Instructor's
Preface
vii
Student's
Preface
xi
xiii
Dependence Chart
0
Sets and
Relations
Groups
and Subgroups
and
1
2
3
.
Introduction Binary
Operations
Binary
Examples 20
Structures
11
28
Isomorphic
Groups
36
5
6
Subgroups
Cyclic
49
59
Cayley
\342\200\242
Groups
Digraphs
68
Permutations,
Cosets,
75
Alternating
the
8
9
Groups
of Permutations
Orbits, Cycles,and
10
Cosetsand
Direct Plane
the
Theorem
11
Products Isometries
tl2
Groups
104
Contents
III
HOMOMORPHISMS
125
13
14
Homomorphisms
125
Factor Groups
FactorGroup Group Applications
135
Computations
15 *16
Tl7
and Simple
Groups
144
Action
on a Set
of
154
to Counting
GSets
161
Rings
and Fields
and
167
184
18
19
20
Rings Integral
Fields
167
177 Theorems of an
Domains
and
Fermat's
Rings
Euler's Quotients
21
The Field of
Integral Domain
over
190
22
23
i\"24
of Polynomials
198
a Field
Factorization of Polynomials
Noncommutative
209
+25
Ordered Rings
220 227
Ideals
and
Factor
and
Rings
Rings 245
254
237
237
26
27
+28
Homomorphisms
Factor Ideals
Ideals
Extension
Fields
to Extension
265
Fields
29
30
31
^32
Introduction Vector
265
Spaces
274
Algebraic Extensions
Geometric
Finite
283
293
Constructions
Fields
33
300
VII
Advanced
34
Group
Theorems
311
Theory
307
307
Isomorphism
35
36
Series of Groups
Sylow Theorems
Applications
321
Sylow Theory
37
of the
327
Contents
333 346
38
Free
Abelian
Groups
341
39 Free Groups
40
Group Presentations
'VIII
Groups
in Topology
Complexes
355
Groups 363
41
42
43 44
Simplicial Computations
and Homology
355
371
of Homology
Groups
and Applications
Factorization
389
Domains
45
46
47
Unique
Factorization
389
Euclidean Domains
Gaussian
401
Norms 407
Integers
and Multiplicative
Automorphisms
48
415
Automorphisms
of Fields
Extension
49
50
51
T52
The Isomorphism
Splitting
424
Fields
431
Separable Extensions
Totally
436
444
Inseparable
448
Extensions
53
54
GaloisTheory
Illustrations
Cyclotomic
55
56
of Galois Theory
Extensions Quintic
457
464 470
Insolvability of the
Appendix:
Bibliography
Matrix Algebra
483
477
Notations
487
Asking
for Definitions
or Proofs
491
Index 513
' Not
required
\342\226\240
This section
of the
text.
17 and 36 only.
for Sections
Instructor's
Preface
introduction to abstract algebra. It is anticipated that the students have studied and probably linear algebra. However, these are primarily mathematical matter from calculus and linear maturity prerequisites; subject algebra appears mostly in illustrative and exercises. examples As in previous editions of the text, my aim remains to teach students as much about and fields as I can in a first course. For many abstract students, groups, rings, algebra is their first extended treatment of mathematics. Recognizing this, exposure to an axiomatic I have included extensive explanations concerning what we are trying to accomplish, how we are trying to do it, and of this text why we choose these methods.Mastery constitutes a firm foundation for more specialized work in algebra, and also provides valuable experience for any further axiomatic study of mathematics.
This
is an
calculus
Sixth Edition
material had increased from one lesson in the first edition edition. My personal preferenceis to spend less time before to algebra; Much of it is review for therefore, I spend little time on preliminaries. getting four lessons on it may result in their not allowing sufficient students, and spending many time in their schedules to handle the course when new material arises. Accordingly, in this edition, I have reverted to just one preliminary lesson on sets and relations, leaving other A summary of matrices now needed. in the topics to be reviewed when appears
amount
to four
lessons
Appendix.
The first
which
two
editions
could
be covered
consecutively
numbered to that
sections,
many of
avoid
have
reverted
cumbersome
In
and
intimidating
numbering
the
of definitions,
order
response
to suggestions
by reviewers,
of
design
to
the
Instructor's
Preface
that the
a new
In in
basic material
on
groups,
first,
onesemester
course appears
attempting
introduction,
response
to
be covered rings, and fields that would normally the moreadvanced before Section group theory. of the study. some feeling for the nature provide
the
in
1 is
to several that
material
on homology
is easily
topology
appeared
two
editions.
Computation
strengthens
students'
of factor groups. The material understanding one need only read about free abelian 15, as preparation.
automata, sixth
groups,
Theorem
38.5,
To make
linear
room
for the
homology groups, I
additional
omitted
structures
the discussion
that
appeared
of
of in the
binary edition.
codes, and
students
algebraic
I have
synopsis
also included a few exercisesasking a proof in the text. Before the first
to give a
one or
an
twosentence
to show
such
exercise,
I give
example
what I expect.
Some Features
Retained
down most
I continue
concepts,
to break and
parts
consisting
of computations,
a proof again Answers to oddnumbered exercisesnot requesting I am supplying the of the text. However, in response to suggestions, appear at answers to parts a), c), e),g), and i) only of my 10part truefalse exercises. a manual The excellent historical notes by Victor Katz are, of course,retained. Also, solutions asking for proofs, including containing complete solutions for all the exercises, theory. the back
instructor
dependence
chart
the
front
matter
as
an
aid
in
making
a syllabus.
Acknowledgments I am
and
very
grateful
to those
I am
who
have
reviewed
the text or
who
have
sent me
suggestions
who used the sixth M. Bergman, especially indebted to George and made note of typographical edition and other errors, which he sent to me along a great many other valuable suggestions for improvement. I really with appreciate this which must have involved a large expenditure of time on his part. review, voluntary I also wish to express my appreciation to William Hoffman, Julie and LaChance, of AddisonWesley for their I was most with this project. Finally, Cindy Cody help
corrections.
fortunate to have John Probst and the staff at TechBooks handling the production of the text from my manuscript. They produced the most errorfree I have experienced, pages and the solutions courteously helped me with a technical problem I had while preparing manual.
Suggestions
Those
of Algebra
developed their
have discovered the difficulties and taught algebra several times are not for them. solutions. The comments I make here This courseis an abrupt change from the typical calculus for the undergraduate who
have
own
students.
board
graduatestyle
lecture
class
for most
of
the
time,
presentation, writing out definitions will not work with most students.
on
it
the
found
best
Instructor's
Preface
ix
to spend at least the first half of each class period answering on homework, questions to give a proof requested in an exercise, and generally checking trying to get a volunteer to see if they seem to understand the material for that class. Typically, I spent assigned about the last 20 minutes of my 50minute time talking about new ideas for the next only of view, it is a waste of time class, and giving at least one proof. From a practical point to try to write on the board all the definitions and proofs. They are in the text. I suggest that at least half of the assigned exercises consist of the computational ones. Students are used to doing in calculus. Although there are many computations exercises asking for proofs that we would love to assign, I recommend that you assign at most two or three such exercises, and try to get someone to explain how each proof is should be asked to do at least one proof performed in the next class. I do think students in each assignment. face a barrage of definitions and Students theorems, something they have never encountered before.They are not used to mastering this type of material. Grades on tests to us, requesting a few definitions are apt to be low and that seem reasonable and proofs, this problem for most students. My recommendation for handling appears in depressing 2001 issue of the MAA Abstract Algebra Classes,in the November my article, Happy
FOCUS.
only
a single
short,
course
in abstract
50minute
classes.
I gave three 50minute tests in class, about 38 classes for which the leaving was given an assignment. in Sections 011, 1315, I always covered the material Of 1823,26, 27, and 2932, which is a total of 27 sections. course, I spent more than one class on several of the sections, two but I usually had time to cover about more; sometimes I included Sections 16 and 17. (There is no point in doing Section 16 unless course, student
you
do
Section
sometimes
becoming
17, or will be doing Section 12 (see the Dependence discouraged in the first few weeks
Section
36 later.) I often coveredSection25, and from The job is to keep students Chart). of the course.
Student's
Preface
This
course
may
approach
than
those you
working
used in
previous
mathematics
courses.
a homework
problem
by
turning
That
This
should
in the text to find a similar problem, and then just changing some numbers. work with a few problems in this text, but it will not work for most of them. may all important, and where problems becomes is a subject in which understanding the text. not be tackled without first studying on studying the text. Notice that the text bristles Let me make some suggestions
back
The definitions are crucial. We with definitions, theorems, corollaries,and examples. a defimtion is followed Sometimes agree on terminology to make any progress. are probably the most important an example that illustrates the concept. Examples by I suggest you skip the proofs aids in studying the text. Pay attention to the examples. first reading of a section, unless you are really \"gungho\" on of the theorems on your and try to understand what it just proofs. You should read the statement of the theorem means. Often, a theorem is followed an example that illustrates it, a great aid in really by what the theorem says. understanding concentrate on what In summary, on your first reading of a section,I suggestyou a real understanding of it. If you do not information the section gives, and on gaining
must
the statement of a theorem means,it will probably be meaningless for the proof. Proofs are very basic to mathematics. After you feel you understand the information at least some of the proofs. in a section, you should read and try to understand given the easiest Proofs of corollaries are usually ones, for they often follow very directly from under the \"Theory\" heading ask for a proof.Try the theorem. Quite a lot of the exercises It takes a bit of practice and experience. Proofs in not to be discouraged at the outset. than for there are usually can be more difficult proofs in geometry and calculus, algebra
understand you
what
to read
no
suggestive
pictures
that you
can draw.
Often,
a proof
falls
out
easily
if you
happen to xi
Student's Preface
look at
expression. Of course,it is hopeless to devise a proof if you do not to prove. For example, if an exercise asks really understand what it is that you are trying is a member of a certain that the defining set, you must know you to show given thing criterion to be a member of that set, and then show that your given thing satisfies that
just
the right
criterion.
aids for your study at the back of the text. Of course, you will not to oddnumbered problems requesting a proof. If you run into a discover look in the list of notations notation such as Z\342\200\236 you do not understand, that that appears that you do after the bibliography. If you run into terminology like inner automorphism not look in the Index for the first page where the term occurs. understand,
There
are several
the answers
In mathematics
summary, course,
although it is really
an understanding
of the
subject
is important
in every
you
crucial to
your
performance
in this
course. May
find it a
rewarding experience.
Narragansett, RI
J.B.F.
Dependence
Chart 011
12
1315
16
34
17
36
35
37
38
39
4144
1823
40
24
25
26
28 27
32
2933
4547
4851
52
5354
55
56
section
Sets
and Relations
Notion
On Definitions,and the
Many
of a
Set
do not realize the great of definitions to mathematics. students This importance to communicate with each other. stems from the need for mathematicians importance If two people are trying to communicate about some subject, they must have the same of its technical terms. However, there is an important structural weakness. understanding
It is
impossible to
define
every
concept.
the
term
set as
by then,
\"A
set
is a welldefined
collection of
it
naturally
an
asks
what is meant
a collection. is
We could define
as
\"A
Now our language will run out of new words to use and have to repeat is finite, so after some time we somewords already examined. The definition is then circular and obviously worthless. or primitive Mathematicians realize that there must be some undefined concept with set shall be such a primitive which to start. At the moment, they have agreed that concept. We shall not define set, but shall just hope that when such expressions as \"the set of all or \"the set of all members of the United States Senate\" are used, people's real numbers\" to make communication feasible. ideas of what is meant are sufficiently similar various We summarize we shall simply assume about sets. briefly some of the things
collection
is
aggregate
of things.\"
What,
an aggregate?
1.
A set
of elements,
and if a
is one of
It is
the
these
elements,
we shall
a e
S.
with
2.
3.
There by
one set
no
elements.
empty
set and
is denoted
We may describe a set either by giving a characterizing property of the such as \"the set of all members of the United States Senate,\" or by elements, the elements. The standard a set by listing elements is listing way to describe to enclose the designations of the elements, separated by commas, in braces, for example, {1, 2, 15}.f a set is described by a characterizing I property P(x) of its elements is also often used, and is read x, the brace notation {x \\ P(x)} \"the set of all x such that the statement P(x) about x is true.\" Thus
{2,4,
6, 8}
= {x  x is an
even
whole
positive
number <
8}
= {2x\\x 1,2,3,4}. =
The
notation
{x
\\ P(x)}
is often
called
\"setbuilder
notation.\"
4.
A set is well defined, meaning that if S is a set and a is some object, then either a is definitely in S, denoted by a e S, or a is definitely not in S, denoted a \302\242 Thus, we should never say, S. \"Consider the set S of somepositive by 2 e S or 2 \302\242. On the other hand, for it is not definite whether S. we numbers,\"
1
Section 0
can
consider
the set
prime
prime
positive
integers.
T
definitely
either
prime. Thus 5 e
and
actually goes
2(2 )
It is back a set.
is in a set. For example,as this book determine whether an object unknown whether 2(2\") + 1 is in T. However, to press it is probably + 1 is certainly either prime or not prime.
text
to push
to the
concept of a
set.
For example,
of everything
define
way
of
Every
definition
is an
if and
only
if'type
of statement.
With
this
understanding,
definitions
to be
are often stated with the only if suppressed, but it definition. Thus we may define an isosceles if it has two sides of equal length,\" when we
is isosceles if and only if it has two sides of equal a triangle length. labeledand numbered text, we have to define many terms. We use specifically for the main algebraic conceptswith which we are concerned. To avoid definitions of such labels and numberings, we define many terms within overwhelming quantity using boldface type. body of the text and exercises
an the
Boldface Convention
A
term
printed
in boldface
in
a sentence
is being defined
by
that
sentence.
Do not feel that you have to memorize a definition word for word. The important is to understand the concept, so that you can define preciselythe same concept in your own words. Thus the definition \"An isosceles is one having two equal triangle sides\" is perfectly correct.Of course, we had to delay stating our boldface convention
thing
until not
we define
had
finished
section,
using boldface in
the
preceding
discussion
as sets,
and
a set! we do
concepts.
In
this
for review
of
the
concepts
definitions
and
notation.
0.1 Definition
set
B is a
A. The
\342\200\242
notations
or
Z>
B,
A
for B
A
C
itself
but
if every B /
element of B is in A. \342\226\240
subsets
Note
that according
definition,
for any
set A,
A.
and 0
are both
A
of A.
0.2 Definition
is the
improper
subset of
Any
other
subset of
is a
proper
\342\226\240
Sets
and
Relations
0.3 Example
0.4 Definition
set
and
S has
{1,2,
a total
of
eight
subsets,
{1,2},{1,3},{2, }, 3
and
namely
0, {1},
{2}, {3},
A
Cartesian
\342\226\240
3}.
x
B be
and
sets. The
B. B
set A
4},
B =
{(a, b)
\\ a
e A
and b e
B) is
the
product
0.5
of A
Example
= {1, 2, 3}and
= {3,
then
we
have
(2,
A x
Throughout Let
B=
{(1,3),(1,4),
3), (2,
this
us take
care of notation
set
text, much work will be done for these sets once and
familiar sets
of numbers.
all.
Z is
the
of all
integers where
are the
n
(that
is,
whole
numbers:
Q is the
m/n
set of all
set
rational
numbers
that
of integers, of all
E+
0).
E is the
C is
Z*, the
Z+, Q+,and
set Q*,
respectively.
of all
complex numbers.
E*, and C*
are the
of nonzero
members of Z, Q, E, and
that
C, respectively.
0.6 Example
The set E
draw
xE
is
the
familiar
Euclidean
plane
we
use in
graphs
of functions.
firstsemester calculus to A
Relations
We which
Between
the notion might
Sets
of
an
introduce we
element
.^\302\276 b.
a of
set
being
related
denote by a
The notation
.y\302\243 exhibits b
lefttoright
the
following
relation
.^\302\276 as
element
in
0.7 Definition
related to
0.8
b\"
and
write
B is a
subset J?
of A
B. We
read (a, b)
a set
the
e J?
as
\"a is
\342\226\240
Example
(Equality
consider
Relation)
every set
There is one familiar relation between in this text to possess: namely, S mentioned
=
and itself
equality
that
we
relation
defined on a set S by
is the
S] of
y
S x
S.
elements of
Thus
for
any x
=
e S, to
we have
relation
x = x,
are different
S, then
A
(x,
y)
We
\302\242.and
we write x
any
^ y.
between a set
will refer
and
itself,
as in
as a
0.9 Example
relation
on S.
Thegraph
of E
of the
x E. Thus
it is a
where f(x) = x3 for all x e E, isthesqbset{(x,x3) \\x e E} function/ is completely relation on E. The function determined by its graph. A
Section0
Setsand
The
Relations
be a \"rule\"
example suggests that to each x e E exactly assigns certain type of subset of E x E, that is, as and deal with any sets X and Y.
preceding
that function
\302\242) mapping
rather one
than
y = describe
f(x)
to
it as a
a type
of relation. We
ourselves
from E
0.10 Definition
x function
each
The \302\242.
between X and Y with the property that one ordered pair (x, y) in \302\242. Such a appears : X Y and express is also calleda map or mapping of X into Y. We write \302\247 \342\200\224>\342\200\242 (x, y) \342\202\254 4>{x) = y. The domain of 4> is the set X and the set Y is the codomain of 0 by
X into
first Y
is a
relation
&
as the
member
of exactly
range
of
the
is 0[X] \302\242)
{<j>(x)
\\x
e X}.
: (E
on
\342\226\240
0.11
Example
We can view
function
addition E.
of real
mapping of E
x E into
For example,
(2,
notation
we write
((2, 3),5) e
+.
Of
course
\342\226\262
of X and is often denoted of elementsin a set X is the cardinality by \\X\\. we have {2, 5,7}  = 3. It will be important for us to know whether two sets count have the same cardinality. If both sets are finite there is no problem; we can simply the same the elements in each set. But do Z, Q, and E have cardinality? To convince ourselvesthat two sets X and Y have the same cardinality, we try to exhibit a pairing of each x in X with only one )' in Y in such a way that each element of Y is also used only once in this pairing. For the sets X = {2, 5, 7} and Y = {?, !, #}, the pairing
2<*V?,
shows
5o#,
Notice
7o!
that
they
have
the same
cardinality.
we could
also exhibit
this
X
as
a subset
of
F, is a
relation between
and
as pairing F. The
23
45
67
the same cardinality. is a special
89
5
10a pairing,
<>
011223344
shows sets
that
the sets
Z
the
and
Z+
have
Such
type
showing
that
X and F
have
same
cardinality,
of relation
between
X and
F called a
once in
domain
pairing
onetoone correspondence. Sinceeach element x of X appears precisely we can regard this onetoone as a function with relation, correspondence X. The range of the function is F because each y in F also appears in some x \342\226\240*+ formalize this discussion in a definition. y. We
this : X \302\242)
\342\200\224>\342\200\242 F is
0.12 Definition
*A
function
Exercise 37).
The
function
another
0(\302\276) only
when
x\\ =
X2
(see
\342\226\240
of 0 is F.
We should
mention
elsewhere. In
map that is
Bourbaki's
both
used by the disciples of N. Bourbaki, in case you encounter it terminology, terminology, a onetoone map is an injection, an onto map is a surjection, and a one to one and onto is a bijection.
Sets and
Relations
If
a subset
of X x
first
is a
onetoone
appears
as the
second
member
of exactly
function <p mapping X onto Y, then one ordered pair in \302\242) also each y and
each e
&
Y appears
as
the
and second
we get
function \302\247 maps
of exactly one orderedpair in \302\242. member Thus if we interchange the first members of all orderedpairs (x, y) in <p to obtain a set of ordered pairs (y, x), a subset of Y x X, which gives a onetoone function Y onto X. This mapping the inverse function of \302\242, is denoted by <j>~1. Summarizing, is called and if X one to one onto Y and <j>(x) = y, then 0\"1 maps Y one to one onto X, and
= x.
4>\\y)
0.13 Definition
Two sets X
X
onto
a onetoone
between
function mapping
X and Y.
\342\226\240
0.14
Example
because /(2) = /(2) = 4 the is the proper subset of all nonnegative but 2 ^ \342\200\2242. it is not onto E because Also, range in E. However, g : E \342\200\224>\342\200\242by g(x) = x3 is both one to one and onto E defined numbers
The function
E where / : E >\342\200\242
= x2 is not
one
to one
E.
We
by
showed so that
that Z
and
Z+
have
Ko.
the same
Ko,
Z =
Z+ =
cardinality.
It is
fascinating
number
property.
of elements
whether and
as the
We denote this cardinal number that a proper subset of an infinite set whole set; an infinite set can be defined
set
sets have
elements
the
same
cardinality
in that
as the
an infinite this
set Z.
row,
if all
using
of its
Z+.
could
be listed
to the
could
\"number
them\"
Figure extends
0.15 indicates
infinitely
is possible
infinitely
right and
Q. We
have
shown
through
of
out
the
string
and
this array. Imagine the fractions to be glued to this and pulling to the left in the direction of the all elements of Q appearon it in an infinite row as
Q
= K0 also.
winding its way string. Taking the beginning the string straightens arrow, \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242. Thus 0, \\,\342\200\224 ^,1,1, ,
a string
0.15Figure
Section
Sets and
Relations
= {x e
If
the
set S
cardinality infinitely
Ko, all
as unending
decimals
in a column
downward,
in S. Surely S contains a such array must omit some number nth digit after the decimal point a number different from 0, from 9, having \342\200\242 r from the nth digit of the nth number in this list. For example, might start .5637and \342\200\242. 5 rather than 3 after shows r cannot The the decimal be the first number in S point r cannot be the The 6 rather than 1 in the second digit shows listed in the array shown. we second number listed, and so on. Because could make this argument with any list, 15 indicates we see that S has too many elements to be paired with those in Z+. Exercise the cardinality of E by E has the same number of elementsas S. We just denote that
We now
argue
that
any
number r
as its
E.
Exercise
than
19 indicates
E.
that
there
are infinitely
even
greater
Partitions
and
disjoint
Equivalence
Relations
Sets are
occasion disjoint
section
if no two of them have have any element in common. Later we will to break up a set having an algebraic structure a notion of addition) into (e.g., subsets that become elements in a related algebraic structure. We concludethis with a study of a set
exactly
of
sets.
0.16 Definition
partition
in
of S is
one of
of S cells
such
that partition.
every
element
\342\226\240
of the
When
discussing
of a set S, we denote
by x
the cell
containing
the
element
x of
S.
Z+
0.17 Example
Splitting
of odd positive
a partition
subset of even positive integers (thosedivisible by divided integers (those leaving a remainder of 1 when of Z+ into two cells. For example, we can write
into the
14
2) and by
= (2,4,6.8,10,12,
We
could
also partition
another
Z+
into
three
one consisting
of the
positive
integers
divisible
divided
divided
all positive
positive
Z+ into n cells according Generalizing, for each positive integer n, we can partition \342\200\242 \342\200\242 1 when the remainder is 0, 1, 2, \342\200\242 \342\200\224 n a positive integer is divided by n. , These cells are the residue us classes modulo n in Z+. Exercise 35 asks to display these for the cases n =2,3, and 5. \342\226\262 partitions
to
whether
Sets
and
Relations
Each x,
y
partition
of
a set
if and
S yields a relation
only if x
and
.M on
in the
S in
a natural
e S,
let x
.M
y are
same cell of
we would write x \342\226\240>\342\202\254 e ,^\302\276 Definition y as (x, y) (see shows that this relation .^\302\276 S satisfies the three properties of an on in the following definition.
notation,
relation
0.18
Definition
An equivalence
relation .^\302\276 on
a set
S is one that
satisfies
these
x,
y,
z e
S.
1.
(Reflexive) x .Mx.
(Symmetric)
2.
3.
To symmetric
If x
jfcy,
then
.^
x.
then
y ,3%z
x.J?z.
\342\226\240
condition
to ,>? corresponding
a partition
that
we
need
only observe
(that
if y
as x
in the
reflexive
same cell as y
and transitive
= defined
is, y
..M x).
to
leave
the
properties
Exercise
28.
0.19 Example
S, the
equality
relation
by the subset
{(x, x) \\ x
e S]
of
\342\226\262
relation.
0.20
Example
The equivalence relation on Z+ corresponding modulo n, discussed in Example 0.17, is denoted by =\342\200\236. Rather than write a=\342\200\236b, we congruence modulo n. It is sometimes write a = b (mod n), read, \"a is congruent to b modulo n.\" For example, we usually have 15 = 27 (mod 4) because both 15 and 27 have remainder 3 when divided by 4. \342\226\262 (Congruence
to
the
partition
Modulo n) of Z+ into
Let n
e Z+.
residue
classes
0.21
Example
Let a relation
,^/B on the set Z be defined by n .^\302\276 if m ^\302\276 an equivalence is determine whether relation. Reflexive a .M a, because a2 > 0 for all a e Z. Symmetric
and only if
nm
>
0, and
let us
If a
.M b,
then
ab
> 0,
Transitive
If
we
knew b =
b2
.Ma. > 0.
> 0 whence
case
0 separately. A
\342\200\22435. ,^2
Thus the
Thus ab2c = acb2 > 0. ,M c. We have to examine the \342\200\2243,^0 and 0 .M 5, but we do and hence is not an equivalence
\342\226\262
observed
yields a natural
natural
equivalence
relation.
We now
that
an equivalence
that
follows
partition
of the
set. Thetheorem
0.22Theorem
(Equivalence
and
equivalence
relation
on
S. Then ~ yields a
Partitions)
Let S
partition
be a
a}.
nonempty
set
and let
~ be
an
of S,
where
a=
\\x
S \\x ~
Section0
Setsand
Relations
Also,
only
if a
rise
~ on S where
a ~
b if
and
Proof
eSdo give a partition cells a = {x eSU~a)fora We must show that the different of S is in some cell and so that if a e b, then a =b. Let of S, so that every element a e S. Then a e a by the reflexive condition (1), soa is in at least one cell. Supposenow that a were in a cell b also. We need to show that a = b as sets; this that is a standard show that a cannot be in more than one cell. There will way to show
two
sets are
the
same:
Show
that each
set is a subsetof
the
other.
the
y
x ~ a. But aefc,soa~i>. We show that a c.b. Let x e a. Then Then,by ~ b, sox \342\202\254 ocj. c we show that \302\243 a. Let Now condition (3), x b. Thus ~ fc. But aefc,sofl~fc and, by symmetry (2), b ~ a. Then by transitivity y = so >' e a. HenceKq also, so \302\243 a and our proof is complete. Each
transitive
Then e \302\243. ~
(3),
a,
\342\231\246
cell
in the
partition
arising
from
an equivalence relation is
an
equivalence
class.
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
0
4, describe
In Exercises 1 through
the set by
listing
its elements.
1. {x e 3. {m e
M Z
\\x2 = 3}
 mn
2. {m e for some n
10, decide e Z}
m2
= 3}
= 60
4. {m e Z  m2
<
115}
a set
Give an
alternate
set.
5.
6.
{n {n {n
e Z+
n
is a large number}
< 57} an integer}
e Z  n2 e Z
7.
< 0}  39 < n3
8. {x 9. {x
10.
be written be written
than
100}
{x
less
than 4}
11. List
elements
in {a,
b, c} x
{1,2, c}.
between 4, 6}. For eachrelation A into S. If it is a function,
12.
Let
A = {1,
it
2, 3} and
B = {2,
A and
decide
given
as a
subset of
one
whether
onto
is a
function mapping
whether
it is
one to
B.
a. {(1,4),
c. {(1,
6), (3,4)}
6), (3,4)}
{(1,2),
(2, 6),
(2,4)}
the
13.
Illustrate by
indicating
in Fig.
0.23
what
point
segments AB and CD of different length have y of CD might be paired with point x of AB.
same
number
of points
Exercises
p
A
/
X
,B
c*
0.23 Figure
14.
Recall
Show
that for
that the
interval
a, b e R
onto the
and
a <
have
b, the
closed
interval
[a,
fc]
in R
is denned
given intervals
[0, 2]
the same
cardinality
by giving
a formula
the
first
second.
b. [1,
a. [0,1]and
15. Show
that
3] and
[5, 25]
c. [a, b]
and
[c, d]
S = maps
{x
< \342\202\254'R\\0 x
an interval
Find an elementary function of < 1} has the same cardinality as R. [Hint: and scale appropriately to make the domain one to one onto R, and then translate
any
set A,
we denote
by
SP (A)
the collection
of
all
subsets
of A.
{a, b,
d] e
5^(A).The set
elements of the
SP(A)
is the
Exercises
16 through
set of a set A.
16.
List the
power
set of
set and
give the
cardinality
power set.
a. 0
17. Let
A
b. {a}
be
c. {a,b}
oh
the
d.
about
{a,
b, c}
a finite
try finite
set,
and
let
\\A\\
s. Based
preceding
exercise,
make a conjecture
A into Each
the
value
of
\\.3^(A)\\. Then
to prove
your conjecture. let BA be the set of all functions mapping of the set d^(A). [Hint: same as the cardinality
finite
18.
For
any
set A,
or infinite,
BA
the set
element
B = {0,1}.how S
that
the cardinality
of
is the
of BA determines a
subset of A 19.
Show
in a
natural way.]
to be able to be put in a onetoone are an infinite number of infinite cardinal A into .5s(A) to be given. Show that \302\247 numbers. be cannot [Hint: Imagine a onetoonefunction \302\242) mapping onto d?(A) by considering, for each x & A, whether x e (j>(x) and using this idea to define a subset S of A that is not in the range of \302\242.] the set of everything Is a logically acceptable concept? Why or why not?
that
the power
set of a set A,
A. Explain
or infinite,
intuitively
elements
correspondencewith
why this
that there
20. LetA a.
= {1,2} and
using
lets
= {3,4,5}.
Illustrate,
A and
what
B,
you
why
we
consider
that 2
+ 3 = 5. Usesimilar
value
reasoning
with
sets of
your
own
choice
to decide
K0,
would
consider to
be the
of
ii. K0
i. 3 +
+ K0.
b.
21.
Illustrate
why
we consider
in
that
3 = 6 2 \342\200\242
by plotting
what
the
points
reasoning
with a figure
numbers
\342\200\242 How \342\200\242 9? \342\200\242,
the
text to
decide
you be
would
How
0, 1, you
many
in the interval
0 <x
of the
< 1 can
expressed
Following 12N\"
in the
this
2N'\302\260?
form
2, 3,
would
many are
the
there
form .#####?
about
idea,
value
of
How 10K\302\260.
and
22.
Continuing
preceding
Exercises
18 and
which
the
three
to give a
list of five
numbers,
each of
is greater
K0.R, _,_,_.
10
In
Section
Sets
and Relations
Exercises
23 through
27,
find
the
number
24. 27.
of different partitions
2 elements 5 elements
following
if
of a set having
the
given
number of
elements.
25. 3 elements
0.18 explained
the
set S.
The paragraph
.^\302\276if y
Definition
why
the
relation
and only
x and
relation.
y are
in
same similar
cell explanations
relation
satisfies
Exercises
the
symmetric
condition
for an equivalence
Write
of
why
the
reflexive
also satisifed.
whether relation.
29 through arising
34, determine
> 0
the
given
relation is
an
equivalence
on the
from each
if
equivalence
n M m in Z x.rfymRif\\x\\
in
nm
30. x .M y
32.
the the
in M if inMif base
x >
\\x
y y\\
=
Z+
\\y\\
x JZ
<
33. n J% m
if n
if
and m have
m have
of the
the
same same
number
of digits in
the
usual
ten notation
34. 35.
,>8
m in Z+
n and
final digit in
the usual
base
ten notation
Using
set notation
in Example
0.17 for
\342\200\242 form {#,#. #. \342\200\242 an infinite set, write for \342\200\242} value of n. indicated
the residue
classes modulo
in Z+
discussed
a.
= 2
b. n
= 3
if
c.
and
on
Z by
r ~ s
on Z.
only
if r
 s is divisible
modulo
by
n, that
is,
was
if
and
only
if
a.
Show part
that b.)
equivalence
to
relation
(It is
called \"congruence
this
n\" just
as it
for Z+.
See
n,
b. Show that,
the
subset
Z+ of Z,
is vhe
equivalence
relation,
congruence
modulo
c. The
37.
Students
of this
partition of Z
are
residue
the
classes modulo
notation
in Z.
modulo
Z rather
than in Z+ using
#.
classes
the concept of a onetoonefunction I think I know the reason. You (mapping). from A to B. It seems a direction associated with to expect a reasonable it, onetoone mapping to be a mapping that carries one point of A into one point of B, in the direction simply But of course, every mapping of A into B does this, and Definition indicated by the arrow. 0.12 did not say in mind, make as good a pedagogical that at all. With this unfortunate situation caseas you can for calling the in Definition 0.12 twototwo it is almost impossible to functions described instead. (Unfortunately, functions get widely used terminology changed.)
often
misunderstand
see, a mapping
B <p : A\342\200\224>has
part
Groups
and
Subgroups
Section
Introduction
Binary
and Examples
Section 2
Section Section
Operations
Binary
3 4
Isomorphic Groups
Subgroups
Structures
Section 5
Section
Cyclic Groups
Generating
Section 7
Sets
and Cayley
Digraphs
section
Introduction
In
and Examples
an algebra of a binary operation on a set as giving operations. We think of that algebra. To illustrate are interested in the structural properties with note what we mean by a structural property our familiar set E of real numbers, x = a/2. that the equation x + x = a has a solution x in E for each a e E, namely, x = a However, the corresponding multiplicative equation x \342\226\240 does not have a solution structure than E with in E if a < 0. Thus, E with addition has a different algebraic
or
of abstract algebra. we attempt to give you a little idea of the nature Both addition with addition and multiplication of real numbers. For example, addition combine two numbers to obtain one number. and multiplication to be binary 2 and 3 to obtain addition and multiplication combines 5. We consider sets in which we have one and examine operations. In this text, we abstract this notion,
this
section,
We are all
familiar
more
binary
on the
set, and
we
multiplication.
Sometimes two different sets with what we naturally regard as very different binary structure. For example, we will see in operations turn out to have the same algebraic structure as the set E+ of Section 3 that the set E with addition has the same algebraic
with multiplication! positive real numbers We will This section is designed to get you thinking about such things informally. some examples. in Sections 2 and 3. We now turn to make everything precise of complex numbers of magnitude 1 provides us with several examples that will Multiplication and with a review of complex numbers be useful and illuminating in our work. We start
their
multiplication.
11
bi
a +
bi
\342\226\240\342\200\224T I I i i ( \\a
4
3
2
1
0
\342\200\224i
2i
1.1 Figure
Complex
A
Numbers
can be
real
number
xaxis. in Fig.
as an
shown
A complex
1.1. and label the point >'axis, coordinates (a. Cartesian is defined by
visualized geometrically as a point on number can be regarded as a point that we label the vertical axis as the Note
one
a line that
we often regard
in the
yiaxis
Euclidean plane, as
unit
above the
origin
with
i rather
b) is labeleda
C:
+ bi
bi
in Fig.
1.1. The
set C of
numbers
{a +
a.
b e numbers we write
We consider
with
ffi to be a subset of the complex the complex number r + Qi.For example, we write 0 + \\i and 0 + 0; as 0. Similarly, Complex
3+
r
\342\200\224 it
as i and
0 +
si as si.
of real
numbers
i
was
development to the
quadratic
that
(1)
Unfortunately,
numbers.
has
been
generations of students
Actually,
to view
and
this
terminology
more
skepticism
such as 1,3, it, \342\200\224and i are inventions of our minds. a/3, is the number 1. If there were, it would There is no physical entity that surely be in a place of honor in some great scientific museum, and past it would file a steady stream of at 1 in wonder and awe. A basic goal of this text is to show how mathematicians, gazing we can invent solutions of polynomial when the coefficients of the polynomial equations may not even be real numbers!
all numbers, Multiplication
of Complex
{a +
Numbers
the
The product
bi){c +
di) is defined in
arithmetic
way
it must
be if we are
1,
to
enjoy
the
familiar properties
of real
and require
that i2
\342\200\224 in
(1).
Section 1
Namely, we
Introduction
and
Examples
13
see that
we
want
to have
(a +
(ac
\342\200\224
bd)
+ (ad
+ bc)i.
Consequently, we define
Z\\zi
which that
multiplication
of z\\
\342\200\224 a +
be and
zi = c + di as bc)i,
is routine
= (a
+ bi)(c
with
(ad +
(2)
to check
+
Z1Z2
is of the
the form r
+ si
r =
s =
ad +
be. It
+
usual
ZiZ\\. Zifez3)
(z\\Z2)z3
andz!(z2
Z3) =
Z1Z3
1.2 Example
Solution
Compute
50(8 +
30rather
We
don't
memorize
that equation.
we compute
the product as
15 =
we did to
motivate
(2  5i)(8+ 30 =
To
16 6;+
40/
31
\342\200\224 34r.
\342\226\262
establish
value
absolute
of complexmultiplication,
bi\\ =
we
first define
the
Ja1 +
b2.
bi
(3)
to the
This
absolute
value
origin in Fig.
1.1. We
and is the distance from a + is a nonnegative real number can now describe a complex number z in the polarcoordinate
form
(4)
z =
where 6 is the angle z, as shown in Fig.
measured
z(cos# +
sin#).
1.3. A
famous
from the ;taxis to the vector counterclockwise formula due to Leonard Euler statesthat
e'6
\342\200\224 cosO
from 0 to
+ i
sin#.
Euler's Formula
We
ask
you
e6, cos 6
formula
formally
41. Using
from the power series expansions for this formula, we can express in Eq. (4) as z
y
,,
z = z(cos0 +
;'
sin 9)
c sin 9
^r^
y^
Z\\ 1 V
i 0
1 1 1 1
>
z cos 9
1.3 Figure
14
Part
Groups and
Subgroups
set zi =
i6\\ \\zi\\e'
Me
.Letus
and
Zl
\\z2\\e\"
and
compute
with
their product
number
Z\\Zi
in
this
form,
assuming
that the
usual
laws
of exponentiation
hold
complex
exponents.
=
We
obtain
= zilz2[cos(0i 82) +
Note
that
+ 82)].
\\z\\Zi\\
(5)
=
\\zi\\\\z2\\
Eq.
5 concludes
in the
8\\ polar angle 8 for ziz2 is the sum numbers by multiplying their absolute in Fig. 1.4. Exercise 39 indicateshow to Euler's formula and without recourse
polar
form
of
Eq.
4 where
and
the
8 =
geometrically, we multiply complex values and adding their polar angles, as shown this can be derived via trigonometric identities about complex exponentiation. assumptions
+
82. Thus,
N7T/2
1.4Figure
Note that
i
1.5 Figure
has
polar
=u
angle n/2
and
and
absolute
value
that
1, as
shown
in Fig.
1.5. Thus i2
1
\342\200\242 =
1
1, so
i2 =
\342\200\224 1.
in
C of
the equation z2
i
= i.
using
Solution
Writing
the equation
z2 =
in polar
form and
Eq.
(5), we
obtain
z2(cos2<9+
Thus
;sin2<9)=1(0+0
z2
Consequently, n yielding
solutions
must
satisfy +
cos
8 =
28 =
and
sin2#
\342\200\224 1.
values 8 where 0
(tt/4)
rnt for an
are
0 and
1, yielding
.
are
\342\200\224 1 cos TC . . sin \342\200\224l1 \342\200\224
Z\\
and
= \302\2432
5tt
cos
4
1 i
sin
\342\200\224
5rt
4
or
z\\
7=(1
V2
+ 0
and
Z2 =
+ \342\200\224p(l
0
V2
Section 1
15
1.7
Example
Find
all solutions
of z =
\342\200\22416.
