

set

P of

positive elements. Let <,


if (b \342\200\224 a) e all

\"is less

than,\" be

< b if

and

only

(1)

for a,b

\342\202\254 R. The

relation
One

< has these propertiesfor


and

a, b, c e holds:

R.

Trichotomy
Transitivity \342\226\240

only

one of

the

following

lfa<b If b <
If

a < b, a = b, and b < c, then

b < a.
a

< c.

Isotonicity

c,

then

a + b <

a +
ab

c.
< ac

b <

c and

0<

a, then

and ba

< ca.

Conversely, the

given

set

P =

{x e

Definition

25.1,

< on a nonzero ring R satisfying these three conditions, satisfies the two criteria for a set of positive elementsin x) and the relation < P defined this P is the given as in Condition (1) with
a relation
| R

0 <

relation <.

Proof Let R

be an

ordered ring
three

with

set

P of

positive elements, and the

let a

< b mean (b

\342\200\224

a)

e P.

We prove the

properties

for <.
R. By
b a,
trichotomy

Trichotomy

Let a, b e appliedto

property

of P in

Definition 25.1
e P

\342\200\224

exactly

one of

(b-a)&P,
holds. These
translate

b-a
in terms
b,

= 0, (a of < to

b)

a <b.
respectively.

a=
b <

b <

Transitivity

Leta <
closure

and

of

P under

c. Then (b \342\200\224a)P and (c-fc) e addition, we have


+

eP.By

(b-a)

(c-b)

= (c-a)&P

soa < c.

230

Part

IV

Rings

and

Fields

Isotonicity

Let b < c, so (c -

b)

P.

Then
b)a

P so a + b
\342\200\224 =

<

a +

c. Also if

(a + c) - (a + b) a > 0, then by closure


ca
\342\200\224

= (c of P

b) e
both

a(c
and

b)

ac

\342\200\224

aband(c

\342\200\224=

ba

are in

P, so ab
exercise.

< ac
(See

ba

< ca. part

We leave the Exercise 27.)


In
ring.

\"conversely\"

of the

theorem as an
feel free

equally

easy

\342\231\2

view

of Theorem >, <,

25.5, we will
and

now

to use the
in terms

< notation

in an ordered
=.

The

notations b >

>

are defined

as

usual

of <
a

and

Namely,

a means a

< b,

a <b means either a = b or a > b means either b < a or

< b,

b =

a.

25.6 Example

of R[x] given by to think what the orderings ring. It is illustrative 25.5. Example 25.2 mean in terms of the relation < of Theorem \342\200\224 x is positive sox < a. Also, Taking Piow, we observe, for every a > 0 in R, that a \342\200\224e x = x \342\200\224positive, so 0 < x. Thus 0 is 0 < x < a for every a e R. We have (xl x;) Piow when i < j, so xi < x' if i < j. Our monomials have the ordering
be

Let R
Piow

an ordered

and

Phigh in

0 <

\342\200\242< \342\200\242 -x6

x^ < x4

<x <

x2

< x

< a

for

any

positive many

a e

R.

Taking

infinitely

positive
similar

elements

We leave a
Exercise
The

E, we see that in this ordering of Rpc] that are less than any positive real number! of R[x] given by discussion of < for the ordering
R =

there are
P^h

to

1.
an ordering

\342\226\2

Archimedian.

preceding example is of interest because it exhibits We give a definition explaining this terminology. consider to be a subring of every orderedring.

Remember

that is that we

not

can

25.7

Definition

An ordering

of a ring

R with positive

this property:
a and

For each given na > b. is an


Archimedian The

in

R,

there

exists a positive integer

such

that

ordering.

\342\226\2

but the ordering of R[x] given by Piow ordering of E is Archimedian, in Example 25.6 is not Archimedian because for every positive integer n we have (17 \342\200\224 e Piow, so nx < 17 for all n e Z+. nx) We give two examples and fields that are of interest describing types of ordered rings in more advanced work.

natural

discussed

25.8 Example

Let R be a ring. In Section 22 we defined a polynomial of the a,- are 0. If formal sum X!^o aix> wnere ^ but a finite number we do not require any of the at to be zero, we obtain a formal power series in x with coefficients in the ring R. (The adjective,/orwa/, is customarily used becausewe are not with convergence of series.)Exactly the same the formulas are used to define dealing sum and product of theseseries for polynomials as in Section 22. Most of us had some
in

(Formal Power SeriesRings)


R[x]

to be a

Section 25

Ordered Rings

and

Fields

231

practice
ring
the

and multiplying series when we studied calculus.These series form a adding which we denote by /?[[*]], and which contains R[x] as a subring. If R is an ordered to R[[x]] exactly as we extended ring, we can extend the ordering

ordering

not?)
25.9

to R[x] using The monomials have

the the

set same

Pjow of

ordering

positive elements. (We cannot use that we displayed in Example

Phiah-

Why
\342\226\262

25.6.

Example

with Laurent Series Fields) Continuing the idea of Example 25.8,we let F series of the form Y^n a'x' where and consider formal N may be any integer, zero, or negative, and a,- e F. (Equivalently, we couldconsiderY2u=-oc positive, aix' where all but a finite of the a,- are zero for negative number values of i. In studying for functions of a complex variable, oneencounters of this form called \"Laurent calculus series With the natural addition and multiplication of these series, we actually have a series'') + 0 + (k + Ox2 + \342\226\240\342\22 ^zeW which we denoteby F((x)).Theinverseofxistheseriesx_1 Inverses of elements and quotients can be computed three by series division. We compute \342\226\240 terms of (x 1 +x \342\226\240x2 + \342\226\240 + 2x4 + 3x5 + \342\200\242) in R((x)) for illustra+x3 -)/(x3

(Formal

be a field

tion. 3x~' +
x6 +
Ax~l

+ +x3

2x4 +

3x5 +

x - 1+
x~l

x2

+ 2

+ 3x +
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 2x + \342\200\242 6x - 9x2 + Ax

\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240

If
an

F is an

ordering -x~3,x~2,

of F((x)).
x_1,x\302\260

ordered field, we can use the In Exercise 2 we ask


=

\342\200\242 \342\200\242

l,x,x2,x3,

of Pjow in i?[[x]] to define analog to symbolically order the monomials you \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 did for as we 25.6. Note that R[x] in Example
obvious of

F((x)) contains, as a subfield, a field of quotients on this field of quotients.


Let clear

F[x],

and thus

induces an
It is

ordering
\342\226\262

R be an

that by

ordered ring and let \302\242) : R identification (renaming), the


an ordering
and

-^- R'
map
4>

be a ring
can

isomorphism.

intuitively

of

to provide

for a skeptic,

leave

the proof
with

of R'. We state as a as Exercise 25.

to carry over theorem what would have


be used

the ordering
to

be

proved

25.10Theorem

Let

R be an

ordered
The

isomorphism.

set of

positive
4>{b)

4>{a) <'

set P of positive elementsand let <j> : R -*- R' be a ring P' = 0[P] satisfies the requirements of Definition 25.1 for a elements of R'. Furthermore, in the ordering of R' given by P', we have in R' if and only if a < b in R.
ring

subset

We call
by\" <^> from

the ordering of R' described in the ordering of R.


stated

the preceding

theorem

the \"ordering

induced

25.11Example

Example

22.9

that the

evaluation

homomorphism

0W : Q[x]

-\302\261 E

where

0(ao +
is one

aix +

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 = + a\342\200\236x\")ao

a\\it

\342\226\240 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 + a\342\200\236n\"

to one. Thus

it

provides

an isomorphism

of Q[x]

with

0[Q[x]].

We denote

this

232

Part

IV

Rings

and

Fields

image
Examples

ring

by

25.2

the ordering Q>[tt]. If we provide Q[x] with using on Q[7t] induced by (j>\342\200\236 is very and 25.6, the ordering

the set
different
it

Piow

of
that any

from
than

induced element An
Theorem 25.10 automorphisms

by the of Q>!

natural (and only)

ordering

of

ffi.

In the

Piow ordering,

is less

\342\226

of a ring isomorphism can be used to exhibit


of R

onto

itself the set

is called

an an

automorphism ordered

different
carry

orderings

of

of R. R if there ring
itself.

exist

that do

not

P of positive elementsonto

We give

an example.

25.12 Example

11 Exercise of
ring

Section

18 shows
ring <f>:

that {m +

n*Jl \\m,n

e Z}
from <j>{m

is a ring.
ffi

by Z[\\/2].

This
It is

has

a natural

order induced
and onto

in

which

Let us denotethis *Jl is positive.


= m
\342\200\224

w However, e claim
automorphism.

that

Z[V2]

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 defined Z[V2]

by

+ n*jT)

ny^is

an

clearly one to
to

one

homomorphism

property

Exercise
\342\200\224 is

17.

of the Z[V2]. We leavethe verification Because 0(\\/2) = \342\200\224we see the ordering \\/2,

induced by
m +

order on Z[V2], an element positive! In the natural both positive, or if m is positive and 2n2 < m2, or if n is positive and m2 < 2n2. In Exercise 3, we ask you to give the analogous descriptions A for positive elementsin the ordering of Z[-s/2] induced by \302\242.
4> will

be one

where
and

^/2

n~j2 is positive if m

n are

In view are not


natural

of Examples 25.11and 25.12, the induced orderings, e wonder w one. Our final theorem shows that
ordered

which
whether this

of ffi that exhibit orderings on subrings other than the Q can have an ordering is not possible.