Solution
As in
the
equation + i
in polar
sin46\302\273)
form, obtaining
16(1
z4(cos4<9
+ Or).
and
40 = n
obtained
Consequently, z4 =
16,so
6 =
2tt
+ n(2n), so
0 <
where
6 <
16 is
= 2 while cos 46 = I + n(7t/2) for integers n. (n/4) are tt/4, 3tt/4, 5tt/4, and In/4.
\\z\\
= sin46\302\273
0. We find that
values
The different
Thus
of 6
one solution
of z4 =
2(cos^
In
+
three
isin^=2(L
more
+ L;)=V2(l i).
A
a similar
way, we
find
solutions,
and
+ 0,
illustrate
72(10
72(10
examples
writing
a +
bi
We will
the equation
in polar
that we can find solutions of an equation z\" = a + bi form. There will always be n solutions, provided that 21 ask you to solve equations of this type. of complex numbers,
but
division
we
probably
should
mention
addition
is given by
(a +
and
(a +
c) + (b +
d)i.
the device
(6)
division
of a
+ bi
by
nonzero
di can be performed
+ bd)
using
a + bi c + di
c2 +
(7)
Algebra
on Circles
{z
Let U =
the origin
multiplication.
and
U is
in
the
circle
in the
Fig.
again
1.8. The
a number in
numbers
is
we can
view
multiplication
Euclidean plane with center at relation \\z\\Zi\\ = IZ1IIZ2I shows that in U; we say that U is closed under U as providing algebra on the circle
z =
in Fig.
1.8.
in that
As illustrated number 6 e R
interval
we associate
with
each where
halfopen
[0, 2tt),
interval
0 <
in U a
halfopen
real
denoted
later.
the
Recall
6\\
numbers is
sum
but we prefer to denote it by 11\302\276^ reasons for that the angle associated with the product Z1Z2 of two if 6\\ + 62 > 2it + 62 of the associated angles.Of course
16
Part I
Groups
and
Subgroups
1.8 Figure
then
the
angle
on
modulo 27T
in R2jr associated with z\\Z2 is 8\\ + 62 \342\200\224This gives us an 2it. here by +2n \342\226\240 E2jr. We denote this addition
addition
1.9
Example
In R2w, we have
3f
+2n
5f
lJ\302\243
 2n
3f.
2tc that enabled us to define
interval
addition
There
was nothing
special
R2ir
about
the
number
halfopen
on
the halfopen
interval
\342\200\242 We can
use
any
Rc = {x
e ffi0
1.10
Example
InR23,wehave
16 +23
19 =
35  23=
12.InE8.5,wehave6+8.5
8 =
148.5
multiplication on the circle U where z = 1 and addition ffi2.T algebraic properties. We have the natural onetoone *> 0 between in Fig. 1.8. Moreover, we z e U and 6 e ffi2^ indicated correspondence z
Now
complex
number
have
modulo
2tt on
the same
deliberately
defined
+2n
so that
if
z\\
<+ 0\\
and
zi +>
02,
then
z\\
zi\302\261* (0\\
+2n
02).
(8)
isomorphism
shows that if we rename each z e U by its corresponding angle 0 then the product of two elements in U is renamed by the sum of the 1.8, for those two elements. Thus U with number and ffi2ir angles multiplication complex with modulo 2it must have the same algebraic properties. They differ addition only in the names of the elements and the names of the operations. Such a onetoone correspondence the relation of elements and names of Names (8) is called an isomorphism. satisfying
(8)
shown
The relation
in Fig.
binary
operations are
not
important
in abstract
algebra; we
are interested
in
algebraic
Section
17
properties.
We
illustrate
what we
mean by
saying
that the
of R2;r
are the
same.
such
1.11Example In U
there is exactly one element e The element 0 in R2;r that corresponds e +2n x = x for all x e R23r. z \342\226\240 z= z \342\226\240 lint/ z \342\226\240
that
\342\226\240 z =
z for all z
only
e U, namely,
e =
that
1.
^
to 1 e U is the
element
e in R2;r such
1.12 Example
The equation
Now
has
to
and has exactly four solutions, 1, i, \342\200\2241, \342\200\224i. namely, and 0 e ffi2;r correspond, and the equation x +2jT x +2;r * +2jr x = 0 in R2;r exactly four solutions, namely, 0. tt/2, tt, and 3tt/2, which, of course, correspond
let/
\342\200\224 1, i, 1, and
\342\200\224i, respectively.
\342\226\262
Because
an
our circle
U has
length
radius
1, it
has circumference
the
2it
*axis
and
the
radian
up
measure
halfopen
of
the
angle
6 is
ffi2jT,
equal to
put
the
of the
interval
arc
down
angle
subtends.
If we
pick
our
interval
circle
the 0 in
the
on the 1
the
on
the
and wind it
around
to 1. Moreover, each number way in the interval will fall on the point of the circle that number as the value of the having on in Fig. central angle 6 shown 1.8. This shows that we could also think of addition arcs counterclockwise, starting as being of subtended ffi2;r computed by adding lengths is lit or greater. at z = 1, and 2it if the sum of the lengths subtracting
U counterclockwise,
back
a starting of addition on a circle in terms of adding lengths of arcs from P on the circle and proceeding counterclockwise, we can use a circle of radius point our has circumference of radius 1. We can take 2, which 4tt, just as well as a circle interval BL^ and wrap it around counterclockwise, starting at P; it will just halfopen on cover the whole circle. Addition of arcs lengths us a notion of algebra for points gives this circle of radius is surely isomorphic to ~M^n with addition 2, which However, +4^. if we take as the circle \\z\\ = 2 in Fig. 1.8, multiplication of complex numbers does not circle. The relation \\z\\Z2\\ = \\z\\\\z21 shows that the product of give us an algebra on this such 4 rather two numbers has absolute value than 2. Thus complex number complex is not closed on this circle. multiplication The preceding paragraphs indicate that a little geometry can sometimes be of help
If we think
to convince ourselves that ffi2;r and BL^ are algebra. We can use geometry stretch out the interval R2;r uniformly to cover the interval E4^, or, isomorphic. Simply if you prefer, use a magnifier of power 2. Thus we set up the onetoone correspondence a *>2a between a e E2t and 2a e E4JT. The relation (8) for isomorphism becomes
in abstract
if
a \302\261+ 2a
and
\302\261* 2b
then
{a
+\302\276 ) b
\302\261* (2a
+4^
2b).
(9)
isomorphism
This is obvious
final
if a
+ b
< 2tt.
If
a + b
= 2jt
+ c, then
2a
+ 2b
An
2c,
and the
pairing
in the
is true.
1.13 Example
x +4^ x
which
1.12. Example
+4^ x +4^x = 0 in
times
the
are two
solutions
namely, 0, n,
2jt, and
in
3tt,
equation
in
ffi2jr
\342\226\262
18
Part
Groups and
Subgroups
about the numbers to E^ with
2n
+j
There
is nothing
with
special
and An
in
the
previous
need
Surely, Ec * e Ec with
Roots
+c
(d/c)x
is isomorphic e Erf.
for all
c, d
e E+. We
of Unity
of the
Theelements
technique
set
Un
=
and
{z e
1.7,
C  z\"
of Examples
2jt\\ ( m\342\200\224
1.6
1} are called the nth roots of unity. Using the we see that the elements of this set are the numbers
=
cos
\\
n J
i sin
(
\\
2n\\
m\342\200\224
for
m =
0. 1, 2,
J If we
They all have absolute value of unity can be written nth roots
C U. 1, so U\342\200\236 as
let
\302\243 cos
^ +
sin
^,
then these
1 = = Because\302\243\" 1, n
\342\200\224
^,^,^,^,,^1.
do)
under multiplication.
w For example, ith
these n powers
of \302\243 are
closed
10,
we have
tH = tl0t4 = 1\342\200\242 t4 t4 =
\302\243' by computing \302\2437
^
i
we
can compute
i +,,
j,
viewing
and
j as
elements modulo
Let
n
Z\342\200\236 {0,
1. 2,
see that
addition
is closed
on
Z\342\200\236.
1.14
Example
The solution
of the
equation
x +
5 = 3 in
Zg
is x
= 6, because5+86
= 11
\342\200\224 =
3.
\342\226\262
If we
rename
each of thenth
of
This Z\342\200\236.
roots
of unity in a onetoone
all
the
elements
gives
(10) by its exponent, we use for names and correspondence between U\342\200\236 Z\342\200\236.
Clearly,
if
CJ *+
J
*en
(f'
(11)
isomorphism
Thus
with [/\342\200\236
complex
number
multiplication
and
with Z\342\200\236
addition
have +\342\200\236
the same
algebraic properties.
1.15Example
It
can
be shown
this
that there
is
an
isomorphism
of
U%
with
Z8 in
Under
isomorphism,
we must
then have
the
Exercise
35 asks
which
you to
each
continue
elements
of Z8 to
of the
the
Section
Exercises
19
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
1
9 compute
In Exercises 1
a,b\342\202\254R.
through
the given 2. /4 5. (4
arithmetic
expression
and give
the
answer
in
the form
a+
bi
for
1. 4.
/3 (035
(2
3.
/23
r)(5
3r)
6. (8 +
9.
2/)(3  /)
binomial
7.
30(4 +
/) +
(6 5/)
15 write
8. (1+
11. Find
the given
/
/)3
(1
theorem.)
10. Find
34/. 12 through
16 through
6 +
4/.
z in
In Exercises 12.34/
In
complexnumber
in C
the polar + 5/
form
\\z\\(p
+ qi)
where
\\p
1. + qi\\ \342\200\224
13.1 +
21,
find
14.12
15.3 + 5/
19. z3
Exercises
all
solutions
of the
given
equation. =8
16.z4=l
17. z4 =
= 1
1
64
given +io
18. z3
expression 6
= 27/
20. z6
In
21. 22 through
z6 =
Exercises
using the
indicated
modular
addition.
22. 10+17
16
the expression
23 8
26.
+25 193
25. 
In
+i 
why
3f
+2,
28. Explain
Exercises
5 +6 8 in
all
R6 makes
29 through
34, find
solutions
x of
the
equation.
29. x
31.
30. x 32.
34.
+2jT
in 5
R^ in Z7
x +7 * +7 * =
* +4 x
33. x
35.
+4 * +4 * =
0 in
Z4
with Example 1.15 asserts that there is an isomorphism of \302\243/g the element of Z$ that corresponds to each of the remaining
and
Zg in which f = e'(n/4)^> 5 and f2 ^> 2. Find six elements f'\" in [/\302\276 m = 0, 3, 4, 5, 6, for
7.
an
36.
There is
37. 38.
correspond for m = 0,2, 3,4, 5, and 6. Why can there be no isomorphism of U& Derive the formulas
sin(a
isomorphism
of
C/7
with
Z7 in which
t,
e'(2T/7) ^>
4. Find
the
element
in
Z7
to which
t,m must
with
Z6 in which f
= e'(T/3) to corresponds
4?
b)
sin a
cos b +
cosa sin
and
cos(a +
by
b) =
cosacosb
\342\200\224 sin a
sin b
using
Euler's
formula and
computing
e'\"e'b.
39.
= zi(cos0i+/sinSi)
formula
Use the
trigonometric
identities
in Exercise
38
40. a.
b.
Derivea
Derive
for cos
30
in
terms
of sin
and
cos
from
cos 0 the formula cos 30 = 4 cos3 03 in Section 32.) have use for this identity
9 using
part
Euler's
formula. identity
sin2
0 +
cos2 0
= 1.(We
will
20
Part I
Groups
and
Subgroups
41. Recall
the
power
series
expansions
e
sin,
X2
=1+*+2! =,x3
X3
X4
3!+4!+\"x1
+ ^ + <
_
xn
x0
xA
+ .. +
x2\"~] iN\342\200\236_,
+
(1)^^
x2n s\342\200\236
...,
and
COSX =
x2
xb
lV.+^.6i e'e =
+  + r
{~1)(2ny.+formally
from
calculus.
Derive
Euler's formula
from these
three
series
expansions.
section
Binary
Operations
we
in a strange world and are observing to a strange civilization a class of fellow creatures in addition world drilling of also that we have not been told that the class is learning to add, but were just placed as observers in the room where this was going on. We are asked to give a The teacher makes noises that sound to us approximately report on exactly what happens. like gloop,poyt. The class responds with bimt. The teacherthen gives ompt, gaft, and the are they doing? We cannot report that are adding with poyt. What class they responds Of course, numbers, for we do not even know that the sounds are representing numbers. on. All we can say with any certainty is we do realize that there is communication going are designated some that these creatures know rule, so that when certain pairs of things like gloop, poyt, they are able to agree on a response, in their language, one after another, on in addition drill in our first bimt. This same procedure classes where a goes grade teacher may say four, seven, and the class responds with eleven. and multiplication of numbers, we are thus led to In our attempt to analyze addition the idea that addition is basically just a rule that people learn, enabling them to associate, with two numbers in a given order, some number as the answer. is also Multiplication that in playing this game with such a rule, but a different rule. Note finally students, careful of what two things teachers have to be a little they give to the class. If a first inserts ten, sky, the class will be very confused. The rule is only teacher grade suddenly from some specified set. defined for pairs of things
that Suppose
are visitors
of this
Definitions
As
and Examples
let us
the
mathematicians,
attempt to collect
notions
not
the
core
of these
multiplication
basic ideas
of
in
a useful
As we a set. However, we can attempt to attempt be somewhat mathematically precise, and we describe our generalizations as functions than as rules. Recall from Definition 0.10 and Example 0.11)rather 0.4 (see Definition that for any set S, the set S x S consists of all ordered pairs (a, b) for elementsa and b of S. definition,
generalizing
Section
of addition
and
numbers.
remarked in
0, we
do
to define
2.1 Definition
S x S,we
binary
mapping
S by
S x
S into
S. For
each (a,
b) e
\342\226\240
a *
b.
Section
Binary
Operations
21
Intuitively,
we
may
of S,
ordered
Our usual
different
+ is a binary
the
set
E. Our
usual
multiplication by
\342\200\242 is a
we could
replace E
any
of the
sets
\342\226\262
C, Z,E+,orZ+.
Note
that
we require a
from
binary
operation
on a set
S to be
definedfor
every
ordered
of elements
set
S. + is
of all on this
operation
matrices having
Sometimes
different
matrices^ with real entries. The usual matrix set since A + B is not defined for an ordered numbers of rows or of columns.
binary
addition
not
pair (A, B)
of
\342\226\262
a binary a formal
also.We
2.4 Definition
Let
make
operation
on a subset
H of S
~
subset
* be a binary
operation on S
let
H be a
subset of
S. The
H.
S is
e //we also
* to
have
a *
b e
H. In this
* on
case,
the binary
H is closed operation on
\342\226\240
H is the
induced operation
operation
of * on
our very
a subset
S,
the
set
closed
under
*, but
example
of
2.5 Example
Our usual
on the
+ on
the set E
real closed
real
numbers
induce a binary
but 2
set E*
E*. \302\242.
of nonzero
E* is
will
numbers
and 0
Thus
not
2 e E*
\342\200\2242 e E*,
operation = (\342\200\2242)0
\342\226\262
In our
under
text, we
often
have
a binary
operation
* on S. Toarrive
it means
sure
you
a subset H of S is closed to decide whether correct conclusion, we have to know what have trouble here. Be to use this fact. Students at a
2.6 Example
Let
+
and
and
let
Z,
(b)
and
H =
{n2\\n
and
multiplication
(a)
on the
addition
set
and
is closed under
multiplication.
12 = 1 and 22 = 4 are in H, but that 1 + 4 = 5 addition. For part (b), suppose that r e H and s e H. Using what it means for r and s to be in H, we see that there must be integers n and m in Z+ such that r = n2 and s = m2. rs = n2m2 = (nm)2. of elements in H and the Consequently, By the characterization
Forpart
(a), we
need
observe
that
H. \302\242. Thus
H is
not
closed
under
fact
that
nm
e Z+,
rs
e H,
so H
is closed under
multiplication.
\342\226\262
T Most students of abstract algebra have studied linear algebra and are familiar with matrices and matrix operations. For the benefit of those students, examples involving matrices are often given. The reader who is with matrices can either skip all references to them or turn to the Appendix at the back of the text not familiar where there is a short summary.
Parti
Groups
and Subgroups
2.7 Example
Let F bethe
We
realvalued functions as domain the set E of real numbers. f having from calculus with the binary operations +, \342\200\224, oonF. and \342\226\240, Namely, for each orderedpair (/, g) of functions in F, we define for each x e E
set
of all
are
familiar
f +8
/
by
{f
+ g)(x)
\302\243 by
(/
 g)(x)
\342\200\242
= f{x)
= f(x)
+ g(x)
addition,
g(x)
subtraction,
\342\200\242
8 by
(/
g)(x)
= f(x)g(x)
multiplication,
and
/
All
o g by
(/ o g)(x)
are
= f(g(x))
with
composition.
four
of these
functions
again
real valued
domain
E, so
F is closedunder
all
four
operations
The
+,
\342\226\262
In
this
text,
binary we
To emphasize
structural
above are very familiar to you. operations described in the examples want to abstract basic structural from our familiar algebra. concepts we should illustrate these this concept of abstraction from the familiar, We presentedthe binary operations of with unfamiliar concepts examples.
multiplication
complex number
in
on
U and
addition U\342\200\236,
+c on
* on a
Ec
Section
1.
important
The most
method element b.
given
some
property
a binary
= b. Thus
operation * by 2 * 11 = 2;
operation
a * b
15* 10=
a *' b
equals
the smaller
and
of a
and
b,
or the
10;
3*3
= 3. 3 =
\342\226\262
2.9
Example
*' by
\342\226\240 Thus
a.
2 *'
2.10
Example
operation
= 6;25
*\"
*\" by a 9 = 11;
*\"
b =
(a *
6 =
b) + 2, where
8.
* is
defined in
and 6 *\"
\342\226\262
It may seem that these examples are of no importance, but consider for a moment. Supposewe go into a store to buy a large, delicious chocolatebar. Suppose we see two identical bars sideby side, the wrapper of one stamped $1.67 and the wrapper of the other stamped $1.79.Of course we pick up the one stamped $1.67. Our knowledge of which one we want depends on the fact that at some time we learned the binary operation * of Example2.8.It is a very important operation. Likewise,the binary operation *' of order. Think what a problem we our ability to distinguish Example 2.9 is defined using
would
have
if we
not
be hasty
on
our
shoes first,
operation
and
then
our
socks!
Thus we
significance.
should
somebinary
and
as being
of
little
Of
course,
our
usual
of addition
multiplication
of numbers
have a practical
were chosen to demonstrate that a binary operation may or on the order of the given may not depend pair. Thus in Example 2.8, a * b = b * a for alla,b e Z+ , and in Example 2.9 this is not the case, for 5 *' 7 = 5 but 7 *' 5 = 7.
2.8
and
Section 2
2.11 Definition
A
Binary
Operations
23
binary
operation
* on a
set S is commutative
Section
if
(and
only if) a
* b = b *a
for
all
\342\226\240
a,b&S.
As
was
pointed
out
in
and
only
if from
a definition.
Theorems are not used for theorems. Now we wish to consider an expression of the form a * b * c. A binary suppose * enables us to combine only two elements, and here we have three. The obvious operation attempts to combine the three elements are to form either (a * b) * c or a * (b * c).With = 2 and then 2*9 = 2. * defined as in Example 2.8, (2 * 5) * 9 is computed by 2 * 5 2 * (5 * 9) is computed by 5 * 9 = 5 and then 2*5 = 2. Hence (2 * 5) * 9 = Likewise,
statements.
is ever
is customary in mathematics to omit the words if Definitions are always understood to be if and only and only if statements, and no such convention always if
0, it
2 * (5
* 9),
and it is
not
hard
to see that (a *
for
this
*, * c),
b) * c =
a *b
5) *\"
a * {b
for
so there
is no ambiguity
in writing
* c. But
9 =
*\" of
Example 2.10,
(2 *\"
while
4 *\"
9 =
6,
2 *\"
Thus {a *\" ambiguous.
b)
(5 *\"
9) =
2 *\"
7 =
an
4.
expression
*\" c
need
not
equal
and
a *\" b
*\"
c may
be
2.12 Definition
binary
operation
on a set
S is associative
if (a
* b)
*c =
a * (b
* c)
for all a,
b, c
e S.
\342\226\240
such as a * b * if * is associative, then longer expressions Parentheses be inserted in any fashion for purposes of ambiguous. may the final results of two such will be the same. computation; computations of functions mapping E into E was reviewed in Example 2.7. For any Composition set S and any functions define the composition S, we similarly f and g mapping S into o g of g followed by /as the function mapping S into S such that (f o g)(x) = f{g{x)) f for all x & S. Some of the most important we consider are defined operations binary of functions. It is important to know that this composition is always using composition it is defined. associative whenever
It
can
be shown
that
c *d
are
not
2.13
Theorem
(Associativity
of Composition)
let
/, g,
and
be functions
mapping
S
Proof
To
into
S. Then
/ o (g o h)
g) o h.
show
show
these
&
to each x
S. Computing
that they
give
the
same
assignment
(/ o {g o h))(x) and
= f((g
h)(x))
= f(g(h(x)))
((/
g)
o h)(x)
= {f o g)(h(x)) =
f(g(h(x))),
\342\231\246
so
the
same
element
f(g(h(x)))
of S is indeedobtained.
24
Part I
Groupsand
Subgroups
As an example of using Theorem 2.13 to save work, recall that it is a fairly painful exercise in summation of n x n matrices is an notation to show that multiplication that there associative binary show If, in a linear algebra course, we first operation. that is a onetoone correspondence between matrices and linear transformations and of matrices corresponds to the composition of the linear transformations multiplication we obtain this associativity at once from Theorem 2.13. (functions),
defined by means of a table in which of columns and at the left side elements set are listedacrossthe top We always require that the elements of the set be listedasheadsacross as headsof rows. the the left side. The next illustrates the example top in the same order as heads down use of a table to define a binary operation.
set,
a binary
operation on
the
set
can be
of the
as heads
2.14
Example
binary
operation
* on
S=
{a,b,
c] by
the following
on
rule:
2.15Table
*
(ith b c c b c b b a
only
entry
on the left)
jth
* (jth
entry
the top)
a b a c
{entry
in the
column
of the
table body).
\342\226\262
a b
Thus a * b =
We if the
c and
in
b *
a =
that
a, so * is not
a binary
commutative.
can easily
see
the
entries
left
table
defined
with
by
a table
is commutative if and
respect
the
to the
lower
diagonal
corner.
on
that
starts
at
the upper
corner
of the
right
operation
2.16 Example
CompleteTable
2.17
so that
* is a commutative
binary
the set
S=
{a,b,
Solution
c, d). see
w From Table2.17, e
2.17
Table
d also.Thus
b a c d b b c c d
symmetrically obtain
we
place
a b d a a
across
that b *a = d. For * to be commutative, d in the appropriate square defining the diagonal in Table 2.18 from the
this
we a * b,
must
square
defining
b*a.
We
\342\226\262
the
rest of
fashion
a b
Some
Words
c d
Classroomexperienceshows
asked to
binary
define
some *
operation
that may result if a on it. Remember that binary operation on a set S we must be sure that
the
chaos
student
in
is given an attempt
2.18Table
\\l
a
a
c a c
1.
d
2. a b b Regarding
each
possible
ordered pair
of elementsof
it is
S, S.
of S,
\\
d
again
in
\\
c d
c b
X
b
\\
could
assign
will an element often make an attempt that assigns but for a few pairs, determines no element.In this event, pairs, defined on S. It may also happen that for some pairs, the In any case any of several elementsof S, that is, there is ambiguity.
student
1, a
Section 2
Exercises
25
of
ambiguity,
* is
2 is violated,
to
then
S is
not closed
under *.
Following
are
illustrations
them
are worthless.
define
the
binary
attempted
operations on sets.
operation in all
used for
these examples. * b = a/b. Here* is not everywhere assigned by this rule to the pair (2, 0).
On
Q,
let a
defined
on Q, for no
rational
number
is
\342\226\262
2.20
Example
On Q+, let
a *b =
both
Conditions
1 and
* is a
binary
\342\226\262
operation on Q+.
2.21
Example
On Z+, let
binary
a *b =
Condition
2 fails,
closed
for 1 * 3 is not
under
in Z+.
Thus *
is not
operation
set * to
on Z+,
of all
sinceZ+is not
*.
2.22 Example
Let F be the
we
\"define\"
all real
g(x)
f(x)/g(x). Here
numbers,
not
h{x) would
= x2,
E as in Example with domain realvalued functions 2.7. Suppose the usual of f by g, that is, f * g = h, where h(x) = give quotient in F were to be defined for Condition 2 is violated, for the functions and for some g e F, g(x) will be zero for some values of x in E and be defined at those numbers in E. For example, if f{x) = cos* and
soh F. \302\243
\342\226\262
2.23
Example
Let F
both
be as in
what
2.22
and let
f * g = h,
f and g.
This \"definition\"
is completely
defined
sensible
it means
definition
* would
where h is the function greater than worthless. In the first place, we have not to be greater than another. Even if we had, any both being many functions greater than f and \342\226\262
g,
2.24
and
still be
well
defined.
Example
Let S
be a set consisting
* by
binary
a * b
of 20 people, no two of whom are of the same height. Define = c, where c is the tallest person among the 20 in S. This is a perfectly good on the set, although \342\226\262 not a particularly operation interesting one.
2.25
Example
Let S be as in Example c is the shortest person in S who 2.24 and let a * b = c, where is taller than both a and b. This * is not everywhere since if either a or b is the defined, in the set, a * b is not determined. tallest \342\226\262 person
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
Computations
Exercises 1 through
4 concern
* denned on S =
on the on the
{a,b,
c, d,
e] by means
1.
3.
Compute
b *d, (a * b) (b * d)
c *c, *c
and and
* c)
* e] * a.
2. Compute
Compute
a * (b b *
* c).
Can you
say say
computations computation
whether whether
* c and
26
Part I
Groups
and
Subgroups
2.26 Table
*
2.27 Table
C
2.28Table
c c c d b a d * a b c d a a b b c d c d c d c d
a a b
b b c
d b
e d c a
b b d a
a b
a b c d
a b b
e b
b a c d
c a b e d b
e d d c
4. Is* commutative?
5. Complete
Why? define
to
a commutative
binary
operation
6.
In
Table
2.28
completed
define
an associative
binary
S=
Assume this is
possible and
Exercises
the missing
entries.
whether
7 through
the
binary
associative.
operation
defined
is commutative
and whether
* is
7. * defined
8. *
on
Z by letting
letting
defined on Q by
defined defined
= a \342\200\224 b = ab + 1 *b
9. * 10.*
12.
on on on
11. * defined
Let S
a *b
= ab
How many
different
be a set having
many
one element.
binary
operations
n
can be defined
on
SI Answer
the
13.
question
has exactly
2 elements; exactly
3 elements;
exactly
elements. on
How
different
commutative
be
defined
a set
of 2 elements? on a set of
elements?
on a set
of
elements?
Concepts
In Exercises
A binary
14 through
it is
16, correct
the definition of
the
italicized
term
without reference
to
the
text, if
correction
is needed, so that
14.
in a form
acceptablefor publication.
15. A
(b
16.
In
if and only if a * b = b * a. operation * is commutative * on a set S is associative and only if, for all a,b,c if binary operation * c) * a = b * (c * a). H of a set S is closed subset under a binary operation * on S if and only if (a * b) e H for
e S,
all a,b
we
have
e S.
Exercises * is
17 through
22,
determine state
whether whether
of * doesgive
1, Condition
a binary
event that
are
2, or both
of these
violated.
17. 18.
On Z+, On Z+,
R, Z+,
define define
19. On
define define
20.
On
is the
smallest
integer
greater
than both
and
b.
Section
Exercises
27
21. On
23.
Z+,
define
* by letting a
* by subset
letting
* b = c, where a * b = c, where
c is at c is
least 5
more than
integer
a + b. less
the largest
than the
for
product of a and
a, b
b.
be the
each
of M2(M)
consisting of all
or false.
matrices
of the
form
ffi.
Is H
closed under
a 24.
matrix
addition?
b matrix
multiplication?
S, then
Mark
of the
following
any
true
a. If * is
binary
operation
on
any
set
a *a
any
= a for
all a
e S.
* c)
b. If * is any c e S.
commutative
binary
operation
on
set
S, then a
* (b
= (b
* c) * a
for
all
a, b,
c e
c. If
e.
f.
* is
any associative
binary
binary
operation
onanyset
importance
d. The only
A binary
Every
operations
of
any
S.
binary
defined on a set
having
exactly
that
both
a *
b = b *a.
and
commutative
associative.
g.
of S.
binary
operation operation
S assigns at S assigns at
least
of S to of S to
of S
each
ordered
pair of pair of
elements
h. A binary S.
most
each
ordered
elementsof elements
pair of
i. j. 25.
Give two
of S.
A
binary
operation operation
one
to
each
ordered
pair of
ordered
elementsof S.
binary
binary
more
element of S to
text
some
a set different
different from
any
operations
and
*' on
and
not a set
of numbers. Define
set is well
defined.
Theory
26. Prove
that
if *
is an
associative
and commutative
(a * b)
S, then
* (c
* d) = [(d * c) * a] * b
triples
for
all a, b,
c, d
e S. Assume
the
associative
as in * z)
the definition,
that
is,
assume
only
(x * y)
for
In all
* z
= x
* (y
x, y,z
e S.
Exercises
27 and
binary
28,
either
prove
the statement
consisting
or give a counterexample.
single element
just
in
27. Every
28.
the
Every
operation
on a set
of a
both
commutative
and associative.
commutative set of
binary
two elements
is associative.
Let F be the
binary counterexample.
all realvalued
having
In
as domain
operations
addition
+,
on F.
Exercises
29 through
the set ffi of all real numbers. Example 2.7 defined 35, either prove the given statement or give
29. Function
+ on
F is
on
associative.
is commutative
30. Function
subtraction
\342\200\224 F
28
Part I
Groups
and
Subgroups
31. Function
subtraction
\342\200\224 on F
32. 33.
Function Function
\342\200\242 on F \342\200\242 on F
o on F
is commutative.
operations
on a set
S, then
for
a *(b
*' c)
binary
= (a * b) *' (a * c)
operation
all
a, b, c
e S.
\\ a
* is
an associative
under
on a set
S. Let
of
that
in
H is
S.)
closed
*. (We
think
of H as consisting
H = {a e S
all elements
* x
= x *a
for
all
x e
S}.
of S that
commute
with
every
element
37.
is closed
= {a e
*.)
S\\a*a = a)
section
Isomorphic
Compare the
Binary Structures
3.1 for if, in
Table
the
binary the
operation set
* on
the set S =
{a,
b,
c] with
binary
Notice
operation
that
by
every c
& using
*' on
T =
of a by
#, every b by
a we obtain
precisely
o
fc
o $
c o &
differ only in the symbols (or names) 3.2. The two tables * and *' for the operations. If we rewrite Table 3.3 and the symbols denoting with elements in the order y, x, z, we obtain Table 3.4. (Here we did not set up any oneorder outside the heavy onecorrepondence; wejust listed the same elements in different in Table 3.1, all occurrences a by y, every b by x, and bars of the table.) Replacing, of every c by z using the onetoone correspondence Table the elements
a
we obtain
o
>'
o
o
z 3.4 for
Table 3.4. We
tables
think
These four
order
differ
(or symbols)
alike.
in
the
that those elements arelistedasheadsin the tables. However, Table 3.5 for binary * and Table 3.6 for binary * on the set S = b, c] are structurally operation operation from each other and from Table 3.1. In Table 3.1, each element three different appears times in the body of the table, while the body of Table 3.5 contains the single element b. In Table 3.6, for all 5 eS we get the same value c for 5 * s along the upperleft to lowerin Table 3.1. Thus Tables 3.1 through while we get three different values right diagonal,
{a,
3.6
give
provided
different names
binary
operations
and
of the
elements
the
order
elements, appear
as
heads in the
Germany
tables.
we to children have just discussed is somewhat akin in France and the operation of addition on the set Z+. The children have different in
The situation
learning
Section
Isomorphic
Binary Structures
29
3.1Table
*
3.2
Table
3.3 Table
$
a c
b a
c b
*'
# & #
$
& $
*\"
a b c
# $
z
X
a b c b c a
&
&
& #
z X
z
3.6
z
Table
3.4 Table
*\"
3.5Table
X
z
X
c b
y X
z
y
y X
a b
b b b b b b b b b
drei
\342\226\240 the \342\200\242 for \342\200\242)
a b
c a
z
names
c
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 versus
c
numbers,
b c a a b c
(un,
deux,
binary
trois,
ein, zwei,
the same
numbers,
structure.
so their
are
but they are learning the same symbols for the also using in the the same if they list the numbers
same order.)
in studying the different We are interested operations types of structures that binary can provide on sets having the same number of elements, as typified 3.4, 3.5, by Tables and 3.6. Let us consider a binary algebraic structure^ {S,*) to be a set S together with a binary structures {S, *) and (S', *') to operation * on S. In order for two such binary be structurally alike in the sense we have described, have to have a onetoone we would
b correspondenceetween
the
elements
x of y ^>
S and
then
the
elements
x *
x' of
if
A
\302\253\342\226\272 and x
y',
y ^> x
*' y'.
(1)
onetoone is
correspondence customary
0
elements.It
toone
regard order.
structure function
mapping
the equation 4>{x)= x' as reading the onetoone In terms of \302\242, final ^> correspondence in the in S' is the same as in S, can be expressed as
exists if the sets S and S' have the same number of to describe a onetoone correspondence giving a oneby S onto S' (see Definition For such a function \302\242, we 0.12). pairing
(1),
x ^> x
asserts
in
lefttoright
which
the algebraic
Such, an
a function isomorphism.
showing
that
alike
is known
as
We give a
formal
3.7
Definition
Let (S, *) and {S', *') be binary algebraic structures. onetoone function 0 mapping S onto S' such that
(f>{x
An
isomorphism
of S
with
S'
is a
* y)
= 4>{y) *'
(f>{y)
for
all x,
S.
homomorphism
property
Remember
that
boldface
term is being
defined.
30
Part
Groups and
Subgroups
exists, \302\247
If
such
denote
You
by
a map S ~
then
the
S and
* and
structures,
which
we
notation.
\342\226\240
may
the
we
labeled
in
Definition notion
3.7 the
homomorphism
property idea
rather
than the
isomorphismproperty.The
which
of isomorphism
includes
words
relation
of onetoone
correspondence,
the
appeared
in the
will
definition via
discuss
the
onetoone
between is \302\242)not
and onto
before
0:5^5'
display.
In Chapter
13, we
the
property,
S and
S'
when
but
necessarily
that
one to one;
in Section
is \302\247
rather
than
an
isomorphism. It is apparent
1, we
showedthat
the
binary
structures
{U,
and \342\226\240)
c e E+. Also,
for
the for a collection of binary structures, algebraic the Our discussion Definition collection. 3.7 is an equivalence relation on defined by Tables 3.1 definition shows that the binary structures leading to the preceding the same equivalence while Tables 3.5 and 3.6 are 3.4 are in those class, given by through whether in different equivalence classes.We proceed to discuss how to try to determine
us
relation ~
Exercise 7 asks 2
in
to show that
binary
How
We binary
structures
are
isomorphic.
to Show
now
Are Isomorphic
from
Definition
give
structures
an outline
{S,
how
to proceed
isomorphic.
3.7
to show that
two
Step
1
that
Define
we
function
0 that
in
gives
some
the
isomorphism
of S
to
with
S'.
Now
this
means
in
have
to describe,
fashion,
what 0(s) is
That
be
for every
&
S.
is, suppose
that
<j)(x)=
and
4>{y)
S such
4>{x
Step4
same.
Show
that
onto S'. That is, suppose that s' that 0(s) = s'. * y) = 4>{x)*' 4>{y)forall x,y
sides
e S' is given
show
that
e S.
see
This
is just
a question
the
of the
equation
and
whether
they are
3.8 Example
Let us
show
that
the binary
structure (E,
where \342\200\242}
+} with
an
operation
the usual
addition is
to the isomorphic
structure
We
(R+,
\342\200\242 is the
usual multiplication.
operation
Step 1
have
to somehow from
convert
Recall
ab+c =
of two
that (ab)(a\342\202\254)
addition
(j){x)
multiplication = ex
4>{x)
for x
e E. Note
\342\200\224>\342\200\242 E+ by
so indeed,
we see that
E+. natural
Step 2
logarithm,
Section
31
E+.
Step
If r
e E+,
y
then
ln(r)
e E
and 0(lnr)
eln
r =
r. Thus
0 is onto
0(y).
Step
e E,
is \302\247indeed
\342\226\240 ey =
0(x)
\342\226\240 Thus
we
\342\226\262
3.9
Example
Let 2Z = {2n \\ n e Z}, so that 2Z is the set of all even integers,positive, and negative, zero. We claim that (Z, +} is isomorphic to (2Z, +}, where + is the usual addition. This of a binary structure (Z, +} that is actually isomorphic will give an example to a structure of a proper subset under the induced consisting operation, in contrast to Example 3.8, the operations were totally different. where
Step 1
Step
The
obvious
(j>{m)
function
<p{ri),
n
: Z 2Z to \302\242) \342\200\224>\342\200\242
try is given
n. Thus
=
by
<j>{n)
= 2n
for
\342\202\254 Z.
If
If
then
2m = 2n
so m
2Z.
is \302\247 one
to one.
Step 3
Step
n e
2Z, then
=
is even
so n = 2m for m
n/2
e Z.
Hence
(j>{m)
2(n/2)
= n so
0 is onto
Let m,n
e Z. The
4>{m +
equation =
n) = 2(m +
n)
2m +
2n =
(f>{m)
0(n)
then shows
that
0 is
an isomorphism.
Not
A
Isomorphic
How to
We now
turn
reverse
question, namely:
that
case?
How do we
isomorphic,
demonstrate
if this
is the
would mean that there is no onetoone function the property S onto S' with <f> from = 4>{x)*' <j>(y) for all x, y \342\202\254 general, it is clearly not feasible to try every S. In 4>{x onetoonefunction it has this property, S onto S' and test whether possible mapping when S This is the case precisely except in the case where there are no such functions. and S' do not have the same Definition 0.13.) (See cardinality.
This
* >')
3.10 Example
The
binary
structures
(Q, +}
the
and(E, +} are
following
not
while
to say
induced
A
discussion
subset of
E. Example
Q has cardinality K0 Note that it is not enough Example 0.13.) 3.9 shows that a proper subset with the to the entire binary structure. \342\226\262
isomorphic
because
isomorphic
characteristics
of a binary structure is one that must be shared by any property structure. It is not concerned with names or some other nonstructural of the elements. For example, the binary structures defined by Tables 3.1 and
are totally different. Also, a structural although the elements with what we considerto be the \"name\" of the binary operation. Example 3.8 showed that a binary structure whose operation is our usual addition can be is our usual multiplication. The number of elements isomorphic to one whose operation in the set S is a structural of (S, *}. property
3.2
property
32
Part I
Groups
and
Subgroups
In the event that there are onetoone mappings of S onto (S, *) is not isomorphic to (S', *'} (if this is the case) some structural that the other does not possess. property
S',
by
showing
that
has
3.11
Example
both have cardinality X0, and there are lots of onetoone functions and where is the Z+. However, the binary structures (Z, \342\200\242)(Z+, \342\200\242), \342\200\242 mapping there In (Z, \342\200\242) are two elements x such that usual multiplication, are not isomorphic. 1. However, in (Z+, \342\200\242), is only the single element1. \342\226\262 there x = x, x \342\200\242 namely, 0 and
The sets Z
and
Z+
Z onto
We
list a few
structure
of a binary
properties
and nonstructural
properties
along
the right
Nonstructural
line.
Properties
element.
PossibleStructural
1. The
Possible
a. The b. The
c. The d. S
number 4 is an
2. The
solution
is commutative.
3. x * x
= x for
x in
4. The equation
x e
We
introduced structural
3.3, by *\" on the set {x,y, z], we have x *\" u = u *\" x = u where for the binary operation for all choices possiblechoices, y, and z for u. Thus x plays the same role as 0 in = u + 0 = u for all u e E, and the same role as 1 in (E, \342\200\242) where (E, +) where 0 + u 1 \342\200\242 \342\226\240 for all u e E. Because 1 = u u = u Tables 3.1 and 3.2 give structures isomorphic to the one in Table 3.3, they must exhibit an element with a similar property. We see that = u*'$ = u in Table 3.1 and that $*'u b * u = u * b = u for all elements u appearing
illustrated
One other
and
associativity
in Section
Table
2.
to us is
x,
for
all elements
u in Table
3.2. We
give
a formal
definition of this
structural
notion
and
prove a little
3.12
theorem.
Definition
Let {S, *} be
binary all
structure. s
\342\202\254 S.
An element
e of
S is
an
identity
element
for * if
\342\226\240
3.13
Theorem
element.
That
binary
structure
{S, *) has
at
most
one identity
element,
it is
unique.
Proof
Proceeding
elements
standard
way
to show
of S
serving as identity
element,
have
elements.
We let
both each
e and other.
e are
Regarding
e.
regarding that
e as an identity an identity
element
be
unique.
\342\231\246
Section
Isomorphic
Binary Structures
33
have a good grasp of the notion of isomorphic it binary structures, that an identity element for * is indeeda structural of having property a structure {S, *}.However, we know from experience that will be unable readers many to see the forest because of all the that have appeared. For them, we now supply a trees
If
you
now
should
be evident
careful proof,
3.14Theorem
skipping
along
to touch
those trees
that
are
involved.
with
elements
identity
element
S' is an isomorphism for*. If 0 : S \342\200\224>\342\200\242 *' on S'. for the binary operation
of {S,*}
Proof
Lets' e S'.We
it is a
= s'. Because must show that 0(e) *' s' = s' *'0(e) 0 is an isomorphism, onetoone map of S onto S'. In particular, there exists s & S such that 0(s) = e is an identity element for * so that we know that e * s = s *e = s. Because Now 0 a function, we then obtain
s'.
is
(p{e *
s) =
0(s * e) =
we can
<p(s).
Using
Definition
3.7 of
an
isomorphism,
rewrite
this
as
0(e)
*' 4>{s)=
Remembering
that
we chose
=
0(e)
\342\202\254 S such
= s', we obtain
the
desired
relation
\342\231\246
s'.
We
certain
binary
structures
Theorem
3.14,
that
areindeedstructural.
3.15 Example
We
with three more examplesshowing via structural properties that are not isomorphic. In the exercises we ask you to show, as in the structures in these examples the properties we use to distinguish That structure. is, they must be sharedby any isomorphic
show
that
the binary
and
structures (Q, +}
Z have
and
(Z,
+} under
the
usual
addition
isomorphic. (Both Q cardinality x + x = c has a solution x for all mapping Q onto Z.) The equation not the case in Z. For example,the x + x = 3 has no solution equation exhibited a structural that distinguishes these two structures. property
3.16
of onetoone c
Example
The binary structures (C, \342\200\242} \342\200\242} the usual multiplication and (E, under that C and ffi have the same cardinality.) The equation (It can be shown in ffi. solution x for all c e C, but x \342\200\242 x =1 has no solution The binary
structure
are not
a
\342\226\262
3.17
Example
(M2(E),
is not
isomorphic
to (E,
x 2 real matrices with the usual matrix multiplication usual number multiplication. (It can be shown that both of numbers is commutative, but multiplication Multiplication
of 2 \342\200\242}
\342\226\262
34
Part
Groups and
Subgroups
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
3 + is
the
In
all
the
exercises,
usual
addition
it
is specified,
and
\342\200\242 is the
usual multiplication.
Computations
1. What
structure
In
three
whether
a function
S 5\" is an \302\242:\342\200\224>\342\200\242
isomorphism
of a
binary
Exercises
the second.
2.
Z,
2 through
10, determine
it is
<j>(ri) <j>(n)
isomorphism
of the first
binary
structure
with
+)
(Z, +) where
(Z, (Z, (Q,
= =
\342\200\224n for n
e Z
3.
Z, +)
2n for n
n
e Z
n e Z
4. Z, +)
0(n) =
<j>(x)
1 for
5. Q, +) with
x/2
for
for x
e Q
6. Q, \342\200\242)(Q, with
= x2 = *3
0(A) 0(A)
* \342\202\254 Q
7.
E,
with \342\200\242)(E,
0(x)
for* e
is the is the
E
of matrix of matrix
8.
M2(E),
determinant determinant
A A
9.
In
Mi(E),
10. E, +)
Exercises
with
= 0.5'\" for r
eE /
/
mapping
Follow
11 through 15, let F be the set of all functions the instructions for Exercises 2 through 10.
{F, (E, (F,
E into
that
have
derivatives
of
all
orders.
\302\242(/)
/', the
/'(0)
derivative
of
+)
+)
+)
with with
\302\242(/)
0(/)(*)
= ft
/(t)dt
14. (F,
15. 16.
with
(F,
+) where 0(/)(*)
where \342\200\242)
/(f)A] \302\243[\302\243
\342\200\242
(F,
with \342\200\242)(F,
0(/)(x) by that
= x
/(x)
The map
0 : Z * Z
onto
defined such
0(n) =
is \302\242an
1 for
n e Z is
one to
*) onto
one
and onto
Z. Give the
definition
of a
binary operation
* on Z
isomorphism
mapping
a.
In
(Z,
+)
(Z, *),
identity defined
b.
element by
(Z,
(Z, +).
each map
case,
give the
for *
on Z.
for
17. The
a.
0 : Z
^ Z
*),
the
0(n)
= n + 1
n e
binary operation
(Z,
* on Z
such
that
is \302\242an
isomorphism
onto \342\200\242)(Z,
one
and onto
Z. Give the
definition
of a
(Z,
\342\200\242).
In each
case, give
: Q+ \302\242
identity
element
by
for *
on Z.
one
18. The
a.
map
Q defined
<j>(x) = 3x
binary
(Q,
that
and onto
Q. Give the
definition
of a
b. (Q, *)
element for
onto
(Q, +).
In each
case, give
the
identity
* on Q.
3 Section Exercises
35
of a
19.
The binary
map
<p
: Q \302\273 defined Q
by
that
<j>{x)
3x
\342\200\224
1 for
x e
Q is one
to one
and onto
Q. Give the
definition
* on
such
0 is an
isomorphism
mapping
a.
(Q,
*),
the
b. (Q, *)
identity
onto
(Q,
\342\200\242).
In each
case, give
element
for *
on Q.
Concepts
20. The
by
displayed
homomorphism
condition
the
for
an
isomorphism
in \302\242)Definition
how
3.7 is
condition
sometimes summarized
can be viewed
in
saying, manner.
\"0 must
commutewith
correct
binary
operation(s).\" Explain
that
this
In Exercises
21 and
it is
22,
the definition
of
the
italicized
term
without reference
to
the
text, if
correction is
needed, so that
21.
22.
in a form
acceptablefor
isomorphism
on a set
publication.
A function
Let *
element
if and
An
only
if 0(a
* b)
with
be a
operation
all
S.
element
e of
property
5*e
= 5=
e*5isan
identity
for * for
s e
S.
Proof Synopsis
to give a one or two sentence of a proof is your ability synopsis of it, explaining your understanding Note that we said \"sentence\" and not \"equation.\" the proof without all the details and computations. for a synopsis of a proof in the From now on, some of our exercise setsmay contain one or two problems asking Here is our for you what we mean by a synopsis. exceed three sentences. We should illustrate text. It should rarely and then our synopsis. of the theorem now, of Theorem 3.14. Readthe statement onesentence synopsis
A
good
test of
the
idea of
Representing
an element carry
of S'
as 0(5) for
of 0(e)
some
s e
S, use the
homomorphism
in
property
of 0
That
did
to
the computation
to a
computation
S.
We
that one mathematician does the proof go?\" of explanation give another if asked, \"How might the computation or explain of S' as 0(5). To supply why we could represent an element every in our synopsis. written proof. We just gave the guts of the argument detail would result in a completely
kind
is the
not
make
of Theorem
3.13.
24.
An
identity
twosided a. a left
* as described
sentences,
by
Definition
3.12 is
definitions
sometimesreferred to
for
as
\"a
give analogous
identity
ei for *,
and
identity
b. a right
element
identity
element
en for
*.
if a twosided
for *
element
you just
where
the first
25.
place
the
Is the sametrue for a onesided (S, *) for a finite set S and find
element
Continuing element en
the ideas
24 of Exercise can
If so,
where eL /
ei and a
S. If not,
right
on a
finite
set
prove
that
identity it is
impossible.
36
Part I
Groupsand
\342\200\224>B is a <p
Subgroups
26.
Recall f(a)
that
if
/ :A
(S,*).
onetoone
function
mapping
A onto
S, then
with
' (fc)
is the
fc.
Prove
that if
: S \342\200\224> an 5\" is
isomorphism
of (5, *)
(5\", *'),
then
(5\",*') with
27.
Prove
with
that
5\" if 0 : S \302\273 is an
isomorphism
function
isomorphic,
of (S, *)
i\\r o 0
(5\"',
*\,") then
the
the
composite
: 5\" \302\273 is an isomorphism with (5\", *')andy/5\"' is an isomorphism of (5, *) with (5\"', *\.
you
of (S\",
*')
relation
~ of being
You
described
structures.
places 29 through
may
simply
in Definition 3.7, is an equivalence relation on any set were asked to prove in the preceding two exercises at
indicated
structure property of a binary is an identity element
in your
proof.
proof
Exercises
for a skeptic
did
that
the
(S, *)
for
structural
property. * is * is
(In Theorem
3.14, we
this
for the
property,
\"There
*.\
operation
e S,the
x *
x =
c has
b*b
a solution
x in S.
32. Thereexists
an element
b in
such
that
= b.
of
~
of
the
33. Let
be the
form
matrix
for a,
multiplication.
b e
ffi.
Exercise
23 of
Section 2 shows
a. Show b. Show
(We
that that
H is
closed
under to
both (H,
addition and
+) is
isomorphic
+}.
\342\200\242).
is isomorphic \342\200\242)
to (H,
34.
C.) complex numbers There are 16 possible structures on the set {a, b} of two elements. How many nonisomorphic (that is, binary in different) structures are there among these 16? Phrased more precisely terms of the isomorphism structurally ~ on this set of 16 structures, how many equivalence classes are there? Write down one equivalence relation structure from each equivalenceclass.[Hint: a and b everywhere in a table and then rewriting Interchanging the table with listed in the original elements the one we order does not always yield a table different from representation
started
say that
H is a matrix
of the
with.]
section
Groups
Letus continue
the
the
analysis problems
computational
apply
algebra.
Once
we had
mastered
of numbers,
we were ready
of problems. Often problems lead to operations to the solution is to be determined. The simplest some unknown number x, which and equations are the linear ones of the forms a + x b for the operation of addition, ax =b for multiplication. The additive linear equation always has a numerical solution, and so has the multiplicative one, provideda/0. the need for solutions of Indeed,
to
these
binary
equations
involving
for the negative good motivation very is shown by equations such as 2x = 3. the need for rational numbers for us to be able to solve linear equations involving It is desirable our binary is not possible for every binary operations. This however. For example, the equation operation, a * x = a has no solution in S = {a,b, c] for the operation * of Example 2.14. Let us abstract from familiar algebra those properties of addition that enable us to solve the 5 + * = 2 in Z. We must not refer to subtraction, for we are concerned with the equation solution in this case addition. The steps in phrased in terms of a single binary operation,
additive
linear
equations
such as 5
+ x = 2 is a
numbers.
Similarly,
Section 4
Groups
37
the
solution
are as
follows:
5+
(5 +
5+ * (5+ *)
5)
= 2, =5+
given,
x =
0 +
* = * = x =
computing
property
\342\200\224 5
+ 5,
5 + 2,
\342\200\2243,
of 0,
\342\200\224 5
computing
\342\200\2243 is a
+ 2.
not
shownhere
show
that
the
for a solution.
To
that
\342\200\2243 is a
that it is the only solution, but rather 5 solution, one merely computes + (\342\200\2243). 2x = 3 in the rational numbers with equation
= 3,
given,
multiplying
= \\(i), \\{2x)
{\\ \342\226\240 =
by
i,
2)x
^3,
1 \342\200\242 x = ^3,
43, 2
3
of
1, 13.
computing
have to We can now see what properties a set S and a binary operation * on S would of this procedure for an equation a * x = b for a, b \342\202\254 S. Basic have to permit imitation of an element e in S with the property that e * x = x to the procedure is the existence the role of e, and 1 played the role for S. For for all x \342\202\254 our additive example, 0 played a' in S that has the property that our Then we need an element example. multiplicative the role of a', and \\ played a! * a = For our additive example with a = 5, \342\200\2245 played the role for our multiplicative with a = 2. Finally we need the associative law. example The remainder is just computation. A similar analysis shows that in order to solve the x * a = b (remember that a * x need not equal x * a), we would like to have an equation element e in S such that x * e = x for all x e S and an a' in S such that a * a! = e. With be sure of being able to solve linear equations. all of these properties of * on S, we could Thus we need an associative element e such that an identity binary structure (S, *) with This is precisely the for each a e S, there exists a! S such that a * a' = a' *a
e.
= e.
notion of a group,
which
we now
define.
Definition
Rather
and Examples
describe a group
than
Sections
of the
who
preceding paragraph,
this
give
a selfcontained
without
the
end
person
picks up
text
to discover
what a group is
a binary
to look
up more terms.
the
4.1 Definition
group
axioms
Sfx:
under G, closed
operation
*, such
that
following
all a,b,c
e G,
(a
we have
c=
* b) *
a * (b * c).
associativity
of
38
Part I
3^:
There
is an
element
in
G such
e G,
e for
e * x = x *e = x.
Corresponding 3\302\276.
element
*
that
to each
a e
G, there
is an
element
inverse
a'
a'
in
G such
a *a
4.2
= a *a = e.
1, which
of a
\342\226\240
Example
We easily
associative
see that
(U,
Multiplication
of complex numbers
for multiplication.
is
and both U
computation
contain U\342\200\236
is
an
identity
For
e'e e
U, the
ew
\342\226\240 ei{2^e)
= e2\"1 = 1 For z
shows
that
every
element
of U has
an
inverse.
\342\226\240 =zn
z\"'1
= l
shows
Because
Similarly,
that
every
element
of
Un
has
an inverse.
Thus (U,
that (Ec,
+c) is a group
that
all c
e M+.
group
fact that
to
(Z\342\200\236, is a +\342\200\236}
forallneZ+.
A
out
structure
We point
the binary
understanding
now there
we
that we is of
specify
will
sometimes
be sloppy
in notation.
Rather
than
use
notation
(G, *}
constantly, we often
operation
refer to
a group
In
that
that
course a binary
an operation
on the
set G.
phrase
clarity demands
* on G, we use the
Historical
are
Note
three
historical
There of development
mathematical
abstract
group
Carl F Gauss, in
in
his
Disquisitiones
with
the
literature
All
of
nineteenth number
century: theory,
the
quadratic
under group
Arithmetiforms
that
algebraicequations,
three
classes
of these
showed
methods
of reasoning,
considerably
central
Finally,
provided
of algebraic equations
One of the
nineteenth
century
attention
themselves,
was
search
concept. initiated
explicit prefiguring of the group in fact Lagrange JosephLouis (17361813) of an the study of permutations of the roots
the it. These considered
geometrictransformations.
which
became
thought
of as
In number
century
Leonhard
elements of groups. theory, already in the eighteenth Euler had considered the remainders
by a fixed
equation as a tool for solving of course, were ultimately of a group. It was Walter von
permutations, as elements
Dyck
Heinrich roots
and
Weber
(18421913) to
who
able independently
give
combine
on division
remainders
of powers a\"
have
clear
definitions
\"group\"
properties.
abstract group.
Section 4
Groups
under
39
rather
refer
under
*.\" For
the
example,
more Zg
tedious
without
we may refer to the groups (Z, +), (Q, +), and (ffi, specifying the operation.
binary
Z, ( +).
i>,
and
ffi
addition
However, we feel
free to
group
G is
abelian
if its
operation
is commutative.
\342\226\240 Historical
in honor groups are calledabelian of the Norwegian Niels Henrik Commutative mathematician Abel (18021829). Abel was interested in the
question of paper
been applied to
attracted
commutative
groups
in
to mathematics
as a teenager
Norway.
soon
surpassed
all his
teachers in
He
can be expressed as rational g,... ,h of one of them, say x, and and g{x), the if for any two of these roots, f{x) then the relation f{g{x)) = g{f{x))always holds, Abel showed that equation is solvable by radicals. each of thesefunctions in fact permutes the roots of the these functions are elements hence, equation;
of such
functions
equation
f,
to study grant finally received a government travel elsewhere in 1825 and proceeded to Berlin, where he befriended Crelle, the founder of the most August influential German mathematical journal. Abel numerous contributed papers to Crelle's Journal during in the field the next several years, including many
of elliptic functions,
virtually
whose
theory
he created
singlehandedly.
Abel
and
returned
an to write
to
Norway
in
of
the
group
of permutations
of
the
roots.
It was
1827
with no
died
position
abundance
of debts.
this
led
algebra
property
permutation groups
He nevertheless continued
that but
brilliant
papers,
days
of tuberculosis
at the
in
Camille
to name
before since
position
finding
of some
that
give
groups
and
somethat
Z+ under
do
not give
groups.
a group.
4.4 Example
4.5
The
set
addition is not
integers
There is no 0) under
identity
element
for + in
Z+.
\342\226\262
Example
The set
of all nonnegative
element
(including
addition
is still
not a group.
There
\342\226\262
is an
4.6
identity
0, but no
inverse for 2.
of integers and of rational, real, are abelian groups. addition is not a and
Example
The familiar
additive
properties
complex
numbers
\342\226\262
show
4.7
that
Z,
Q, E,
and C under
multiplication
Example
The set
Z+
under
of 3.
4.8
group. There is
an
identity
1, but
no inverse
A
Example
The familiar
under
multiplicative
properties
of rational,
the
real,
sets Q*,
and ffi*,
complex and
numbers
show that
\342\226\262
E+
C* of
nonzero numbers
40
Part
Groups and
Subgroups
realvalued
E under
4.9Example
4.10
The
set of all
group
functions
with
domain
function
addition
is a group.
This
Example
is abelian.
should
\342\226\26
(Linear Algebra) Those who have studied vector spaces can for a vector space V pertaining just to vector addition that V under vector addition is an abelian group. The set Mmx\342\200\236(E) all m x of matrix with all entries 0 is the The set M\342\200\236(E) all n x n of n x n matrix with all entries Show that the
multiplication
n
note
that
be summarized
\342\226\26
4.11
Example
matrices identity
The m
x n
\342\226\26
4.12
Example
matrices
matrix
multiplication is
n x
not
a group.
The
0 has no inverse.
consisting
\342\226\26
4.13
Example
subset S of
is a group.
Mn (E)
of all
invertible
n matrices
under
matrix
Solution
We
start
so that
both
S is closed under
matrix
multiplication.
Let A
and
B be
in S,
exist and
AA'1
BB'1
= In. Then
=
(AB)(B'1A~1)=
so that
A{BB~l)A~l
AlnA'x
=.
I\342\200\236,
Since
since
This
invertible and consequently is also in S. and acts matrix multiplication is associative element, and /\342\200\236 as the identity each element of S has an inverse by definition of S, we seethat S is indeed a group. is not commutative. It is our first example of a nonabelian group. a group
AB is
The group
fundamental
and
of
invertible
n x
matrices
described
is the you
in the
importance
in linear
is usually
denoted by
general linear group of degreen, who have studied linear algebra know
that E\",
a matrix defined
E\"
in
GL(n,
of
into
linear E) gives rise to an invertible and that conversely, Ax, every invertible
transformation
linear
\342\200\224
transformation
multiplication
linear
group
transformations
in this in GL(n, fashion by some matrix to composition of linear transformations. E\" into itself form a group under function
Thus
is usually
denoted
by GL(W).
a * b
Of course,GL(n,E) ~ Then
\342\200\224 *c=
composition;
this
GL(W).
4.14
Example
Let *
be defined on Q+ by
= ab/2.
(a *b)'
and
*c =
ab
abc
likewise
a * (b
Thus * is associative.
Computation
* c)
= a
= * \342\200\224
be
2
abc
4
shows
that
2* a
for
= a *2 = a
for *. =
Finally,
all
a e
Q+, so 2 is an
identity
element a*
so a! = A/a
is an
inverse
operation
* is a group.
Section 4
Groups
41
we proceed only
is the
thing
first
about
theorem
groups
use
Definition
a second
third
proof of
of a
4.1
the first a =
the proof
theorem
laws. In real arithmetic, we know that establish cancellation 2a = 2b b. We need only divide both sides of the equation inverse of 2. 2, or equivalently, by multiply both sides by , which is the multiplicative We parrot this proof to establish cancellation laws for any group. Note that we will also use the associative law. Our first
theorem will
that
2a =
2b implies
4.15 Theorem
If hold
is a group
in
with binary
a, b, c
e G.
G, that is,
a * b = a * c implies * c. Then
operation *,
then
the
left
and
b =
c, and b * a
= c * a implies
right cancellation
b =
laws
c for all
Proof
Suppose
a * b
= a
by
3\302\276.
there
exists
a', and
(a
a * (a * b) =
By the
a' *
* c).
associative law,
(a'
* a) * a
*b =
(a' * a) * c.
By
the
definition
of a'
in
3\302\276,
a'
= e,
so
e * b = e * c.
By
the
definition
of e
in
.\302\276
b =
c. that b
Similarly, from b * a = c *a one can deduce a! and use of the axioms for a group. by
Our
= c upon
We show
group
multiplication
on the
right
\342\231\246
next
proof can
unique
make use of
Recall
Theorem
4.15.
that
a \"linear
a group has a
find
solution.
that we
chose our
properties
equation\" in to allow us to
solutions
of such
equations.
elements
4.16 Theorem
If
G is a
linear
group with binary operation *, and if a and b are any a * x = b and y * a = b have unique solutions equations
of at
that
of G,
y in
then
the
x and
G.
Proof
least one
solution
by
just
computing
that a!
* b is a
(a' * b)
= (a * a') * b,
= e* = b,
associative
definition property
law,
of a', of e.
b,
Thus x = a' * b is a of y * a = b.
solution
of a
* x = b In
a similar
fashion,
b *
a' is a solution
42
Part I
Groups
and
Subgroups
To show uniqueness of y, we use the standard method of assuming two solutions, y\\ and yi, so that y\\ * a = b and yi * a = b. Then y\\ The of x follows similarly. by Theorem 4.15, y\\ = )\302\276. uniqueness
Of
that * a
we have
* a, )\302\276
and
\342\231\246
course,
to prove
namely,
that
same. Note
commutative.
followed the if a * x = b, to prove an object is the standard way and then prove they must be the you have two such objects, suppose x \342\200\224 b and y = b * a! need not be the same unless * is the solutions a' *
the
uniqueness
in the
have
that
Because
that the
identity
of binary We
state
from of
Theorem
3.13
the next
theorem
4.17Theorem
In
a group
G with binary
one
element
e in G such
that
x = x
there
*e=
x
one element
for
all
x e
G. Likewise for
each aeC,
a *a
is only
a'
in
G such
that
= a *a = e.
of each
In
summary,
the identity
element
and
inverse
in
a group.
Proof
an identity
to
element
show
for
any
structure
is unique. No
use
a\"
of the
so that
group
axioms
was required
uniqueness
this. aeG
Turning
to
the
of an
a\" *
a'*a
= a*a'
= e and
has inverses
a'
and
a * a\"
=
e. Then
\342\200\224 e
a * a\"
and,
a *
a'
by Theorem
4.15,
a
= a
so the
inverse Note
of a in a
group is unique.
\342\231\246
that in a
(a
we have
* b) *
= a * (b
4.17
this
state
* b')
show
*a
= (a * e) * a'
the
= a *a = e.
unique
This That
equation
and
Theorem
is,
(a *
b)' =
b' * a'. We
inverse
of a
* b.
4.18 Corollary
Let
G be a
a,b e
G, we
have
(a *
b)' =
* a'.
we remark that binary algebraic structures For your information, with weaker axioms than those for a group have also been studied quite Of these weaker structures, extensively. the semigroup, a set with an associative binary has perhaps had the most operation, A monoid is a semigroup that has an identity element for the binary attention. operation. is both a semigroup Note that every group and a monoid.
4 Section
Groups
43
Finally,
be
it is
possible to
give
axioms
for a group
(G, *} that
seem
at first
glance
to
weaker,
namely:
1.
The binary
There
operation
2.
From
exists
a left
G is
that e
G such
* x = x for
that a'
all
x e
G.
3. For eacha
this
e G, there
exists
a left
inverse a! in
*a
= e.
definition, one can provethat the left identity element is also a right and a left inverse is also a right inverse for the same element.Thus element, identity these axioms should not be calledweaker, since they result in exactly the same structures called groups. It is conceivable that it might be easierin some cases to check these being than to check our twosided axioms.Of course, axioms by symmetry it is clear that left there are also right axioms for a group.
onesided
Group Tables
is,
our
examples
an
finite
infinite
after Example 4.2 have been of infinite groups, that number of elements. We turn to finite groups,
groups
where
with
starting
the
sets.
a group
has to have at
group
least
one element,
three
give rise to a
by inverse
is a
oneelement
group. Let us try to put a group structure on a set of two elements. Since one of the elements must play the role of identity we may as well let the set be {e, a}. Let us attempt element, to find a table for a binary * on {e, a} that gives a group structure on {e, a}. operation we shall always list the identity When a table for a group first, as in giving operation,
the
e *
e=
e. The
namely, the identity, set {e}.The only possible group axioms hold. The
a minimal binary
identity
set that *
is
operation
element
in every
following
table.
e a
Sincee is
to be
the identity,
so
e *x = x *e = x
for
all
x e
{e, a],
we are
forced
to fill in
* is
to give a group:
e e a
a a
have an inverse
e a
Also,
a must
a =
a *a
= e.
Groups
and
Subgroups
have
be
either
e or
to complete
the table
does
not work,
we
must
a a e
axioms are
now
a
All
a
group
except possibly the associative property. an operation can be a basis from a table defining Checkingssociativity a = {0, 1} under 2 is that addition modulo tedious However, we know Z2 very process. be the one above with e replaced a group, and by our arguments, its table must by 0 and a by 1. Thus the must be satisfied for our table containing e associative property
the satisfied,
on a casebycase
and a.
With
that
this
example
as background,
operation
we
be
should
be able
to list
satisfy
a table
giving a binary
on the
on a finite
set
must
= x means that the row acts as the identity element. the elements appearing e at the extreme left must contain exactly opposite x * e = x across the very top of the table in the same order. Similarly, the condition the e at the very top must contain means that the column of the table under exactly elements appearing at the extreme left in the same order.The fact that every element a has a right and a left inverse means that in the row having a at the extreme left, the element e must appear, and in the column under a at the very top, the e must appear.
of
the
one element
Thus e must appear in each row and in each column. We can do even better than this, however. By Theorem4.16,not only the equations a * x = e and y * a = e have unique but also the equations a * x = b and y * a = b. By a similar this solutions, argument, means that each element b of the group must appear once and only once in each row and
each
column
of the
table.
Suppose conversely that a table for a binary operation on a finite set is such that there is an element each element acting as identity and that in each row and each column, of the set appears exactly once. Then it can be seen that the structure is a group structure if and only if the associative law holds. If a binary operation * is given by a table, the associative law is usually messy to check. If the operation * is defined by some law is often easy to check.Fortunately, characterizing property of a * b, the associative ' this second case turns out to be the one usually encountered. We saw that there was essentially only one group of two elements in the sense that if the elements are denoted by e and a with the identity e appearing first, the element table must be shown in Table 4.19. Suppose that a set has three elements. As before, we may as well let the set be {e, a, b). For e to be an identity element, a binary operation * on this set has to have a table of the form in Table 4.20. This leaves four shown to be filled in. You can quickly see that Table 4.20 must be completed as shown places in Table 4.21 if each row and each column each are to contain element exactly once. Because there was only one way to complete the table and Z3 = {0, 1, 2}under addition modulo 3 is a group, the associative e, a, property must hold for our table containing andfo.
Section 4
Exercises
45
a table for G' imagine the table for G = {e,a, b) filling we see that if we take the for G' and rename the table the next element listed a, and the last element b, the resulting table for G' e, identity must be the same as the one we had for G. As in Section 3, this renaming explained G' with the group G. Definition 3.7 denned the gives an isomorphism of the group notion of isomorphism and of isomorphic binary are just certain structures. Groups of binary so the same definition to them. Thus our work above structures, types pertains can be summarized that all groups with a single element are isomorphic, all by saying groups with just two elements are isomorphic, and all groups with just three elements are
Now other
with
that G' is any suppose element identity appearing could be done in only one way,
group
of three
elements and
out of
isomorphic.
to express this identification use the phrase up to isomorphism using the of three elements, relation ~. Thus we may say, \"There is only one group equivalence up to isomorphism.\"
We
4.19
*
Table e
4.20 Table
4.21Table a a b b
*
a a e
a a b e
b b e a
a b
a b
a b
a b
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
Computations
In
Exercises
1 through
6, determine
first
whether
the
binary
operation
* gives a
group that
structure does
on the
given set. If no
group
results,
give the
axiom
in the
Definition
4.1
not hold.
1. Let *
be defined
on Z
by
letting
{2\302\253  n
a *b
2. Let
* be * be
defined on
2Z =
by
e Z} by letting a * b = a * b =
a *b =
a + b.
3.
Let
defined on R+ on Q on C
by
letting letting
~Jab.
real numbers
\\ab\\.
ab.
by
on the
by
set R*
letting
of nonzero
letting
a * b =
a/b.
a *b
8.
1000 elements. example of an abelian group G where G has exactly We can also consider modulo n in For 5 7 6 = 2 \342\200\242\342\200\236 Z\342\200\236. example, multiplication 8 is a group. Give the 4(7) + 2. Theset {1,3,5, 7}with multiplication 8 modulo
Give an
in
Z7
because
\342\200\242 = 6 \342\200\224 30
9.
Show
that
the group
to either
\\ m
(R,
+) or (R*,
for this
R.)
10. Let n
be a positive
that
that
and
let nL
{nm
e Z}.
a. Show b. Show
(\302\253Z, +)
+) (\302\253Z,
is a group. ~
(Z, +).
46
Part I
In Exercises
Groups
and
Subgroups
11 through whether the given set of matrices under the specified matrix 18, determine operation, whose only nonzero entries addition or multiplication, matrix is a square matrix is a group. Recall that a diagonal is a square the upper left to the lower lie on the main diagonal, from right corner. An uppertriangular matrix matrix with only zero entries below the main diagonal. Associated with each n x n matrix A is a number called = det(A) det(S). Also, If A and B are both n x n matrices, then det(AS) the determinant of A, denoted by det(A). = 1 and A is invertible 0. if and only if det(A) det(7\342\200\236) ^
11.
All
n x
n diagonal
n n
matricesunder
matrices matrices
matrix
addition.
multiplication.
12. All n x
13.
diagonal diagonal
All n
All All
zero diagonal
entry
under
14. 15.
17.
n x n x
n diagonal
n uppertriangular
n n n
entries 1 or
\342\200\224 1 under
multiplication.
addition.
16. All n x
All n
under matrix
matrix
multiplication.
18. All n x
with determinant
all
either 1 or
except
\342\200\224 1 under
matrix multiplication.
19. Let S be
set of
real
numbers
\342\200\224 1. Define
* on
by
a *b
= a
+ b + ab.
a.
b.
* gives a
binary
operation
on S.
c.
2***3
= 7 in S.
structures on a set of 4 elements. shows 20. This exercise that there are two nonisomorphic group Let the set be [e, a, b, c}, ith w e the identity element for the group A group table would then operation. to start in the manner shown in Table 4.22. The square indicated be filled in by the question mark cannot
a.
have
with
different from both e and a. In this identity latter case, it is no loss of generality to assume that this element is b. If this square is filled in with e, the table can then be completed in two ways to give a group. Find these two tables. (You need not check the associative in with b, then the table can only be completed in one way to give a group. Find this law.) If this square is filled table. (Again, need not check the associative tables law.) Of the three you you now have, two give isomorphic two tables these are, and onto renaming function which is an groups. Determine which give the onetoone
It must
filled
be
in either
with the
element
e or
with
an element
isomorphism.
a. b.
Are Which
of 4 gives
a group
the
group
so \302\243/4,
that we
know
the
the
binary
operation
defined by the
for
table is associative?
c.
Show
that
the group
value
given by
of n,
of the
we
one particular
so
know
same by that
as the
21. According
many
to Exercise
12 of
structure
Section 2, there
of
of these
give a
a group?
How
many
16 possible of the
binary
operations
of 2 elements. ow H
on a set
19,683 possible
operations
of
3 elementsgive Concepts
a group
structure?
axioms the
.^, axioms
and .\302\276
for .\302\276
a group.
We gave them
in the
order
Conceivable 5^.\302\276.\302\276\302\276.
other
are
Of ^.\302\276\302\276^.
these
six possible
Section 4
Exercises
and why?
47
orders,
this.
Most
a definition.
define
a group
acceptable,
(Remember
4.22 Table
* \342\200\242
b c b c
a b
a b
23. The
a.
following
\"definitions\"
wrote
students who
A group
satisfied
a bit
of a group are taken verbatim, including too quickly and carelessly.Criticize them.
together
spelling and
that
punctuation,
from
papers
of
G is a set of elements
with
a binary
operation * such
the following
conditions are
* is
associative
There exists e
e G such
G there
that
e*x=x*e
For
= x=
that
identity.
every
a e
exists
an a'
(inverse) such
a \342\226\240 a = a
\342\226\240 a =
b.
group
is a set
The operation
there
is an
for every
a e
is a
G, there
with
is an a binary
a' (inverse
for
each
element)
c. A
the an
group
set
operation such
binary inverse
identity
operation exists
element
is defined
exists
an d. A
set G is called
operation
a group
Binary
* is
operation addition
* such that
for all a, b
eG
there
exist an element
{e}such
that
a*e
Fore
= e*a
=e
every
element
a there exists
an
element
a*a'
= a'*a
three
=e
elements
24. Give
25.
a table
but
for a
axiom
the
binary Wx.
operation
on the
set {e,a, b} of
satisfying
axioms
and ,\302\276
,^
for a
group
Mark
not
each of
following
true or
false.
than
a.
b.
c.
A Any
group two
more
one
identity
element.
of three
linear
elementsare isomorphic.
has a solution.
In a group,
each
equation
48
Part I
Groupsand
proper attitude the text.
Subgroups
d. The as in
e.
toward
a definition
is to
memorize
it so
that
you
can reproduce
it word
for
word
a person gives for a group is correct provided that definition is also a group by the definition in the text. a person
definition
everything
that is a
group
by
that
f. Any definition
is correct
in
provided
that satisfies
the
the one
elements
the
text and
show
that
everything
g.
h.
j.
Every An
finite equation
empty
group of the
set
of at most
is abelian.
has
i. The
Every
can
a unique
a group.
group is a binary
structure.
Proof synopsis
We give an
example
of a proof
unique.
of the
proof
that
the
inverse
of an
element
in
a group
(G, *) is
that a
Assuming
* a'
left
= e and
a * a\"
= e,
apply
the
left cancellation
law to the
equation
a * a'
= a
a\".
Note
notation
that we said
an
\"the
cancellation
given as
explanation
given
\"Theorem
at
suppose
to
that
our
synopsis
was
little
lunch,
no reference
text
numbering
and as
as is
practical.
of the
proof of
the
left
cancellation in Theorem
law in Theorem
4.15.
ax = b has a
unique
27. Give
solution
at most
a twosentence
synopsis of the
proof
4.16
that
an
equation
in a group.
Theory
28.
From
our
intuitive
should
also be
G',
4>{a)'=
G' of isomorphic groups, it should be clear that if cp : G \302\273 is a group e' of G'. Recall that Theorem 3.14 gave a proof of this for isomorphic the case of groups. (5\", *'). Of course, this covers clear that if a and a' areinverse in G, then 0(a) and <j>{a') are inverse pairs pairs notion
identity
<p(a').
Give
a careful
proof of
and
this
for
a skeptic
who can't
see the
forest
for all
the
G
trees.
29. Show
that
if G
is a finite
such that
a *a
= e.
group
with identity
with
an even
there
is a
^ e in
30.
Let
R*
be the
set of all
real
numbers
except 0. Define
binary
for
* on
R*
by letting
a.
b.
d.
operation on
R*.
in R*.
* and a right
c. Is R*
Explain
this the
31. If *
has 32.
Show
is a
exactly
S is an
that
idempotent
for * if
x *x
in the
= x. Prove
text.)
[Hint:
that
a group
any theorems
x *
proved so far
with
identity
e and
such
x =
for
all
x e
G is abeliaa
Consider
Section 5
Subgroups
c & G
49
Z+. Give a
such
be an
abelian
induction
group
and
let
c\"
c *c
=
n factors
c,
where
and n e
mathematical
proof that (a
* b)\"
(a\*")
for
all a,
be
G.
that number
group with a finite number of elements. Show that for any a e G, there exists an n e Z+ e. See Exercise 33 for the meaning of a\". [Hint: Consider e, a, a2, a3,..., a'\", where m is the of elements in G, and use the cancellation laws.]
G be a that
35. Show
of a2.
if (a *
b)2 = a2 *
and let
and
b2 for
a and b
in
a group
G, then
a *b
if
= b* a.See
only if a
that
Exercise
33 for
the
meaning
36. Let
37.
Let
G be a group G be a group
that
a,b e
G. Show
*b*
that c =
(a * b)'
= a'
*b'
and
*b = b* *a
a.
suppose
together
that a
with
e for
a, b, c e G.Show
G satisfying
b * c
38. Prove
39.
a set
G,
a binary
operation * on
an associative
the left
* on
all
3 given
on
that a nonempty
set G, together
a *x
with y *
binary
operation in G
that
= b
and
a = b have
solutions
for
a, b
e G,
is a
group.
[Hint:
Use Exercise
38.]
the
binary
operation
* on the
set G defined
by
a * b = for a,b
\342\226\240 a
e G. Show
with
that
map
4>
<p{a) =
group
a'
for
(G, *) is a a e G.]
group
and
that
(G, *) is
actually
isomorphic
to (G,
[Hint: \342\200\242).
Consider
the
41. Let G be a
and let of G
g be one fixed
with
element
of G.