25.13 Theorem Let D be an


field

integral

domain

with P

as set of

positive

elements,

and let

F be a

of quotients

of D.

The set
=

P' = {xe F | x

a/b

for a,b
induces

D and \342\202\254

ab e

P}
Furthermore,

is well-defined gives an order on F that and P' is the only subset of F with this property.
Proof

the given

order on D.

suppose that x = a/b = a'/b' for a, b, a', b' e D and show that a'b' e P. From a/b = a'/b' we obtain that ab We must ab' = a'b. we have (ab)b' = a'b2. Now P and by assumption, ab & P. b2 \342\202\254 Multiplying by b, = = and the properties of Using a(\342\200\224b) {\342\200\224a)b \342\200\224(ab) a ring, we see that trichotomy a' and b' are both in P or both not in P. In either case, we have either a'b' e P. We proceed to closure for P'. Let x = a/b and y = c/d be two elements of P', so P and ab \342\202\254 cd e P. Now x + y = (ad + bc)/bd and (ad + bc)bd = (ab)d2 + b2(cd) is in P because squares are also in P and P is closed under addition and multiplication. Thus (x + y) e P'. Also xy = ac/bd is in P' because acbd = (ab)(cd) is a product of two in P. of P and thus elements that for x = a/b, the product For trichotomy, we need only observe ab satisfies just To show
that

P'

is well-defined,

& P.

one of

ab \342\202\254 P,
by

ab

= 0,
into

ab i P
&

trichotomy

for P.
shown

For P',
that
if

thesetranslate
give
in an

We have
is

in

P'

if and

only

al

P' does = a is

P,

so

= 0, and* \302\243 respectively. P', For a e D, weseethata ordering =a/\\ the given ordering on D is indeedthe induced
x P',x of F.

ordering

from F by P'.

Section 25

Exercises
satisfying

233

Finally,

of Definition 25.1 and such that P\" n D = = ab must be in P\", so ab e (P\" flfl) xb2

suppose

trichotomy

shows
maintains

of F

that

P\" where P. Let* = a/b \342\202\254 a. b e D. Then = P. Thus xeP'so P\" c P'. The law of that we then must have P' = P\". herefore P' gives the only ordering T \342\231\246 order for elements of D. original

that

P\" is a

set of positive

elements

of F

the

conditions

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

25

Computations

1. Leti?

be an

in R[x]

of a positive element a of .Rand ordered ring. Describethe ordering as we did in Example 25.6, but using the set Phigh of Example 25.6
ordered

the monomials*,

x2, x3,
elements in F,

\342\200\242 \342\226\24 \342\226\240 x\". \342\200\242,

2. LetF be an
Example

field and
that

25.9. Describe
in described

let F((x)) be the field of formal \342\200\242 \342\200\242 the ordering of the monomialsx~3, x~2, x~l,
example.
ordering

as setof positive Laurent series with coefficients


= x\302\260

of R[x].
in

discussed

\\,x,x2,x3
\342\200\224 is

\342\200\242 in the ,\342\226\240\342\226\240

ordering

of F((x))
3. Example
in

an 25.12 described

terms

of m

and

n,

all positive

of Z[V2] = {m + n~Jl \\m,n elements of Z[V2] in that ordering.

e Z}

in which

V2

positive. Describe,

In Exercises

4 through

9, let

R[x] have

the

ordering

given

by
ii- Phigh

i. Pi0w
as described in order corresponding
25.2. In Example to increasing

each case (i) order of the

and

(ii), list

polynomials

as described

the labels a, b, c, d, e of by the relation

the

given
< of

polynomials in an Theorem 25.5.


e.

4. a.
5. a.
6.

-5 + 3x
-1
-3 + 5x2

a.

b. 5 - 3x b. 3x- S,x3 b. -2x + 5x2


b.

c. -x
c. +x3

+ lx2
+ lx2

-5x

d. x - llx4 d. %x2

lx2

2 + Ax2

+ x5

e. -3x3

Ax5

c.

-5

7. a.

-2x2 + 5x3
Ax

x3 +
Ax

Ax4

c.
c.

2x x

3x2

d. 6x3 + 8x4 - Ax2 d. -3x

e.
e. e.
Ax4

8x4

5x5

2x 3x x +

8. a.

- 3x2
3x2

b.

+ 2x2

c. Ax

- 6x3
Ax3

d. 5* d.

6x3

- 2x2 - 2x2 3x2

9. a. x In Exercises
the

+ 5x3

b. 2

- 3x2 + 5x3
the

- 3x2 +

x +

3x2 +

e.

Ax3

given

elements

10 through 13, let Q((x))have in an order corresponding

ordering

to increasing

described in Example order of the elements

25.9. List the


as described

labels

a, b, c,

d, e of
< of

by the relation

Theorem 25.5.

10. a.

J\\,

b. \342\200\224
^V

c.

^V

d.

\342\200\224 ^V

11.

a.
1

- x

b.'

l+x
-\342\200\224\342\200\224-

c.

x-x2
1 +2x -\342\200\224\342\200\224

d.

\342\200\224\342\200\224t

l+x2

e.
x3

+ Ax

12. a.

5-lx
x2+3x3

,_

-2

, , \342\200\236

b.

+ Ax

A-3x

c.

A~3x

d.

9 - 3x2 2 + 6x

3 -5x

e.

~6+2x

234

Part

IV

Rings

and Fields

13 a'

l~X
1+x

b' 3~5x
3+5x

1
Ax+x2

\"

a'

l
~3x + x2

&

Ax

+ x2

i-x

Concepts

14. It

can

be shown that
\\i2{~l+^).

the smallest subfield


Explain

containing

ordering

of a

subfield of C that
following

of R containing ifl is isomorphic to there is no ordering why this shows that, although contains some elements that are not real numbers.

the

smallest
for

subfield of

C
an

C, there may

be

15. Mark

each of the

true or

false.

a. Thereis only
b. The field
c. d. e.

Any If R
An An

one ordering possible for the ring Z. R can be ordered in only one way. in only one way. subfield of R can be ordered

The field

Q can be ordered
ordered

in only

one

way.

is

an

ring,

then R[x] can

in be ordered

a way
fo

that induces

the n

given e Z+

order

on R.

f.

ordering

of a

g.

of a ring R ordering such that b < na.


is an is an

ring i? is Archimedianif is Archimedian


and and

foreacha, if for

e R,

there exists
such

such that b
exists

< na.

each a,b

that 0

< a,

there

n e Z+

h. If R i. If R

ordered ring ordered ring


has

a e a e

R, then

\342\200\224a cannot

be positive.

j. Every

ordered ring
of the

an

a or \342\200\224a is positive. R, then either infinite number of elements.


in discussed

16. Describe an
number.

ordering

ring Q[tt],

Example

25.11,

in which jt is greater

than

any

rational

Theory

17.

Referring morphism.

to Example

25.12, show

that

the

map

<f>:

Z[V2]

-\302\273 R

where

(p(m

+ n^/l)

m\342\200\224 n4l

is a homo-

In Exercises

18 through

24, let R

be

an ordered
given

ring
\"We

Theorem 25.5. Prove the Theorem 25.5. For example,you must 0 < b then ab < 0.\
R defined in

statement.

not say,

on set P of positive elements, and let < be the relation 25.1 and (All the proofs have to be in terms of Definition know that negative times positive is negative, so if a < 0 and
with

18. IfaeP,thenO<a.

19.
20.
21.

If

a, b

e P

and

ac

= bd, then

d = either c \342\200\224 0 or cd

&

P.

If a If a

< b, then < 0 and


a field

\342\200\224 b < \342\200\224a.

0 < b,

then ab

< 0.
then a/b is l/a.
< -1.

22. If
23. If
24. If

R is R is
R

a field and

a and b are positive, and 0 < a < 1,then 1 <

positive.

is a

field and

-1 < a < 0,then


the

l/a

25. Prove Theorem of 25.10


26. Show
the that

text. set P

if R

requirements

is an ordered ring with for a set of positive


on there

elements in

of positive elementsand the ring S, and thus


properties
satisfying

S is gives

a subring of R, then an ordering of S.

n S

satisfies

27. Show

that if < is a relation stated in Theorem 25.5, then

a ring R exists a

satisfying the subset PofR

the

of trichotomy, transitivity, and conditions for a set of positive

isotonicity
elements

Section

25

Exercises

235

in

Definition

25.1,

and such

that

the

relation

<P defined that


if

by

a <P

b if and only

if

(b

a) e
n is

P is the

same

as

the relation

<.
integral

28. Let
then

R be

an ordered

domain.

Show

a2n+l

= b2n+l

where a,b

and

a positive

integer,

a =

b.

29. Let R

in two variables with coefficients in R. the ring R[x, y] of polynomials be an ordered ring and consider on and two Example 25.2 describes ways in which we can order R[x], and for each of these, we can continue two ways, giving four ways of arriving at an ordering of R[x, y]. There are order (/?[;c])[y] in the analogous then (/?[y])[;c]. Show that another four ways of arriving at an ordering of R[x, y] if we first order R[y] and of R[x, y] are different. You might start by considering whether x < y or all eight of these orderings [Hint: < x in each of these orderings, and continue in this fashion.] y

PART

Ideals

and

Factor

Rings

Section

26

Homomorphisms

and Factor
Ideals Ideals

Rings

Section

27

Prime and

Maximal

Section

28

fGr6bner Basesfor

section

26

Homomorphisms

and Factor

Rings

Homomorphisms
We'defined

the wished

since we
isomorphic

concepts to talk

of homomorphism and isomorphism about evaluation homomorphisms

for rings

in Section

18,
a

for polynomials

and

about that

rings.

homomorphism

We repeat is a structure-relating
and R into

some

definitions

here

for

easy reference.