Show
that
the
is an
map ig,
such that
ig(x)
= gxg'
for* e
G,
isomorphism
itself.
section
Subgroups
Notation and
It
Terminology
notation used in group theory. some conventional and terminology as a rule do not use a special symbol * to denote a binary operation different Algebraists from or the usual addition and multiplication. They stick with the conventional additive or multiplication, depending notation and even call the operation addition multiplicative on the symbol used. The symbol for addition is, of course, +, and usually multiplication of the is denoted by juxtaposition without a dot, if no confusion results. Thus in place notation a * b, we shall be using either a + b to be read \"the sum of a and b,\" or ab to be read \"the product of a and bV There that the is a sort of unwritten agreement feel be used only to designate commutative + should operations. Algebraists symbol uncomfortable when they see a + b / b + a. For this reason, when developing our very in a general situation where the operation we theory may or may not be commutative, shall always use multiplicative notation. element and 0 to denote an additive identity Algebraists frequently use the symbol the 1 to denote a multiplicative identity even though they may not be element, symbol about numbers the integers 0 and 1. Of course, if they are also talking actually denoting at the same time, so that confusion would result, symbols such as e or u are used as is time
to explain
50
Part I
Groupsand
Subgroups
5.1 Table
identity
elements.
1
1
a a b 1
b b 1 a
is
a b
a b
multiplicative
of three elements might be onelike Table Thus a table for a group 5.1 such a group is commutative, look the table might like Table 5.2. In general we shall continue of a group. to use e to denote the identity element to denote the inverse of an element a in a group by a1 in customary notation in additive notation. From now on, we shall be using these and by \342\200\224a
notations
we denote the product aaa ... a for n factors a by a\". We let a0 be the identity element .a1 for n factors a~1a~1a~1.. e, and denote the product by a~n. It is easy to see that = am+n form, n e Z, holds.Form, n e Z+, it is clear. our usual law of exponents, aman another We illustrate type of case by an example:
V
of a group
G,
written
multiplicatively,
= a
5.2Table
+
eaaaa
= a
(ea)aaa
= aaa
= a
na,
the
a a b 0
b b 0 a
In
additive
notation,
a+a
0 a b
n summands
by
n
and \342\200\224na, is
n summands by let 0a be
in Z,
denote
identity
element.
Be careful: confusion
the
notation
theory regarding appears term
not
in
G.
One
reason
we prefer to
is the misinterprets
present group
the n
caused by when it
notation, even if G is abelian, using multiplicative n as being in G in this notation na. No one ever
in an that is
it merits
a special
definition.
(Recall
then
for
Section 0 that,
\\G\\
of
is the
elementsin
G.
from
\342\226\2
Subsets
and
Subgroups
have noticed that we sometimes have had groups contained within larger For example, the group Z under addition is contained within the group Q under in turn is contained in the group ffi under which addition. When we view the addition, it is very important to notice that the (Z, +} as contained in the group (ffi, +}, group operation + on integers n and m as elements of (Z, +} producesthe same element n + m as would result if you were to think of n and m as elementsin (E, +}. Thus we should not regard the group (Q+, \342\200\242} as contained in (ffi, +}, even though Q+ is contained in ffi as a set. In this instance, 2 \342\200\242 in (Q+, \342\200\242}, 2 + 3 = 5 in (E, +}. We are requiring 3 = 6 while not only that the set of one be a subset of the set of the other, but also that the group
You may
groups.
group operation on
to
the
subset
this
be the
subset
each
ordered
pair from
as is
that
assigns
the same
element
whole
group
operation
on
the
set.
5.4 Definition
If a subset
of
a group
G is
G that
closed under
the
binary
H
operation
is itself
G>
H shall
mean
< G
but
G.
\342\226\2
Section
Subgroups
51
Thus (Z, Q+ C of G.
E. Every
(Q+,
is not \342\200\242}
a subgroup
of (E,
+}, even
e is the
though identity
as sets, element
G has
as subgroups
G itself
5.5 Definition
If G is a
All
group,
then
other
subgroups
other
of G. All
We
of G itself
is the
The subgroup
{e} is
turn
to some
5.6
Example
Let
E\"
be
the additive
The subsetconsisting
a subgroup
vectors 0 as
of
E\".
5.7
Example
Q+ under
multiplication
is a
of E+ under
Un
multiplication.
\342\226\262
5.8
Example
of unity
in
C form
of
the group
C* of
nonzerocomplex
\342\226\262
under
multiplication.
types
their
5.9
Example
notation
to
of order
4 (see
5.11).
Exercise 20 of
The group
V
4).
5.10 and
German i}
Klein
group
the
group
{1, i,
\342\200\224 \342\200\224 of
1,
under
of Z4 is {0,2}. Note that only nontrivial proper subgroup {0,3 } is not a subgroup since {0, 3} is not closed under +. For example, 3 + 3=2, and 2 \302\242 3}. Z4, {0, V has three nontrivial proper subgroups, {e,a), and However, the group [e, c). Here {e, a, b] is not a subgroup, since {e, a, b] is not closed under the operation of V because ab = c, and c \302\242 a, b). A [e, The of
[e,b],
5.10 Table
Z4:
5.11Table
1 1
e a e a b c
0 1
0 1 2
3
2
3
0 1
2 3
0 1
e a b c a e c b b c e a c b a e of the
It is often
subgroup
a diagram, a line
of
contains the
of a group. In such subgroups G to a group that H is a H means running G. Thus the larger group is placed nearer the top of the diagram. Figure 5.12 for the groups Z4 and V of Example 5.9. subgroup diagrams
useful
to draw a
subgroup diagram
from
downward
a group
52
Part I
Groups
and
Subgroups
G and
namely
e H,
then
that
by
Theorem
4.16,
the equation
But
ax
\342\200\224 a must
the identity
this
element of
unique
to
H.
in
G, and
the
we see
solution
the
similar
G, shows
that
applied
in
equation
equation
G is
also the
inverse ofa in
the
subgroup
H.
{0,2}
le,a)
{0}
(a) 5.12
(b)
Figure
(a) Subgroup
diagram for
functions
Z4. (b)
V.
5.13
Example
Let F
subset
be the
of F
group
of all
realvalued
functions
consisting of those
continuous
that
addition.
The
of
F,
for
the sum of
functions
is continuous,
identity
the
function
where
continuous,
f(x)
= 0 for all
then
\342\200\224 is
x is continuous
continuous.
and
is the
additive
element,
and if
f is
\342\226\26
to have routine for determining whether a subset of a group G It is convenient steps 5.13 is a subgroup of G. Example indicates such a routine, and in the next theorem, we are available, demonstrate its validity. While more compactcriteria involving carefully this more transparent theorem for a first course. only one condition, we prefer
5.14
Theorem
A subset H
1.
of
a group
G is a
the
subgroup
of
G if
and
only
if
H is
the
closed under
element
binary
operation
H,
of G,
2.
3.
identity
e of
G is in
for all a
that if
e H
it
is true
that a^1
e H
also.
Proof
1, 2, and 3 must hold follows at once from the the remarks preceding Example 5.13. G such that Conditions 1,2, and 3 hold. H is a subset of a group suppose Conversely, 2 we have at once that .^ is satisfied. Also 5\302\276 satisfied by 3. It remains is to check By the associative axiom, 8\302\276. surely for all a, b, c e H it is true that (ab)c = a(bc) in But for we may actually view this as an equation in G, where the associative law holds. H,
fact Conditions
from
Hence H
5.15
< G.
\342\231\24
Example
Let F
differentiable
be as in
Example
5.13.
the
constant
subgroup function 0 is
is a
of those The subset of F consisting functions that are of F, for the sum of differentiable functions is differentiable, \342\200\224 and if f is differentiable, then differentiable, f is
differentiable.
\342\226\262
Section
Subgroups
53
5.16 Example
Recall
from called
linear
algebra
that every
square matrix
A is
A has
associated
only
det(A)
its determinant,
and
that
invertible
if and
if det(
\342\200\242 \342\200\224 are square matrices of the same size, thenit can be shown that det(AB) det(A) det(B). Let G be the multiplicative of all invertible n x n matrices with entries in C and group let T be the subset of G consisting of those matrices with determinant 1. The equation = det(A) \342\200\242 shows that T is closed under matrix Recall det(AB) det(B) multiplication. \342\200\242 = matrix that the identity has determinant 1. From the equation /\342\200\236 det(A) det(A_1) = = 1. Theorem 5.14 = det(7\342\200\236) 1, we see that if det(A) = 1, then det(A_1) det(AA_1) \342\226\262 that T is a subgroup of G. then shows
Cyclic
Subgroups
have to be if it contains 3. It would have which is 6. Then it has to contain 6+3, which is 9. 9 and the inverse of 6 is 6.It is easily checked 3. of Z]2, and it is the smallest subgroup containing that H = {0,3, 6, 9} is a subgroup in a general situation. As we remarked before, for Let us imitate this reasoning and let notation. Let G be a group a general use multiplicative argument we always of G containing a must, Theorem a e G. A subgroup 5.14, contain an, the result by of computing products of a and itself for n factors for every positive integer n. These It is possible, of a do give a set closed under integral powers multiplication. positive a must that the inverse of a is not in this set. Of course, a subgroup however, containing also contain a~m for all m e Z+. It must contain the a1, and, in general, it must contain the element a must a subgroup identity element e = a0. Summarizing, of G containing contain all elementsan {or nafor additive groups) for all n e Z. That is, a subgroup a must contain {a\" \\n e Z}. Observe that these powers an of a need not be containing in the group distinct. For example, V of Example 5.9,
Let us
to
see how
contain
the identity
a subgroup
would
+ 3,
a = e,
We have 5.17 Theorem
a =a,
next
a
theorem.
\342\200\224 e,
a~
= a,
and
so on.
almost provedthe
group
Let G be a
and let
a e
G. Then
ff
KneZ)
subgroup
is a
subgroup
of containing
G and
is
the
smallest'
of G
that
contains
a,
that is,
every
subgroup
a contains
H.
1 We may find occasion to distinguish between to subsets of a set S the terms minimal and smallest as applied A subset H of S is minimal that have some property. with respect to the property if H has the property, and no subset K C H,K ^ H, has the property. If H has the property and H c K for every subset K with the property, then H is the smallest subset with the property. There may be many minimal subsets, but there can subset. To illustrate, {e,a},{e,b], and {e, c} are all minimal nontrivial of the be only one smallest subgroups V contains no smallest nontrivial V. (See Fig. 5.12.)However, group subgroup.
54
Part
Proof
conditions given in Theorem 5.14 for a subset of a group to give a Since aras = ar+s for r, 5 g Z, we see that the product in G of two elements subgroup. the group of H is again in H. Thus H is closed under operation of G. Also a0 = e, so = e. Hence all the conditions a~rar are satisfied, e e H, and for ar e H, a~r e H and and H < G. that any subgroup of showed Our prior to the statement of the theorem arguments of G containing \342\231\ contain a. G containing a must H, so H is the smallest subgroup
We
check
the three
5.18Definition
Let
in
G be a
Theorem
group
and
let a
e G.
the
Then the
subgroup
{a\" \\n e
5.17, is called
cyclic
subgroup
of G
Z} of
by(a>. Definition
\342\226
5.19
G and is a generator for G generates An element a of a group if there is some element a in G that generates G. G is cyclic
Let Z4
and
G.
group
\342\226
5.20
Example
be the
is,
groups of
Example5.9.Then
(1) =
Z4
is cyclic
and
both
1 and
3 are
generators, that
(3)=24(c)
However, V
course,
5.21
is not
the
cyclic, for
trivial
a {a}, {b},nd
are proper
subgroups of two
elements.
Of
{e) is
subgroup
of one
element.
\342\226\
Example
The group
group,
under
addition
only n
is a cyclic
generators.
and
modulo
n is
cyclic. If
>
1,
are for this group. Both 1 and \342\200\2241 generators for n e Z+, the group Z\342\200\236 addition under 1 are then both 1 and n \342\200\224 generators, but there may be
Also,
others.
5.22
\342\226\
Example
Consider
(3) must
the
group
Z under
addition.
Let us
find
(3).
Here
and
contain
3.
0,
In other words,
the
3
cyclic
3=6, 3 + 3 + 3 = \342\200\2246,3+
3+
+ 3
= 9,
and
so on,
so on.
negative,
shall
and \302\253Z be
zero.
let
the cyclic
subgroup
of (\302\253}
of 3, positive, by 3 consists of all multiples 3Z as well as (3). In a similar by way, we Z. Note that 6Z < 3Z. \342\226\2
5.23
Example
For each positive integer n, let U\342\200\236 multiplicative be the group of the nth roots of unity in C. These elements of U\342\200\236be represented can geometrically by equally spaced points on a circle about the origin, as illustrated in Fig. 5.24. The heavy point the represents number
=
2tt
cos
n
\\
i;
i sin \342\200\224.
2tc
n
Section
Exercises
55
interpretation
at once
that
circle,
multiplication
is a
in of multiplication of complexnumbers, explained to powers, it works its way counterclockwise is \302\243 raised on each of the elements of Un in turn. Thus Un under
as
and
is \302\243a
generator.
z, where
The
\\z\\
group
is the U\342\200\236
of the
group U
of all complexnumbers
1, under
(\302\243) \342\226\262
5.24
Figure
EXERCISES
Computations
In
Exercises
1 through
numbers
6, determine
under
whether
the
given
subset of
the
complex
numbers
is a subgroup
of the
group
C of
complex
set
addition.
1. M
2. Q+
CR of
3. 7Z
including
4. The
7.
pure
imaginary
numbers
5. The set7rQ
Which multiplication?
of rational
multiples of n
Exercises 1 through
6. Theset
6 are
subgroups
[it\"
]\302\253eZ}
of the
sets in
of the
group C*
of nonzero complexnumbers
matrices
under
In Exercises 8 through
a subgroup
8.
13, determine
whether the
given
set of
invertible n x
with real
number
entries
is
of GL(n, M). x
n
The n
matrices n x
with determinant
2
zeros
9. Thediagonal
10.
n matrices n x
n
with
no
on the
diagonal the
The uppertriangular
matrices
with no
\342\200\224 1
zeros on
diagonal
11. 12.
The n x The n x
n n
matrices matrices n x
13. The
set of all
has
the transpose
operation
of
A,
are of A
called
is the
the property
(AB)T =
/th
row
for 1 <
j < n,
orthogonal.
and
that the
(BT)(AT).]
56
Part I
Groups
and
Subgroups
Let F be the
that
with
set of
have a nonzero
the
with in R.
induced
be the
addition,
subset
of F
19, determine
whether the
subset
of F
(b) a subgroup
of
the
group
F under
multiplication.
The subset
of all
of all
e F such
such
that
/(1)
= 0
/ e F
/ /
that
that that
/(1)
/(0) /(0)
= 1
= 1 = 1
e F such e F such
of all
constant
functions
in F.
of all
20.
Nine
groups
are given
subgroup relations,
of the
form
G, <
Gj,
that
exist
given
addition
groups
G?,
12Z under
addition
= R+ G6 = {jr\"
under
multiplication
e Z} I \302\253
under multiplication
multiples
multiplication
of 6 under
addition
Write
at least 5
elements of each
under
of the
following
cyclic groups.
a. 25Z under
c.
addition
multiplication
b. {(1)\" I n e Z} {tt\"
I
n e
Z} under
multiplication
In Exercises
22 through
the
elements
in the
cyclic subgroup
25.
group, list
=
all
of
GL(2,
R) generated
by
the
given
2x2
22.
matrix.
0
1
Which
23.
of the
24.
0 2\"
2
the
0
generators = (6Z,
26.
(Z,
{6\"
of the
group.
(Q+,
G4 \342\200\242)
+)
G5 =
Gg
n e
fcV21
Z} under
a, b
multiplication
= {a
e Z} under
cyclic
addition
In Exercises
element.
27
through
35,
find the
order of the
subgroup
of the
given
group
generated
by the
indicated
27.
The subgroup
of Z4
of of
generated
by 3
by
V generated
U(, generated
c (see
Table 5.11)
29. Thesubgroup
30. The
subgroup
by cos ^f
by
sin
^f
of Us
generated
generated
cos
^f +
=y
i sin sin
^=y
31. The
subgroup
of
U%
by cos
+ i
Section 5
Exercises
57
32.
The
subgroup
subgroup
of
U%
generated
by cos ^f
sin
^f 4x4 1
o\"
33. The
of the
multiplicative
group G of invertible
0 0
matrices generated
by
0 0
0 10
10
0 0
0
matrices generatedby
l\"
34.
The
subgroup
of the
multiplicative
group
G of
\"0
invertible 4x4
0
0
1
10
10
_0
0 0
0
0^
4x4
o\"
of the
multiplicative
group G of invertible
0 0 1
matrices generated
by
10 0 0
10
36.a.
give the group X(, of 6 elements. (0), (1), (2), (3),(4),and (5) of the group Z6 given in part (a). subgroups c. Which elements are generators for the group X(, of part (a)? of X(,. (We will see later that these are all d. Give the subgroup for the part (b) subgroups diagram
Complete
Table
5.25 to
b. Compute
the
the
subgroups
ofZ6.)
5.25 Table
+ 0 1 2
3
1 1
3 3
4 4
5
0 1
2 3
2 3
4
5
Concepts
In
Exercises
that
37 and
it is
definition
of the
italicized term
contains
without
reference
to the
text,
if
correction
is
needed, so
37.
acceptablefor publication.
subset H
if there
of G that
the identity G =
element e of

G and
also
contains
the
elements.
only
38. A
39.
G is
cyclic if and
following
exists a
e G such
that
{an
n \342\202\254 Z}.
Mark each
of the
There
true or
law
group
false.
in which
a. Theassociative
b.
holds
may be a
law
fails.
58
Part
c.
d.
e.
Every Every
group group
is a subgroup has
subgroups.
In every
A
cyclic
group
group,
element
generator.
is a generator.
is also
f.
g. h. i. j.
cyclic
has a unique
that
defined
Every Z4 is a Every
is a group
as a
A subgroup
a group
under
multiplication.
cyclic
subset of every
of an
group
is a
induced
operation.
40. Show
solutions
by
means in some
example
with
that
it is
possible for
quadratic
equation
x1 =
to
have
more
than two
group G
identity
e.
Theory
an isomorphism
of a group
(G, *)
of
with
a group
(G', *').
isomorphism
Write
out
clear
statement.
e H}
G, then
0[ff] =
 {0(\302\276) h
is a
subgroup
G'. That
is,
an
carries
is cyclic, then G' is cyclic. 43. Show that if H and K are subgroups
If G
of an
abelian group
{hk
I
G, then
k
\342\202\254 K]
h \342\202\254 H and
is a subgroup
44. Find
45.
the
flaw in the
3, for let
2 of
and
from 1 and
Show (This
e H by
3,
by
since
it can
be derived
2.\"
of H,
proving
that a nonempty subset H of a group G is a subgroup of G if and only if ab^1 is one of the more compact criteria referred to prior to Theorem 5.14)
a cyclic if G
the
H for \342\202\254
all a, b
H. \342\202\254
group
with
only
one generator
written
can have
H of
at
most
2 elements.
identity
multiplicatively,
with
element
e, then
all
elements
x of G
a subgroup
situation
G. of all
solutions
48. Repeat
integer
Exercise
n >
general
group
of the
set H
x of the
equation
such
of G.
x\"
e for a fixed
1 in
an abelian
G with
identity e.
with
a e
G,
finite
where
G is a
finite group
group
identity
e, then
the
there exists
binary
e Z+
that
a\" =
that
e.
H
subset
H of a
fixed
G be
closed under
operation
Show
is a
G. a be one
element
Ha
51. Let
G be a
of G. Show
= {x e
that
xa
= ax}
is a
subgroup
of G.
Exercise 51, let S be any subset of a group G. of G. H$ = {x e G  xs = sx for all 5 e S} is a subgroup reference to part (a), the subgroup HG is the center of G. Show that
subgroup relation
HG
is an
abelian e H.
group.
Let
H be a
of on
a group
G. For a, b e
G,
let
a ~
if
and
only
if ab~]
Show
that
~ is an
equivalence
G.
Section
Cyclic Groups
59
54.
For sets
and
K,
we define the
intersection H n K
flni[
by
= {ixeflandie^).
Pi
Show
that
if H
< G and
cyclic and let
< G,
then H
< G.
(Remember: <
denotes \"is
a subgroup
of,\"
not
\"is a
subset
of\
every group
group is abelian.
Gn
{gn  g
e G}.Under
what
hypothesis
about G can we
show
that
is a G\342\200\236
subgroup
57.
Show
that
a group
with
no
proper
nontrivial
subgroups is cyclic.
section
Cyclic Groups
Recall
the
following
facts and
notations
from
Section
5. If G is a
group
and
a e
G,
then
= {an\\n
&Z}
is a subgroup
by
a.
Also,
(a) of G generated
G=
then a is a generator of
Let G and
{an
n e
Z},
W the group G = {a)is cyclic. e introduce one new bit of G. If the cyclic subgroup element of a group (a) of G is finite, terminology. of this cyclic subgroup. Otherwise, e say that a then w the order of a is the order \\(a)  that if a e G is of finite order m, then m is of infinite order. We will see in this section is the smallest integer such that am = e. positive and all subgroups The first goal of this section is to describe all cyclic groups of will This is not an idle exercise. We see later that cyclic groups serve cyclic groups. as building blocks for all sufficiently small abelian groups, in particular, for all finite are fundamental abelian to the understanding of groups. Cyclic groups groups.
a be an
Elementary
We
Properties of CyclicGroups
a demonstration
start
with
are abelian.
6.1Theorem
Every
cyclic
group is
cyclic
abelian.
and let
Proof Let G be a
If gi
group
a be a
G
generator
{an 
of G
n e
so
that
(a) =
Z}.
integers
and
g2
are any
two elements
= aras
of G, there
= ar+s
exist
r and 5 such
that
gi
= ar
and g2 =
as. Then
glg2
so
G is
We
abelian.
shall
continue
they
to use
multiplicative
notation
for
cyclic
are abelian.
60
Part I
Groupsand
Subgroups
The division
for
the
study
of cyclic
follows
is a seemingly
trivial,
but
very
fundamental
tool
> 0, q
\342\200\224
\\
2m
<I>n
A\342\200\224
(q + \\)m
n < 0, q
< 0
\342\200\224
qm
(q +
\\)m
2m
6.2 Figure
6.3 Division
Algorithm
for
If m
that
is any
exist unique
integers
and r such
mq
+ r
and
r <
Proof
6.2. On the real xaxis of Fig. diagrammatic explanation, using the of m and the position of n. Now n falls either multiples analytic geometry, on a multiple qm of m and r can be taken as 0, or n falls between two multiples of m. If the latter is the case, let qm be the first multiple of m to the left of n. Then r is as in Fig. 6.2. Note that shown 0 < r < m. Uniqueness q and r follows since if n is not of a multiple of m so that we can take r = 0, then there is a unique multiple qm of m to the in Fig. 6.2. left of n and at distance less than m from n, as illustrated \342\231\
We
give
an intuitive
mark off
In nonnegative
of
the
division
algorithm,
we regard q
m.
as the
quotient
and r
as
the
when n is
divided by
when
6.4 Example
Find
the
quotient
q and
remainder r
38
is divided
by 7
according to the
division
algorithm.
Solution
of 7
less
the
multiple
to leave
= 35
+ 3=
is
so the
quotient
is q = 5
q and
and
the
remainder
7(5) + 3 r = 3.
by 7
\342\226\
6.5
Example
Find the
algorithm.
quotient
remainder
when
is divided \342\200\22438
according to the
division
Solution
The negative multiples of 7 are 7, 14, 21, to leave a nonnegative remainder less than tiple
28,35,42,
7, we
. Choosing the
mul
write + 4
38 = 42 + 4
so the
We
7(6)
quotient is q
will
6
for
and
the
remainder
is r
= 4.
that a subgroup Hofa to do to prove this.
use the
Think
division
algorithm
to show
cyclicgroup
We
is also
cyclic.
a moment
what we will
have
will have
to
Section 6
Cyclic Groups
61
use
of a cyclic group we have proved little since about cyclic groups yet. have to use the fact that G has a generating a. We must then element in terms of this generator some generator c = am for H in order to show that exhibit, a, H is cyclic. There is really only m of a to try. Can you one natural choice for the power what it is before you read the proof of the theorem? guess
the
That
6.6 Theorem
subgroup
of a cyclic group
If
that
group is cyclic.
generated
H ^
am
Proof
by a
a\"
and
let
{e},
e H.
then
e H
= {e},
the
then
smallest
in Z+ such
We claim that
c =
am generates
H;
H =
that
is,
(am) =
(c).
Since b
&
We
must
show
b =
a\" for
power
that
of c.
and
H <
G, we have
mq + r
for
0<r
<m
in
accord
Then
amq+r
= {am)qar,
so ar =
Now
{amyqan.
since
a\"
&
H.am
& H,
and H is a
ff;
group,
both that
(am)~q
and
a\"
are
in H.
Thus
(am)\"V e
is,
that
ar e
am
ff.
and 0
Since m
have r
was
the
smallest
n =
= 0. Thus
e H
< r < m,
we
must
(am)i
=cq,
\342\231\246
so
fc
is a As
power of
noted
c.
5.22,
integer
ft,
the
addition is cyclic and for a positive the cyclic addition, subgroup of Z under 6.6 shows that these cyclic subgroups are the only state this as a corollary.
Z under
of ft
is a
6.7Corollary
The
subgroups
of Z
under
addition
are precisely
the groups
define
that
ftZ
under
addition
for n e
Z.
This corollary
two
gives
us an
elegant
way
to
positive
subgroup
which
r and
s. Exercise45 shows
Thus
we
choose to
H must
be cyclicand
a generator
d,
62
Part I
Groups
and
Subgroups
6.8 Definition
Let r
and
5 be
two positive
generator
d of
= {nr
+ ms
\\
n,m
e Z}
r and
under
d =
addition
is the
greatest
s. We
write
gcd(r, s).
Note
\342\22
from
and 5
= Or +
Is are
r and
5 since
both r =
\\r
Os
nr + ms
the
must
d in
n and m. We see that for someintegers every integer dividing both r and 5 divides d and hence must be a divisor of d also.Thus righthand side of the equation, accounts for the name given to both r and s; this be the largest number dividing
Definition
6.8.
gcd of
6.9 Example
Solution
Find
the
42
and
72.
The positive divisors of 42 are 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 14, 21, and 42. The positive divisors of 72 is 6. Note are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 36, and 72. The greatest common divisor 24, is an algorithm for expressing the greatest that 6 = (3)(72)+ There common divisor d of r and 5 in the form d = nr + ms, but we will not need to make use of it
18, (5)(42).
here.
Two positive integers are relatively prime. Note
\342\22
are relatively
that
prime if
no prime
their
gcd is
the
they
have
factors in
common.
of subgroups of cyclic
groups,
we will
need to
know
following:
If r
ands arerelatively
prime
andifr
divides sm,
then
r must
divide m.
(1)
Let's prove
this.
If r
prime, for
then some
we may write a, b
ar + bs
e Z.
Multiplying
by
m, we
obtain m = arm
+ bsm.
sm.
Nowr
side
divides both arm and bsm sincer divides of this equation, so r must divide m.
Thus
r is a divisor of the
righthand
The
We
Structure
can
of Cyclic
Groups
up
now
describe
to an
isomorphism.
Section 6
CyclicGroups
63
6.10
Theorem
G be a cyclic group with generator a. If the order of Gis infinite, then G is isomorphic to (Z, +}. If G has finite order ft, then G is isomorphic to (Z\342\200\236, +\342\200\236).
Let
Proof
Case
m,am and
/
h
e.
>
In
this
case
we claim
and
that
no
two
exponents
aA =
k can
ak of
G.
Suppose that
a* and say
\342\200\236hk = a a
a hk =
e,
contrary
to our
Case I assumption. Hence every elementof G can be The map \302\242) \342\200\224> for a unique meZ. : G Z given by one to one, and onto Z. Also, well defined,
0(a!V)
so the
Case
= 4>{ai+i)= i +
j=
+ \302\242(0.1)
0(aJ'),
an
homomorphism property
is satisfied
and 0 is
isomorphism.
II
efor some positive integer m. Let n be the smallest positive integer such that a\" = e.lf s e Z and 5 = nq + r for 0 < r < ft, then </ = a\"<7+r = (a\<V") = e<7ar = ar. AsinCase 1, if 0 < k < h < n and 0 < h  fc < n, contradicting our choice of aA = a*, then aA_* = e and
am
n. Thus
the
elements
a0 =
are
e, a, a
,a ,
map well
\\j/
all
given
one, k = i +n j
and comprise all elements of G. The \342\200\242\342\200\242 1 is thus n \342\200\242, by i/f(a') = i for *' = 0, 1, 2, = e, we see that a1 a' and Because a\" onto Z\342\200\236.
distinct
Thus
: G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 Z\342\200\236
defined,
one to
= ak where
f(alaj)
= i
property
+\342\200\236 j
= f(a')
+\342\200\236 f(aJ),
so the
homomorphism
is satisfied
and
\\j/
is an
isomorphism.
n 1
6.11Figure
6.13 Example
6.12
Figure
Motivated by
an~'
our
work
with Un,
it
is nice
of ordern
h
as being
a2,
6.11).
of these
a0
from the
start
bottom where e =
ah and
from
go k
additional
equal units counterclockwise along the circle, measured is located. To multiply ah and ak diagrammatically, we units around counterclockwise. To see arithmetically
64
Part
Groups and
Subgroups
q and
h +
where
we end
up,
find
r such
k =
around
nq
that
for
0 < r
< n.
we
The
nq
takes
us all the
way
then
wind up
at
ar.
with
A
the
Figure 6.12 is essentially the same on the generator. The operation exponents Subgroups
We
with
the points
labeled
modulo
exponents
is
addition
n.
of Finite
Cyclic Groups
and
have
completed
us complete
6.7gives
the
turn to
of infinite
basic
theorem
regarding
group
cyclic
finite
groups.
let
6.14Theorem
Let G be a
greatest
cyclic
Then b generatesa
common
Proof
by a.
n/d
Let b e
elements,
G and
n)
b =
as.
the
where
d is
divisor ofnands.
Also, (as) =
(ar)ifandonlyifgcd(5,
= gcd(t,n).
from Theorem That b generates a cyclicsubgroup H of G is known 5.17. We need show that H has n/d elements. of Case II of Theorem we the argument 6.10, Following only see that H has as many elements as the smallest positive powerm of b that gives the if (as)m = e, or if and if n divides Now b = as, and bm = e if and only only identity. ms. What is the smallest positive integer m such that n divides ms? Let d be the gcd of n and s. Then there exists u and v such that integers d =
un +
vs.
Sinced divides
where
find
both
n and
s, we may
1 =
write
u(n/d)
+ v(s/d)
equation
both
n/d
and
s/d
any
are integers.
integer
This last
shows
that n/d
and
s/d
are
relatively
the
prime, for
smallest
dividing
that
also divide
1. We
wish to
positive
m such
m(s/d)
is an integer.
(n/d)
From
smallest
the
boxed
division the
property
(1), we
order
concludethat
n/d
must
divide
m, so
the
such
for
m is
then
of order n, we see that if d is had subgroup (d) of Z\342\200\236n/d elements, and contains all the m less than n such that gcd(m, n) = d. Thus there is only one subgroup positive integers of Z\342\200\236 of order the preceding this shows at once that if n/d. Taken with paragraph, a is a generator of the cyclic group G, then (as) = (a'} if and only if gcd(s, n) =
Taking
a divisor
of n,
gcd(f.n).
6.15
\342\231\2
Example
For an example
the
using
additive
notation,
consider
12 is
greatest
common comm
divisor
of 3
and
a generator a subgroup
= 1. Since of y = 4
elements,
namely
(3)
{0,3,6,9}.
Section
Cyclic Groups
65
Sincethe
Since the
gcd
of 8 and
12 is 4, 8 generatesa
(8}
subgroup
of
j
= 3 elements, namely,
= {0,4,
8}.
of
gcd
of 12
and 5 is 1, 5 generatesa
group
subgroup
= 12 elements;that
is,
5 is
a generator
of the
whole
Z^. immediately
The following
corollary
follows
6.16Corollary
6.17 Example
If a
is a generator
elements
of a finite
of the
other
generators
of G
to n.
find
all subgroups
of
\"L\\%
and
give
their subgroup
diagram.
17 are
All
subgroups
are
cyclic. By
elements
1, 5,
all generators
of 7L\\%.
with
(2) =
is
of the form h2, where h is relatively has as generators elements prime and 16. The element 6 of so h2 = 2,4, 8, 10,14,and to 9, namely, 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, of this subgroup. (2) generates {0, 6, 12}, and 12 alsois a generator We have thus far found all subgroups generated by 0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10,11,12, 15 to consider. and 17. This leaves just 3, 9, and
of
order
9 and
h =
1 1 13, 4, 6,
15 also
(3) ={0,3,6,9,
and Finally,
12,15},
15 =
5 \342\200\242 3, and
generates
this
group
of order
6, since
the gcd
of 5 and
6 is
1.
(9}
= {0,
9}.
is given
The subgroup
diagram
for these
subgroups of Zig
(1)
in Fig.
6.18.
zlg
6.18 Figure
Subgroup
diagram
for Z18.
we are afraid we wrote it out in such detail This example is straightforward; some look complicated. The exercises may give practice along these lines.
that
it
\342\226\262
66
Part
Groups and
Subgroups
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
Computations
In
Exercises
1 through
4,
find
the
quotient
the
division
algorithm,
when n is
divided
by m.
1. n = 3. n =
42, m 50,
=
m
9
=
42, 50, m
8
7, find
4. n = the greatest
In Exercises 5
through
commondivisor
and 88
of the
two integers.
5. 32 and
8. 5
24 11, find
6. 48
7.
of a
360
and
420
In Exercises 8 through
the number of
generators
cyclic group
having
the
given
order.
9. 8
is an group. be the must
14.
find
10. 12
automorphism
11. 60
Exercises
of the group. In
under
12 through
16, find
the
[Hint: Make
image of a generator
15. Z
in
an automorphism?]
12. Z2
In
Z8
16. Z12
indicated
Exercises
21,
the
number
by by
of elements
25 30
the
cyclic group.
of Z30
of Z42 (;') of
generated
generated
the group
subgroup subgroup
of the of the
numbers
by by
under multiplication
(1 +
1 + ;'
i)/V2
22 through
24, find
29,
of the given
group,
and draw
24.
the subgroup
diagram
for the
subgroups.
22. Z,2
In Exercises
23. Z36
25 through
26.
Z8
find all
orders of subgroups
27. Z12
of the
given group.
29.
25.
Z6
Z8
28.
Z20
Z,7
Concepts In Exercises
30 and
it is
31,
correct
the definition of
the
italicized
term
without reference
to
the
text, if
correction is
needed, so that
30.
in a form
group
acceptablefor publication.
G has
An element
a of a
common
order n e Z+ if
and
only
if a\" =
e.
integer
divisor
of two positive
true
integers
is the
largest positive
that
divides
both of them.
each
of the
following abelian
addition element least
a. Every
b. Every
cyclic group
group
c. Q
under
d.
Every
e. Thereis at
f. Every
group
of order
the group.
finite
order
>0.
Section6
Exercises
67
g.
h. j.
In
All
generators
of Z20 are
prime
numbers. group.
If G
then
G n G' is a
i. If
H and
are
subgroups
of a group
G, then
of a
D K
isa
group.
Every
cyclic
at least
Exercises
33 through
37,
give
an example
with
the property
described, or
explain
why
no
example exists.
33.
34.
finite
infinite
group
that is not
that is
cyclic
An
35. A
36.
cyclic
An infinite
A
having
four generators
generators
37.
finite
cyclic
of all of the cyclic multiplicative The generators U\342\200\236 nth roots of unity group of unity for the 41, find the primitive nth roots unity. In Exercises 38 through
in C given
nth
roots
of
38.
= 4
39. n =
6
8
40.
n =
41. n =
12
ProofSynopsis
42. Give
a onesentence most
synopsis of
the
proof
of Theorem
proof
6.1. 6.6.
a threesentence
synopsis of the
of Theorem
44. Let
G
be a cyclic
show xff
isomorphism,
\342\200\224> G' and and and and
to G. If <f>: G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 G' is an with a, and let G' be a group generator isomorphic for every x \342\202\254 determined by the value 4>{a). That is, if \302\242): G, <j){x) is completely = if (a), then (f>{x) = ir{x) for all x & G. : G \342\200\224>\342\200\242isomophisms such G' are two that 0(a)
group
that,
45.
Let r
5 be b be s be
Show
that G. Show
{nr +
ms
\\
n, m
has
e Z} is a
finite
subgroup
of Z.
46. Let
that if ab
order
n, then
ba alsohas
order
n.
47. Let r
positive integers.
least
a. Define the
b. Under what
common
multiple
least
that
of r
common
and
5 as a
generator of a
certain
cyclic
group.
condition is the
part
c.
Generalizing
(b), show
the product
multiple of r and 5 their product, rsi of the greatest commondivisor and of the least commonmultiple
must
of r
and 5 is
rs.
has
only that
48. Show
49.
Show such
that by that
a group that
a finite the
number of
subgroups
be a finite
group.
a theorem:
\"If
a counterexample every
group
following
\"converse\" of
G is
a group
G is
proper subgroup is
cyclic, then
50. Let
Show
G be a
that
ax =
q be
xa
a cyclic
unique such
element.
(xax'])2.] number
51. Let
and
the
of the
group
7Lpq.
68
Part
Groups and
Subgroups
number
G of
52. Let
53.
Show
p be a that
prime number.
in a finite
Find
the
of generators of
the
cyclic
group
Zpr, where r is
xm
an
integer
> 1.
m
cyclic
each
group
solutions
x in
for
positive
e has
exactly
54.
55. 56.
With
reference
to Exercise
has
53, what
and let
relatively that
situation if 1 < m
<
and number.
not
divide
n?
no proper
nontrivial
subgroups if p is a prime
and
abelian if r
group
K be
finite cyclic
a cyclic
subgroups
with
\\H\\
= r
and
\\K\\
= s.
and 5 are
prime, G contains
then
G contains a
cyclic subgroup
least
of order
rs. multiple of r
and
b.
Generalizing
part
(a), show
common
s.
section
Generating
Let
Sets
G be a group, and let a e G. We have described the cyclic subgroup (a) of G, which the element a. Suppose we want to find as of G that contains is the smallest subgroup that contains both a and b for another element b in G. By as possible small a subgroup Theorem 5.17, we see that any subgroup containing a and b must contain a\" and bm for all finite products of such powers ofa and b. all m, n e Z, and consequently must contain For example, such an expression might be a2b4a~3b2a5. Note that we cannot \"simplify\" this expression by writing first all powers of a followed by the powers of b, since G may are of the same not be abelian. However, products of such expressions again expressions e = a0 and the of such an expression is again of the same inverse type. Furthermore, of a2fo4a~3fo2a5 is a~5b~2a3b~4a~2. By Theorem5.14, type. For example,the inverse of a and b form a subgroup of G, this shows that all such products of integral powers which surely must be the smallest containing both a and b. We call a and b subgroup If this subgroup should be all of G, then we say that {a, b) generators of this subgroup. generates G.Of course, there is nothing sacred about taking just two elements a, b e G. We could of elements of G, have made similar arguments for three, four, or any number
as we
take only V = by
finite
products
of their
integral powers.
5.9 is
Klein is also
4group
generated
Example
{a, b, c}. If a
G containing
S generates
G.
+ 3 = be Z6 It by {2,
\342\226
The group
Z6 is generated by
subgroup
{1}
so that
also
any
containing
contains
and {5}. It is also generated {2,3}since2 by and 3 must contain 5 and must therefore
{3,
5,
is
since (2) =
We
generated
by {3,
5}, but it is
not
generated
4}
{0,2, 4}
2 and
4.
\342\226
of a group G generated by given an intuitive explanation of the subgroup follows in of G. What is a detailed exposition of the same idea approached of subgroups. After we get an intuitive grasp of via intersections another way, namely as possible. We give a settheoretic a concept,it is nice to try to write it up as neatly a theorem that was in Exercise definition and generalize 54 of Section 5. have
a subset
Section7
Let {5, i
o DieISif
Generating Setsand
Cayley
Digraphs
69
7.3 Definition
e the
1} be a collection of sets.Here may be any set sets St is the set of all elements that are in all n ielS{
= {x\\x
may
Si
e Si for all;
e /}.
If
I is
finite, I
= {1,2, ...,
n],
we
denote n,e/S, by
\342\226\240
ns2n0\302\276.
//,
7.4
Theorem
The intersection
of somesubgroups
Let a
of a group
G for
/ is
again a subgroup
of
G.
Proof
Let us
fo
show
closure.
e n,e///,
e
so that a e //, for all 2 e I and and fo e n,e///,, for all 2 e /, since //, is a group. Thus afo e n,e///,. //,all 2 e /, and hence all i e /, we have e e for for
//,
e e n,e///,.
Finally,
a e
a1
n,e///,, we
e n,e///,.
and
have
e //,
for all
e /,
so a1
/,
\342\231\246
which implies
Let
containing
G be a
all
group
let
a, e
G for
the elements of G.
at for i
subgroup
e /,
H
if we
take the
// e /.
2'
intersection of all
This
subgroups
a
a,
subgroup
There is at least one subgroup of G itself. Theorem 7.4 assuresus that namely of G containing all a, for z' e /, we will obtain is the smallest subgroup of G containing all the
i
e /.
G is
for
7.5 Definition
Let G
of G containing be a group and let a, e G for 2 e /. The smallest subgroup is all of G, then e /}. If this subgroup e /} is the subgroup {a, 12 by {a, 12 generated of G. If there is a finite set {a, 12 e /} e /} generates G and the a, are generators {a, 12 \342\226\240 that generates G, then G is finitely generated. Note
w definition is consistent ith our previous definition of a generator for also that the statement a is a generator of G may mean either that G = {a} or that a is a member of a subset of G that generates G. The context in which the statement is made should indicate which is intended. Our next theorem gives the into the subgroup of G generatedby {a, 12 e /} that we discussed for structural insight two before Example 7.1. generators
that this
a cyclicgroup.
Note
7.6 Theorem
If G is a group and a, e G for 2 e /, then the subgroup // of G generated by {a, 12 e /} has as elementspreciselythose elements of integral powers of G that are finite products of the a,, where powers of a fixed a, may occur several times in the product.
Proof
set
of all
finite
products
of integral
and
powers of
since H is
a product
the the
a,.
Then
K c
subgroup
H.
need
only
observe
then,
smallest
Observethat
For every
e, we have
product
e & K.
element fc
a,
product
giving k a
new
with
the order
of the
Part I
Groups
and
Subgroups
sign on all
exponents, we have
1, which
is
thus
in K.
For example,
which
is again
in K.
\342\2
Cayley
Digraphs
set
the
S of a
finite
group
generators representations
in S.
the G, there is a directed graph representing The term directedgraph is usually abbreviated as and are also of groups were devised by Cayley,
diagrams in the literature. consists of a finite number of points, called vertices of the a digraph Intuitively, a direction denoted by an arrowhead) joining and some arcs (each with vertices. digraph, a generating G using set S we have one vertex, represented by In a digraph for a group a dot, for each elementof G. Each generator in S is denotedby one type of arc. We and paperwork. colors for different arc types in pencil Since different coulduse different are not available in our text, we use different colors arcs, like solid, dashed, and style
dotted,
to denote
S = {a,b,
c] we
might denote
a
With xa
by
\342\226\240
and
cby
\342\200\242
this = y.
notation,
an occurrence of x\302\273*y in a Cayley digraph means that an arc in the direction of the arrow indicates that multiplication at the start of the arc on the right by the generator corresponding element at the end of the arc. Of course, since element of arc yields the group = x. Thus traveling we know immediately that ya~l an arc in the group,
the
arrow
of the
denote
corresponding
generator.
the
this by
omitting
b2 =
corresponds to multiplication If a generator in S is its own arrowhead from the arc, rather
denote
on
the right by
the inverse
inverse,
than
For example,if
7.7Example
e, we
might
b by
Neither
= {1} BothofthedigraphsshowninFig.7.8representthegroupZ6withgeneratingset5 and shape of an arc nor the angle between arcs has any significance the length
(b)
7.8 Figure
Ze with
S =
(1}using
\342\226\240
Section
Generating
Sets and
Cayley Digraphs
71
(a)
(b) for Z6
7.9 Figure
Two digraphs
with S
= (2, 3}using
7.10
Example
Both of
the
digraphs 3 is
{2,3}.
Notice
group.
Since how
its
different
7.9 representthe group Z& with generating set S = own inverse, there is no arrowhead on the dashed arcs representing 3. in Fig. 7.8 for the same those these Cayley diagrams look from
shown
in Fig.
to
the
different
satisfy
choice for
these
the
set
of generators.
\342\226\262
Every
four properties
for
the
reasons
indicated.
Property
Reason
is connected, from
that is,
Every
in a
equation
gx
= h
has a
solution
vertex
g to by traveling along
any vertex
at g
group.
and
The
a vertex
solution
of gx
each
is unique.
3. Each vertex
of each
type
starting
ending
arc
one
For g
e G and
generator
{gb~l)b
b we = g. =
sequences from
starting
vertex
of arc g lead
and
gr
= h,
then
uq
= ur.
same
vertex
h, then
arc
those
starting
to
samesequences of
any
types
vertex
u will
lead
same
vertex v.
can
be shown
for
digraph
some
satisfying
these
digraph,
of such a
like a, b, c for
various
arc types,
a product from digraphs.
name any vertex e to represent the identity, and of arc labels and their inverses that we can travel the one that we named e. Some finite were first groups
constructed (found)
using
72
Part I
Groups
and
Subgroups
,, //
/
;
\\ \\ \\
\342\226\240
(a)
7.11 Figure
7.12 Example
digraph
satisfying
the four
the
properties on page 71 is
labels
shown
in Fig.
Fig.
7.11
(b), we selected
>
named
and
b
a vertex e, and then the other vertices as shown. We have a group named we named of eight elements. Note that the vertex that {e,a,a2,a3,b,ab,a2b,a3b} well be named ba~l, the vertex that we named a3 couldbenamed ab could equally a~l, etc. It is not hard to compute products of elements this group. To compute (a3b)(a2b), in we just start at the vertex labeled a3b and then travel in succession two solid arcs and = one dashed arc, arriving at the vertex a, so (a3b)(a2b) a. In this fashion, we could write out the table for this \342\226 eightelement group.
EXERCISES
Computations
In
Exercises
1 through
6, list
Z12
the
elements
of the
7. For
described
in Example
using
Fig. 7.11(b).
c.
a. (a2b)a3
b.
(ab)(a3b)
b(a2b)
Ta
'
bid
f
(b)
(a)
(c)
7.13 Figure
Section 7
Exercises
73
e as that
In
Exercises
identity
element.
the
table e first
for the
group
having and
the list
indicated
digraph. In each
digraph,
take so
in your table,
the remaining
elements
alphabetically,
your answers
be
easy to
check.
11.
12.
How
can
we tell
whether
whether
or not group
the
corresponding
group
is commutative? digraph
Referring
to Exercise
the
corresponding
or not
to the
Cayley
in Fig. 7.11(b) is
at
commutative.
13. Is it
triangle
obvious
from
outside
a Cayley
triangle
digraph of a
in Fig.
group
whether
the
group
is cyclic?
[Hint: Look
Z6.
Fig.
7.9(b).]
similarly
exhibit
set
a cyclic
the cyclic subgroup {0, 2, 4} of 7.9(b) exhibits subgroup of Zg? Why or why not? Zg
Does
S =
{1, 2} for
draw
contains
Nevertheless,
we can
a Cayley
since 1 is a generator for the more generators than necessary, such a Cayley digraph for Z6 with this generating set S. Draw
digraph.
16.
Draw A
a Cayley
digraph for
to
Z8
taking
as generating
of a
set S =
an
{2,5}.
that equates some product G is commutative so
of generators
that
17.
relation
on a set
the
S of generators
identity
group G is
example,
equation
and
their inverses
e of
G. For
moreover,
if S
= {a, b} and
inverse,
ab
= ba,
then
b is
its
own
then another
of G.
relation is
b2
e.
a. Explain how we can find some relations on S from a Cayley digraph = {a,b}of generators b. Find three relations on the set S for the group 18. Draw
digraphs in
describedby 4, taking
Fig.
of the each
possible
Theory
structurally
different
groups
of order
as small
set as
label
vertices.
19.
Show
that
for n
> 3, there
exists
a nonabelian
group
with
2n
elements
that is generated
by
two
elements
of
order 2.
part
Permutations,
Cosets,
IJ
and
Direct
8
Products
Section
Groups
Orbits,
of Permutations
Cycles,
the
Section 9
Section
and the
Theorem
Alternating
Groups
10
Cosets and
Direct fPlane
of Lagrange
Section 11
Section
Products Isometries
and Finitely
Generated
Abelian
Groups
12
section
Groups
We
of Permutations
seen
have
examples
of groups of
numbers,
like
addition.
groups
of matrices,
of the element A of GL(2, E) yields a transformation column vector. x as a 2componentolumn then Ax is also a 2component c vector, regard in that its elements is typical of the most useful The group GL(2, E) of many groups act on things to transform them. Often, an action produced by a group element can be can be regarded of the group ^function binary operation whose we construct some finite elements, called section, groups composition. us with examples of finite permutations, act on finite sets. These groups will provide the same as some nonabelian shall show that any finite group is structurally We groups.
regarded
groups Z, Q, and E under like the group GL(2, E). Each plane E2 into itself; namely, if we
the
as a function,
In
and
the
this
group
turn
Unfortunately,
useful
this
result,
which
sounds
very powerful,
does not
to us.
elements
the notion
the
of a permutation
of a
set
{1,2,3,4,5},
a rearrangement
of the
elements
could
8.1, resulting in the new arrangement Fig. {4, 2, 5, 3, 1}. Letus think of this schematic diagram in Fig. 8.1 as a function mapping of eachelement element from the same in the left column into a single listed (not necessarily different) set listedat the right. Thus 1 is carried into 4,2 is mapped into 2, and so on. Furthermore, each element of the set, this mapping must be such that to be a permutation appears in
be given
schematically as in
the
right
column
once
and only
diagram
at
in Fig.
all in
give
1 does a permutation, for 3 appears twice while to be such a mapping. now define a permutation
'
not appear
the right
column. We
Section
12 is not used
in
the remainder
of
the text.
75
76
Part II
Permutations,
Cosets,
and
Direct
Products
l>4
l>3
2^2
2^2
3^5 4^3
5>l
3^4
4^5
5^3
8.2 Figure
: A \302\247 \342\200\224>\342\200\242 A that
8.1Figure
8.3
Definition
A permutation
of a set A
is a
function
is both
one to
one
and onto.
Permutation
We
Groups
that function composition o is of a set A. We call this operation
and a
now
show
binary
operation
on the
collection of all
Let
A
permutations
set,
and let a
x be
permutations
of
so
mapping
be
functions
o for permutation gives a mapping of A into A. Rather than keep the symbol we multiplication, will denote a o x by the juxtaposition ax, as we have done for general groups. ax will be a permutation if it is one to one and Now onto A. Remember that the action of ax on A must be read ax is one to one. If
in
righttoleft
order:
then
a.
Let us
show
that
(ax)(ai)
then
= (ax)(a2),
a(x(ai))
= a(x(a2)),
x is
let A,
since a is given to be one to one, we know and that x{a\\) = x{a2). But then, since one to one, this gives a\\ \342\200\224 ax is one to one. To show that ax is onto A, a2. Hence a e A. Since a is onto exists a' & A such that a(a') = a. Sincex is onto A, there
there
exists
a\"
A such that
a =
x(a\") =
a{a')
= a{x{a\
so
ax
is onto
A.
8.4 Example
that Suppose
A =
and
{1,2, 3,4,
5}
a
that
a is
the
permutation
given
in
by Fig.
parentheses
8.1. We write
and omitting
changing
the columns
to rows
notation,
Section8
Groupsof
Permutations
77
\342\226\240 Historical
Note
earliest
of the
One
permutations
recorded in the
by
studies
Yetsirah,
of
or
occurs
written
Sefer
century.
Book
author
of Creation,
sometime
an unknown the
Jewish
The
ibn alBanna a mathematician (12561321), from Marrakech in what is now Morocco, and Levi ben Gerson, a French rabbi, philosopher, and
Abbas mathematician,
before
in
the eighth
Hebrew
author
in
was
interested
the letters
counting
the
various
ways
can be
which
number
of
alphabet
arranged.
n!,
were able to give rigorous proofs that the of permutations of any set of n elements is as well as prove various results about counting
sense a mystical one. It was that the letters had magical believed could suitable powers; therefore, arrangements the forces of nature. The actual text of the subjugate letters build Sefer Yetsirah is very sparse: \"Two four build 24 six words, two words, three build words, five build 120, six build 720, seven build 5040.\" enough, the idea of counting Interestingly also the arrangements of the letters of the alphabet occurred in Islamic mathematics in the eighth and in both ninth centuries. By the thirteenth century, idea the Islamic and Hebrew cultures, the abstract root so that both Abu1' of a permutation had taken
The question
was
in some
combinations.
with
permutations
a given finite set. It was the search for polynomial equations that led Lagrange
in
the
late
the set of a given equation. And it being was AugustinLouis Cauchy (17891857) who in detail the basic theorems of permutation developed and who introduced the standard notation theory used in this text.
permutations as
functions
of
think set
of
to itself,
that
so that
a (I)
= 4,
cr(2) = 2, and
so on.
Let
T=
'12
,3
3 4
5
Then
ax
For
1 2
4
5 1
12
3
4 order,
2 1
=
example,
multiplying
in righttoleft
5.
of
A
a nonempty
show
this
that
the collection
of all permutations
set
forms
permutation
multiplication.
and
a nonempty
under shown
set,
let
SA be
permutations
of A.
Then Sa
permutation that
multiplication.
Proof
composition
permutation
multiplication
of
two
permutations
of A
yields a
permutation
of
A,
multiplication. is defined as
in Section
2,
we showed that
satisfied.
function
composition
that
i(a)
is associative. Hence S^J is satisfied. \342\200\224 a, for all a e A acts as identity. Therefore
^ is
78
Part
II
Permutations,
For
a permutation
mapping
a,
one
direction of the
a, that
existenceof
a
exactly
is both
that reverses the a~l, is the permutation function, 1 a' of A such that a = a (a'). The is, a (a)is the element such element a' is a consequence the fact that, as a function, of onto. For each a e A we have
the
inverse
a=
cr(a')= cr(a~l(a))
(crcr~l)(a)
L(a') =a'
so that
Warning:
that <7_1<7
= a~\\a) = a~\\a{a'))
the
(CT_1o)(a'),
is (\302\276
and
crcr1
are both
permutation
i. Thus
satisfied.
\342\231\24
Some
a \\\302\261permutations of
they
{o\\L){a)
= /x(cr(a)).
Exercise \\\302\261o.
another
Thus
text
the
permutation
get for
check
a\\i
by computing
51 asks on this
If you
refer to
ways
in lefttoright order, so is the one we would get that we still get a group. its order for permutation
multiplication.
was nothing in our definition of a permutation to require that the set A be will be concerned with most of our examples of permutation groups of finite sets. Note that the structure of the group Sa is concerned only permutations of elements in the set A, and not what the elements in A are. If setsA and with the number
There
finite.
However,
B have the same cardinality, then SbSa Sb , we Sa \342\200\224To define an isomorphism \302\242: \342\200\224>\342\200\242 B be let f : A \342\200\224> a onetoone function mapping A onto B, which establishes that A and B have the same cardinality. For a e Sa, we let 4>{a) be the permutation a e Sbsuch that = f(a(a)) for all a e A. To illustrate this for A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {#, $, %} a(f(a))
and
the
function
/ :A
\342\200\224>\342\200\242 B defined
as
/(1) =#,
\302\242) maps
/(2) = $,
/(3) =
$
%,
/1
3\\
/#
%\\
(,3
We the
ij11110^
of A
$ #J
simply renaming
rename
\342\200\242 to \342\200\242 \342\200\242, n}
function
{1,
2, 3,
in B using in our tworow notation by elements thus renaming elements of Sa to be those of Sb We can take f, be a prototype for a finite set A of n elements.
the elements
8.6Deflnition
finite set
letters,
n\\
{1,2,
,n}.
of A
is the
symmetric
and is
elements,
denoted
where
by
\342\226\24
that
Sn has
nl=n(n
\\){n
2)
(3)(2)(1).
Two
Important
the
Examples
group
8.7Example
An
interesting
We list
63 of
3!
\342\200\224 6 elements.
Let the
set A
be
{1,2,3}.
assign to
each
a subscripted
Section8
The reasons for
Groupsof
Permutations
79
the
choice
of names
will be
3
Mo
1 1 1
2 2
3
2 3
1 3
3
2
Mi
2 3
2 2
3 1
92 =
M3
2 3 1 3
8.8 Table
Po Po Pi P2
Mi M2 M3
Pa
Pi
Pi
P2
Mi
M2
M3
Pi
Pi
Pi
Po
M3
Mi
M2
Pi
Mi
Po
Pi
M2
M3
Mi
Mi
M2
M3
Po
Pi Po
P2
P2
M2 M3
M2 M3
/U3
Mi M2
P2
Pi Po
this
Mi
Pi
We
The multiplication table for 53 is shown in Table 8.8. Note that have seen that any group of at most 4 elementsis abelian. a group of 5 elements is also abelian. Thus S3 has minimum
group.
There
group
is not
we will
any
abelian!
see
that
Later
order for
nonabelian
\342\226\262
8.9Figure
of S3 in Example 8.7 and the correspondence between the elements of an equilateral triangle with vertices 1,2, and 3 (see Fig. 8.9 can be placed, one covering the other with vertices on top of vertices. For this reason, we used p, 53 is also the group D3 of symmetries of an equilateral triangle. Naively, for rotations and jxt for mirror images in bisectors of angles. The notation for D3 stands the third dihedral group. The nth dihedral group Dn is the group of symmetries of the See Exercise 44.' regular ngon. Note that we can consider the elements of S3 to act on the triangle in Fig. 8.9. See the discussion at the start of this section. is a natural
two
ways
in which
copies
8.10
Example
dihedral
with
group
vertices
of a square
vertices
of
on
square.
top
of
vertices
the
It is
to the ways that two D4 of permutations corresponding 4 can be placed, one covering the other and with 1, 2, 3, will then be the group of symmetries (see Fig. 8.11). D4
octic
group.
Again,
Many
group
80
Part II
a Permutations, Cosets,nd
Direct
Products
notation
Naively,
we
and
are using pt
<5,
for
rotations,
/x, for
mirror
eight
images
permutations
perpendicular
bisectors
of sides,
for
diagonal
flips.
There are
involved
here. Let
Po
8.11
12
12
12
Mi
4
3
2 14
12 3
3
Figure
12
Pi
3 4
3
4
1 4
2
12
3
pi 2
P2 =
3 4
4
12
3
Si =
12
3
14
3
Pi
12
4
12
14
12
8.12'Table
Po Po
P\\
Pi
Pi
Mi
M2
\302\253i
Si
Po
Pi
Pi Pi Po
Pi
Pi Po
P\\
Mi
M2
\302\253i
Si
Mi
Pi
Pi
Pi
Pi
\302\253i
Si
M2
Pi
Pi Po
M2
Mi
Si
s,
Pi
Mi
Pi
Pi
Si
s,
Mi
M2
Mi
Si
Si
M2
\302\253i
Po
Pi Po
Pi
P\\
Pi
M2
M2
Mi
Si
Pl
Pi
Pi Pi Po
\302\253i \302\253i Mi
Si
M2
Pi
Pi
Po
Si
Si
M2
\302\253i
Mi
Pi
Pi
{PO'^ll
{Po
8.13 Figure
Subgroup
diagram
for D4.
Section 8
Groups of
Permutations
81
in Table 8.12. Note that D4 is again nonabelian. This group The table for D4 is given is simply beautiful. It will provide us with nice for many concepts we will examples in that table! Finally, introduce in group theory. Look at the lovely symmetries we give in Fig. 8.13 the subgroup for the subgroups of D4. Look at the lovely symmetries diagram in that
diagram!
Theorem
\342\226\262
Cayley's
Look at any group table in the text. Note how each row of the table gives a permutation as listed at the top of the table. Similarly, each column of the set of elements of the group, of the group set, as listed at the left of the table. In view of the table gives a permutation that at least every finite G is isomorphic of these observations, it is not surprising group for infinite of G. The same is true to a subgroup of the group So of all permutations consisting Cayley's theorem statesthat every group is isomorphic to some group groups; This is a nice and intriguing of permutations under permutation result, multiplication. At first glance, the theorem and is a classic of group theory. might seem to be a tool to of groups of shows is the generality answer all questions about groups. What it really of all permutation groups Sa for sets A of all sizes subgroups permutations. Examining exists theorem does show that if a counterexample would be a tremendous task. Cayley's will then some group of permutations to some we have made about groups, conjecture
provide
then
We now
a
the counterexample. to the proof of Cayley's theorem, proceed in its own right. lemma that is important
starting
with
a definition
and
* Historical
Note
(18211895) definition
Arthur
1854:\"A
different
Cayley
sounding
gave an of a group in a
abstractpaper of
set
and
\342\226\240 of symbols, all 1, a, f), \342\226\240 of them \342\226\240, of such that the product of any two
table that multiplication by any group the group elements. However, he of wrote, \"this does not in any wise show that the best group table and note that every line and column \" \342\226\240 \342\226\240. the table \"will contain all the symbols 1, a, /3, \342\226\240 or the easiest mode of treating the general problem is thus to however, always represented [of finding all groups of a given order] Cayley's symbols, operations on sets; it does not seem that he was aware regard it as a problem of [permutations]. It seems of any other kind of group. He noted, for instance, clear that the better course is to consider the general
the
them (no matter in what order) or the product of one of them into itself, belongs to the set, is any said to be a group.\" He then proceeded to define a
unable to find a suitable teaching post. In 1863, he In 1878, finally became a professor at Cambridge. he returned to the theory of groups by publishing four papers, in one of which he stated Theorem 8.16 of this text; his \"proof was simply to notice from
group
element
permuted
that
the
four
matrix
group
went
= /S
the
transposition,
noncyclic
his definition
century.
operations 1, a = inversion, and y = a/S, form, abstractly, of four elements. In any case, unnoticed for a quarter of a
300
problem
The
in
itself.\"
paper of 1854 was one of about the 14 yearsCayley was practicing during
This
written
the earlier one, papers of 1878, unlike found a receptive audience;in fact, they were an on Walter Van Dyck's 1882 important influence axiomatic definition of an abstract group, the definitionthat led to the development of abstract group
law, being
theory.
82
Part II
a Permutations, Cosets,nd
Direct
Products
8.14 Definition
Let f : A
B be a
{f(h)  h
8.15
let
H be a
subset of
A.
The
image
of H
under f is
=
/[#].
G
\342\2
Lemma
Let G
of G
and
be groups
y
<f> :
0(x)0(y)forallx,
with0[G].
e G. Then0[G]
that 0(xy)
isomorphism
Proof
We
show
the conditions
for a
subgroup
given
in Theorem
Let
x', y' e
exist
ijeG
such
that
that
\302\242^)
0[G] is
hypothesis, <j>(xy) = <j>(x)<j>(y) = x'y', showing closed under the operation of G'. Let e' be the identity of G'. Then e'$(e) =
x'y'
8.14 are satisfied by 0[G]. = x and 4>{y) = y'. By shown that e 0[G]. We have
Cancellation
For
x'
shows that e' = 0(e) so e' 0[G] where x' = 0(x), we have
in G' e' =
4>{e)=
= 4>{xx~l)
e 0[G].
<j>(x)(j>(x~
= x'$(x~l),
the
that
x'_1
= 4>{x~l)
This completes
0[G]
now
demonstration at once
for
that 0[G]
of
G'. of G with
0[G] follows
4>{x)4>{y)
because
y
<f>
such
that 4>{xy) =
all x,
e G.
\342\23
8.16
Theorem
(Cayley's
Let G
Theorem)
Every
that
group
is isomorphic
to a group
of permutations.
Proof
be a group. We show
GJetA^ left
G is
a onetoone
:
of SG. By Lemma 8.15, we isomorphic to a subgroup function 0 : G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 <j>(xy) = 4>{x)4>{y) for all So such that
>\342\200\242 G be
then Ax maps G onto G. If kx(a) kx(b), cancellation. Thus AA is also one to one, and is a permutation Sg by defining 0(x) = Ax for all x e G. 4> : G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 shows
all c
eG
as performing
that
multiplication
= xgforallg
Xx(x~1c)
G.(Wethink
= x(x~lc) xa
= c for
= xb
We
so a
now
=b
by
of G.
Xx =
define
To show
mapping
that
into
is \302\247one G.
to one,
that
suppose that
<j>(x) =
4>{y)
Then
Xy
as functions
In particular
one. It
g e
only
remains
to show
x Xxy
 XxXy.
y. Thus 0 is
Now
one to
for any
(XxXy)(g) =
For the
G,wehaveAX},(g):
Xx(Xy(g))
: ^x(yg) =
theorem,
(xy)g.
multiplication by
is function
composition, so
x(yg).Thus
associativity,
A\342\226\240xy XyXV
well
proof of the
by
we could
the permutations
px of G defined
P.Ag)
for g e
that
G. (We
can
think
these
permutations
of px as meaning right multiplication by x.) Exercise 52 shows form a subgroup of SG,again to G, but provided by isomorphic
Section
Exercises
83
a map /x
>
So defined
by
M(*)
Px>
\342\226\240
8.17
Definition
The map
the
<f>
in the
map
/x in
8.16is the
is the
left
regular
representation
right
regular representation of
the
of G.
of G,
and \342\226\240
8.18
Example
Let us
Table
compute
8.19. By
group
left
regular
we
\"compute\"
mean
group
given
left
regular
and
the
table.
Here the
elements are
Xe=(e
\\e
a
a
f), b)
K = (e
\\a
is just
I b), b e)
like
the
and
Xb =
a
(l \\b
e
b\\.
a)
as seen
original
table
with x
renamed Xx,
Kh = (e \\a
8.19
I b)(l b e)
\\b
a)
b)
(e \\e
a a
?W.
b)
Table
8.20 Table
a
e
e a b
b b
K
K K K
K
e
a
e
a
h
given
order
h
column
K
the
by a group table, pa is
in the
under
permutation
of the
ka
elements
extreme
a at
to the
pa
left. The
notations
and Xa were
is the
at
the
left multiplication
by a,
respectively.
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
Computation
In
Exercises
1 through
5, compute
6\\
the
indicated
product
involving the
6\\
following
permutations
in S(,:
6\\
/12345
CT~V3
/12345
/12345
1456
2j'
2.
r~l2
x2a
expressions
4136
3.
/x<72
5J'
^(5
4.
2 4 3 1 6J'
5. a'ha
/x
1.
In
xa
a~2x
a,
Exercises
6 through
9, computethe
shown
x and
defined
prior to
Exercise 1.
6. (cr)
7.
(r2)i
ct100
9. /x100
84
Part II
Permutations,
Cosets,
and
Direct
Products
10.
Partition
the
following
collection of groups
set.
into
subcoUections
all nonzero
Z under
elements of the
of isomorphic groups.
Herea *
superscript
means
addition
Z6 Z2 S6
S2 R* under
R+ under
multiplication
multiplication
multiplication
Q* under
addition
17Z under
O under
C* under
multiplication
{it)
addition
addition
The subgroup
The subgroup
of R*
under
multiplication
3Z under
R under
G of S$ generated a e
12
by
addition
Let
be
a set and
let a
&
SA. For
a fixed
A,
the
set
Oa.a =
{a\"(a)\\n&Z}
13, find
the
a under
a.
In
Exercises
11 through
orbit
of 1 under
the
permutation
defined
prior to
11. a
14. In Table
Verify
12.
8.8, we usedpo:Pi. P2,
p4>, p24> for geometrically reference the the
13.
/x
of S3. Some authors use the notations Mi, M2, M3 as the names of the 6 elements these elements, where their e is our identity po, their P is our pi, and their 0 is our/^. that their six expressionsdo give all of S3.
alternative
S4 S51 
in Table
8.12.
number number
group
{a e
cr(3) a{2)
set {a e
8.7
S3 of Example
a.
b. 19.
Find Find
cyclic
subgroups
(/xi) of S3
of S3.
proper and
all
and give
the
subgroup
diagram
for them.
Verify by
one the
element,
then
generated
the
all (cyclic)
subgroups generated
20. Give
multiplication
table for
cyclic P =
subgroup
of S5 generated
by
12
3
5
4 5
13
and
2 4
p3, p4,
There
21.
will
be
six elements.
Let
them
be p, p2,
p3
p\302\260
p6. Is
this
group
isomorphic
to S3?
a. Verify that
1 0
0 1
0\"
\"0
0\"
\"0
\"1
0\"
\"0
1 0
0
Don't
0
form
1 0
1 0
, 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
1
a group
under matrix
column
multiplication.
[Hint:
try to computeall it on
of six
products
of these by each
matrices. Instead,
matrices.\"
think b. What
how the
vector
is transformed
section
by multiplying
the
left
of the
group discussedin
this
is isomorphic to
this
group
matrices?
Section 8
Exercises
85
(a)
(b)
(c)
(Consider this
part to
continue infinitely
(d)
8.21
22. After
In this
working
Exercise D4.
21, write
down
eight
matrices
group
under
matrix
multiplication
that is
23
the
isomorphicto
group
we have to
of symmetries of an equilateral triangle and of a square. In Exercises discussed in the text that is isomorphic to the group of symmetries of on the figure, write some permutations label some special points corresponding
of permutations.
23. The
figure
in Fig. in Fig.
left regular
right regular
representation of S3 using
of Example
8.7.
Exercises
28 and
that
definition
of the
italicized term
S to
map
without
reference
to the
text,
if
correction
is
needed, so
acceptablefor publication. of a set S is a onetooneap from 28. A permutation m 29. The left regular representation of a group G is the of G that carries each ieG into gx.
it is
S.
of G
at g
e G is
the
permutation
In Exercises
30 through
> >
34,
by by
determine
fl(x) f2(x)
function
permutation
of R.
30. /1 : R 31. /2 : R
32. /3 : R
R defined R defined
defined
= x = x2
+ l
> R
>
by f2(x)
by
= x3
= ex
33. /4 : R
34. /5 : R
R defined
fA{x)
by following
f5(x)
= x3
true or
x2
 2x
false. function.
if
if and only
onto
it is
one to
one.
c. Every d. Every
G is
itself
must
be one to one.
subgroup
of Sq \342\226\240
86
Part
II
Permutations,
e.
Every
subgroup
f. Every g. The
is abelian.
a cyclic
subgroup of the
group.
symmetric
S10 has S3 is
10 elements.
h. The symmetric
i.
j.
Sn
group
cyclic.
some
group
of permutations.
group
36.
Show
by an
example
that
every
proper
subgroup of a nonabelian
may be
previously
abelian.
in the
37. Let A be a nonempty set. What type of algebraic structure mentioned of all functions A into itself under function mapping composition?
38. Indicate schematically a Cayley radians and a reflection (mirror
Proof
text is given
through
by the
set
digraph
for Dn
using a
generating
set
consisting
of a rotation
2jt/n
Synopsis
39.
Give a twosentence
synopsis
of the
Cayley's theorem.
let b be
Theory
In Exercises
whether
40
 
through
43,
let A
be a set, B a subset of A,
of SA under
and
one
particular
the
be a subgroup
the induced
operation.
Here
40. {a
SA
= b} c B}
41. {a
SA SA
 
a{b) a[B]
e B} = B}
with Examples
an ngon
can be
a regular plane ngon for n > 3. Each way that two copies of of the vertices. the other, correspondsto a certain permutation in a group, the nth dihedral Find group Dn, under permutation multiplication. permutations elements Dn. Argue geometrically that this group has a subgroup having group just half as many consider
placed, with
one
covering
whole
group that
has. exactly
8.10, the ways in which the of the vertices of the cube. This is the group of rigid motions (or rotations) of the cube. (It should not be confused with the group of group of Section 12.) How many elements the figure, which will be discussedin the exercises does this symmetries of this group has at least three of order 4 and at least have? that different group Argue geometrically subgroups four different subgroups of order 3. 46. Show that Sn is a nonabelian group for n > 3.
Consider a cube
fills a certain
in Examples
into
the box
8.7 and
of permutations
47.
Strengthening
Exercise
46, show
identity
that
if n
> 3,
then
the
only
element of
a of S\342\200\236 satisfying
cry = ycr
for
all
e 5,, is cr
= 1, the
permutation.
before OaM
Exercise = Ob.a
11. Let
a, b e
and
an element
49. If
cr(a)
H of SA is transitive on A if for each a, b set, then a subgroup = b. Show that if A is a nonempty finite set, then there exists a finite IHI = \\A\\ that is transitive on A.
A
is a
there
cyclic
a e H such H of SA
that with
50.
51.
Referring
to the
only
if and
define
if Oa,a
warning
to Exercise
49, show
that
for
a e
on A
(See the
a binary
a.
(Intuitive
of
transparent
on page 78). Let G be a group with binary operation *. Let G' be the same set as G, and operation *' on G' by x *' y = y * x for all x, y e G'. that G' under *' is a group.) the front wall of your room were made class argument Suppose and that all possible a * b = c and all possible instances a * (b * c) = glass, products
Section 9
a Orbits, Cycles,nd
the
Alternating
Groups
87
(a * b) * c of
would
the
a person
from
b.
Show
the
* were written on the wall with for G under other side of the wall from the next room in looking mathematical definition of *' that G' is a group under *'.
associative
property
see when
at the
What
52. Let
a
the
permutations
pa:G
pa{x)
= iaforaeG
and x e
G, do form
53. A
is one
that
can
any
be obtained
n x
matrix
rows
by reordering
A is
n matrix
as the
then C can
be obtained
ofnxn
precisely the
a.
reordering
finite
of the
rows of A
reordering
of the
which
Show
under
that every
matrix
group
of order n
is isomorphicto a group
the
consisting
matrices
matrix
multiplication.
four
b. For
that
each of the
corresponds
elements
e,a,b,
such
and c in
Table
5.11 for
the
group
V, give a
specific 4x4
to it under
an isomorphism.
section
Orbits,
Cycles,
Groups
partition of A into cells with the if b = an{a) for some n e Z. We
Orbits
Each property
permutation that
this
a of a a, b e
partition
determines
a natural
A are in
using
establish
For
a,
b e
A, let a
~ b if
by
and
only
if b
(1) is
cr\"(a)
for
some
n e
Z.
relation.
(1)
We
now
check
that ~ defined
Condition
indeed
an
equivalence
Reflexive
Symmetric
Clearly a If a ~ b,
and
b =
\342\200\224 n
e Z,
so b ~ a.
~
an{a)
for some
e Z.
But then
c =
a =
a~n(b)
some
Transitive
Supposes~ foandfo
n,
m
c, thenfo
= an(a)
that
and
crm(b) for
e Z.
Substituting,
we
find
c =
am(a\"(a)) =
a\"+m(a),
so a
~ c. classes in A
9.1
Definition
Let
cr
be
a permutation
equivalence
relation
The
equivalence of a. each
determined
by
the
\342\226\240
9.2 Example
Since
the
the identity
oneelement
subsets
permutation i of of A.
permutation
leaves
element
of
fixed,
the orbits
of i are
\342\226\262
9.3 Example
Find
the orbits
of
the
~ \302\260
_/l
\\h
234567
867415
8\\
2)
inS8.
Solution To
find
the orbit
containing 1, we apply
repeatedly,
obtaining
symbolically
\342\226\240 \342\226\240 1\342\200\224> o \342\200\224> i \342\200\224> L \342\200\224> \342\226\240 i \342\200\224> L \342\200\224> o \342\200\224> i \342\200\224> .
88
Part
II
Permutations,
Sincea'1
the
would
simply
reverse
the directions
now
of the
orbit
and
containing
similarly
1 is
find
{1, 3, 6}.We
that the list of
orbit
choose
say 2,
orbit
containing three
containing the
4 is
{4, 7,
we see that
5}. Sincethese
orbits
in this chain, we see that arrows an integer from 1 to 8 not in {1, 3, 6}, 2 is {2, 8}. Finally, we find that the orbits include all integers from 1 to 8,
complete
of a
is
{1,3,6},
{2,8},
{4,5,7}.
Cycles
For
the
remainder of the
elements.
elements
of this section, we considerjust permutations of a finite set A of \342\200\242 A = {1, 2, 3, \342\226\240 and that we are dealing with We may as well suppose that \342\200\242, n)
symmetric
group
Sn. orbits
Refer
back to
of
3
8
4
7
5 6 7 4 15
(2)
1 to 8 on in Fig. 9.4. That is, a acts on each integer from on the circle traveled it into the next integer one of the circles by carrying For example, the leftmost circleindicates that in the direction of the arrows. counterclockwise, = 3, (7(3) = 6, and cr(6) = 1. Figure 9.4 is a nice way to visualize the structure of cr(l)
are
indicated
graphically
the
permutation
a.
9.4 Figure
Each example,
circle in Fig.
by
itself,
a permutation
in
S%
For
circle corresponds to
12
M
permutation
3
2
4
4
leaves
5 6 7
5
8 8
17
(3)
6 just
/x has
as a
does, but
the remaining
integers 2, 4, 5, 7, and
five
one threeelement
orbit {1,
3, 6}
and
oneelement
orbits
9.5 Figure
Such {2}, {4}, {5}, {7},and {8}. a permutation, described graphically by a single circle, is called a cycle (for circle). We consider the identity to be a cycle since it permutation can be represented a circle having the integer 1, as shown in Fig. 9.5. We now by only
define
the term
cycle
in
a mathematically
precise
way.
Section 9
Alternating
Groups
89
9.6 Definition
permutation
element.
To
a e The length
is a S\342\200\236
most
one
of a cycleis the
of elements
than
one
\342\226\240
a singlerow
/x
We understand
the into
by
this
notation
the
that
next
/x
carries
number 1 into
finally
the
second the
3 into
number
6, etc.,
until
the last
be left
our
fixed
by /x.
example,
within
1. An integer for not appearing in this notation Of course, the set on which /x acts, which is {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}in must be made clearby the context.