Recall
relate

map.

A homomorphism

for

rings

must

both

their additive

structure

their

multiplicative

structure.
if +
\302\2420))

26.1 Definition

map

0 of

ring

a ring

R' is a homomorphism 0(a + b) = 4>{a)


^ab)

and

= 0(a)0(fc)

for all

elements a

and

bin

R.

showed

by

In Example 18.10we defined evaluation and Example 18.11 homomorphisms, that the map 0 : Z ^ Z\342\200\236, where is the remainder of m when divided 0(m) We give another n, is a homomorphism. simple but very fundamental example of a

homomorphism.

26.2

Example

Let Rl,R2,--,Rn be rings. For each i, the map m : (Projection Homomorphisms) \342\200\242 -> \342\200\242 \342\200\242 x Rn Rx x R2 x \342\200\242 Rt defined by jt,- (ry, r2, \342\200\242 = r,- is a homomorphism, \342\200\242, r\342\200\236) onto the ith component. The two required projection of a homomorphism hold properties
Section

28 is not

required for

the remainder

of

the text.

237

238

Part

Ideals

and

Factor

Rings

for

iti

since

both

addition

and

multiplication individual

in

the

direct product

are computed

by

addition

and multiplication

in each

component.

\342\226

Properties

of
our

Homomorphisms through

We 26.3 Theorem

work

way

the exposition of Section13but

for

ring

homomorphisms.

Let R into a ring R'. If 0 be a homomorphism of a ring in R', and if a e R, in R, then 0(0) = 0' is the additive identity identity = If S of R'. Going the then of R, then 0[S] is a subring \302\242(-a) \342\200\224\302\242(a).is a subring of R. Finally, if R has unity of R', then 0_1 [S'] is a subring other way, if S' is a subring to subrings, and for 0[/?]. 1, then 0(1) is unity Loosely speaking, subrings correspond to rings with unity under a ring homomorphism. with unity correspond rings

(Analogue of Theorem 13.12)


additive

0 is the

Proof

Let 0
viewed

be a homomorphism
as a

0(0)

= C
Theorem

R into a ring R'. of {R, +} into (/?',+'), group homomorphism is the additive element of R' and that identity
of

a ring

Since,

Theorem
0(\342\200\224a)

in particular, 0 can be 13.12 tells us that


\342\200\2240(a).

13.12
set

also tells us
(0[S],
then

that

if S

is a

subring

of R, of

group

{S, +}, the elements of 0[5],

+'} gives

a subgroup
=

then, considering the additive (/?', +'}. If 0(si) and 0(\302\276)are two

0(^)0(\302\276) and
0(^1\302\276) \342\202\254 0[5].

0(^1\302\276)

Thus

0(^)0(\302\276)

e 0[5],

so 0[5] is
that

closed
if S' that

under

multiplication.

Consequently,

0[5]

is a

subring

of

i?'. 13.12

Going the other way, (0-1 [\302\243'],+} is a subgroup


Then

Theorem

also shows

is a
0(a)

subring

of

R',

then

of (#,+}.Leta,fo
=

e 0\"1 so [5'],
4>{a)4>{b).

e S'and0(fo)

e 5'.

<p{ab) Since
<j>{a)<j>{b) \342\202\254 5', we subring if

see that
R.

afo

e 0_1

[5'] so

under 0_1 [S'] is closed

multiplication

and thus

is a

of

Finally,

R has

unity 1, then

for

all r

e i?,
0(l)0(r)

0(r) = 0(lr) = 0(rl)=


so 0(1) is unity
Note for

= 0(r

)0(1),

0[/?].

\342\231

in Theorem
to illustrate

26.3

that

0(1)

is unity

for 0[/?],

but

not

necessarily

for R'

as we

ask you 26.4 Definition


Let

in Exercise

9.
of rings.

a map

0:7?^

R be a homomorphism 0-1[O'] =

The subring

{retf|0(r) = O'}
of {R, +} homomorphisms

is the

kernel
Now

of 0,

denotedby

Ker(0). group

\342\226

this

Ker(0)

into

(/?',

+} given by
once

give us at

is the same as the kernel of the 0. Theorem 13.15and Corollary results for ring homomorphisms. analogous

homomorphism

13.18

on group

Section

26

Homomorphisms

and Factor Rings

239

26.5

Theorem

: R (Analogue of Theorem 13.15) Let \302\247 => R' be a ring homomorphism, = \302\253 // = // +a, where a + H = Ker(0). Let a e R. Then + 0_1[0(a)] a of the commutative is the coset containing additive group {H, +}.

and

H = H+a
a one-to-one

let

26.6 Corollary

(Analogue map

of

Corollary

13.18)

ring

homomorphism

: R \302\247

=> R' is

if and

only if Ker(0)

= {0}.

Factor (Quotient) Rings


We

ready to describe the of Theorem14.1. analogue


are

now

analogue

for rings

of Section

14. We

start

with

the

26.7

Theorem

(Analogue

of Theorem
additive

Then the
choosing

cosets

representatives.

14.1) Let0 : R of H form a ring That is, the sum


(a

=>

R' be

a ring

homomorphism

with kernel

H.

whose binary operations are defined by R/H of two cosets is defined by

+ H)

+ (b +
by

H) = (a

b) +

H,

and

the

product

of the

cosets is defined
(a

+ H)(b

+ 7/)
by

= (ab)+ H.
+ 7/)

Also,

the

map
the

/x : R/H
additive

-> (j>[R]defined
part

(i(a is done

= 4>{a) s an i
in

isomorphism.

Proof

Once again,

of the

theory

for us

Theorem

14.1.

We proceed is well
of

to check the multiplicative We must first show

aspects. that multiplication

of cosets by
consider

defined. To this and b + h2 of b

end,

let h\\,

h2, e 7/

and

choosing representatives a + hi the representatives

a +

7/

+ 7/.

Let
+

c = (a + h\\)(b
We must
show

hi)

= ab

+ ah2 + h\\b

h\\h2.
+

that

this element that

we need only show h e 7/, we obtain

dies in the coset ab + 7/. Sinceafo = 4>{ab). ince 0 is a homomorphism S 0(c)


= 0(afo
=

7/= 0_1[0(afo)], and 4>{h)= 0' for

0(c)

+ a/i2 +

h\\b

^\302\276)

<$>{ab) + 0(a/i2)
0(afc) 4>{ab)

+ 0(/ii&) +
+ 0>(fo)

0(/ii/i2)
(1)

= =
Thus
To multiplication multiplication are

+ +

0(a)O' 0' +

+ 0'0'

0' +

0' =

4>{ab).

show

multiplication that R/H


and

by choosing

representatives is well defined.


to show
in that

is a

ring,

it remains

the

associative

property

for from
well

the

distributive
7v.

laws hold

R/H.

Since

addition
follow

and
at once

computed

by choosing

representatives, these properties

corresponding propertiesin
Theorem defined,

14.1 shows that the map /x defined in the statement of Theorem 26.4is one to one, onto 0[7v],and satisfies the additive property for a homomorphism.

240

Part

Ideals and

Factor Rings

Multiplicatively,

we have

fi[(a +

H){b + 7/)]= ii{ab + H) = 4>{ab) = 0(a)0(fe)= /i{a+ H)/i{b


demonstration

H).

This completes
26.8

the

that

/x is an

isomorphism.

\342\23

Example

Example
remainder

shows

18.11 shows that the when divided by that Z/nZ is a ring where
of m
that

choosingepresentatives r

: Z defined by 0(m) = r, where r is the \302\242) -> Z\342\200\236 Since Ker(0) = nZ, Theorem 26.7 ahomomorphism. on residue classes canbe computed by operations the corresponding operation in Z. The theorem also and performing

map

n, is

shows

this

ring

Z/nZ

is isomorphic to

Z\342\200\236.

\342\22

It remains
multiplicationof multiplication

additive

Eq. (1)is
H =
Theorem 26.9

due

Ker(0),

H of a ring R such that only to characterize those subrings is well defined. The coset cosets of H by choosing representatives in Theorem to be well defined in Eq. (1). The success of 26.7 was shown = 4>{hxb) = ${hxh2) = 0'. That H where to the fact that 4>{ah2) is, if h \342\202\254 then for every a,b e 7? we have ah e H and Kb e H. This suggests

below,

which is
Theorem

the

analogue

of Theorem

14.4.
of

26.9 Theorem

(Analogue

of

14.4)

Let H

be a
the

subring

the

ring R.