S5, we
9.7 Example
Working
see
that
12
(1,3,5,4)
that
14
= (4,
Observe
(1, 3,
Of
5, 4)
4,
1, 3)
1,3, 5).
as any
since cycles are special types of permutations, course, they can be multiplied just two permutations. The product of two cycles need not again be a cycle,however. a in Eq. (2) can be written as a Using cyclic notation, we see that the permutation
product
of cycles:
12
3
These cycles
8
2
6 7 4
in
15
that the is a
(1,3,6)(2,8)(4,7,5).
(4)
at most cycles.
cycles;thus
no
in
oneline description of Fig. 9.4. Every permutation in Sn can be expressed in a similar fashion as a product of the disjoint to its orbits. We state this as a theorem and write out the proof. corresponding
exhibits a
by
one of
Equation
these
(4)
cycles
9.8 Theorem
Every
permutation
of a finite
cycles.
Proof
Let B\\,
B?,
the orbits
of a,
and
let
/x, be
by
a{x)
/x,(x)
for* e
otherwise.
S,
Clearly
distinct
a =
equivalence While
mm
Mr
classes,
\342\226\240 \342\226\240 the equivalenceclass orbits B, being B\\, B2, \342\226\240, \342\200\242 are \342\226\240 are disjoint, the cycles \342\200\242, /xj, /x2, /xr disjoint also.
\342\231\246
in general is not commutative, it is readily seen is commutative. Since the orbits of a permutation multiplication cycles the representation none of are unique, of a permutation as a product of disjoint cycles, which is the identity is unique up to the order of the factors. permutation,
permutation
multiplication
that
of disjoint
90
Part
II
9.9
Example
Consider
the
permutation
12
3
5
4
4
5
3
6
1
1, giving
6
Let us
write
it as a
the cycle
(1, 6).
This
Then
(2, 5, 3).
takes
First, 1 is moved to 6 and then 6 to product of disjoint cycles. to 3, which 2 is moved to 5, which is moved is moved care of all elements but 4, which is left fixed. Thus
to 2, or
12
6
Multiplication (2, 5, 3) is not
You
may
5
3
6
1
5
cycles
2 4
(1,6)(2,5,3).
of
disjoint
is commutative,
so
the
order
of the
factors (1,6)
and
important.
\342\226\2
should
or may 9.
multiplying
We
permutations
and
in
cyclic
notation further
give an example
provide
7 through
9.10
Example
Consider
the
cycles
(1,4,5,6)
and (2,1,5)
in
S6. Multiplying,
we find that
5
(1,4,5,6)(2,
and
1,5) =
12
6
3 4
4
(2,
1,5)(1,4,5,6)
is a
12
4
6
5
13
2 6
Neither of thesepermutations
Even
It
cycle.
and
Odd
Permutations
that every
sequence
seems
by
1,
numbers.
be achieved
a bit
more
formally.
9.11 Definition
cycle Thus
of length
2 is a transposition.
\342\226\2
the
other.
elements but
two
fixed,
and maps
a2).
the
Therefore
any
cycle
is a product
of transpositions. We
then
have
following
as a
corollary to Theorem9.8.
9.12
Corollary
Any
permutation
of a finite set
of at
least
two
elements
is a product of transpositions.
of n objects
Naively, by
this
corollary interchanging
successively
canbe achieved
Section9 9.13Example
9.14
Orbits,Cycles,
the
and
the
Alternating
Groups
91
Following
the
remarks
prior to
transpositions.
corollary,
we see that
(1, 6)
(2, 5, 3) is the
product
\342\226\262
(1, 6) Example
(2, 3) (2,5) of
n
In Sn for
>
2, the identity
permutation is
the
product
(1, 2)
(1, 2)
of transpositions.
\342\226\262
of a finite set with at least two elements is a We have seen that every permutation not be disjoint, and a representation product of transpositions. The transpositions may of the permutation in this way is not For example, we can always insert at the unique. (1,2) twice, because (1, 2) (1,2) is the identity beginning the transposition permutation. to represent a given permutation used What is true is that the number of transpositions be odd. This is an important fact. We will give must either always be even or always of determinants from linear algebra. The second two The first uses a property proofs. M. Bloom. orbits and was suggested by David involves counting
9.15 Theorem
No permutation
transpositions and
in
can be S\342\200\236
expressed
odd
as a product
of
an
number
SA
even
number
of
We
work
remarked
with
matrix 1. Interchanging has determinant numbers 1, 2, ..., n. Theidentity any two rows of the determinant. of a square matrix the sign Let C be a matrix obtained by a changes could be obtained from /\342\200\236 by both an even number permutation a of the rows of I\342\200\236.lfC to be both 1 and of rows, its determinant would have an odd number of transpositions \342\200\224 Thus a cannot be expressed of an even and is impossible. both as a product 1, which of transpositions. number and an odd number
B have
the
same
rows
of the n
identity
matrix
rather /\342\200\236,
Proof 2
(Counting orbits)
Let a e Sn of a and of
and
let r
xa
= (z, j) differ by 1.
be a
j
transposition
in Sn.
We claim that
the
number
of orbits
Case I
i Suppose and
disjoint
cycles,
contains
i, symbolized
different orbits of a. Write a as a product of of which contains j and the second of which in Fig. 9.16. We may write by the two circles
symbolically
the
product
of these two
cycles
as
(b, j,
where
x, x, x)(a,i, x, x)
elements
the symbols
x denote possibleother
in these
orbits.
9.16 Figure
92
Part
II
Permutations,
Computing
the
product
of the
first
three
cycles
in xa
(2,
j)a,
we
obtain
(2, j)(b,
The
j, x, x, x)(a,i, x, x)
2 orbits
in
(a, j,
x, x,
x,b,i, x, x).
have been joined to form just one in xa as the computation Exercise 28 asks us to repeat symbolized Fig. to show that the same thing happens if either one or both of i and j of their orbit in a. should be only element
original
9.16.
Case
II
Suppose 2 and j are in the same orbit of a. We can with the first cycle of the product of disjoint cycles
(a, i,
shown the
then
write
a as a
form
x, x,
x, b, j, x, x)
the product of
x, x).
in
symbolically first
by the circle in Fig. 9.17. Computing we obtain two cycles in xa = (2, j)a,
2,
(2, j)(a,
x, single
x,
x, b,
orbit
j, x,
x) = (a,j, x, x)(b,
split
i, x,
The original
Fig.
has been
into
two
as symbolized
9.17.
shown
of of xa differs from the number 1has n orbits, because each element is identity permutation the of orbits of a given member of its orbit. Now the number only permutation but not both. Thus it is a e Sn differs from n by either an even or an odd number, to write impossible
We have orbits of a by
that
the number
of
orbits
1. The
a =
where odd.
9.18
X\\X2xi
xmL
the
are 7\302\276
transpositions
in two ways,
once with
m even
and once
with
\342\231
Definition
A permutation
of a
finite
set
is even
or odd
transpositions
as a
9.19
accordingto
or
whether
it can
be expressed
number
product
of an
even number of
the product
of
an
odd
of
transpositions, respectively.
Example
\342\22
permutation
since
we have 1 =
the
(1,2)(1, 2).
other
we define 1 to
be even.On
hand,
the
permutation
(1,
4, 5,
6) (2,
1,5) in
S6 can =
be written
as
(1, 4, 5, 6)(2,1,5)
which
(1, 6)(1,
has
five transpositions,
so
this
is an
odd permutation.
\342\226
The
Alternating
for
Groups
n >
We claim that
of odd let
for
what
2,
the
of even
is, permutation; !)/2. To show this, be the set of even permutations in S\342\200\236let B\342\200\236 and be the set of odd permutations A\342\200\236 n > 2. We proceedto define function from A\342\200\236 Bn. This is exactly onto a onetoone is needed to show that A\342\200\236 Bn have the same number and of elements.
that
is the
same as the
number
are (n
Section
Alternating
Groups
93
Let x be any
that
fixed
transposition
function
in
it exists S\342\200\236;
since n >
2. We
may
as well
suppose
x =
(1,2). We define a
XT : An
>\342\200\242 Bn
by
XT{a) =
thatis,
xa,
that since
even
a
2)cT
e
can
is mapped A\342\200\236
XT. Observe
a is even,the
or odd
permutation
(1,
be
expressed
so (1, 2)<7
transpositions,
number),
number, of
= Ar(/x),
it is true /x in A\342\200\236
that
T{a)
then
(1,2)ct =
and
(1.2)//,
XT
since
Sn is a
group, we have
= /x. Thus
is a
onetoone
function.
Finally,
T =
(1,2)
= T_1,
so if
then B\342\200\236,
and
A.r(T\"V)
Thus
= x{x~lp)
= p.
is the the number of elements in A\342\200\236 same as the number in onto B\342\200\236. Hence between the elements of the sets. there is a onetoone correspondence is again even. Also sincen > 2, S\342\200\236 Note that the product of two even permutations and i = (1, 2)(1, 2) is an even has the transposition permutation. (1,2) Finally, note that the product of the same transpositions if a is expressed as a product of transpositions, if a is an even permutation, a^1 taken in just the opposite orderis a _1. hus T must also be even. Referring statement. to Theorem 5.14, we see that we have proved the following Ar is
Bn since
9.20
Theorem
If n >
2, then
the
of
collection
the
permutations S\342\200\236.
of {1,2,3,\342\200\242\342\226\240,\302\253} forms a
subgroup
of order nl/2
9.21
symmetric
Definition
The subgroup
group
Both on n A\342\200\236
of
Sn
consisting
even
permutations
of
n letters
is
the
alternating
\342\226\240
letters. important
groups. Cayley's theorem shows that every finite for n subgroup of S\342\200\236 = \\G\\. It can be shown structurally for solution of polynomial that there are no formulas involving radicals just equations of degree n for n > 5. This fact is actually due to the structure of A\342\200\236, as that surprising seem! may
and are S\342\200\236 A\342\200\236 very
group G is
identical
to some
94
Part II
Permutations,
Cosets,
and
Direct
Products
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
Computations
In
Exercises
1 through
6,
find 6\\ A)
all orbits
of the given
permutation.
12
/1234567
\\5
8 2
5
3
13
3 5
6 2
1
where
17
+
(2
6 8 7)
a(n) =
n
= 4.CT:Z.ZwhereCT(n) n
6.
product <r
5. a
:Z
\302\273 Z
+ 2
: Z
^ Z
where
a(n)
= n
\342\200\224 3
In Exercises
7 through
9, compute
the indicated
of cycles
of {1,2,
3,4, 5,
6, 7, 8}.
7. (1,4,
9.
5)(7,
8)(2, 5,7)
8. (1, 3, 2, 7)(4,8, 6)
(1,2)(4,7,8)(2,1)(7,2,8,1,5)
In Exercises
then 1ft 10
10 through
3
12, express
the permutation
of {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} as
/12
a product
of disjoint
cycles,
and
as a product /1
of transpositions.
4 5 6 7
3
8\\
5
8
6 7 8
2
(,8 2 6 ./12345678 *
^3
l)
6 4 1
14
7 is
the
2 5 8 6
a of a
identity.
group
13. Recall
power a.
that
element
G with
of a
Consider
ar
= e
What is the order of the cycle (1,4, 5, 7)? b. State a theorem by part (a). suggested c. What is the order of a = (4,5)(2,3,7)? of
d. e.
the
order
a product a theorem
(1,4)(3, 5,7, 8)? of the permutations given in Exercises 10 through of disjoint cycles. suggested by parts (c) and (d). [Hint: The important
of each
x =
12 by
looking at its
you
decomposition
for are least
words
are looking
multiple.]
In Exercises
14 through
18, find
the maximum
element
of Sn for the
given value of n.
14. n
15. n =
16. n
7 group
with
17. n =
10
the
18. n
generating
15
19. Figure
9.22 shows
a Cayley labeling
Continue (1,2)(3,4)}.
A4 using
elements
set S
the
of A4,
expressed as a
= {(1,2, 3),
product
of
disjoint cycles.
Concepts
In
Exercises
is needed, so that
20. 21.
italicized term
minimal
without
reference
to the
For a permutation
a of a
set A, having
an orbit
of a is a
orbit.
even
nonempty
subset of
that
is mapped
A cycle is a permutation
group
only one
22. Thealternating
is the
group of all
permutations.
Section
Exercises
95
(1,2,3)
(1,)(3, 2
4) \342\226\240
9.22
Figure
23. Mark
each of the a.
Every
following permutation
true or
false.
is a cycle. even
is a permutation.
of
and odd
permutations
could
have
been given
equally
well
before
d. Every nontrivial
subgroup H
any
of Sg
containing
some
odd permutation
contains
a transposition.
e. A 5 has
120 elements.
n >
f.
g. h.
is not S\342\200\236
A3 SV
is
1.
of all of all
group.
subgroup subgroup
is isomorphic
to the to the
i. SV is isomorphic j. Theoddpermutations
24.
of S% of S%
that that
leave leave
in S$
form a subgroup
of S%.
permutations?
Which
of the permutations
in S3
of Example
8.7 areeven
Give the
table
for
the
alternating
group
A3.
Proof Synopsis
25. Give
26.
Theory
a onesentence
synopsis of
synopsis
Give a twosentence
of
27.
Prove
the following
permutation
about
a.
Every
in
in
most
as a
n\342\200\224\\ transpositions.
b. Every
permutation
is not a
product of
at
most
n
and
\342\200\224 2
transpositions.
c. Every
odd permutation
of 2n
in S\342\200\236 can be
of 2n
+ 3 transpositions,
every even
permutation
as a product
+ 8 transpositions.
Part II
Permutations,
Cosets,
and
Direct
Products
28. a.
Draw
a figure
like Fig.
9.16 to
illustrate less
and
number
of orbits
b. Repeat
29.
part (a) if o(j) = Show that for every subgroup them are even.
a be a
of (i, j)o
is one
also.
number of orbits
all
j are in different of a.
orbits of a
and
a(i)
= i,
then
the
of Sn for n
> 2, either
\"a
the permutations a e
in
are even
or
exactly
half
of
30. Let
31.
elements
moves
A\"
if a
(a) ^
a. If A
is a
finite set,
how
many
n?
H be
that H
the
set
of all
a e
SA
SA
such
that the
by
a (see
is a subgroup
set
of S\342\200\236.
32.
be
an
infinite
set. Let
SA1
K be the
of all
a e
that
move
(see Exercise
Show
30) at
most
50 elements
of
A.
subgroup of
for a S\342\200\236
Why?
33.
Consider a product
Show
Following
fixed n >
some
2 and
let cr be a
fixed odd
permutation.
that every
odd
permutation
in Sn
is
of a
and
permutation
in
A\342\200\236.
34.
that if a is a
35.
r so that
cycle ofoddlength, then a2 the line of thought opened by Exercise the resulting statement is a theorem: If a is a
cycle
is a cycle.
34, complete
the following
and
with
a condition
involving n and
of length
n,
then
cr'' is
also a cycle if
that
only
if...
given
36. Let
G be a g e G, is a
group
and let
permutation
of the
of G.
Show
the
map
Xa
: G
+ G,
by
Afl(g) =
ag for
of G.
37. Referring
38.
Referring
to Exercise to Exercise
corollary
36, show 49 of
of one
{Afl
a e
G} is a
subgroup
of So,
the group
on
of all
permutations
immediate
39. Show (1, 2,
that
of the
the set
G.
[Hint:
This
is an
Sn
transposition
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 n)}. nj{\\, by {(1,2), (1,2, 3, \342\200\242,[Hint: Show that as r varies, (1,2, 3, \342\200\242, 2) \342\200\242 all the transpositions (1,2), (2,3),(3,4), \342\200\242  1, n), (n, 1). Then show that any \342\200\242, (n gives is a product of someof these transpositions and use Corollary 9.12]
is generated
section
10
of Theorem Lagrange
that the
order
may
have
noticed
order of a
This is
cells,
subgroup
the
H of a
finite
group
to be a divisor of the
exhibiting
of G.
theorem
of Lagrange.
such cells, we
G into
all having
the same
size as
of H)
(order
of
G)
theorem
follows
cosetsof
H,
and they
are
important
H satisfies a certain property, in a very natural way. We a feel for help you develop
Cosets
The cells in the partition will be called immediately. in their own right. In Section 14, we will see that if then each coset can be regardedas an element of a group in this section to give some indication of such coset groups
the
topic.
Let H
two
be a subgroup
of G
by
of
a group
G,
which
may
be of
finite
or infinite
and
order. We
exhibil
partitions
defining
two equivalence
relations, ~L
~8onG.
Section
10
of Lagrange
97
10.1 Theorem
Let H be a
subgroup
of G.
a ~L
Let
b
the
relation
~L be
only
defined on G by
a~lb
if and
if
e H.
Let ~jj
be defined
by
a ~#
if
and
only
if
ab~x e
H.
Then ~l Proof
We
and
~j?
are both
equivalence relations on G.
and leave relation, how we must constantly
the
show
that
~l
is
an
equivalence
proof make
for use
to ~\302\253
Exercise
that
26.
H
proof,
notice
of the fact
is
Reflexive
Leta e G.Then a ~L a.
Supposes
a~la
= e
and e
e H since
H is a
subgroup.
Thus
Symmetric
Transitive
~L
and
fe.Thena1^
e H.
Since His a
H
subgroup,
(a~1b)~l ~l
\302\253\342\200\242
is in H
Let a
{a~xb)~l
and fe
= b~la, ~l
so fc_1a is in
and
fe
~Lb
c. Then
a~lb e
is
H and
in
fe_1c
e H.
Since H
\342\231\246
is a subgroup,
The
in
{a~xb){b^c)
H,
so a
~l c.
a partition of G, as described like. Suppose a e G. The partition a consists of all x e G such that a ~~l x, which cell containing means all x e G such that if a~xx e H. Now a~lx e H if and only if a1* = h for some h & H, or equivalently, = a/jforsome/j e the cell containing a is {ah \\h e H], which andonlyif;t relation we denote by aH. If we go through the same reasoning for the equivalence ~j? defined by H, we find the cell in this partition containing a e G is Ha \\h e H}. {ha Since G need not be abelian, we have no reason to expectaH and Ha to be the same subsetof G. We give a formal definition.
Theorem
this
look
//.Therefore
10.2
Definition
Let H
coset
containing
be a
of H
a.
subgroup
of
a group
G. The
subset aH = {ah
Ha =
{ha  /j e
e H]
the
of G is
right
the
left
containing
a, while
the subset
H] is
coset
of H
\342\226\240
10.3
Example
Exhibit
the
left
cosets
and the
subgroup
3Z of
Z.
m
Solution
Our notation
m
here
is additive,
left
coset
of 3Z
containing
is m
+ 3Z.
Taking
= 0,
we see that
3Z=
{,9,6,
3,0,3,6,9,}
is itself one of its left cosets, the coset containing 0. To find another left we select coset, an element of Z not in 3Z, say 1, and find the left coset containing it. We have
1+
These
3Z =
and
5,
two left
cosets, 3Z
coset
1 +
of them.
The
left
containing
3Z, do 2 is
not
yet
exhaust
Z. For
example, 2 is in
neither
2+
98
Part
II
Permutations,
It
is clear
cosets we have
found
do exhaust
Z, so they
constitute
the
partition
of Z
into
Since Z is
so
We
the
partition
of 3Z. the left coset m + 3Z and abelian, of Z into right is the same. cosets
left
cosets
the
right
coset 3Z
are
the same,
\342\22
observe
two things
from Example10.3.
For and
a subgroup the
partition
partition
of
G into
left cosets of H
relation ~j? 0.17 and 0.20, we see that the equivalence Also, looking back at Examples n. Recall for the subgroup modulo that nZ of Z is the same as the relation of congruence is h = k (mod n) in Z if h \342\200\224divisible by n. This is the same as saying that h + (\342\200\224k) k is the partition of in nZ, which is relation ~# of Theorem Thus 10.1 in additive notation. of Z into residue classesmodulo n. For that reason, Z into cosets of nZ is the partition as cosets modulo nL. Note that we do not have we often refer to the cells of this partition to specify or right cosets sincethey are the same for this abelian group Z. left
10.4 Example
The group
One
Z6 is
abelian. Find
the
partition
of X(, into
cosets of the
subgroup
H =
{0, 3}.
Solution
coset 2 is
containing are
all We
is {0,
3} itself.
1 is 1
{2, }. 5
{0,
3}, {1,
4},
and
4}.
The
coset
all of
Z6, these
\342\226
back
thing
that
we will
the
develop
in
detail
in Section
14. Referring
with
10.5gives
in the
binary
operation
elements
listed in the
order they
these
appear
We shaded
the table
according to
Suppose
to according
shownin
cosets.
their
shading.
the
Table
we
obtain
we denote thesecosets LT(light), and DK(dark) by MD(medium), Table 10.5 then defines a binary operation on these shadings, as 10.6. Note that if we replace LTby 0,MD by 1, and DK by 2 in Table 10.6, of shadings forms a group! We will see in table for Z3. Thus the table
10.5 Table
+6
10.6Table
3 3
1
0 0
3
4
4
\"1
LT
LT
MD MD
DK
5
^
2 0
LT
DK
4 1
5
\342\200\224
MD
MD DK DK
LT
LT
\342\226\240
DK
MD
.1
2~
'
Section 10
Cosetsand
abelian
the
Theorem
of Lagrange
99
14 that
for a
partition
of an
group
table
according
to
the
elements
in the
cosets
always
of a
gives
10.7Example
Table
the the
10.8 again
subgroup partition
the
symmetric
the
partitions
Solution
For
the partition
into
cosets,
we have
H =
P\\H
{po,Ml),
{P1P0, M1M1} =
{p2po,
{pi, /x3},
M2l
p2H =
The partition
into
M2M1}
= {P2,
right
cosets is
H =
Hpi Hpl
{Mo,Mil,
= = of H
{poPu MiMi)
= {Pi, M2},
{/02,
{A)P2, M1M2} =
M3l
cosets
is
p\\
different
from
the partition
the
into
coset
right
cosets.
For
containing
surprise
is
{p\\, /13},
while
S3 is
right
containing
px is
\342\226\262
us since
the
group
not abelian.
in S3. The 10.7, Table 10.9gives permutation multiplication order they appear in the left cosets {po,Mil, {p\\, /13}, {/\302\276. M2} and dark according found in that example. Again, we have shaded the table light, medium, between this table and to the coset to which the element belongs.Note the difference Table 10.5. This time, the body of the table does not split up into 2x2 blocks opposite under the shaded cosets at the left and the top, as in Table and 10.5 and we don't get a cosetgroup. The product of a light element and a dark one may be either dark or medium. = Table 10.8is shaded according to the two left cosets of the subgroup {p\\) \302\260f These is not abelian. are also the two right cosets, even though S3 {po, p\\, /\302\276} ^3
elementsare
to Example in the
10.8 Table
PO
10.9Table
Pi Pi
Mi M2
M3
M3
Po
Mi
Mi
M3
Po
Po
Pi Pi Po M2
M3
Pi Po
Pi
Mi
M3
M2 Mi MJ
Po
Mi
Po
Mi
Mi
Ms
Pi
Pi
Mz
Mi
Po
^3
A\"
P\\
Pl
Pi
Ml
M2
Mi P2
Pi
Pi
M3
m
Mi Po
11 '
>1
M2
M.i
PO
Pi Po P2
M3
Ml
fli M3 Po
M2 Ms
Mi
M2
Pi
P\\
Pi Po
mi
jjjl
iigsij
Po
M3
Mi
Ml
Ms
Mr
*1
Pi
Mi
Part
II
From We
Table will
10.8 it
see in
group
we the
isomorphic H
to Z2 in
this case.
rise
of a
the partition of G into left cosets as the cosets of H. In such a case, we may simply speak of the cosets partition into right of H, left or right. We discusscosetgroups in detail in Section 14, but omitting the adjective them for you to understand then if you experiment a bit with we think it will be easier a coset
precisely
to
them
now. Some
of the
exercises
in this
such
experimentation.
The
Theorem have
of H
of Lagrange
of a same
left
number
coset
onto a
that
coset group G. We claim that every left coset and every right of elements as H. We show this by exhibiting a onetoone this order, gH of H for a fixed elementg of G. If H is of finite
will show
gH
has the
of such
(See
Our
a map
is taken
0.13.)
as the
is infinite, of H
the existence
size
and
the
of gH.
Definition
one. Let <j>(h) = gh for a onetoonemap 0:7/^ gH is the natural for each h e H. This map is onto gH by the definition of gH as {gh \\ h e H}. To show that <j>{h\\) = 4>{h2) for h\\ and h2 in H. Then gh\\ = gh2 that it is one to one, suppose and by the cancellation law in the group G, we have h\\ =/12. Thus 0 is one to one. the right coset Hg can be constructed. Of course, a similar onetoone map of H onto
choice
(See
Exercise
27.) We
summarize as follows:
Every
coset
(left or
right)
of a
subgroup
H of a group
G has
of
elementsas H.
We
can
now
prove the
theorem of Lagrange.
10.10
Theorem
of a
finite group
G. Then the
order
of
Proof
Let n
that
of
of G, and let H have order m. The preceding boxed statement Let r be the number coset of H also has m elements. of cells in the every G into left cosets of H. Then n = rm, so m is indeed a divisor of n.
be
the order
shows
partition
\342\231
Note
cosets
theorem each
coset.
counting
of
that should
count be
derive
consequences
of Theorem
10.10,which
Corollary
Every
group
of prime
order is
cyclic. a be an
by
Proof
Let G be of
the cyclic
prime
order
{a)
p, and let
of G
element a has
subgroup
generated
the
identity.
Then
But
a and
e.
by
Section
10
Exercises
101
Theorem 10.10,he t
m =
order
and
{a)
= G,
must
divide
the prime
p. Thus we
must
have
\342\231\246
Since
every
one
elegant
group
is
isomorphic
of a
given
to Zp, we see that is only there order Now doesn't this p. prime
result
from
the
theorem
of Lagrange,
underestimate
favorite
a theorem
that
counts
something.
Proving
examination
question.
10.12 Theorem
Proof
The order of
Remembering
generated
an
element
of a
finite
group
divides
the order
of the
group.
is the same as the order of the cyclic subgroup that the order of an element the element, we see that this theorem follows directly from Theorem 10.10. by
\342\231\246
10.13
Definition
Let H
be a subgroup
of
of
a group
G. The number
of
left cosets
of H
in
is the
index
\342\226\240
(G :7/)
The
HinG.
index
(G : H)
and
just
defined
may be
finite
or infinite.
If G defined
is
finite,
then
\\H\\
obviously
elements.
(G : H)
Exercise
is finite
(G : H)
\\G\\/\\H\\,
since
every
coset of
well
H contains
35 shows the index (G : 77) could be equally cosets of 77 in G. We state a basictheorem concerning to the exercises (see Exercise38). the proof
as the number
indices
of subgroups, and
of right leave
10.14
Theorem
Suppose
77 and
(G
(77: K) and
: 77)
group
such
that K
and
<
77
<
(G : K)
is finite,
(G : K)
Theorem shows that if there is a subgroup 77 of a finite 10.10 G, then the group order of 77 divides the order of G. Is the converse of order true? That is, if G is a group a subgroup of order ml We will see in the next section n, andm divides n, is there always that this is true for abelian of groups. However, A4 can be shown to have no subgroup order 6, which gives a counterexample for nonabelian groups.
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
10
Computations
1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
all cosets all cosets all cosets all cosets all cosets all left
the
4Z 4Z
of Z. of 2Z.
(2) of
Z12.
of Z36. {po,
find M2}
cosets of
preceding
subgroup
of the
group D4
given
by Table they
8.12.
the same
7. Repeat
exercise,
but
the
right
cosets this
time. Are
as
the
left
cosets?
102
Part II
a Permutations, Cosets,nd
Direct
Products
8. Rewrite Table 8.12in the order exhibited by the left cosets order 4? If so, is it isomorphic to Z4 or to the Klein 4group
in
Exercise
6. Do you
of
V?
the
subgroup
{po, Pi\\
find
of D4.
cosets this
left
exercise,
the
but
the
right
time. Are
in Exercise
they
the same
as the
left
coset?
order
exhibited by the
to Z4 or
cosets
9. Do you
seem
to get
a coset group
of
4? If so, is
the
it
isomorphic
to the
Klein
4group
VI
12.
13. 14.
Find
index
index index
of (3) in
of
the
Z24S3, using D4
(/^)
in the in the
of Example
10.7
of (/x2)
given
8.12
S5.
15. Let
16.
a = (1,
2, 5, 4)(2,3)
in S5.
of (a) in
of
Let (1 =
(1,2,4, 5)(3,
6) in S6.
(/x) in S6.
Concepts
In
Exercises
that
needed, so
of the italicized 17 and 18, correct the definition for publication. it is in a form acceptable
group
term
without
reference
to the
text,
if
correction
is
17. Let G be a
18. Let
19.
and let
and
H c
let H
of H
H in
containing
a is number
aH = {ah
of right
\\h
e H}. G.
G is the
cosets of H in
following subgroup
true or
group has left cosets. of a subgroup of a finite divides the order of the group. b. The number of left cosets group c. Every group of prime order is abelian. . d. One cannot have left cosets of a finite subgroup of an infinite group. e. A subgroup of a group is a left coset of itself. f. Only subgroups of finite groups can have left cosets. for n g. An is of index 2 in S\342\200\236 > 1. of Lagrange is a nice result. . h. The theorem the order of the group. i. Every finite group contains an element of every order that divides order that divides the order of the j. Every finite cyclic group contains an element of every
In Exercises
it is
group.
20
through
24,
give an
example of the
G whose
desired
subgroup
and group
cosets
if
possible.
If impossible,
say
why
impossible.
A
20. 22.
of an of a of of
abelian
group
left cosets
and
right
of G
21. A
A
23. A
24.
A
group G whose left cosets give a partition of G into just a group of order 6 whose of the left cosets give a partition a group of order 6 whoseleft cosets give a partition of the group of order 6 whoseleft
synopsis of
cosets
group into
group group
6 cells
cells cells
into 12 into 4
of a
give a partition
of the
Proof Synopsis
25. Give
Theory
a onesentence
the
proof
of Theorem
10.10.
26. Prove
that
the relation
equivalence
relation.
map
let g
e G. Define a onetoone
of H
your
map
is onto
Section 10
Exercises
103
28.
Let
H be
gH is the
lhg
e H for
all g
e G and
of
all /j e ff.
29. Let
be a
into
subgroup of
right
a group
of H,
then
G.
Prove
g~lhg
partition
Let
cosets
partition
G into left
all
cosets of
that
H is the
this
same
as the
g e
G and
/j e
Exercise 28.)
H
H. (Note
is the
converse of
or give
be a
subgroup of
a group
and let
a, b e
G. In
Exercises
30 through
33 prove the
statement
counterexample.
30. If
aH Ha
= bH, = Hb, =
fcff,
31.
32.
If
If aH
Ha~l a2ff
of order
p
of
and
q are
prime numbers.
Show
that
every
proper subgroup of
G is
cyclic.
35. Show
36.
same number
collection
left as right
cosets of a
the
subgroup
of left
Your
cosets
proof
onto
collection
any
H of a group G; that is, exhibit of right cosets. (Note that this result is
obvious
counting
for finite
groups.
that that
must
hold for
group.)
an element
contains
precisely
of order 2.
that
37. Show
a group
with
at least
two elements
but
no proper nontrivial
subgroups
left
must
finite
and of
G and
prime order.
\342\200\242 38. Prove Theorem10.14 Let {atH  i \342\200\224 \342\200\242, the collection of distinct 1, \342\200\242 be [Hint: r} = 1, \342\200\242be the collection of distinct \342\200\242 left cosets of K in H. Show that \342\200\242, s} {bjK  j
cosets
of H
in
{(aibj)K\\i =
is
1,,rj
= l,,s}
every
the
collection
that that that
that
of distinct
left
cosets of index
of K in
G.]
group G, then
left coset
39.
40.
if H if a
is a subgroup
in
a finite
of H is alsoa right
e G.
coset
of H.
41.
x such
group G with identity e has finite order n, then a'1 = Z of the additive group of every left coset of the subgroup 0 < x < 1.
the function
group
e for
all a
real numbers
contains
exactly
one
element
42. Show
of the
value
that
additive
of
H
sine assigns the same value to each elementof any fixed left coset of the subgroup (2jt) real numbers. (Thus sine induces a welldefined function on the set of cosets; the the function on a cosetis obtained we choose an element x of the coset and compute sin x.) when
M of
43. Let
some
and K k e
be
subgroups
of a
group G. Define
~ on G by
a ~ b if
and only if a
hbk
for
some
h e
and
K.
~ is an on G. equivalence relation the elements in the equivalence class containing a
a. Prove that
b. Describe
e G. (These
equivalence
classes
are called
double cosets.)
44. Let
SA be
the group
of all
\\ a{c)
permutations
of the
set
A,
and
let c
be one particular
element
of A.
b. Let
not?
= c}
is a subgroup
element (b) in of A.
Sc.c ofSA.
particular
Is
Sc_d
{a e SA I a (c) = Scx of
d} a subgroup
of SA ?
Why or why
of part
terms of the
subgroup
part (a).
104
Part II
Permutations,
Cosets,
and
Direct
Products
45.
Show
that the
a finite subgroups
are all
less
of order
n has
of each
order d
is the that
dividing
n, and
that these
is defined that
for positive
equal to
are relatively
number of positive
integers
Note that the number of generators sum being taken over all positive integers d dividing n. [Hint: <p(d)by Corollary 6.16.] of solutions x of the 47. Let G be a finite group. Show that if for each positive integer m the number 10.12 Exercise 46 to show that and xm = e in G is at most m, then G is cyclic. [Hint: Use Theorem contain an element of order n =  G .] the
of Zj
is
equation G must
section
11
Products
moment to review
the
our
present
stockpile
of groups.
Starting
with
finite
alternating group group the dihedral groups Dn of Section 8, and the that subgroups of these groups exist. Turning to Klein setsof numbers under the usual addition or infinite groups, we have groups consisting of elements as, for example, Z, ffi, and C under addition, and their nonzero multiplication, We have the group U of complexnumbers of magnitude 1 under under multiplication.
cyclic
we have
group
the Z\342\200\236,symmetric
and S\342\200\236,the
have
Ec under addition modulo c, groups have the group set A, as Sa of all permutations of an infinite formed from matrices. well as various groups as building blocks One purposeof this section is to show a way to use known groups to form more groups.The Klein 4group will be recovered in this way from the cyclic this procedure with the cyclic groups gives us a largeclass abelian of groups.Employing to include all possible structure for a finite abelian group. groups that can be shown types Definition 0.4. We start by generalizing
multiplication,
where
which
is isomorphic
to each
of the
c e ffi+.
We
also
11.1 Definition
of
sets
S,
an),
where
a, e
for
set
of
all ordered
ntuples
Cartesian
product is
denoted
either
Si x
or by
n
1=1
s,
\342\2
We could
definition
Now
the
we
group
can
the Cartesian of an infinite number of sets, but the product more sophisticated and we shall not need it. \342\226\240 and let us use multiplicative let G\\, G%, \342\226\240 be groups, notation for all \342\226\240, Gn the G, as sets, we can form Y[\"=i ^, Let us show that Regarding operations. of multiplication make J~[\"=1 Gt into a group by means of a binary operation by
also define
is considerably
Section
11
Direct
Products
and
Finitely
Generated
Abelian
Groups
105
we
are being
sloppy
when
we
use the
same
notation
for
set
of elements
of
the
group.
Theorem
\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 Let Gl5 G2, \342\226\240 be groups. For (^, a2, \342\226\240 and (b\\, ,G\342\200\236 \342\226\240, a\342\200\236) \342\226\240 \342\226\240 to be the element \342\226\240 define {a\\, a2, \342\226\240 \342\226\240, \342\226\240, a\342\200\236)(bi, b2, b\342\200\236) (a\\b\\, the direct product of the groups G;, under Yi\"=i Gi is a group,
b2,
^/,
a2b2, this
binary
operation.
Proof
Note that
definition
a, e G,, bt e G,, and G, is a group, we have a,fc, e G,. Thus the makes binary operation on ]~~[;=i Gt given in the statement of the theorem sense; that is, Yl'=i Gi is closed under the binary operation. in each The associative law in \\Yl=i Gt is thrown back onto the associative law since of the
component
as follows:
(a\\,a2,
b2c2,
= = = =
a2(b2c2), (a2b2)c2,
, a\342\200\236)(i>l, fc2,
, fc\"n)](Cl, C2,
,0,,).
If a is
{e\\,
the
identity
element
e2,
(aj1, a^1,
with multiplication in G,, then by components, clearly, \342\226\240 an inverse of {a\\, a2, \342\226\240 is in YYI=i Gi Finally, \342\226\240, an) identity Hence is a group. the product by components. compute n?=i Gj
\342\231\246
we sometimes use additive G, is commutative, refer to ]~[\"=1 G, as the direct sum of the groups G,. The notation @\"=1 G, is sometimes used in this case in place of YYi=i Gi, especially with \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 abelian groups with operation +. The direct sum of abeliangroups ,G\342\200\236 G2, Gj, may \342\226\240 \342\200\242 We leave be written G\\ @ G2 @ \342\226\240 to Exercise 46 the proof that a direct product @ G\342\200\236. is again abelian. of abeliangroups \342\200\242 seen It is quickly that if the 5; has r, elements for i = 1, \342\200\242 then F]\"=1 5, has \342\200\242, n, \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 for in an ntuple, there are r\302\261 choices for the first component from rn elements, r\\ri are r2 choices for the next from S2, and so on. Si, and for each of thesethere component
In the
operation of each
notation
in
G,
and
11.3 Example
Consider the
group
Z2 x
Z3,
which
has
\342\200\242 3 = Z3
(1,
0),
(1,
1), and
(1, 2). We
claim
that
Z2 x
to find a so
generator. Let us try (1, 1). Here the operations in we do the same in the direct product Z2 x Z3.
and
Z3 are
written
additively,
(1,1) = (1,1)
2(1,1)
=
(1,1)
+ (1,1)
= (0,2)
= + 3(1,1) = (1,1)+ (1,1) (1,1) (1,0) 4(1, 1) = 3(1, 1) + (1.1) = (1, 0) + (1, 1) = (0, 1) 1 5(1, )= 4(1, 1) + (1, 1) = (0, 1)+ (1,1) = (1, 2) 6(1, 1) = 5(1,1)+ (1,1)= (1, 2) + (1, 1) = (0,0)
106
Part II
Permutations,
Cosets,
and
Direct
Products
of Z2
order,
one
cyclic
\342\226
Example
Consider Z3 x Z3. This is a group ofnine elements. We claim that Z3 x Z3 is not cyclic. Since the addition is by components, and since in Z3 every element addedto itself three the times gives the identity, the same is true in Z3 x Z3. Thus no element can generate could only give the identity after nine successively group, for a generator added to itself shows summands. Wehave found another argument group structure of order 9. A similar that Z2
The
Z2
is not
Z2 the
must
be isomorphic theorem:
to
the
Klein
4group.
\342\226
preceding
illustrate
following
11.5 Theorem
ThegroupZm x
prime, that is,
the
are
relatively
of m
and
of
has
is
Zm
1.
x
Z\342\200\236 generated
Proof
Consider
5.17.
the
cyclic
subgroup
by (1,
As our
(1,
will
previous work
1) that
involve
shown,
the order
(0, 0).
of this
taking
cyclic
powerof
notation
gives
the
identity
Here
a power
1) in
our
additive
the
first
component
adding 1 e Zm
(1, 1) to
by components,
so on,
yields 0 only
Z\342\200\236 yields
m summands,
2m summands, and
and the
second component 1 e
them
0 simultaneously, The smallest number that is a multiple of both m and n will be mn if if the gcd of m and n is 1; in this case, (1, 1) generates a cyclic subgroup of and only is cyclic of order mn, which is the order of the whole group. This shows that Zm x Z\342\200\236 to Zm\342\200\236 and n are relatively if m order mn, and hence isomorphic prime. For the converse, suppose that the gcd of m and n is d > 1. The mn/d is divisible we have by both m and n. Consequently, for any (r, s) in Zm x Z\342\200\236,
to yield
so on. For
both
2n summands, and 0 only after n summands, the number of summands must be a multiple
of
and n.