Multiplication

of

additive

cosets of

H is well defined by
(a +

equation

H)(b +

H)=ab + H
\342\202\254 R and

,if and
Proof

only

if ah

\342\202\254 H and

Kb

H for \342\202\254

all a,b

&

H. e H.

Suppose first that that a + /ii andfo

ah

& H

+ /i2

a and

and hb & H for all a,b are also representatives ofthe

&

R and cosets

all
a +

/i

Let /ii,

h2

\302\243 H

so

7/andfo +

//containing

b. Then

(a + Since ah2
afo and

h\\){b

hi)
in

\342\200\224 ab +

ah2 +

h\\b

h\\h2.
(a

h\\b

and h\\h2
that

are all

by hypothesis,

we see that

+ h\\){b

+ h2) e

//.

of additive cosets by representatives is well the coset product {a + //)//. Choosing representatives = 0+// =//. Sincewe a e (a + //) and 0 e //, we see that =a0+// (a + //)// also compute can a e (a + //) and /i e //, we see that (a + //)// by choosing any ah & H for any /i e //. A similar argument with the product //(fo + //) shows starting

Conversely,

defined. Let a

eR

suppose
and

multiplication

consider

that

hb

&

for any

/i

e //.

\342\23

In group the type of substructure are precisely of groups theory, normal subgroups with a well-defined operation on cosets given required to form a factor group by operating with chosen representatives. Theorem26.9 shows that in ring theory, the analogous substructure must be a subring H of a ring R such that aH c H and H Hb \302\243 for \342\202\254 a// = {a/j | /i e //} and //fo = {/jfo | /i e //}. From now on we will alla,b /?, where we started usually denote such a substructure using N by N rather than H. Recall that to mean a normal subgroup in Section 15.

Section

26

Homomorphisms and Factor Rings

241

26.10

Definition

An addive subgroup aN
is an

of a

ring

satisfying

the properties
for

c N

and

Nb\302\243N

all a,b

ideal.

\342\226\240

26.11

Example

We see

that

nL

is an

ideal
all

in

the

ring

L since we

know

it is

a subring,

and

s{nm)

=
\342\226\262

{nm)s = n{ms)

e nL for
of all
constant

seZ.

26.12

Example

Let F

be

the

ring

consisting of all the Solution


It

functions mapping E in F. Is functions

into

E, ideal

and

let C

be

the

subring

of F

C an

in F7

Why?
a constant

is not

true that the product

of a constant
product

function

with every
2 is

function is again

function.
an

For example, the


off.

of sin

and

the function

2 sin

x.

Thus

C is

not \342\226\262

ideal

\342\226\240 Historical

Note
Eduard

was Ernst It introduced


number\"

of

unique

who (1810-1893) an \"ideal complex concept in 1847 in order to preserve the notion in certain rings of factorization
Kummer
the

necessary

to preserve
Kummer

unique

factorization.

By use
prove states
&

of

of these,
certain

was

in fact

able

to

cases

of Fermat's
y\"

that x\" +

zn

Last Theorem, which has no solutions x,y,z

L+

if

algebraic

integers.

In particular,
into

Kummer
numbers

wanted

to

n >

2.
It

be able
+ \302\253o a\\a

to factor
+
of

primes
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242

+ \302\2532<22

ap-i<xp~1,

of the form where a is a


are
the

turned

out that an \"ideal

in general
determined

not a
by

\"number\"

at all,

number,\" which was uniquely

was

complexroot
does

prime) and the a,Kummer had noticed that ordinary integers. of primes as \"unfavorable naive definition
numbers\" product of

xp =

1 (p

to the expected results; the such \"unfavorable\" numbers may well be divisible by other \"unfactorable\" numbers.
not lead two
Kummer defined numbers\"

the set of integers it \"divided.\" Richard took advantage of this fact to identify the ideal factorwith this set; he therefore called the set itself an ideal, and proceeded to show that it satisfied the in the text. Dedekind was definition given then able to define the notions of prime ideal and

Dedekind

in terms

these\"ideal

prime factors\" and \"ideal of certain congruence relationships; factors\" were then used as the divisors
\"ideal

product of two ideals ring of integers of any

and show that


algebraic

any

ideal

number

in the field could


ideals.

be written

uniquely

as a

product of prime

26.13

Example

Let F
that

be as in
= 0.

the

preceding
an

/(2)

Is N
let

ideal

in Fl

example, and let N be Why or why not?

the

subring

of all

functions f such

Solution

Let/
we

e N

and

g e

F. Then (fg)(2)
N kernel

find that

gf e

N. Therefore
the

is

= f(2)g(2)= 0g(2) = an ideal of F. We could

0,so also

fg e N. Similarly, have proved this

by

just

observing

that N is

of the

\342\226\262 evaluation homomorphism \302\2422F \342\200\224>\342\200\242 '\342\226\240 E.

242

Part

Ideals and

Factor Rings
denned on
and

Once
additive

we know
cosets

that multiplication

by the

choosing associative

of a

subring N of R,

representatives law for

is well

multiplication
R.

the

distributive

laws for
corollary

these cosetsfollow
of Theorem

at once

from the

same propertiesin R. Then the


N

We have

at once

this

26.9.
additive

26.14 Corollary

(Analogue

of

Corollary
R/N

of N

form a ring

with

Let N be an ideal of a ring 14.5) the binary operations dennedby


{a +

cosets

N) +

(b + N)

= (a + b)
=

and

(a +

N)(b + N)

ab +
factor

N.
ring

26.15 Definition

The

ring

R/N

in the

preceding corollaryis the


quotient

(or quotient

ring) of
of the,

byN.

* If we

use

the

term

ring, be sure

not

to confuse Section

it with the

notion

field

of

quotients

of an

integral

domain, discussed in

21.

Fundamental

Homomorphism
our

Theorem 13 and
14, we

Tocomplete
and

analogy

with Sections

give the

analogues of Theorems14.9

14.11.

26.16

Theorem

(Analogue of Theorem 14.9) Let N , by y(x) = x + N is a ring homomorphism

be an

with

ideal of aring R. Then kernel N.


to

: R

-> R/N given

Proof

The additive
see that

part

is done in

Theorem 14.9. Turning + N = (x

the multiplicative

question, we

y(xy) 26.17

= (xy)

+ N)(y +

N)

y(x)y(y).

\342\231

Theorem

Let 0 : Theorem; Analogue of Theorem 14.11) with kernel N. Then 0[/?] is a ring, and the map ring homomorphism (i: R/N -> 0[/?]given by /i(x + N) = 4>{x) is an isomorphism. If y : R \342\200\224>\342\200\242 R/Nisthe homomorphism given by y{x) = x + N, then for each x e R, we have <j>{x) = /J,y(x).
R

(Fundamental -> R' be a

Homomorphism

Proof

This follows
Fig. 14.10.

at

once

from

Theorems

26.7

and

26.16.

Figure

26.18 is

the

analogue

of

\342\231

W)

R/N

26.18 Figure

Section 26

Exercises
the factor
shows
n

243

26.19

Example

Example Example
/j,

26.11 shows that 18.11 shows that


we

nZ 0 : Z

is an

ideal of Z,
where Z\342\200\236

so we

can

form

ring

nZ. n is

->

0(m)

is the

remainder of m
is

modulo

homomorphism, and
: Z/nZ
an

see that /x(m

->

where Z\342\200\236

then Ker(0) = nZ. Theorem26.17 of m modulo + nZ) is the remainder

the map well defined and


that
\342\226\262

is

isomorphism. In

R gives rise to a factor ring every ring homomorphism with domain ring R/N gives rise to a homomorphism mapping R into R X. An ideal in ring theory is analogous to a normal Both are subgroup in the group theory. needed to form a factor structure. the type of substructure to Theorem 26.3 on properties of homomorphisms. We should now add an addendum and let N be an ideal of R. Then 0[7V]is an ideal Let \302\247 -> R' be a homomorphism, : R summary,
every

R/N,

and

factor

of 0[/?],

although
0_1

it

need

not be an

ideal of./?'. Also, if


leave

N' is an
of
this

ideal

of either

0[.R] or

of R', then

[W]

is an ideal

of R. We

the proof

to Exercise

22.

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

26

Computations

1. Describe all
0((1,

2.

Find

of Z x Z into Z x Z. [Hint: Note that ring homomorphisms = 0((1, 0))0((1,0)) and 0((0, 1)) = 0((0, 1))0((0, 1)).Consider 0)) a subring isomorphic to all positive contains integers n such that Z\342\200\236
all

if 0 also Z2.

is such
0((1,

a homomorphism,

then

0)(0, 1)).]

3. Find

ideals

N of

Zi2.
?

In

each

case compute

Z^/N;

that

is, find

a known

ring

to which

the quotient

ring

is

isomorphic.
4.

Give addition

and

multiplication

tables

for 2Z/8Z.

Are 2Z/8Z

and

Z4 isomorphic

rings?

Concepts
In

Exercises

needed, so that
5.
An

5 through it is in

7, correct the a form acceptable


of a ring R
with

definition

of the

italicized term

without

reference

to the

text, if correction is

for publication.
a ring

isomorphism ideal
TV

R' is

a homomorphism
of (R,

/?' such 0 : /? ->\342\226\240 for

that Ker(0)
all n

= {0}.
we have

6. An

of a

ring R is an

additive

subgroup

+) such that

all r

and

iV,

rn

&

and nr

e N.
of a

7. Thekernel
8.

/?' is {0(r) = 0' | r e W}. a ring R into a ring 0 mapping Let F be the ring of all functions mapping R into R and having derivatives of all orders. Differentiation gives = /'(*)\342\226\240 5 a homomorphism? Why? Is a map 5 : F \342\200\224>\342\226\240 F where S(f(x)) the connection between this Give exercise and Example 26.12.

homomorphism

9. Give an
unity

example

of a ring

homomorphism 0 : R
true or

->\342\226\240 /?' where

has

unity

1 and

0(1)

7^

0',

but 0(1)

is

not

for R'.
following

10. Mark each of the

false.
ring.

a. Theconcept
b.

A ring
A

c.

ring

of a ring homomorphism is closely connected with the idea of a factor R' carries ideals of R into ideals of R'. homomorphism 0 : R \342\200\224>\342\226\240 is one to one if and only if the kernel is {0}. homomorphism ideal

d. Q is an

in R.

244

Part

Ideals

and

Factor

Rings

e.
f.

Every Every Every

ideal subring quotient

in a ring

g.
h.

is a subring of the ring. of every ring is an ideal of the ring. ring of every commutative ring is again a commutative
Z4 are R

ring.

The rings
An

i.

ideal

Z/4Z and N in a ring

isomorphic. with unity 1 is is to


the

all

of R

if and

only the

if 1 e concept

N.
of a

o j. The concept f an concept of a group.

ideal

concept

of a

ring as

normal

subgroup

is to

the

11.

Let R be a ring. interest? Why? Give an


an

Observe

that

{0} and

are

both

ideals of R.

Are

the

factor

rings R/R

and

R/{0}

of real

12.

example
example

to

show

that a
that that

factor

ring

of an

integral domain
domain divisors

may

be a

field.

13. Give

to show

a factor a factor

14. Give
15.
Find

an example a subring

to show of the
ring

ring of an integral ring of a ring with


is not

may have divisors of 0.


of 0
may

be

an integral

domain.
if and

Z x

that

an ideal of Z

x Z.
R modulo

16. A
(rs

student sr)

\342\200\224 e

Assume

to prove that a quotient ring of a ring N for all r, 5 & R. The student starts out: rs = sr for allr.se R/N is commutative. Then
is asked the instructor the student
should

an ideal

is commutative

only

if

R/N.
from there on?

a. Why
b.
c.
What

does

reading have written?


the

this

expect

nonsense

Prove

the assertion. (Note

\"if and

only if.\

Theory

17. Let
that

R =

{a +

b\\[2

\\a,b

e Z}

and let R' consist of all 2


R' is

x 2 matrices
show

of the

form
cj> :

yt

for

a, b e
<j>(a

Z.

Show

R is

[a ,

a subring of R and that \342\226\240 2b-] is an \342\226\240 , . isomorphism.


that
that

a subring

of M2(Z). Then
ring is
R ->

that

R ->

R', where

+ bsl%

18.

Show

each homomorphism
if

from a field
are

to a

either

one

to one
R'

or maps everything
Section

onto

0.

19. Show 20. Let

R,

R', and

R\"

rings,
R\"

and if

<p :

R' and

\\fr :

->\342\226\240 R\" are

composite
R

function

\\jf<j> : R

->

is a unity

homomorphism.

(Use Exercise 49 of

homomorphisms,
13.)
(f>p

then the

be

a commutative

(j>p(a) =

ap is a homomorphism
R' be

ring

with

(the : R let \302\242)

of prime characteristic Frobenius homomorphism).

p.

Show

that

the map

: R \342\200\224>\342\226\240 R given by

21. Let R
unity

and 1 and

rings
no

and

R' has R' be


<j>[N]

0 divisors,

-> R' be a ring homomorphism then \302\242(1) unity for R'. is


and let N

such that

0[i?]

{0'}. =\302\243

Show

that if R has

22. Let <f> :


a.
Show

R -> that

a ring
is an

homomorphism

be

an

ideal

of R.

ideal of cf)[R].
of cf)[R]

b. Give an

example

to show that
either

c. Let 23. Let


f(x\\,

N'

be an

ideal
F[xi,-

$[N] need not be or of R'. Show

an ideal
that
cj>~1

of R'.
[N1]

is an

ideal of R.
the
28 of

let S be and subset any \342\226\240\342\200\242\342\200\242 \342\200\242\342\226\240 & that ,xn]

is 24. 25.

an

ideal that that

\342\226\240 \342\226\240 x F of F x F x \342\226\240 for n factors. Show that of have every element(^, \342\200\242\342\200\242 a zero(see Exercise \342\200\242, S as ,xn) an) \342\226\240 in F[x\\, \342\226\240 This is of importance in algebraic \342\226\240, xn]. geometry.

a field,

be

set Ns of all Section 22) field.


unity.

Show Show

a factor if R

ring of a field
with

is either

the

trivial an

(zero)

ring of

one elementor is isomorphic


N R, =\302\243 then

to the with

is a ring

unity and N is

ideal

of R

such

that

R/N is a ring

Section

27

Prime and Maximal

Ideals

245

26. Let

be
that

a commutative
an intersection

ring
and

and

let a

e R.

Show

27. Show

of ideals
let N

of a ring

R is

{x e W | ax an ideal of R. again
that

Ia =

= 0}

is

an

ideal

of W.

28. Let
into

R and

R' be
that

rings

and W

be ideals

of

R and

R'. Show

0 induces

natural

homomorphism

0* : R/N

/?', respectively.Let 0 be a homomorphism ->\342\226\240 if 0[A^] c W. (UseExercise /?'/Af'


ring

of

39 of

Section 14.)

29. Let0 be a homomorphism is a unit in R'. 30. An element a of a ring elements in a commutative

of a ring R is

R with

unity onto

a nonzero

R'. Let

be a

unit

in

W. Show

that o(;/1

nilpotent an

if a\" ideal,

ring R is
in

= 0 for some n e Z+. Show the nilradical of R.


30, find

that

the

collection

of all nilpotent
that it

31. Referring
the

to the

definition given

Exercise

the

nilradical

of the

ring Z12 and

observe

is one of

ideals

of Z12

found

in

Exercise
that

3. What
if N

is the

nilradical

of Z?

of Z32?
ring

32.

Referring

to Exercise ideal

30, show

is the nilradical

of a commutative

R, then

R/N

has

as nilradical

the

trivial

{0 +

N}. ring
and that

33. Let R 34. Let R


some

be

a commutative
and

is nilpotent
be
n

to Exercise N an ideal of R. Referring 30, show of R/N is R/N, then the nilradical of R is R. that the set */N of all a a commutative ring and N an ideal of R. Show of N. Z+, is an ideal of W, the radical

if every

element of N
a\" & N

the nilradical

e R,

such

that

for

35.

Referring

to Exercise equal

34, show
N of the

by

examples

that for

proper ideals N
b. -JN

of a
may

commutative
equal

ring R,

a. */N neednot
36. What is the

N.
30)?

relationship

ideal ~JN of Exercise


by

34 to

the nilradical

of R/N (seeExercise

Word

your

answer
37.

carefully.

Show

that 0

:C^

Afc(R)

given

*(* +
for

K)=(4
subring

\302\273)

a,

fc

e K

gives an isomorphism
ring

of C with

the

0[C] of M2(IR).
ring

38. Let fitea


Section

with

24. Let

a e

R,

unity and let End((W, +)) and let Xa : R ^ Rbe given

be the
by

of endomorphisms

of (R, +)

as described

in

Xa(x)

=ax

for* e

R.
that that

a. Show b. Show

Aa is an R' =
analogue
{Xa

c. Prove the
SECTION

endomorphism of (/?,+). of End((/J, | a e tf} is a subring +)). of Cay ley's theorem for R by showing

that R'

of (b) is isomorphic

to R.

27

Prime
Exercises rings

and Maximal Ideals


12 through R/N

where

14 of the R and R/N


situation,

preceding
have

section
very

different

asked us to structural

provide

examples
to those

of factor
with

properties. We start

some

examples
shown

of

this

and in

the process, provide solutions


which is
domain

exercises.
is a

27.1 Example

As

was

for p

a prime.

Thus

in Corollary a factor

19.12, the ring Zp, ring of an integral

isomorphic to

Z/pZ,

may be afield.

field A

246

Part

Ideals

and

Factor

Rings

27.2 Example

The

ring

Z x

Z is

not

an

integral

domain,

for

(0,1)(1,0) =
showing

(0,0),
=
the

that

(0,1)

Z x
where original

Z, and (Z x
meZ. ring

and (1,0)

L are 0divisors. et

{(0, n)
an

\\n

e Z}.

Now N is an
[(m, 0)

ideal

of

Z)/N is

isomorphic
ring

to Z
of

under

correspondence integral

Thus a factor is not.

a ring may

be

domain,

+ N] -o-m, even though the

\342\226

27.3

Example

The subset N

= {0,3} of

Z6 and

elements, 0 + N,l show that Z(,/N ~

+ N,
Z3

is easily 2 + N.

seen

to

be

an ideal
multiply

of Z(,, and
in such

Z(,/N

has

three
as

These add and

fashion

to

under

the correspondence
(1+A0\302\253*1,

(0 +

N)**0,

(2+A0\302\253*2. domain,

This example shows that ifR is not even it is still possible for R/N to be afield.

an

integral

that is,

ifR has zerodivisors,


A

27 .4 Example

Note

that
that

Z is an
a

showed
This
the

example
original Every

~ Z^ is integral domain, but Z/6Z factor ring may have a structure that seems indicates that the structure of a factor ring

not.

The examples preceding better than the original ring. seem worse than that of may

ring. nonzero

\342\226

ring R has

at

least

two ideals, rings of a

the improper
has

ideal {0}. For

theseideals,the
nontrivial

factor

are R/R,

'R/{0},
of and

which

is isomorphic

to R.