(r, s)
+ (r, s) +
,
(r, s) '
= (0, 0).
mn/d
summands
x
can Z\342\200\236 generate
not cyclic
This
the entire
group,
so
Zm x
is Z\342\200\236
to
Zm\342\200\236.
\342\231
can be
than
two
factors
by similar
the
as a
without
to
two
going
through
the details
of
proof.
Corollary
The
for
group
Y[l=i
^m, is
cyclic
isomorphic
Zmim2...m;i
if and
mt
i =
1,
gcd of any
of them
as a
is 1. of powers of distinct
prime
11.7Example
The
preceding
corollary
product
numbers,
as in
(Pir(P2)n2(Pr)nr,
X
to
then
is isomorphic Z\342\200\236
to
^(f>l)\"'
^(Pl)\"2 X
7L%
^{prf
\342\226\240
In particular,
Z72 is
isomorphic
Z9.
\342\226
Section
11
Direct
Products
and
Finitely
Generated
Abelian
Groups
107
the order of the factors in a direct product yields a group one. The names of elements have simply been changedvia a isomorphic original of the components in the ntuples. permutation Exercise 47 of Section6 askedyou to define the least common multiple of two r and 5 as a generatorof a certain cyclic group. It is straightforward to positive integers that of Z consisting of all integers that are multiples the subset of both r and 5 is prove a subgroup of Z, and hence is a cyclic group. Likewise, the set of all common multiples \342\226\240 of n positive integers r1; r2, \342\226\240 is a subgroup of Z, and hence is cyclic. rn \342\226\240,
that
We remark
changing
to the
11.8 Definition
Let rl,
r2,
positive
multiple
(abbreviated
the
cyclic group
divisible
by
of each
multiples of
r;,
that
1cm) is,
\342\226\240
11.8andourwork
smallest
positive integer
multiple.
that
is a
\342\226\240 on cyclic groups,we seethat the 1cm ofr1; r2, \342\226\240 \342\226\240, \342\200\242 of each r, for i = 1, 2, \342\200\242 hence n, \342\200\242, multiple
the name
11.9
least common
Theorem
\342\226\240 Let (ax, a2, \342\226\240 e YYi=i Gi ^ \342\226\240, a\342\200\236) \342\226\240 in \342\226\240 \342\226\240, n?=i ^/ is e(3ual a2, (a\\, an)
a<
*s
fimte \302\260f
order
r,
in
G,,
then
the order
rt.
of
t\302\260 the
least
common
Proof
in the proof of Theorem 11.5. or a This follows by a repetition of the argument used F \342\226\240 \342\226\240 of (flj, a2, \342\226\240 to give {e\\, e2, \342\226\240 the power must simultaneously be a \342\226\240, \342\226\240, an) en), power of r\\ so that this power of the first component will yield e\\, a multiple of r2, a\\ multiple so that this power of the second component2 will yield e2, and so on. \342\231\246 a
11.10
Example
Find the
the
group
Z12 x
Z60
Z24.
Solution
Since
Similarly,
the
of 3, Zm.
15, and
we see that 8 is of order ^ = 3 in Zj2. (See Theorem 6.14.) is of order 15in Z60 and 10 is of order 12 in Z24. The 1cm 5 \342\200\242 3 \342\200\242 60, so (8, 4, 10)is of order 60 in the group 4 = Zj2 x Z60 x A
by
11.11 Example
The
group
Z x
Z2 is generated
the
elements
(1, 0)
is
and
(0,
1). More
Zm
generally,
some
the
product
of which
either
Z or
for
positive
(1,0,0,,0),
(0,1,0,,0),
(0,0,1,,0),
\342\200\242\342\200\242, (0,0,0,,1).
Such a direct product might also be generated by fewer the single element (1, 1, 1). Z4 x Z35 is generated by
Note
x
\342\226\262
that if
Yili Gi is the
direct
product
of groups
the
subset
at, ei+i,
e G,},
but
set
of all
ntuples
It
with
the
identity
elements
in all places
the
/th,
is a
Gt.
is also
subgroup
G, is naturally
isomorphic to G,;
(eue2, /,1,^,^1,
108
Part II
a Permutations, Cosets,nd
Direct
Products
in
the
/th
component
We
of
the
elements
to
product of these
Yl1=i Gi The direct product given by Theorem 11.2 and external, external direct product of the groups The terms internal G,. we are regarding the a direct product of groups, whether or not (respectively) just reflect We shall usually the words as subgroups of the product omit group. component groups and just say direct product.Which term we mean will be clear from external and internal
be subgroups
ride along.
G,.
consider
e, in
the context.
= Historical
his
Note
various
Indemonstrated
theory
number theory.
Disquisitiones
context
of
with
be developed out of the analogies. As could theory he wrote in 1870, \"these principles [from the work of Gauss and Kummer] belong to a more general, to free
deal extensively
forms,
but he
also
abstract realm of ideas.It is therefore appropriate their development from all unimportant so that one can spare oneself from restrictions,
in of repeating the same argument This advantage already appears in the and the presentation gains in itself,
if it
the
necessity
different cases. development simplicity,
were similar,
attempt to develop an abstract of abelian groups. theory In the 1840s, Ernst Kummer in dealing with ideal numbers noted that his results were in complex
he
did not
is given
in
the
most
most
important
many respects
student in
analogous to thoseof
in
Gauss.
(See
the
clarity.\"
and
Kronecker
was
then proceeded to
theory
and
Historical Note
Leopold Section
Section
Kronecker
finally
(see
realized
the basic
principles of the
able
of finite
prove
groups
to state
a version
abelian of
29) who
an abstract
Theorem 11.12restricted
to finite
groups.
The
Some
Structure
theorems
of Finitely Generated
of abstract
Abelian Groups
and use, although their This is one sectionin
proofs the
understand
may
be quite
technical
and
to present.
text
and significance we explain the meaning of a theorem but omit its proof. The whose our understanding, and meaning of any theorem proof we omit is well within with it. It would we feel we should be acquainted be impossible for us to meet someof these to insist on wading through facts in a onesemester course if we were fascinating all theorems. The theorem that we now state gives us complete of complete proofs about all sufficiently small abelian groups, in particular, structural information about all
where
finite
abelian
groups.
11.12 Theorem
generated
Abelian Groups) Generated (Fundamental Theorem of Finitely abelian of cyclic group G is isomorphic to a directproduct
Z(piyi
Every
finitely
groups in the
Z,
form
Z(p,)2
X Z
Section
11
Generated
Abelian
Groups
109
where
number unique.
the
pt
are primes,
unique
not necessarily
except
distinct,
and
the
r,
are
positive
the
integers.
that
The
is, the
direct product is
(Betti
for possible
rearrangement of
and
factors;
number
of G)
of factorsZ is unique
the
prime powers
{pif are
\342\231\246
Proof
The
proof is omitted
here.
up
11.13
Example
to isomorphism,
of order
be
up
to isomorphism
any
abelian of
groups
identical
(isomorphic)
360, no
11.12,
Solution
We
make
use
will
factors Z
First
are to
in the
be of
the
finite
order
theorem. Theorem
statement
of
the
we get
of prime
powers 23325.Thenusing
1.
2.
3.
x x
Z2 x Z4
Z2
Z2 x x Z3 x
x
Z3 Z3
x x
Z3 x Z5
Z5
Z2 x
Z2 Z8 Z8
Z2 x Z9 x Z5
4. 5. 6.
x x x
Z4 x Z9 Z3
x Z5 x Z3 x Z5 Z5
abelian
Z9 x
groups
(up to
isomorphism) of order
360.
\342\226\262
We conclude
regarding
a sampling
of the
many
theorems
we could
now prove
abelian
11.14 Definition
group
G is
subgroups.
11.15
proper
nontrivial
\342\226\240
Theorem
The
finite
indecomposable prime.
groups
are exactly
the
cyclic
groups
with order a
power of a
Proof
Let G be a finite indecomposable abelian group. Thenby Theorem 11.12, Gis isomorphic to a direct product of cyclicgroups of prime power order. Since G is indecomposable, this direct product must consist of just one cyclic group whose order is a power of prime number. Conversely, let p be a prime. Then Zpr is indecomposable, for if Zp> were x ZpJ, where i + j = to then element would have an order at most isomorphic every Zpi
\342\200\236max(rj) <
r,
^
order
11.16 Theorem
If m divides the
of a finite
can
abelian
of G
group
G,
then
G has a
subgroup
of order
m.
Proof
w By Theorem11.12,e
think
Z0>,)\">
as being
*\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\200\242 xZ0>\342\200\236)''\">
xZ(kP
110
Part
II
Permutations,
where then
pt need be distinct.
form cyclic
Since
(piY1 (P2)Sl
<
st
the
generates
of Z^.y, of order equal subgroup But the gcd of (pt f' and (pt fsubgroup Z(Piy, of order
(p, )r> ~s'.
to the
~s is
(pt f ~s>.
(pt f
~s>
[(pi)r'i/[(piY'Sii
= (piyigenerated
Recallingthat
is
11.17
the
{a)
denotes
the cyclic
subgroup
by a,
we see that
tors,)x((ftr)xxten
required
subgroup
of order
m.
not
\342\231\
Theorem
If m
that is, m is is a square free integer, of order m is cyclic. abelian group every abelian
divisible
by the
square of
any
prime,
then
Proof
Let G be an
to isomorphic
group
of square
by
Theorem
11.12, G is
Z(piyi where
Z(p2yi
, Z(pn)r\342\200\236
m =
distinct
{p\\)ri
(P2Y2
(PnY\"
m is
square free,
that
we must
have
all
r,
1 and
all pi
primes.
Corollary
G is
isomorphic
to ZpiP2...Pa,so G
is cyclic.
\342\231\
EXERCISES
11
Computations
1. List the
elements Exercise
through
of Z2
1 for
x Z4. Find
Z3
the
order
of each
of the
elements.
Is this
group cyclic?
2.
3.
Repeat
the group
x Z4.
the
In Exercises 3
7, find
the order of
given
(2*
element
of the
direct x
product.
(2, 6) in Z4 x Zi2
Z4
4x
Zi5
3)in
Z6 x Z15
5. (8, 10)in
x Z,2
Z20
Z12
x Z18
x Z12
7.
(3, 6,
12, 16) in
the
Z4
x Z24
Z&
largest
order
all
cyclic
subgroups
of
x 7L%>. of Zj2
x Z15?
9.
Find
all proper
all all
nontrivial
nontrivial of Z2 of Z2 order
is
proper subgroups
subgroups of Z2 subgroups of Z2 x x x
Z4 Z2
x Z2.
Z2
x Z2.
of order x Z4
4.
12. 13.
Find
that are
isomorphicto
the
Klein
4group.
Disregarding
resulting
of two or
more groups
of the
form
so that Z\342\200\236
the
possible.
14. Fill
in the
blanks.
of Z24
generated
by
18 has
order
Section 11
Exercises
111
c.
e.
The
element
Klein
(4, 2)
4group
Z4
of Z12 x
elements
Z8
has
order
d. The
is isomorphic
to Z
Z2 x Z x
the the
has
of finite
order.
of Z4
15. 16.
17.
18.
Find Are
maximum groups
some element
isomorphic?
x Z6.
why
Z2 x
Zl2
and
Z4
%&
Why
of Z8
or
not?
Z24. why
x Z10 x
Z40 isomorphic? groups Z8 Why or 19. Find the maximum possible orderfor someelement of Z4 x Z18 x Z15. 20. Are the groups Z4 x Z18 x Z]5 and Z3 x 1^ x Z10 isomorphic?Why or
x Z24 and
Z4
x Zi2
not?
why not?
given
In Exercises
order.
21 through
25,
proceed
as in Example
11.13to find
all abelian
22 0rder 16
0rder
32
720
abelian
25. Order
groups (up to
1089
isomorphism) are there of order 24? of order 25? of order (24)(25)? the idea suggested in Exercise 26, let m and n be relatively 27. Following prime integers. Show that if positive r abelian groups of order m and 5 of order n, then there are (up to isomorphism) there are (up to isomorphism) rs abelian groups of order mn.
How
many
28. UseExercise 27
to determine
the number
Fill
(up
to isomorphism)
of order (10)5.
of abelian
29. a. Let
up
p be a
prime number.
in the
second row
to give
the number
groups of order
p\",
to isomorphism.
number of groups
b. Let
up
p, q,
and
r be
Use the
table
you created
to
find
the
number
of abelian
groups,
to isomorphism,
of the
given
order.
i.
30.
p3q4r7
schematically
Cayley the Figure
ii. (qr)1
a Cayley
regular
digraph
iii.
for the Z\342\200\236
q5r4q3
Indicate
Consider
for
Zm x
generating
with
set S =
31.
digraphs
types,
a solid
one
an
arrow
and a dashed
arrow,
and consisting
joining and
of two
vertices 7.11(b)
counterclockwise)direction
group a.
as those
> 3, with solid arc sides, one inside the other, with dashed arcs to the inner one. Figure shows such a Cayley digraph with n = 3, 7.9(b) n = 4. The arrows on the outer ngon may the same (clockwise or have on the inner ngon, or they may have the opposite direction. Let G be a
for n
with
such a Cayley
Under
what circumstances
will
G be
abelian?
b. If G is abelian, to what familiar group is it isomorphic? under c. If G is abelian, what circumstances is it cyclic? d. If G is not abelian, to what group we have discussedis it
isomorphic?
112
Part
II
Concepts
32.
following Gj
false.
then
a. If Gi and
groups,
G\\
product
x G2
is always
isomorphic
to G2
you
b.
Computation
external direct
of groups
is easy
if
know
each
component
group.
nontrivial
c. Groups of finite order must be used to form an external direct product. d. A group of prime order could not be the internal direct product of two proper e. Z2 x Z4 is isomorphicto Zg. f. Z2 x Z4 is isomorphicto S%. to S4. g. Z3 x Zg is isomorphic h. Every element in Z4 x Zg has order 8. i. The order of Z12 x Zj5 is 60. has mn j. Zm x Z\342\200\236 elements whether m and n are relatively prime or not.
33.
subgroups.
Give an
nontrivial
that
abelian
to Z5 x Z x Z?
group
is the
internal direct
product
of two
proper
34. a.
How
subgroups subgroups
of Z5 x of Z
Zg
are
isomorphic
Z6?
and
b. How
35. Give an
nontrivial
of a nontrivial
is not
of prime order
is not
product
of two
subgroups.
of the
36.
Mark
each
following
abelian
true
a. Every
group
of prime
order is cyclic.
b. Every c. Z8 is
d. f.
g.
Zg
abelian
group
cyclic.
by {4, by {4,
e. All
Any
to isomorphism with
by Theorem
11.12.
are
the same
Betti
number
isomorphic.
Every abelian
Every Every Every
group
divisible
divisible
by
5 contains
a cyclic a cyclic
subgroup of order 5.
subgroup
h.
i.
of order
of order
by 4
by
contains a cyclic
of 0.
of order
4.
divisible
6 contains
subgroup of order 6.
of order
j.
37. Let
number
p and q be distinct prime numbers. How does the number (up to isomorphism)of abelian comparewith the number (up to isomorphism)of abelian groups of order qr ?
G be
groups
pr
38. Let
an abelian
say
group
of order
72.
or why
how many
not?
or why in G
39. LetGbe an
the
group.
torsion
subgroup
Show of G.
the
elements
of
finite
order
subgroup
is called
43
deal with
torsion
subgroup
just defined.
the
order
of the
torsion
subgroup
x Z x Z3; of Zn
x Z x Z12.
Section
11
Exercises
113
41. 42.
Find Find
the the
torsion torsion
subgroup of
the
multiplicative
group
subgroup T of the multiplicative group C* of nonzero complexnumbers. 43. An abelian group is torsion free if e is the only element of finite order. Use Theorem 11.12 to show that abelian group is the internal and of a torsionfree direct product of its torsion every finitely generated subgroup that {e} may be the torsion subgroup, and is also torsion free.) (Note subgroup. 44. Thepart of the decomposition of G in Theorem to the subgroups of primepower order 11.12 corresponding \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 where r \342\200\224 in the form Zm, x Zm, x \342\200\242 can also be written x Zmr, m, divides mi+\\ f or / = 1, 2, \342\200\242 1. The \342\200\242, to be unique, and are the torsion of G. numbers m; can be shown coefficients
a.
Find
the
torsion
coefficients
coefficients
of
Z4
x Z9.
b. Find
the torsion
of Z6
x Z12 x Z20
coefficients
an c. Describe
algorithm
to find
the
torsion
of a direct
product of cyclicgroups.
Proof Synopsis
45. Give
Theory
a twosentence
synopsis of
the
proof
of Theorem
11.5.
46. Prove
is abelian. product of abelian groups the all elements subset of G consisting of the identity e together with of 47. Let G be an abelian group. Let H be G of order 2. Show that H is a subgroup of G. for every abelian group 48. Following whether H will always be a subgroup up the idea of Exercise47 determine G if H consists of the identity e together with all elements of G of order 3; of order 4. For what positive for every abelian group G, if H consists n will H always be a subgroup of the identity e together with integers all elements of G of order n? Compare with Exercise 48 of Section 5.
that
a direct
49. Find
Let H
a counterexample
of Exercise
47
with
the
hypothesis
that G is
abelian
omitted. necessary
and K be subgroups of a group G. Exercises 50 and for G to appear as the internal direct product of H and K.
51 ask
you to establish
and sufficient
criteria
K be
Show
G=
form
H x K.Recall
H x
hk for
that
both
H (actually
{e})and
h
K (actually
a.
Every
element =
is of the
H and k
of a
some
e H
and k
e K.
=
{<?}.
b. hk
51.
kh for
h e
e K.
c. H n K
Let H
exercise. Show the three properties listed in the preceding group G satisfying that for each g \342\202\254 expression g = hk for h e H and k e K is unique. Then let each g be renamed G, the (h, k). G becomes structurally identical (isomorphic)to H x K. Show that, under this renaming,
Show
and K be subgroups
52.
53.
that
a finite
p.
abelian
group
is not
cyclic
order
if
and
only if it
contains a
subgroup
isomorphic
some prime
to Zp x Zp
the
for
has
a power
of commutativity
abelian
the
order
or why
of every
element
to
in
group
not?
H
54. Let
G, H, and
be finitely
generated
groups.
that
if
G x
K is isomorphic
x K,
then
114
Part II
Permutations,
Cosets,
and
Direct
Products
SECTION 12
^PlANE IsOMETRIES
of E2 is a permutation : E2 \342\200\224> E2 plane E2. An isometry \302\242) distance, so that the distance between points P and Q is the same as the points (f>(P)and 4>(Q) for all points P and Q in E2. If ij/ is the distance between also an isometry of E2, then the distance between i/f(0(P)) and VWK2)) must be the in turn is the distance P same as the distance between and \302\242(0), which between (f>(P) that the composition of two isometries is again an isometry. Since the and Q, showing of an isometry is an isometry, we see that the identity map is an isometry and the inverse isometries of E2 form a subgroup of the group of all permutations of E2. of E2 that carry S onto itself form a Given any subset S of E2, the isometries of isometries. This subgroup is the group of the group of symmetries of S in subgroup of symmetries of an equilateral the group E2. In Section 8 we gave tables for triangle and for the group of symmetries of a square in E2. we have defined in the two preceding paragraphs could equally well Everything but we will concern ourselves have been done for ndimensional Euclideanspace E\", with chiefly plane isometries here. that every isometry of the plane is one of just four types (see Artin It can be proved that can be carried [5]). We will list the types and show, for each type, a labeled figure of that type. In each of Figs. 12.1, 12.3,nd 12.4, consider the a into itself by an isometry to the left and to the right. We also give line with spikes shown to be extended infinitely
Consider
the Euclidean
that
preserves
an
example
of each
type
in
terms
of coordinates.
point = (x,
about
the
same
distance
P through
in
the
same
3).)
direction.
See
y) +
(2, 3)
= (x + 2,yan
p:
Rotate
=
the plane
a point
angle
6. See
Fig. 12.2.
about
(\342\200\224y, is x)
a rotation
through
90\302\260 counterclockwise
the
/x: point
L, each
reflection.
its
mirror
image
x.) and a reflection across aline mapped glide reflection y: product into itself is a by the translation. See Fig. 12.4. (Example: y(x, y) = (x + 4, \342\200\224y) reflection along the a:axis.) glide
(Example:
y)
L is
y =
The
that is carried into another arrow in each of curved translation and rotation, the counterclockwise directions of the curved arrows remain the same, but for the reflection and glide reflection,the a clockwise counterclockwise arrow is mapped into arrow. We say that translations and while the reflection and glide reflectionreverse rotations preserve orientation, as any definite orientation. We do not classify the identity one of the four isometry types well be considered to be a translation it could equally listed; by the zero vector or a of 0\302\260. always consider a glide reflection to We rotation about any point through an angle be the product of a reflection and a translation that is different from the identity isometry.
Notice
arrow
For the
of the text.
Section
12
Plane Isometries
115
T(P)
r(R)
Q
Translation
r(R)
r\\Q)
<G)
x.
PKQ)
12.1Figure
P
>
12.2 Figure
Rotation
p.
lAQ) i
R
\342\226\240
yHP) s
Y(P)
y
i IMP) \342\226\240
g
\\KG)
\\
y2(P)
12.4
o.
/
P
\\
y2(P)
Q
Reflection
n(K>
/x.
12.3 Figure
Figure
Glide reflection y.
follows
describes
the possible
structures
of finite
subgroups
of
the
isometry
finite
group.
plane
12.5 Theorem
Every
group
is isomorphic
to either
or to Z\342\200\236
a dihedral
Proof Outline
First in
we G.
G =
P in the plane that is left fixed by every isometry that there is a point can be done in the following way, using coordinates in the plane. Suppose \342\200\242 \342\200\242. 0m} {0i. 02 \342\200\242 and let
This
(*;.)';) =
Then
0/(0.0).
h x\342\200\236,+ Ji
the
point
Cc, J)
^
'xi +x2\\
m
)'2
H )'\342\200\236
isometries in G permute then fa(Xj, >'j) = 0,(0,(0, )] = points 0 0,0j 0,(.(0. = (\302\276. It can be shown that the centroid of a set of points is uniquely 0) yk). and since each isometry the points, in G just permutes determined by its distances from fixed. Thus G consistsof the identity, rotations the set S, it must leave the centroid (x. y) across a line through P. about P, and reflections in G form a subgroup The orientationpreserving isometries H of G which is either in the same way that we showed that all of G or of order m /2. This can be shown the of S\342\200\236 are a subgroup half the elements of S\342\200\236. even permutations (See containing just in G. If we choose a Exercise 22.) Of course H consistsof the identity and the rotations as small an angle 0 > 0 as possible,it can be rotation in G that rotates the plane through shown to generate the subgroup H. (See Exercise 23.) This shows that if H = G, then to Z\342\200\236,. G is cyclic of order m and thus isomorphic H =\302\243 so that G contains G Suppose
is the
the the
centroid of
in S
set
S =
{(Xj. }'i)\\i =
= fa
116
Part II
Permutations,
Cosets,
and
Direct
Products
\342\226\240 some reflections. et H = {i,\\, \342\226\240 L n = m /2. If /x is a reflection in G, then p \342\226\240, with p\342\200\236_i} coset Hfi consists of all n of the reflections in G. Consider now a regular ngon in the plane having P as its center and a vertex with on the line through P left fixed by /x. The elements of H rotate this ngon through lying
the
all positions,
and
the
elements
turning
this
the
ngon
over,
in an
all
axis
through
positions.
ngon
The
is the action
of Dn, so G is isomorphic
gives
groups
the
to D\342\200\236.
\342\231
isometries that arise naturally in decorating and art. Among these are the discrete frieze groups. A discrete friezeconsistsof a pattern of finite width and height that is repeated endlessly in both directions along its baseline a strip of infinite to form but finite height; think of it as a decorative border strip length to the ceiling on wallpaper. We consider that goes around a room next those isometries that carry each basic pattern onto instance itself or onto another of the pattern in the frieze. The set of all such isometriesis called the \"frieze All discrete frieze group.\" and have a subgroup groups are infinite isomorphic to Z generated by the translation that slides the frieze lengthwise until the basic pattern is superimposed on the position in that direction. of its next neighbor pattern As a simple exampleof a discrete frieze, consider integral distances apart and continuing signs spaced equal infinitely to the left and right, indicated schematically like this.
now
We turn
complete
story
about
finite
plane
isometry
groups.
of plane
\342\226\240\342\226\240///////////////////////////////////The symmetry group of this frieze integral signs to be one unit apart. the plane one unit to the right, and by a rotation p by a translation x sliding of 180\302\260 about a point in the center of some integral There are no horizontal or sign. vertical is nonabelian; we can T frieze reflections, and no glide reflections. his group
Let us
consider the
is generated
check that
do
not
nth p\\
dihedral through
group
360/n\302\260
Dn is
of
2 satisfying /?i/x = /xp^1. Thus it is natural to use frieze group generated by x of infinite order and p As another consider the frieze given example,
generated by two elements that n and a reflection /x of order the notation D^ for this nonabelian of order 2. by an infinite string of D's.
order
DDDDDDDDDDD
Its
group
across
group
and
is
It
by a translation x one stepto the right and by a vertical reflection /x line cutting the middle of all the D's. We can check that these through generators commute this time, that is, t/x = /xt, so this frieze group is abelian to Z x Z2. isomorphic can be shown that if we classify such discretefriezes only by whether or not their
is generated a horizontal
groups
contain
a
horizontal
rotation
vertical then there
group in
axis glide
reflection reflection
axis reflection
nontrivial
is one
that
of seven possibilities. A nontrivial in a symmetry glide reflection that is not equal to a product of a translation in that group and a reflection The group for the string of D's above contains glide reflectionsacross group.
are a total
12 Section
the horizontal line
through
Plane
Isometries
117
the
centers
group
glidereflection
that group.
is also
in the
so they
component
glide
of each
in
reflections
for
D
contains the
group.
case,
group.
is not an element of component glide reflection whose translation exercises exhibit the seven possible cases, and ask you to tell, for each of the four types of isometriesdisplayed above in the symmetry which appear We do not obtain seven obtained different group structures. Each of the groups
a nontrivial
The
can be
shown
to be
isomorphic
to one of
\302\243>oo,
Z,
Equally
x Z2,
or
Doo x Z2.
a pattern in the shape of a square, when study of symmetries or hexagon is repeated by translations along two nonparallel that on wallpaper. These to fill the entire plane, like patterns vector directions appear or the plane crystallographic W groups groups. hile a groups are called the wallpaper itself frieze could not be carriedinto by a rotation through a positive angle less than it of 60\302\260, and for some of these to have rotations 180\302\260 90\302\260, 120\302\260, 180\302\260, is possible
interesting
is the
parallelogram,
rhombus,
where the pattern consists of 12.6 provides an illustration of plane isometries that carry this square onto the group itself or onto another are given by two translations Generators for this group square. a square to the next neighbor to the right and one to the next (one sliding above), by a rotation through 90\302\260 about the center of a square, and by a reflection in a vertical (or line along the edges of the square. The one reflection is all that is needed to horizontal) the plane \"turn After over\"; a diagonal reflection can also be used. being turned over,
planefilling a
patterns.
Figure
square.
We are
interested
in
the
translations
and
rotations
surely the
can be
used again.
The
isometry
to
plane
to
contains
a subgroup
isomorphic
Z x
the
those isometries that If we consider all the types of isometries that get
and upward, and a subgroup to \302\243)4 isomorphic generated by into itself. one square (it can be any square) carry to be filled with as in Fig. 12.7, we do not the plane parallelograms
right we
did for
group
this time
is
12.6Figure
118
Part
II
Permutations,
12.7
Figure
about translations indicated through 180\302\260 by the arrows and a rotation of a parallelogram. of wallpaper patterns when It can be shown that there are 17different they are types classified according to the types of rotations, reflections, and nontrivial glide reflections and that they admit. We refer you to Gallian [8] for pictures of these 17 possibilities a few of them. The situation a chart to help you them. The exercises illustrate identify is more complicated; it can be shown that there are 230 threedimensional in space in space. The final exercise we give involves rotations crystallographic groups. was an artist whose work included planefilling M. C. Escher (18981973) patterns. of his works of this The exercises include reproductions of four type.
generated
by the
any vertex
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
12
the group of symmetries of a certain which we consider the figure to lie. of a point in (translations, of a line of geometric
type
the
symmetries
is, describe
of R that
leave
one point
fixed.
symmetries symmetries
etc.) of a point
in the
segment
segment
R. R2.
in R3.
isometry
2. Let P
with
stand
an orientation
the
preserving plane
preserving
and
R for an
property
orientation
of a
reversing
one.
Fill in
the table
P or R
to denote
orientation
or reversing
product.
P
p R
Section
12
Exercises
119
3.
of plane isometries given by a product table to give all possible types of two types. For example, a rotations may be a rotation, or it may be another Fill in the box corresponding to pp with product type. both letters. Use your answer to Exercise 2 to eliminate from consideration. some types. Eliminate the identity
Fill
in the
of two
T P
M
4. Draw a plane
figure
that
that that that
has a oneelement
has has has
group as its
group
5. 6. 7.
group isomorphicto
R2.
8. Draw a
plane
that
has a fourelement
Klein
as its
group of symmetries
of an
inR2.
isometries (other than the identity), give the possibilities for the order group of plane isometries. 10. A plane isometry cp has a fixed point if there exists a point P in the plane such that 4>{P) = P. Which four types of plane isometries (other than the identity) can have a fixed point?
For
9.
each
of the
four
type
types
of plane
isometry of that
in the
of the
11.
12.
any,
have
exactly
to Exercise
10, which
that a plane
any, any,
two
fixed
points?
13.
number
fixed
of fixed be the
points?
map. points,
14.
15.
geometrically
isometry
three noncolinear
and
points
and group
must
identity
algebraically
that if
points
if (Pi) together
for noncolinear
with the identity with the
t/t agree
on three
noncolinear
^ are
16. Do the
not?
rotations,
map,
of the of
of plane
or why
translations,
together about
Why
identity
map,
a subgroup
the
group
of plane
isometries? of the of
Why
or
why not?
rotations
plane isometries?
point
P,
together
with the
identity
map,
form
a subgroup
group
of
reflection
across
Why
isometries?
not?
line
L,
together
with the
identity
map,
form
a subgroup
the
group
20. Do the
or why
glide
reflections,
together
the identity
map, form a
subgroup
of the
group of plane
isometries?Why
21.
Which Completing
of the
22.
the
IGI
rotations
=2\\H\\.
subgroup of the group of plane isometries? of the proof of Theorem 12.5,let G be a finite group of plane isometries. Show that a detail in G, together H of G, and that H = G or with the identity isometry, form a subgroup either that we used to show that \\S\342\200\236\\ [Hint: Use the same method =2\\A\342\200\236\\.]
four types
of a finite
120
Part
II
Permutations,
23.
in the proof of Theorem let G be a finite of the identity 12.5, group consisting isometry about one point P in the plane. Show that G is cyclic, generated by the rotation in G that turns the plane counterclockwise about P through the smallest angle 9 > 0. [Hint: Follow the idea of the proof that a subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic]
Completing
a detail
and rotations
Exercises
symmetries.
24
through
Imagine
contains
frieze always
of the
30 illustrate the seven different the figure shown to be continued For each of these translations.
types
of friezes
when
these
they
are
left.
classified
The
infinitely
to the right
and
symmetry
exercises answer
questions
about the
group
frieze.
contain
contain contain
across a horizontal
line?
the
group
group of the
contain
a nontrivial
glide reflection?
possible groups Z,
D^, Z x Z2,
or D^,
x Z2
do you
think
the symmetry
group of the
is isomorphic?
24.
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
25. TTTTTTTTTT
26.EEEEEEEEEEEE
12.8
Figure
The Study
of the Plane
with
Horsemen
1946 (\302\251
M. C.
All rights
reserved.)
Section 12
Exercises
121
27zzzzzzzzzzzz
28HHHHHHHHHH J J J
29.
11111
30.
u
180\302\260?
n
symmetry
u
group
n
contain
any
u
rotations?
n
the
u
plane by translation
to be used to fill 37 describe a pattern 31 through in each case. these A the specifiedvectors. nswer questions
Exercises
in the
two
directions
given 0 <
by
a. Doesthe
If so,
through
what
possible
angles
where 6\302\273
6 <
r.^su
/i 
'#
i~m.
\342\226\240\"i \342\226\240 \342\226\240\342\226\240A
ft
i.',
.''
'\342\200\224 \"V'\"~
;*tT,
. ji
12.9 Figure
The 1936
the
Plane
Figures (\302\251
reserved.)
122
Part II
Permutations,
Cosets,
and
Direct
Products
12.10Figure
b. Does the
c. Does
The
Study of Regular
Division of the
Plane
with Reptiles
1939 (\302\251
M. C.
Escher
FoundationBaarnHolland.
All rights
reserved.)
symmetry
symmetry
group
group
contain
contain
vertical
any
reflections?
the
any nontrivial
edges
glide reflections?
directions
given
31. A
32. A 33. A
(0,
square
square square
with horizontal
as in as in
and
using
translation
by vectors (0,
(1, 0)
1).
and
(0,
1).
using with
translation the
directions
given by vectors
using
letter L at
translation
(1,0) (1,0)
and
1).
square
34. A
(0,
as in
with
the
letter E at
using
translation
directions
and
1).
square
35. A
(0,
as in
with
the
letter H at
using
translation
directions
1).
hexagon
36. A regular
with a vertex at
the
the
top
using
translation
directions
given by
with
vectors
and (1,
top
37.
regular
hexagon
with a vertex
hexagon, 41
at
of the
through
using
vertex
and
at the
V3).
and
(1, 0)
(1,
38
are concerned
in
assume
the markings
each
Answer
part
C. Escher. Neglectthe shading in the figures or horseman are the same, even though they may be figure, reptile, the same questions were asked for Exercises 31 through (a), (b), and (c) that
art
works
of M.
human
(d).
equal
coordinate axes with d. Assuming horizontal and vertical allel directions of vectors that generate the translation of these vectors.
scales
as usual,
give vectors in
yourself
the
subgroup. Do not
concern
Section 12
Exercises
123
12.11
38.
The
Figure
The
Study of Regular Division of the Escher FoundationBaarnHolland. with Horsemen with Imaginary with Reptiles in with Human form a group
Plane All
with Human
M. C.
rights reserved.)
Study Study
of Regular of
in Fig.
12.8.
in
Fig.
12.9.
of Regular
of
Figures
Fig.
12.11.
space
isomorphic
S4. [Hint:
A rotation of the
cube
permutes
center
of the
cube.]
PART
Homomorphisms
and
III
Factor
Groups
Homomorphisms
Factor
Section
13
Section
Section
14
15
Groups
and
Simple
Groups
Section
16
on
a Set
Section 17
of GSets
to Counting
section
13
Homomorphisms
StructureRelating Maps
Let
and
G' be
of G
groups. We
the
are
interested
structure
about
to
group
structure
to
G'
often
one
G *'\342\226\240 \302\247
about
the
of the groups from known structural of the other. An isomorphism properties of such a structurerelating map. Ifwe know G', if one exists, is an example
know
that
0 is
an
isomorphism,
G', for it
maps, that
we immediately
know all
consider
about
is structurally
weakening
more
the maps
an isomorphism
purely
settheoretic
portion
of
of G
our
of an
do with
algebra
property of
the
binary
operations
and of
binary
G'. The
which
is the
focus of our
those conditions are to isomorphism, and have nothing are what give us the binary operations
now
study
the
in this
an isomorphism 0 of a
related to
into
make.
13.1 Definition
map
group G
a group
G' is a
homomorphism if
the
homomorphism
property 4>{ab) =
4>{a)(j>{b)
(1)
e G.
only for for the
B
Sections 17 and 36. remainder of the text.
Section
16 is a prerequisite
125
Part III
Homomorphisms
and
Factor
Groups
Let us
product
now
examine
the
requirement
lefthand
side
side takes place in G'. Thus Eq. (1) gives a relation between the two group structures. operations, at least one homomorphism <f> : G \342\200\224>\342 For any groups G and G', there is always G'', e' is the the trivial homomorphism dennedby 0(g) = e' for all g e G, where namely e' = e'e'. No information (1) then reduces to the true equation identity in G'. Equation from the other group this trivial the structure of G or G' can be gained about using
on
the righthand
betweenthesebinary
an
example information
homomorphism
<f>
mapping
Let \302\247 : G
then
\342\200\224>\342\226\240 G' be a
G'
must
of G onto
We
G'.
We claim that if
e G'.
G is abelian,
is Since\302\242
must
show
G', there exist a,b e G such that we have ab = ba. Using property (1), = b'a', so G' is indeedabelian? 4>{b)4>{a)
onto
Example
is abelian,
4>{ab) = 4>{ba) =
\342\226\
13.16
about
will give
G via
an
illustration
give information
homomorphisms
a homomorphism
showing : G \302\242
\342\200\224>\342\226\240 G''. We
for
specific
groups.
n
13.3 Example
symmetric
group on
letters,
and let
even odd
: Sn \302\242
\342\200\224>\342\226\240 Z2 be
denned
by
_ JO if a is an 11 if a is an
Show that 0
Solution
permutation, permutation.
is a homomorphism.
that \302\242(0(/)
+ \302\242(0)
for \302\242((/,)
equation amounts
all choices
is written
of a, (i
additively
Note S\342\200\236.
that
the
righthand
side of
this
Verifying
(i odd, (i even, (i odd, (i even. case,
this equation
to checking
place
a odd and
a odd a even a even Checking
and and and
the
first then
if a
and
/x
can
both
be written
product
transpositions,
cr/x can
be written
\302\242((/)
as the
1 +
of an
in
Thus \302\242(0(1) =
similarly.
0 and
+ \302\242(0)
1 =
Z2.
as a product of an odd number of even number of transpositions. The other cases can be checked
\342\226\
13.4
Example
(Evaluation
ffi
into
ffi,
let
0C :
Recall value
F ^that, at x
Let F be the additive group of all functions mapping and let c be any real number. Let group of real numbers, ffi be the evaluation defined by 0C(/) = f(c) for f e F. homomorphism f + g whose by definition, the sum of two functions f and g is the function we have is f(x) + g(x). Thus
Homomorphism)
ffi
be
the additive
8) =
\302\242,(/)
$c{g),
(1) is satisfied,so we
a homomorphism.
\342\226\
Section
13
Homomorphisms
127
13.5 Example
Let E\"
group n
be is of
the additive
factors.)
0(v) = Av E\", matrix algebra shows that 0(v + w) = A(v + linear such a map computed by multiplying algebra, matrix A is known as a linear transformation.