These are uninteresting


ring
R

a group, a proper N ^ {0}.

ideal

is

and the trivial one element, and which only Just as for a subgroup cases. an ideal N of R such that N ^ R

ideal R

While factor
above

rings

of

rings

and integral
which

domains
follows

may

be

of great

examples

indicate,

Corollary 27.6,
useful

our next

interest, as the theorem, shows that a

factor

ring of
is a

a field is really not

to us. of R

27.5 Theorem

If R

ring with unity, and N is

an

ideal

containing a unit,

then

N =

R.

Proof

LetN be an
rN
then

of R, and suppose that u e N for some unit uin R. Then the condition ideal c N for all r e R implies, if we take r = u~l and u e N, that 1 = u~l u is in N. But c N for all r e R implies rN N = R. that r 1 = r is in N for all r & R,so \342\231
no

27.6

Corollary

A field contains

proper

nontrivial

ideals.
it follows

Proof

that

Since every nonzero elementof a field is a unit, an ideal of a field F is either {0} or all of F.
and
take

at once from

Theorem 27.5

\342\231

Maximal
We

Prime

Ideals of when
is a factor

now

up the question
with

domain. The analogy


the

groups

case

in which

the factor ring

in Section a field.

ring is a field and when 15 can be stretched a bit

it is an integral further to cover

Section 27

Prime and Maximal

Ideals

247

27.7 Definition

maximal

ideal

idealN of
27.8

R properly

of a ring R is an ideal M containing M.


integer.

different

from

R such that

there is no proper
\342\226\240

Example

Let p
about

be a prime
multiplication

positive

We know

that

Z/pZ

normal pZ must be a maximal 15.18. Since Z is an abelian Theorem is a subgroup by group and every subgroup of Z. Since pZ is an normal subgroup, we see that pZ is a maximal proper subgroup that pZ is a maximal of Z. We know that Z/pZ ideal of the ring Z, it follows ideal is

we know

that of Z

moment and regarding and consequently Zp is a simple group,


for the

Z/pZ

is isomorphic and Zp

to Zp. as
additive

Forgetting

groups,

isomorphic
illustrates Theorem

to

the

ring

Zp, and

that

Zp

is actually

a field. Thus

Z/pZ is a field.

This
\342\226\262

the next

theorem.
Let

27.9

(Analogue
maximal

of Theorem 15.18) if ideal of R if and only


maximal

R be

R/M in R.

a commutative is a field.
that

ring

with

unity.

Then M is

Proof

a commutative ring with if M ^ R, which is unity ring + M) e R/M, with a ^ M, so that a + M is not (a a the additive inverse identity element of R/M. Suppose + M has no multiplicative in R/M. Then the set (R/M)(a + M) = {(r+ M){a + M) e #/M} does not + M) | (r of R/M. It is nontrivial 1 + M. We easily see that contain + M) is an ideal (R/M)(a it does not contain because 1 + M. By the because a \302\242 and it is a proper ideal M, is the of Section 26, if y : R \342\200\224>\342\226\240 canonical homomorphism, then final paragraph i?/M of R properly + M)] is a properideal containing M. But this contradicts y~l[(R/M)(a our assumption that M is a maximal ideal, soa + M must have a multiplicative inverse
ideal

Suppose M is a

Observe

if

R is

unity, then R/M is also a nonzero Let the case if M is maximal.

commutative

with

in

R/M.

Conversely,

suppose
of R

that R/M
that

N is any

ideal

such

c N

is a c

field.By the
R

and

onto R/M, then y[AT| is an ideal of R/M with states that the field contrary to Corollary 27.6,which ideals. Hence if R/M is a field, M is maximal.
27.10

of Section final paragraph is the canonical homomorphism y {(0 + M)} cy[N]c R/M. But

26, if
of this

R is

R/M contains no

proper

nontrivial
\342\231\246

Example

Since Z/nZ
the

maximal

and is isomorphic to Z\342\200\236 Z\342\200\236field if and only if n is a prime, we see that is a ideals of Z are preciselythe ideals pZ for prime positive integers p. \342\226\262 with

27.11

Corollary Proof

A commutative Corollary

ring

unity

is a field if and

only

if it

has no
ideals. proper R,

proper nontrivial
nontrivial

ideals.

27.6 shows that a field has no proper nontrivial if a commutative ring R with unity has no ideal and R/{0], which is isomorphic to {0} is a maximal
Conversely,

ideals, then
27.9.

is a

field

by

Theorem

We now turn to the question of characterizing, for a commutative R with unity, ring N ^ R such that R/N is an integral domain. The answer here is rather obvious. The factor ring R/N will be an integral domain if and only if {a + N)(b \342\200\224 N A\") =
the

ideals

implies

that

either

a +

N = N

or

b+ N

N.

248

Part

Ideals

and

Factor

Rings

This is exactly the statement of 0, since the coset N plays that R/N has no divisors the role of 0 in R/N. at representatives, we see that this condition amounts to Looking that ab e N implies that either a e N or b e N. saying

21.12Example

All

is an

are of the form nZ. For n = 0, we have nZ = {0}, and Z/{0} ~ Z, which and is an domain. For n > 0, we have Z/nZ ~ Z\342\200\236 Z\342\200\236 integral domain if integral if n is a prime. Thus the nonzero and ideals nZ such that Z/nZ is an integral domain only a field, so that pZ are of the form pZ, where p is a prime. Of course, Z/pZ is actually is a maximal ideal of Z. Note that for a product rs of integers to be in pZ, the prime \302\243> in this example makes the use of the must divide either rors. The role of prime integers \342\226\262 in the next definition more reasonable. woidprime
ideals

of Z

27.13

Definition

An ideal N

in a

commutative

ring

is a

prime

ideal if ab

TV

implies

that either

a&Norb&Nfora.b&R.
Note

\342\226\240

that

{0} is

a prime

ideal

in Z,

and indeed, in

any

integral

domain.
t {0},hen

27.14 Example

Note that
have bd

x {0}
that

is a prime

= 0 in

Z. This

Z x

{0}.Note
Our

ideal of Z x Z, for if (a, b)(c, d) e Z x implies that either T> = 0 so (a, b) e Z to Z, which is an is (Z x Z)/(Z x {0}) isomorphic

x {0} rd = 0 o
integral

we
so

must

d) e domain.
(c,
\342\226\262

remarks preceding Example is illustrated by Example 27.14. \\V,hich

27.12 constitute

a proof

of the

following

theorem,

27.15 Theorem

Let R
an

be

a commutative domain

ring
only

with

unity,

integral

if and

if TV is a

and let TV ^ R be prime ideal in R.

an

ideal

in R.

Then R/N is

27.16

Corollary

Every maximal ideal in

a commutative

ring R with

unity

is a

prime ideal.
domain,

Proof

If M is maximal is a prime ideal


The
very in

R, then R/M is Theorem 27.15. by


in

a field, hence an

integral

and therefore

\342\231\246

material

that has just


and we

important

shall be using

mind. We must know and must remember the following

been presentedregarding maximal and prime ideals is the main ideas well it quite a lot. We should keep of maximal and prime understand the definitions ideals and facts that we have demonstrated.

For a commutative
1.
An An

ring ideal ideal

R with unity:

M of R
TV

is maximal if prime if
R is
and

and only

only

if R/M is

a field.
integral

2.
3.

of

R is

if R/N

is

an

domain.

Every maximal idealof

a prime

ideal.

Section27 Prime and Maximal

Ideals

249

Prime

Fields
proceed

We now
with

to show that
that

the

rings

Z and

form Z\342\200\236
similar

foundations for all

upon which all

rings

unity

rest, and

Q and

ring with unity n > 0, and (-1)


n

1. Recall

+ (-1)

fields. Let R be any \342\200\242 \342\200\242 1 we that by n \342\226\240 mean 1 + 1 + \342\200\242 for n summands for + 1 n \342\226\240 for 1 = 0 for n < 0, while + --- + (-1) for \\n\\ summands
service

Zp perform a

0.

27.17 Theorem

If

is a

ring with

unity

1, then

the map

: Z \302\242)
n

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 R given

by

0(n) =
for n

\342\200\242 1

e Z is a homomorphism

of Z

into R.

Proof

Observethat
0(n

+ m)
laws

(ft

m)
that

\342\226\240 1 = (ft

\342\200\242

1) +

(m

\342\226\240 =

1)

0(n) +

0(m).

The distributive

in i? 1 +

show

(1 +

---+

1)(1 +
m

1 + -+1)
summands

= (1+1+ -+
nm
summands

1)

\342\226\240

n summands Thus

(n

\342\200\242\342\226\240 =

l)(m

1)

(nm)

\342\226\240 1 for

ft, m

> 0. Similar arguments

with

the distributive

laws show

that

for

all n, m

e Z,

we have
\342\200\242\342\226\240 =

(ft

l)(m

1)

(nm)

\342\226\240 1.

Thus

(p(nm) =
27.18

1 = (n (nm) \342\226\240

\342\200\242\342\200\242 =

l)(m

1)

<j>(n)$(m).

\342\231\246

Corollary

If R to

is a ring

If R Z\342\200\236.

with unity and characteristic n > 1, then i? contains a subring a subring isomorphic to has characteristic 0, then R contains : Z \342\200\224>\342\226\240 i? given by

isomorphic Z.

Proof

m e Z is a homomorphism by ideals in Z are of the form sZ for some 5 e Z. By Theorem19.15 we see that if R has characteristic n > 0, then the kernel of <f> < is ftZ. Then the image \302\242[7,] R is isomorphic to Z/nZ ^ Z\342\200\236. characteristic If the of i? < R 1 ^= 0 is 0, then m \342\200\242 for all m ^= 0, so the kernel of 0 is {0}.Thus, the image \302\242[1,] The map
Theorem27.17. <f> m \342\200\242 1 for

0(m) =
ideal

The kernel

must be

an

in Z. All

is isomorphic
27.19

to

Z.

\342\231\246

Theorem

A field

F is either of prime

characteristic

p and

contains a
to

subfield

isomorphic

0 of characteristic and
Proof If the

to Zp

or

contains

a subfield
0, the

isomorphic

Q.

characteristic of
to

F is not
n must

above corollary shows

that

contains

a subring

isomorphic
characteristic

Then Z\342\200\236. 0, then

be a prime F must contain a subring

p, or F

would

have

0 divisors.

If F is
Corollaries

of

isomorphic

to Z.

In

this

case

PartV

Ideals and

Factor Rings
show

21.8

and 21.9

that

must

contain

a field
Q.

of quotients

of this

subring

and

that

this

field

of quotients must
Thus

to be isomorphic

\342\231\24

subfield
which

field contains either a subfield to Q>. These fields Zp and isomorphic all fields rest.
every

isomorphic

Q are the

to Zp
fundamental

for some prime


building

ova

blocks on

27.20 Definition

The fields Zp
Ideal

and

Q are

prime fields. F[x]

\342\226\24

Structure
the

in
rest of

Throughout

that F is a field. We give the next definition this section, we assume in the case for a general commutative ring R with unity, although we are only interested R = F[x]. that for a commutative ring i? with unity and a e R,theset{ra \\r e R] Note is an ideal in R that contains the element a.

27.21 Definition

If R of a

is a commutative ring with unity and a e R, the ideal {ra \\ r e R] of all multiples is the principal ideal generated a and is denoted by {a). An ideal N of R by

is a

principal
27.22

ideal

if

{a) for
Z is

some a
form

e R.

\342\226\24

Example

Every ideal

of the ring is a principal ideal. {x) in


F[x]

of

the

nZ,

which is

generated by

n,

so every

ideal of Z

\342\226\26

27.23

Example

The ideal

consists

of

all

polynomials

in F[x]

having zero

constant

term.

\342\226\26

The
algorithm

next
for

theorem
F[x].

is
the

another

simple

but very

(See Theorem

23.1.) The proof


that

important application of the of this theorem is to

division the

division

algorithm
division

in F[x]
algorithm

as

proof

a subgroup

of a cyclic group

is

cyclic

is to

the

in Z.

27.24 Theorem
Proof

If

is a field,

every ideal in
of F[x].

F[x]

is principal.

If N = {0},hen N = (0}. Suppose that N ^ {0}, and let g(x) t If the degree of g(x) is 0, then of N of minimal e F degree. g(x) and is a unit, so N \342\200\224 = (1) by Theorem 27.5, soN is principal. If the degree of g(x) F[x] is >1, let f{x) be any element of N. Then by Theorem 23.1, f(x) \342\200\224 + r(x), g(x)q(x) where r(x) = 0 or (degreer(x)) < (degree Now f(x) e N and g(x) e N imply g(x)). = r{x) is in N by definition of an ideal. that f{x) \342\200\224 Since g(x) is a nonzero g{x)q{x) elementof minimal degree in N, we must have r{x) = 0. Thus f(x) = g(x)q(x) and

Let N be an

ideal

be a

nonzero

element

N =

(g(x)).
We

\342\231\24

can

now characterize

the

maximal

achieving

our basic

goal:

to

show F.

that

ideals of F[x]. This any nonconstant polynomial

is a crucial step in f{x) in F[x] has a

zero in some field

containing

Section

27

Prime and

Maximal Ideals
over F.

251

27.25

Theorem

An

ideal

{p(x)} ^

{0}of F[x] is

maximal

if and

only

if

p{x)

is irreducible

Proof

Then {p(x)) ^ F[x], so p(x) \342\202\254 F. {p(x)) ^ {0} is amaximal idealof F[x]. = f(x)g(x) be a factorization of p{x) in F[x]. Since {p{x))is a maximal p(x) ideal and hence also a prime e {p(x)} implies that f(x) e {p(x). or ideal, (f(x)g(x)) that e {p(x)}; is, either f{x) or g{x) has p{x) as a factor. But then we can't have g{x) the degrees of both f{x) and g{x) less than the degree of p{x).This shows that p(x) is
that Suppose

Let

irreducible over F.
Conversely,

if

p{x)
Now

is irreducible
N

over F,
ideal

that suppose

is an

ideal such

that

ip(x))

someg(x)
p{x)

0, that
q{x)

27.24, F[x]. by that p{x) = g(x)q(x) for some q(x) e F[x].But .Then p(x) e N implies is irreducible, which implies that either g{x) orq(x) is of degree0.If g(x) is of degree a nonzero constant in F, then g(x) is a unit in F[x], so {g(x)) = N = F[x]. If is, = c, where c e F, and g(x) = (l/c)p(x) is in (/?(*)), so is of degree 0, then q{x)
Theorem

cJVc

is a principal

so N

= {g(x))for

e N

N =

{p(x)}. Thus {p(x)}C N


23.9 shows
that

F[x]

is impossible,

so {p(x)}is maximal.

\342\231\246

27.26

Example

Example

x3

is a
{x2

Similarly, \342\200\224 a field. 2) is

field.

Theorem

We

shall

in + 2 is irreducible Z5[x], so Z5[x]/{x3 + 3x + 2) 2 is 22.11 shows that*2 \342\200\224irreducible in Q[x], so Q[*]/ such fields in more detail later. \342\226\262 examine

+ 3x

Application
In

to
23,

Unique

Factorization

in F[x]

we stated without Theorem 27.27, which follows. (See proof this theorem, we provedin Section 23 that factorization of in F[x] polynomials into irreducible polynomials is unique, for order of factors and except in F, We delayed the proof units of Theorem 27.27 until now since the machinery we us to give such a simple, four-line proof.This proof fills the gap have enables developed in F [x]. in our proof of unique factorization
Section
Theorem 23.18.)

Assuming

21.IH Theorem

Let p(x) be an irreducible F[x], then either p{x)


Suppose
Theorem 27.25.

polynomial

in F[x].

If p{x) divides
s(x).

r(x)s{x)

for r(x),

s{x) e

divides r{x)

or p{x) divides
r(x)s(x)

Proof

p(x) divides
Therefore,
that

r(x)s(x). Then

e {p(x)},
Corollary

which is maximal
27.16.

by

{p{x))imphes

{p(x)} is a prime ideal by either r(x) e {p(x)}, giving p(x)

Hence
that

r(x)s(x)

e
\342\231\246

divides

r(x), or

s(x)

e {p(x)},

giving p(x) divides s(x).


Preview
close
We

A
We

of Our
this
have outline.

Basic Goal of
the

goal.
Show

section with an outline all the ideas for the proof

demonstration

in Section
can

at hand

now; perhaps you

fill in

29 of our basic the details


in F[x].

from this
Basic
that

goal:
there

Let F
exists

be a

field

and

let f(x)
F

be a nonconstant

polynomial

a field

containing

and containing

a zero

a of f(x).

252

Part V

Ideals

and

Factor

Rings

Outline of the

Proof
irreducible factor of f{x) in
F[x]/{p(x)}.
different F[x]. field
two

1.
2. 3.

Let

p{x)

be an

Let E

be the

(See Theorems of F

27.25 and
the

27.9.)

Show that no
and

elements

are in

same
to)

coset of

deduce the

that we may coset


4>a

consider F to be (isomorphic
E.

a subfield

F[x]/{p(x)), of E.
is a zero

4. Let a be f(x)
in

x +

{p{x)) in

Show

homomorphism
E.

: F[x]

\342\200\224>\342\226\240 E, we

that for the evaluation have 0O(/(*)) = 0. That

is, a

of

to An example of a field constructed according this outline is given in Section 29. and multiplication tables for the field Z2[x]/{x2 + x + 1). We There, we give addition the cosets show there that this field has just four elements,

0+{x2
and

+x +

1),
(x

\\

{x2 +x+\\),

x + {x2+

x + l),

+ \\)+{x2+x

\\).

We

rename these four cosets 0, 1, and 29.21 for addition and multiplication

are
a{\\ and

and obtain Tables a + 1 respectively, 29.20 in this 4-element field.To see how these tables a + a = that we are in a field of characteristic so that 2, constructed,remember = a0 \342\200\224 0. Remember also that a is a zero ofx2 +x + l.sothata2 +a + 1 = 0 + 1) \342\200\224 = \342\200\224a = a + I. a2 I consequently
and

a,

\342\226\240 EXERCISES

27

Computations

1. 2. 3.

Find Find Find

all prime all prime all prime all prime all c all c all c
all

ideals and ideals and ideals and ideals and


that that

all all all all

maximal maximal maximal maximal

ideals ideals ideals ideals + c)

of Zeof Znof Z2 of

4. Find 5. Find
6.
Find Find

x Z2. Z2 x Z4.

e Z3 such e Z3 such e Z3
such

Zt,[_x]/(x2 Z3M/U3

is a field.

+ x2 +

c) is a field.

7.

that
that

Z3 [x] /(x3
Z5[x]/{x2

+ ex2+
+ x

1)is

a field.

8. Find

c e

Z5 such
such

9. Find

all c

e Z5

that

Z5M/(.x2

+ c) is a field. + ex + 1) is a field.

Concepts
In

Exercises

is needed,
10.

so that

10 through 13, correct the definition of the it is in a form acceptablefor publication.

italicized term
in

without

reference

to the

text,

if

correction

A maximal
Aprime

ideal of a ring

R is

an ideal

that

is not

contained
the

any

other

ideal of R.

11.

ideal

of a commutative

ring

is an

ideal of

form

pR

= {pr | r

R}

for

some

prime p.

Section 27

Exercises

253

12.
13.

A A

prime principal

field

is a field
ideal

that

has

no proper

subfields.
unity

that N

is
each

the

smallest

of a commutative ring with ideal that contains a.

is an ideal

with

the property

that

there

exists

a e

.V

such

14. Mark

of the

following

true

or false. commutative
commutative

a. Every

prime ideal of every


maximal own

ring with
ring

unity

is a

maximal ideal.

b.

Every

ideal prime

of every

with unity

is a prime ideal.

c. Q is its
d. The prime

subfield.
of C

subfield

is E. isomorphic
to

e. Every
f.
A

field

contains

a subfield

a prime

field.

as a subring. divisors may contain one of the prime fields a subfield g. Every field of characteristic zero contains isomorphic to Q. h. Let F be a field. Since F[x] has no divisors of 0, every ideal of F[x] is a prime i. Let F be a field. Every ideal of F[x] is a principal ideal. ideal of F[x] is a maximal ideal. j. Let F be a field. Every principal ring

with zero

ideal.

15. Find

a maximal a prime

ideal of

Z x Z.
prime.

16.
17.

Find Find

ideal of

a nontrivial
5x 6x

Z x Z that is not maximal. proper ideal of Z x Z that is not


+ 6) a

18. Is Q[x]/(x219. Is Q[x]/(x2-

field? Why?

+ 6) a field?

Why?

Proof Synopsis

20. Give 21. Give 22. Give

a onea onea one-

or two-sentence or two-sentence or two-sentence


two-sentence

synopsis synopsis synopsis

of \"only of \"if

if part

part

of Theorem 27.9. of Theorem 27.9.


27.24.
if\" part

of Theorem

23. Givea one-or

synopsis

of the

\"only

of Theorem

27.25.

Theory

24. Let
If it 26.

R be a

finite commutative
27.18

ring

with

unity.

Show

that

every

prime

ideal in R is a maximal
to

ideal.
some
Is it Z\342\200\236.

25. Corollary
possible

that

a ring

is possible,

that every ring with unity with unity may simultaneously give an example. If it is impossible,

tells us

contains

a subring isomorphic contain two subrings isomorphic prove it.


unity

either

Z or

to

and Zm Z\342\200\236

for n ^ml
isomorphic

Continuing

Exercise

25, is it possible
7Lq for

that

a ring

with

to the

fields Zp
the TLq for

and

two different primes

p and

ql

simultaneously Give an example


may

contain two subrings

or prove it

is impossible.

27. Following
Zp and

idea

of Exercise

26, is

it

possible

p ^q

and p

and

q both prime?

to contain for an integral domain Give reasonsor an illustration.

two subrings

isomorphicto

28.

Prove directly from the definitions of maximal and prime ideals that ideal of a commutative every maximal ring R with unity is a prime ideal. [Hint: M is maximal in R, ab e M, and a g M. Argue that the smallest Suppose a and M must contain 1 as ra + m and multiply ideal {ra + m \\ r e R, m e M) containing 1. Express by b.]
Show

29.

that

N is a
nontrivial

maximal ideal
ideals.

in

a ring

no proper

(Compare

R if and only if R/N is a simple ring, with Theorem 15.18.)

that

is, it

is nontrivial

and

has

254

Part

Ideals

and

Factor

Rings

30. Prove that

if F field field

is a field, every proper


and f(x), and let

nontrivial

prime

ideal of

F[x] is maximal.
if

31. LetF be a 32. Let F be a

F[x]. Show that f(x) /(*), g(x) e F[x].Show that


N =

g(x) e

divides g(x)

and

only if g(x)

e {f(x)).

{r{x)f{x) + and g(x) have

e s(x)g(x)| r{x),s{x) F[x]}


different

is an
both

ideal of

F[x]. Show
to

that

if f(x)

degrees

and N ^

F[x],

then

/(*)

and g{x)

cannot

be irreducible

over F.
prove

33.Use Theorem27.24
Fundamental
Nullstellensatz

the equivalence
Every

of these
nonconstant

two

theorems:

Theorem
for

of Algebra:
Let f\\{x),

polynomial
in

in C[x]
every

has

a zero

in

C
is a the

C[x]:

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242, f,(x)

e C[x]

these polynomials is also a zeroof a polynomial of C[x] that contains the r polynomials f\\{x),
There

and suppose that


C[*].

a e

that

zero of
smallest

all

r of

g{x)

Then

some power define sum,

of g(x) is in
and

ideal

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242, /,\342\226\240(*).

is a sort
and

of

arithmetic

of ideals

in a ring.

The next
B =

three and

exercises B is

product,

quotient

of ideals.

34. If A
a.

S are

ideals of a ring

R, the

sum A +
A +

B of A

defined
b e
that

by

{a + b | a

e A,

B}.
A c

Show

that

A +

B is

an

ideal. ring

b. Show R. The

A+
by

B and

B c

A+

B.

35. Let

A and

B be

ideals of a

product AS
f n

of A

and

S is

defined
n e Z+
AS

AB

= i

y^a,fc; | a,I '=i

e A, fc,- e S,

a. 36. Let

Show

that

AS is an

ideal

in

R.

b. Show ring R. The A


: quotient

that

c (A

n S).
defined

A and

S be

ideals of a

commutative

A : S

of A by S is

by

S = {r

tf

rb

e A

for all b e

S}.

Show

that that

S is

an ideal

of i?.
set

37. Show

for a field

F,

the

S of all

matrices of the

form

(oo)

for a, b
38.

e F is a
the

right

ideal

but not a
any

left

multiplication

on the matrix

right

by

element

of M2(F). That is, show that S is a subring of M2(F), but is not closed under left multiplication.
ideal that

closed under

Show

that

ring M2(la) is a

simple ring;

is, MiJJLj)

has no proper

nontrivial

ideals.

section

28

^Grobner
This concerned

Bases

for Ideals
In particular, we are we can of the set of common accomplish our goal in a single

section with

gives a brief introduction to algebraic geometry. the problem of finding a description as simple as
finite

zeros of a
section

number

of

this

text, we

book by

Adams

of polynomials. In order to be stating a few theorems without We recommend proof. and Loustaunau for the proofs and further study. [23]
will

the

This

section

is not usedin the remainder

of

the text.

Section

28

Grobner Bases for

Ideals

255

Algebraic
Let

Varieties
a field.
X\\,X2,

and Ideals
that

be

Recall

F[X\\,X2,

\342\226\240 is \342\226\240 \342\226\240

,xn]

the ring

of
be

polynomials

in

n inde-

terminants

\342\226\240 with \342\226\240 \342\226\240 ,x\342\200\236

coefficients

in F.

We let

F\"

the

Cartesian

For easein writing, we denote an element {a\\, ai, \342\200\242\342\200\242\3 \342\200\242\342\226\240\342\200\24 For ,xn]. Using similar economy, we let F[x] = F[X\\,X2, each a g f\", we have an evaluation F just homomorphism 0a: F[x] \342\200\224*- as in \342\226\240 That is, for /(x) = f(xu x2,\342\226\240 e F[x], we define 0a(/(x)) = /(a) \342\200\224 Theorem 22.4. \342\226\240, x\342\200\236) \342\200\242 \342\200\242 The follows from the ci2, \342\200\242, an). proof that 0a is indeed a homomorphism f(al, and distributive properties of the operations in F[x] and F. Just as commutative, associative, = 0. a of F\" is a zero of /(x) e F[x] if /(a) for the one-indeterminate case, an element
n factors.
of

F x

\342\200\242 \342\200\242 x F F x \342\200\242 for

product

F\" by

a,

in

bold

type.

In what
numberof the

In this

abbreviate follows, we further section we discuss the problem

a polynomial of finding

f(x) by \"/\342\200\242\" common zeros in F\"


and

of a finite

polynomials set of all these

/i, /2,

\342\200\242 in \342\200\242 \342\200\242, /r

F[x]. Finding
subject

studying

geometric

properties

of

common zerosis the


subset
F\"

of algebraic

geometry.
V(S)

28.1 Definition

Let S be a
In our

finite

of F[x].

The algebraic variety


in

in F\"

is

the

set

of all
\342\226\240

common zeros in

of the

polynomials

S.

illustrative

use*, y, 28.2Example
Let

z in place

examples, which of Xi,x2, and^3.


2} c

usually

involve

at most three

indeterminates, we

{2x + y a:-intercept 1 and


\"We leave

S =

R[x, y].
2.

The

algebraic

variety

V(S)

in E2 is

the

line

with
\342\226\262

-intercept

to Exercise

29 the
with

straightforward

proof

that for r