13.6
with n realnumber components. (This vectors group of column course isomorphic to the direct product of E under with itself for addition Let A be an m x n matrix of real numbers. : E\" \342\200\224>\342\226\240 Em be denned by Let \302\242) for each column vector v e E\". Then 0 is a homomorphism, since for v, w e
w)
Av +
a column
0(w).
left
In
by a
\342\226\262
Example
multiplicative if and
group
have
of all invertible
det(A),
x n
matrices.
only if its
determinant,
is nonzero.
matrices
A, B
e GL(n. E) we
det(AB)
= det(A)
det(fi).
is a homomorphism
numbers.
mapping GL(n,
are often
E) into
the
multiplicative
group
\342\226\262
of a group
into
itself
of G. 13.7 Example
a nontrivial
the
structure
itself.
Let r e
Z and
let
: Z \302\247r
n)
>\342\226\240 Z be
denned
rm
by
rn for all n
4>r{n)
e Z. For all m,
and
e Z,
r(m
n) =
rn = 4>T(m) +
<j>\\
so0,
is a homomorphism.
0_i
is the trivial
in
homomorphism,
is \302\242,. not
is the
identity
map,
maps
Z onto
\342\226\262
Z,
the map
onto Z.
Example
direct product of groups.The projection map Ttj 7tj(gi. gi. gi is a homomorphism for each \342\226\240 i = n. 2. \342\200\242 This follows immediately from the fact that the binary operation of G \342\200\242. 1, coincidesin the i\\h component with the binary operation in G,\342\226\240. \342\226\262
x
= Gi
:
G2 x
\342\200\224>\342\226\240 G, where
13.9
Example
Let F
additive
be the
group
additive
group
of real
of continuous functions with domain [0, 1] and numbers. The map a : F \342\200\224>\342\226\240 a{f) = fQ E defined by
let
E be
the
for
f(x)dx
f efisa
homomorphism, for
+ \302\260U
8)=
Jo
(f +
8){x)dx = I
Jo
+ [f{x)
g(x)]dx
Jo
f(x)dx
+ /
Jo
for all f, g
e F.
Modulo
remainder
13.10 Example
(Reduction
n)
Let
given
be
the natural
map of Z
algorithm
into
Z\342\200\236 given
by y(m)
by
where r is the
that
y
by the division
when
m is
divided
n. Show
is a
homomorphism.
show
Solution
We need to
that
y(s+t)
for
= y(s)
we let
qxn
+ y(t)
s, t
e Z. Using
the
division
algorithm,
5=
ri
(2)
128
Part III
and
t =
q2n +
r2
(3)
where
0 < r,
<
for
i =
1, 2. If
n + for 0 < r3
<
r2
qin
+ r3
(4)
n, then
adding Eqs. 5+
t
(2) and
=
(3)
we see that
(qi +
q2 +
+ qi)\302\253
r3,
r3.
(3)
(2) and
we see that
y(s) =
y(t),
r\\
and
y(t)
= r2.
Equation
(4)
shows
that
y(s Consequently + t) =
of the different
is,
r2 in
is equal Z\342\200\236
to r3
y(s)
also.
+
so we
do indeedhave
a homomorphism.
\342\226\2
Each
That
three examples is a manytoone map. preceding of the map may be carriedinto the same point. it\\ :
\"L2
Consider, for
have
illustration,
homomorphism
Z4
>\342\226\240 Z2 in
Example
13.8 We
7^(0,
0) =
7Tl(0, 1) =
7^(0,2) = 7Ti(0,
0 in
3)
= 0,
so
four
elements
Composition
: G \302\242)
X2 by
Tt\\.
is
again
y :
G'
both group
(y 0
: \302\242)G
(y 0 0)(^)
y{4>{g))
That is, if homomorphism. homomorphisms then their composition for g e G, is also a homomorphism.
a group
(See Exercise
49.)
Properties
We
turn
to
G'
that
we
apply
13.11
Definition
Let 0
of
be a
mapping
into a set Y,
and
let A
c
the
and
BcF.
of 0.
in Y under
0_1[B]ofBinX is
The
0 is {0(a) a
{.x e
e A}.
The
set 0[X]
is
range
X  0(*)
e B}.
\342\226\2
first three properties of a homomorphism in the theorem that follows stated have been encountered for the special case of an isomorphism; namely, in Theorem already 28 of Section4, and Exercise 41 of Section 5. There they were 3.14, Exercise really obvious because the structures We will now see that of G and G' were identical. they if the maps are not one to one and onto. hold for structurerelating maps of groups, even We do not consider them obvious in this new context.
13.12 Theorem
Let 0 be a
1.
2.
homomorphism identity
of a group element
into
a group 0(e)
G'.
If e is the
If a
in G,
then
is the identity
element e'
in
G''.
e G,then0(a_1) = 0(a)\"1.
Section13
3. If H
Homomorphisms
129
is a
subgroup subgroup
of of
0[H] is a
subgroup
of
G'.
of
4. Loosely
If K' is a
G.
speaking, 0
homomorphism
preservesthe
of G
identity
inverses,
and subgroups.
Proof
Let 0 be a
into G'.
Then
on
in
element e'
G'.
we see that
e' =
0(e). Thus
0(e)
must
be
the identity
e' =
shows
that
Turning
0(a_1)
= 4>{a)~x.
(3), let
Then
the 4>[H].
<j>(a)<j>(b)
to Statement
two elements in
completes
operation
for Statement
of G, and let 0(a) and 0(fo) be any e 0[H]; thus, we see that 0(a)0(fo) of G'. The fact that e' = 0(e) and 0(a_1) = 0(a)1
subgroup
<j>(ab), so
of
the
proof
that 0[H] is a
way
subgroup
G'.
of G'. Suppose a and b are subgroup = The equation <j>{ab) e K' sinceK'is a subgroup. in0_1[.Sr'].Then0(a)0(fo) 0(a)0(fo) shows that ab e 0~' [\302\243']. Thus in G. Also, 0~' [.ST'] is closed under the binary operation
(4), let
K' be a
contain
7T,
so
Hence0_1[K1]
0 : G
e 0_1[.Sr'],
a1
then e 0_1[^'].
\342\231\246
\342\200\224>\342\226\240 G' be a
be the
identity
element
of G'.
Now
is a subgroup
of G',
so 0_1[{e'}] a is
subgroup
H of
G by
Statement
(4) in
Theorem
is critical
of homomorphisms.
Let
(f> : G 
G'
= e'} 13.5
be a
is
the
homomorphism
of
{x e
where
groups.
by
The
subgroup
0_1[{e'}] =
\342\226\240
(j){x)
kernel
of 0,
denoted
Ker(0).
the homomorphism 0 : E\" \342\200\224>\342\226\240by 0(v) = A\\ Em given In this context, Ker(0) is called the null space of A. It consists of all v e ffi\" such that Av = 0, the zero vector. Let H = Ker(0) for a homomorphism G''. We think of 0 as \"collapsing\" 0 : G >\342\200\242 onto e'. Theorem 13.15 that follows H down shows that for g e G, the cosets gH and Hg are the same, and are collapsed onto the single element is 0(g) by 0. That = ,?# = Hg. (Besure that you understand the reason for the uses of (), [], 4>~l [{0(g)}] and to symbolize We have attempted this collapsing in Fig. 13.14, {} in 0_1[{0fe)}]) where the shaded rectanglerepresents G, the solid vertical line segments representthe of H = Ker(0), and the horizontal cosets line at the bottom represents G'. We view of G, which are in the shaded 0 as projecting the elements rectangle, straight down of G', which onto elements are on the horizontal line segment at the bottom. Notice the downward arrow labeled at G and ending at G'. Elements of 0 at the left, starting H = Ker(0) thus lie on the solid vertical line segment in the shaded box lying over e', as labeled at the top of the figure.
Example
discussed
n
A is an m
matrix.
130
Part
III
Homomorphisms
'[(\"'ll
l,H
Hx
<*>%'}]
G'
a'
\302\242(6)
e'
ftx)
y'
\302\242.
13.14 Figure
Cosets
of H
collapsed by
let
13.15
Theorem
Let
G'
be a group
homomorphism,
and
\342\200\224
Ker(0).
Let a
e G.
Then the
set
01[{0(a)}]
= {*eG0(x) also
into
= 0(fl)}
Consequently,
same.
is the
partitions
left
coset
of
aH
G into
the two
Proof
We want to
show
that
{x e
G  <f>{x)
0(a)}
= aH.
There is a standard
way
to show that
show
that each
is a subset
of the
other.
Suppose
that
<j>(x)
\342\200\224
4>{a).
Then
0(a)~V(*)
= e',
where e' is
so we
the
identity
of G'.
By Theorem
13.12, we = e.
know
that
4>{a)~x
\342\200\224
4>{a~x),
have
0(01)^)
Since0 is a
homomorphism,
we have
4>{a~l)(p{x) =
But this shows that a~lx ah e aH. This shows that
is in
4>{a~lx),
H =
so
4>{a~lx)
e'.
Ker(0), so a~lx = h
00)
for
some
h e
H,
and
x \342\200
{x
&G\\
= 0(a)}
c aH.
Section
13
Homomorphisms
131
To
h
show
containment
in the
e aH,
so that
ah
for some
& H.
Then
(p(y)
so that
\342\200\224
(p(ah)
= 0(a)0(/j)
= 4>{a)e'=
4>{a),
y e {x We leave
e G  \302\242^)=
the
similar
0(a)}. demonstration
that {ieG
4>{x)=
4>{a)}
Ha
to Exercise
\342\231\246
52.
13.16
Example
Equation
that
\\z\\Z2\\
IZ1HZ2I
f\302\260r complex
numbers
of
value function 
under
 is a homomorphism onto
the
z2. C*
multiplication
group
M+ of
numbers
multiplication. complex
Since
{1} is a
subgroup
of
M+, Theorem
that
again
the
numbers
of magnitude
1 form
a subgroup
U of C*.Recall
and
the
the coordinate plane, as filling complex numbers can be viewed from the origin. Consequently, of a complex number is its distance
the magnitude
the cosets
of U are
onto its
\342\226\262
circles with
point
center
at the
of intersection
by origin. Each circleis collapsed with the positive real axis. from of Theorem13.15
this
homomorphism
We
give
an illustration
calculus.
13.17
Example
Let D be the
be the
additive
additive group
group of all
of all differentiable
\342\200\224*F, where
g)
\342\200\224
(/
+ g)'
/'
+ g'
\302\242(/)+
R, and let F differentiation gives us a see that 0 is a homomorphism, We easily the derivative of a sum is the sum 0(g);
functions
mapping
M into
into
M. Then
of
the
derivatives.
/' = 0, the zero constant function. Thus Ker(0) consistsof all constant functions, which form a subgroup C of F. Let us find in G mapped into x2 by \302\242, is, all functions whose derivative all functions that is x2. Now we know that x3/3 is one such function. 13.15, all such functions By Theorem
Now
Ker(0) consists
of all functions
/ such that
form
x^/3 +
C. Doesn'tthis
the
look
familiar?
\342\226\262
We
often use
following
corollary
of Theorem
13.15.
if Ker(0)
\342\200\224
13.18Corollary
Proof
group
homomorphism
0 :
G ^
G' is
a onetoone
map if and
only
{e}.
If Ker(0)
the into
a e G, the elements into \302\242(0) precisely are the mapped shows that \302\242 one to one. is a{e] = {a}, which Conversely, suppose is one to one. Now by Theorem 13.12, we know that 0(e) = e', \302\242 element is of G'. Since \302\242one to one, we see that e is the only element mapped identity = {e}. so e' by \302\242, Ker(0) \342\231\246
for
every
coset
In showing
view that
and
of Corollary a map 0 is
G'.
13.18, we modify
an
the
outline
given prior to
when
isomorphism
of binary
structures
the
are
groups G
132
Part
III
To Show
<f>:
G >
G' Is an Isomorphism
Stepl
Step
Show 0 is a
Step
G onto
G'.
Theorem
13.15
shows
left
that the
subgroup
We
H of
see in
G whose
will
Section 14 that
: G \302\247
\342\200\224*G' is
Hg for all g
can see
e G.
form that
group, as
way.
discussedintuitively in Section 10. Furthermore, we will of G onto this coset group appears as the kernel of a homomorphism
Such
and
a coset H then
subgroups
are
a group,
given
H whose left and right cosets coincide are very a special name. We will work with them a lot
useful
in
14.
\342\226\240 Historical
Note
subgroups
Normal Galois in
a given
radicals.
1831
polynomial
Galois
noted
by Evariste for deciding whether equation was solvable by that a subgroup H of a group
were
introduced
of
permutations
of
the roots
then
of
one
an
equation
has
as a tool
proper decomposition,
can solve
the given
equation if one
corresponding
can first
subgroup
the
solve
to the
and
of permutations induced two decompositions G into what we call left cosets and cosets. right If the two decompositions coincide,that is, if the left cosets are the same as the right cosets, Galois G of
corresponding to
Camille
cosets.
Jordan,
1865
called the
giving
decomposition
proper.
Thus a subgroup
although this
a proper
decomposition
is
what
we if
call
as on
page
group
his commentaries on elaborated on these He also defined normal without using the term, essentially and likewise gave the first definition
in
and 1869,
(page
normal
that
the
group
of a simple
149).
13.19 Definition
subgroup
of a group
G is normal if of abeliangroups
its
left
and right
cosets coincide,that
is,
if
gH =
tfgforallg
that
eG.
are
\342\226
Note
all subgroups
a group
normal.
13.20 Corollary
If
This
: G \302\242)
>\342\200\242 G' is
homomorphism,
from the last
then
Ker(0)
is a normal
subgroup of
G.
Proof
follows
Definition
immediately 13.19.
sentence in
the
statement
of Theorem
13.15 and
\342\231\
For any group homomorphism <f> : G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 G'', two things the kernel of \302\242, the image 0[G] of G in G'. We have and
importance: importance
of
Section
13
Exercises
133
S Ker(0).ection to
14 will
show
that
if
\\G\\
is finite,
of the
and
Exercise
\\G\\.
44 asks us
EXERCISES
13
Computations
In
The straightforward 1 through the given map 0 is a homomorphism. [Hint: 15, determine whether if we should to proceed is to check whether <p{ab) = <p{a)cp{b) for all a and b in the domain of 0. However, way happen to notice that 0_1 [{e'}] is not a subgroup whose left and right cosets coincide, or that 0 does not satisfy the properties given in Exercise 44 or 45 for finite groups, then we can say at once that 0 is not a homomorphism.] Exercises
1. Let0
\342\200\224y R under
addition be addition be
given given
by
cp(ri) =
n.
integer
2. Let0 R
\342\200\224>\342\200\242 Z under
3. Let0 R*
\342\200\224>\342\200\242 R* under
multiplication
by
< x.
4.
5.
Let0
given
cp{x)
= the
the
remainder of x when
remainder
divided
divided
by 2,
by by
as in
the
division
division
algorithm.
algorithm.
Let0
given by R is x
<p(x) =
additive
of x
when
2, as in
the
6. Let0
and
R* is
multiplicative, be given
by
<p{x) = 2J'.
x Gi
G, x
G, be given
injection
<f>{g)
0;(g,)
= (ex.
ei....,
gt
e G,
of Gj. This is an
G be : G >\342\200\242
map.
=
Compare
for g
with
Example
given by
of /.
g~'
&G,
additive
= \302\242(/)
mapping
R into
of all
orders.
Let
cp
F be : F \342\200\224>\342\200\242
F be the
and
additive
of
all
continuous
functions
R.
Let R
be
the
additive
group
of real
let
cp
R be : F \342\200\224y
given by
=
\302\242(/)
f/ /o
Jo with for
f(x)dx.
and
additive
group
of
all
functions n x
mapping
R into R,
real
3/.
be the M\342\200\236
additive group
of all
the
det(A),
n matrices determinant of A,
entries,
and let R
be the
additive
group
of real
A e M\342\200\236.
tr(A)
12. Let <p{A) = tr(A) the trace for A & Mn, where of A, from the upperleft to the lowerright corner.
is the
sum of
the
14. Let GL(n, R) be the multiplicative group of invertible n x n matrices, and let R be the additive group R be numbers. Let cp : GL(n, R) \342\200\224y given by cp{A) = tr(A), where tr(A) is defined in Exercise 13.
of real
15. Let
F be
the multiplicative
multiplicative 24, +
group of all
continuous
functions
mapping R
Let
into
R that
are nonzero
by
at
every =
x &R.
Let R* be the
In Exercises
real numbers.
quantities
R* be cp : F \342\200\224y
given
\302\242(/)
f0 f(x)dx.
16 through
the indicated
for
the given
homomorphism
cp.
(See
Exercise
46.)
: S3
Z2 in
<j>
Example 13.3
+
Z7 Zi0
and and
0(25) 0(18)
for
: Z
such such
= 4 = 6
for 0
: Z +
134
Part III
Homomorphisms
and
Factor
Groups
0(20)
for 0 for 0 :
: Z + Zl0
S&
such
that 0(1)
= (1, 4,2,
6)(2,5, 7)
20. Ker(0)
21. Ker(0)
and and
0(3) 0(14)
that 0(1)
= 8
= 5
and and
Z24 \342\226\272 Sg where 0(1) = (2, 5)(1,4, 6, 7) 22. Ker(0) and 0(3, 2) for 0 : Z x Z * Z where 0(1, 0) = 3 and 0(0,1) 23. Ker(0) and 0(4, 6) for 0 : Z x Z * Z x Z where 0(1, 0) = (2, 3)
for 0 : Ker(0)
0(0,
1) =
(\342\200\2241,5)
24.
and 0(3,
many
many many
10) for 0 : Z x Z ^
are there
are there are there
Sw
where onto
into into
0(1, 0) = (3, Z?
Z? Z2 ?
5)(2,4)
0(0,1)
= (1,
25. How
26. How
27.
homomorphisms
homomorphisms homomorphisms
of Z
of Z of Z
How
G. Let G be defined G be a group, and let g \342\202\254 0g : G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 a homomorphism? 0g G be 29. Let G be a group, and let g & G. Let 0g : G >\342\200\242 defined is 0g a homomorphism?
28. Let
by
<pg(x)
= gx
for x e
G. For
which
g e
G is
by
<j)g{x)
= gxg~l
for x e
G. For
which
geG
Concepts
In
Exercises
that
30 and
it is
definition
of the
italicized term
without
reference
to the
text,
if
correction
is
needed, so
30.
acceptablefor publication.
that
A homomorphism
is a map such
<p(xy) =
0(*)0(;y).
The
31. Let0
inG'.
:G
\342\200\224y G' be
a homomorphism true or
of false.
groups.
kernel
o/ 0 is
{* e
G\\
<j>{x)
= e'}
identity
32. Mark
each of the a.
following
subgroup of S\342\200\236. G and G', there exists a homomorphism of G into b. For any two groups G'. c. Every homomorphism is a onetoonemap. is one to one if and only if the kernel consists of the identity element alone. d. A homomorphism e. The image of a group of 6 elements under some homomorphism have 4 elements. (See Exercise may
is a normal A\342\200\236
of a group
of 6 elements
of some
under
a homomorphism
elements
may
have
12 elements.
g. There is a homomorphism
is a
into some group of 12 elements. group of 6 of 6 elements into some group of 10 elements. homomorphism of some groups homomorphism may have an empty kernel.
j.
In Exercises
is not
homomorphism
of some
finite
group
into some
infinite
group.
33
such
through
give an
example of a nontrivial
why <P <P
homomorphism
exists. If
33.
<j> <P <P
no
homomorphism
exists, explain
that Z12
is so. You
may
use
if an
example
Z12
34.
+ z4
*
35.
Z2 x Z4 Z3^S3
36.
z3
37.
38.
z^
S3
39. <P
Z x
Z^
Section 14
Factor Groups
135
Theory
44.
Let
<p
: G
+ G'
be a group
homomorphism.
Show
that if that
\\G\\
is finite,
then 0[G] is
finite
and
is a divisor
ofG.
G +
G' be a group
homomorphism.
Show
if
G'
is finite,
then,
\\cp[G]\\
is finite
and is a
divisor
46.
Let a group G be generated set and a, e Gforalh' e /.Let</> : G \342\200\224y G' some indexing by {a, \\i e /}, where/is = G' be two homomorphisms from G into and /x : G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 a group G', such that </>(\302\253,) /x(a,) for every i \342\202\254 I. Prove that cp = /x. [Thus, for example, a homomorphism of a cyclic group is completely determined by its value on a of the group.] [Hint: Use Theorem7.6 of course, Definition 13.1.] and, generator
Show that any group homomorphism or a onetoone map. cp :
47.
G +
must
either
be the
is
trivial
homomorphism
an
even
permutation
by
is +1
and
sign
of an
odd
permutation
\342\200\224 1. Observe
that the
map
sgnn(ff) = is a homomorphism
13.3.
sign
of a
multiplicative and if
is the
Example
49. Show
that
if G,
G', and
are
groups
<f>
: G
+ G'
and
y : G'
+
G\"
homomorphisms,
compositemap y<p : G + G\" is a homomorphism. H be a group 50. Let cp : G \342\200\224>\342\200\242 homomorphism. Show *)a_1;y_1 e Ker(0).
that
0[G]
is abelian
if
and
only if
for
all
x, y
51. Let
52.
of G. Let <f> : Z + G be defined any group and let a be any element by homomorphism. Describe the image and the possibilities for the kernel of \302\242.
G be
(j) :
0(\302\253)
= a\".
Show
0 is a
Let
<t>{a)}
G + = Ha.
G' be a homomorphism
Let h,k
with
kernel
H and
let a
e G. Prove
the
set equality
{x e
G  (j>{x)
53. Let
54.
e G and let <f> : Z x Z >\342\200\242 defined by 0(m, n) = /jmfc\". Give a necessary and G be h and k, for 0 to be a homomorphism. Prove your condition. condition, involving Find a necessary and sufficient condition on G such that the map \302\242) described in the preceding exerciseis a for all choices of h, k e G. homomorphism
G be a
group,
sufficient
55. Let
your
G be a
0<i
< n. Give
group,
h an
element of
a necessary
: Z\342\200\236 G, and n a positive integer. Let \302\247 + G be defined by 0(i) = h' for and sufficient condition (in terms of h and n) for 0 to be a homomorphism. Prove
assertion.
section
14
Factor
Groups
subgroup element
Let H be a
of G,
listing
group G. Supposewe
and
write
a table
they
for
the
group
operation
at the top
at the
left as
of
occur
in the left
cosets of
table may break up into blocks to the cosets (Table 10.5), giving a group on the cosets, or they corresponding operation not break up that way (Table 10.9). We start this section by showing that if H is the may kernel of a group homomorphism that left G', then the cosets of H (remember 0 : G >\342\200\242 and right cosets then coincide) are indeed elements of a group whose binary operation
We
H.
illustrated
in Section
the
is derived from
the
group
operation
of G.
136
Part III
Homomorphisms
and
Factor
Groups
from Homomorphisms Let G be a group and let S be a set having the same cardinality *> toonecorrespondence between S and G. We can use *> to
Factor
Groups
as G. define
operation
on S, making
S into
to renameeach
if x
a group isomorphic to G. Naively, use the correspondence we simply of G by the name of its corresponding element in S. element (under \302\253\302\273)
the
We can describeexplicitly
\302\261* gi
computation
of xy for
and
x,y e
S as
then
follows: xy
and
y *>
g2
z *>
g\\g2,
= z.
(1)
The direction
gives
\342\200\224\302\273\342\200\242 of the
onetoone
/x
us
a onetoone
inverse
function
function
gives us the
for
s & S and g e G correspondence s ^ g between ^ of *> S onto G. (Of course,the direction /x_1). Expressed in terms of /x, the computation (1) of xy mapping
ijei
becomes
and
if/i(x) = gi
/x(;y)
= g2
and
(i(z) =
gig2,
then
*;y
= z.
(2)
onto the
required
an isomorphism mapping the group S The map /x : S \342\200\224*G now becomes = /x(z) = g\\g2 = /x(*)/x(;y), the (2), we obtain ^{xy) groupG. Noticethatfrom property. G' be and let H = Let G and G' be groups, let <j> : G >\342\200\242 a homomorphism, = aH = Ha. We Theorem 13.15 shows that for a e G, we have 0_1[{0(a)}] of H in G and elements cosets onetoone correspondence aH *> 0(a) between
homomorphism
Ker(0).
have
of the
x = ah for some h & H, then that if x e aH, so that subgroup 0[G] of G'. Remember = = of 0[G] 0(;t) = 0(a/j) = 0(a)0(/j) 0(a)e' 0(a), so the computation of the element corresponding to the coset aH = xH is the same whether we compute it as 0(a) or as Let us denotethe set of all cosets of H by G/H. (We read G/H as \"G over H\" or (j>{x). as \"G modulo H\" or as \"G mod H\" but never as \"G divided by H\ In the preceding a homomorphism G' having with : G \302\242) \342\200\224*paragraph, we started kernel H, and we finished with the set G/H of cosets in onetoone correspondence with the elements of the group In our work above that, we had a set S with elements 0[G]. in onetoone correspondence with a those of a group G, and we made S into a group isomorphic
to G with
that
0[G]
that
in
construction,
isomorphism
Replacing
S by
be
G/H
0[G],
to
a group
the
G by G/H and replacing isomorphic to 0[G] with (2) of the product computation
(xH)(yH)
for xH,
if fi(xH)
then
yH e
G/H becomes
and
= (j>(x)
(xH)(yH)
ix(y
H)
(j>(y)
and
fi(zH)
= (j>(x)(j>(y),
= zH. we
in
(3)
can easily
find
But because
4>(x)4>(y)\\
0 is
homomorphism,
z e
G such
that
ii{zH)
namely,
we take
z = xy
G,
fiizH) =
This shows
that
n(xyH) =
= cosets
0W0(y). is the
the
product
and
of x
y in
coset (xy)H
that
contains
to
computation
of (xH)(yH)
may seem
choices x from xH
again
here
and
of xH
our work above shows it does not. because it is such an important e H so that point. lfhi,h2 there exists hj, e H such yh2 is an element of yH, then
y from
yH,
Section 14
Factor Groups
137
that
h\\y
= yh3
because Hy =
yH by
=
Theorem
13.15.
Thus we have
\342\202\254 (xy)H,
(xhl)(yh2) =
so we
x(Iny)h2
x(yh3)h2
= (xy)(h3h2)
product
cosets is accomplished of the cosets, the coset in G of the choices. that contains the product Any time we define something (like a to show that it is well defined, which in terms of choices, it is important means product) that it is independent of the choices made. This is precisely what we have just done. We this work in a theorem. summarize
the
obtain
same
coset.
Computation
of
the
of two
by
choosing
an element
taking,
as product
14.1 Theorem
Let
: G \302\242)
\342\200\224*G' be
a group
a factor
group,
G/H.
with
kernel
H. Then
the
{ab)H.Also,
map
G/H and
= 4>{a) is an isomorphism. Both cosetmultiplication defined by /i(aH) a and b from the cosets. defined, independent of the choices
well
14.2Example
map
where Z\342\200\236, y : Z \342\200\224>\342\226\240 y{m) is the remainder when with the division algorithm. We know that y is a
= nZ. By Theorem 14.1, homomorphism. Of course, Ker(y) to The group Z/nZ is isomorphic Z\342\200\236. cosets of nL are the residue example,taking n = 5, we see the cosets of 5Z are
we see that
classes
the
factor
modulo n.
For
5Z=
1+5Z={
10,5,0,5, {\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242
10
9,4,
1,6, 11,
2 +
5Z=
5Z=
/x :
8,3,2,7, 12,
3+5Z=
4 +
Note
7,2,3,8, 13,
Theorem
=
6,1,4,9,14,
/x(5Z)
that
its
Z/5Z
5Z
smallest
element.
That is,
0,
coset
of
\342\226\262
It is (add)
them
two
and
very important that we learn how to compute in a factor group. We can multiply cosets by choosing any two representative elements, multiplying (adding) the resulting product (sum) lies. finding the coset in which
factor
14.3
Example
Considerthe
(4
group
Z/5Z
and
with the
finding add these
5Z)
by
choosing 2
4,
2+4
1 +
in 4
We can that 27 in
add (2 +
6 is
in
5Z) +
coset
\342\200\22416 \342\226\262
the
2+
5Z and
= 11is alsoin
coset
1 +
5Z.
factor groups L/nL in the preceding example are classics. Recallthat we refer n. Two integers cosets of nL as residue classesmodulo in the same coset are is carried over to other factor groups. A factor congruent modulo n. This terminology called the factor group of G modulo in the same H. Elements group G/H is often H. By abuse of notation, coset of H are often said to be congruent modulo we may as the and of sometimes write Z/nZ = Z\342\200\236 think of Z\342\200\236 additive group of residueclasses
to the
Z modulo
(n), or
abusing
notation
further,
modulo
n.
138
Part III
Homomorphisms
and
Factor
Groups
Factor
Groups
So far, we have obtained factor groups from homomorphisms. Let G be a group and only let H be a subgroup of G. Now H has both left cosets and right cosets, and in general, a left coset aH need not be the same set as the right coset Ha. Suppose we try to define
a binary
operation on
left
cosets
by defining
(aH)(bH)
= (ab)H
4 attempts
(4)
to define left
as in
by
it
the
statement
of Theorem
14.1Equation
and
coset multiplication
meaningless
elements
b from
the cosets.
the
Equation
4 is
unless
a and b
independent of
that
representative
chosen from
binary
cosets. if and
The theorem
follows
shows
that Eq.
of G.
4 gives a welldefined
operation
subgroup
14A Theorem
Let H be a
equation
subgroup
of a group
coset
multiplication
is well defined
by
the
(aH)(bH)
= (ab)H
G. on left
use
if and
Proof
only
if H
that
is a normal
(aH)(bH)
want
subgroup
of
a e G. We
we have Let x&aH. a^&a^H, Choosing representatives x e aH and (xH)(a~lH) = (xa~1)H.On the other hand, choosing representatives a e aH and = eH = H. Using our assumption a'1 e a~lH, we see that (aHXa^H) that left coset = h e H. Then is well defined, we must have xa~l by representatives multiplication x = ha, sox & Ha and aH c Ha. We leave the symmetric proof that Ha c aH to Exercise 25. turn now to the converse:If H is a normal We then left coset multiplication subgroup, is welldefined. Due to our hypothesis, we can simply say cosets, by representatives to compute (aH)(bH). omitting left and right. Suppose we wish Choosing a e aH and
b e bh2
technique of showing
= (ab)H does give a welldefined binary to show that aH and Ha are the same that each is a subset of the other.
operation
set.
We
the
bH, we
h\\b
obtain
the
coset
{ab)H.
=
Choosing
We
different
representatives
ah\\
e aH
same
and
\342\202\254 we bH,
coset ahibh2H.
h\\b
must
hj,
show
e
Now
= \342\202\254 Hb
bhj, for
a(h\\V)hi
some
=
are the
coset.
(ahi)(bh2)
and
a(bh3)h2
(ab)(h3h2) Theorem
\342\202\254 (ab)H.
Therefore,
ah\\bh2
is
in
(ab)H.
\342\231\24
14.4
binary
welldefined
with
of H
whether
coincide,
the
then
cosets
such
coset multiplication.
14.5 Corollary
Let
be a normal
binary
cosets
of H form a
group
G/H
under
the
\342\226\26
Section
14
Factor
Groups
139
Proof
Computing,
(aH)[(bH)(cH)]
= (aH)[(bc)H]
[(aH)(bH)](cH)
G.
the
Because
identity
= [a(bc)]H,
in
and
similarly,
we
have
G/H
=
(ea)H
in G/H.
thata^H
the
Finally,
(a~lH)(aH)
(aH)(a~lH)
= {aHTx. corollary
14.6
Definition
The group
G/H
in
preceding
is
the
factor
group
(or quotient
group) of
\342\226\240
G by
14.7
H.
Example
nZ is a normal subgroup. Corollary 14.5allows us to Since Z is an abelian group, construct the factor group with no reference to a homomorphism. As we observed Z/nZ \342\226\262 in Example 14.2, Z/nZ is isomorphic to Z\342\200\236.
14.8
Example
under
addition,
and let
c e
E+. The
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242.
cyclic
subgroup
(c)
2c, 3c,
Every
coset
one elementof
the
x such
that 0
in
<x <
E/(c),
c. If
we
choose
these
cosets
when computing
the
we find that
we are
1.
sum
modulo
c as
the
discussedfor
sum
For example, if
c=
computation
in Ec
in
Section
5.37,then
of the
is
the
coset
8.07
with
Working
these
cosets 4.65 + (5.37)nd 3.42 + (5.37) a  5.37 = 2.7,which is 4.65 +5.37 3.42.
x < c, we
thus
see that
the
group
Ec
of
Example
to 4.2 is isomorphic
E/ (c)
under
an
isomorphism
all x e
numbers
Ec. Of
have
course,
of magnitude We
= x
+ (c) for
U of
complex
\342\226\262
1, 3,
4,
Z/(\302\253)
is
isomorphic
to the
integers
group
and Z\342\200\236,
as a set,
set of
nonnegative
less
than n.
Example 14.8
E/(c) is isomorphic to the group Ec. In Section 1, we choosethe than the conventional [0, c) for the halfopen interval of nonnegative less than c. We did that to bring out now the comparison real numbers of these factor groups of Z with these factor groups of E.
that
the group
notation
Ec rather
The Fundamental
We
Homomorphism Theorem
factor G/H
have
seen
(Theorem
to a
natural
G' gives rise to a natural : G homomorphism \302\242) \342\200\224*We now show that each factor group 14.1), namely, G/Ker(0). H as kernel. homomorphism having
that every
group
gives
rise
14.9Theorem Let H be a
homomorphism
normal
subgroup
of G. Then
: G
G/H
given
by
y(x)
= xH is a
with kernel
H.
Proof
Let x, y
G. Then
y(xy) =
(xy)H = (xH)(yH)
y(x)y(y),
Part
III
G/H
14.10 Figure
so
is a
y is indeed
homomorphism. H.
in
Since xH
= H if
an
only
if x
\342\202\254 H, we
kernel of
\342\231\2
We
then
have seen
Theorem
14.1 that if
\342\200\224>\342\226\240 where n(gH) G/H 0[G] that defined by y{g) y : G * G/H these groups and maps. We see that
/j,:
and
jx
is
with kernel H, G' is a homomorphism 0 : G \342\200\224>\342\226\240 = 4>{g)is an isomorphism. 14.9 shows Theorem = gH is a homomorphism. Figure 14.10 shows the homomorphism \302\247 be factored, 0 = fiy, can an isomorphism of G/H with 0[G]. We state this
14.11
Theorem
(The Fundamental
homomorphism
Homomorphism
Theorem)
Let
<f>
G' be : G \342\200\224*
a group
with
kernel
H. Then
isomorphism.
is an
0(g)
= /xy(g)
/x : G/H
by
by
the homomorphism
to as a natural 14.11 is referred or canonical are used to describethe homomorphism y. There isomorphism, but the maps be other isomorphisms and homomorphisms for these same groups, may with are uniquely determined by Theorem 14.11. /x and <f> and y have a special status In summary, every homomorphism with domain G gives rise to a factor group G/H, and every factor group G into gives rise to a homomorphism mapping G/H G/H. isomorphism
and
the
Homomorphisms
how
and
factor
groups
are closely
related. We
give
an example
indicating
useful
this relationship
the
can be.
to the
14.12Example Solution
Classify
generated
The Z4 group
group abelian
(Z4 x groups
fundamental
theorem of finitely
projection x Z2
map
it\\ : Z4
kernel
by
it\\{x,
y)
= x
onto Z4 with
{0} x
we Z2. By Theorem14.11,
know
is isomorphic
to Z4. and
\342\226\2
Normal
We
Subgroups some
an
Inner
Automorphisms
subgroups,
derive
with
alternative way to
characterizations of normal
which
and
us
easier
check normality
than
finding
the
decompositions.
Section 14
Factor Groups
e H for all g
claim & H.
141
and
Suppose
that
is a subgroup
of G
e H}
obtain
and
such
that
heH.
Then gHg~l
gHg~l
g1
= H. We
/i
= {ghg~l\\ h
show
ghg~l
e G
that
all
c H for all g
for
e G. We
must
that H
c gHg~l
all g
in the
relation ghg~l
=
that
e H, we
Consequently,
Suppose
and
ghig~l = Hg gH
e gHg~l,
e G. Let h = g~lhg
hi
for all g e
G. Theng/j
G,
/ii g,
that
so ghg^1
gHg^1 so
that
e H for
h\\g
e G
&
all
A e
Conversely,
preceding
paragraph,
this means
then
g~'/jg
= H g/j =
/jg
for all g
e
G.
gH c
Hg.
also,
ghg~1 = hi = h2, so
Hg,
and
= gh2
and Hg
gH.
We
summarize
our work
as a theorem.
14.13Theorem
The
following
subgroup
are three
of
equivalent
conditions
for a subgroup
H of a
group
to be a
normal
1.
G.
all all
g e g
G
&
and
A e
H.
G.
Condition
(2)
14.13 is
often
taken
as the
definition of a
normal
subgroup
H of a group
G.
abelian
so, of
14.14Example
Every
subgroup
H of an
and
group
is normal.
h
We need
e H
only
note
that
for
all h
e H
all g & G,
course, ghg^1 =
gh =
all
hg
for all g
e G and
&
H.
\342\226\262
Exercise
29 of
the
map
is a homomorphism of G into itself. We see that is one to one. Since g(g~lyg)g~1 = y, we see that ig of G with itself.
by and
^(x)
= gxg1
is onto
G, so it
14.15
Definition
An isomorphism 0
automorphism
automorphismof
:G
\342\200\224*G of
a group
ig : G G by
\342\200\224*G, where
g. Performing ^ on x is calledconjugation
of conditions
^(x)
of G. The
\342\226\240
by g.
(1) and (2) in Theorem 14.13 shows that gH = Hg = Hforallg e G, that is, if and only if His invariant for all g e G if andonly if ig[H] = H is an all inner automorphisms of G. It is important to realize that ig[H] under = h for all h e H. That is ^ may perform in sets; we need not have a equation ig{h) G are nontrivial permutation of the set H. We see that the normal subgroups of a group K of G is under all inner automorphisms. A subgroup precisely those that are invariant = ig[H] for someg & G. a conjugate subgroup of H if K
The
equivalence
142
Part
III
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
14
Computations
In
Exercises
1 through
8, find
given
factor
group.
2.
1.
3.
Zfi/<3)
(Z4 x
(Z3
Z12)/\302\2532)
<2\302\273
(Z4 x Z2)/<(2,
(Z2 (Z2
1))
1)) A))
4.
x Z5)/({0}
x Z5)
5.
x Z4)/((l, x 53)/<(l,
7.
In
Exercises
9 through
Z12/(4)
order
of the
element
in
the
factor
group.
9. 5 + (4) in
11.
(2, 1) +
((1,1)) in
(Z3
x Z6)/((l,
1))
13. (3, 1)+ ((0,2))in (Z4 x Z8)/((0, 2)) 15. (2, 0) + ((4,4)) in (Z6 x Z8)/((4,4)) = 16. Compute iP] [H] for the subgroup H
26 + (12) in Z60/(12) 12. (3,1) + ((1, )) in (Z4 1 14. (3, 3) + ((1, 2)) in (Z4
10. of the
x Z4)/((l,
x Z8)/((l,
1))
2))
{po,
/xi}
group S3 of Example
8.7.
Concepts
In Exercises
17 through
it is
subgroup
19, correct
the definition of
for
the
italicized
term without
reference
to
the
text, if correction
is needed, so that
17.
in a form
H
A normal
A An What
normal
subgroup
publication. hG g~lhg
= Gh
for
all all
h e
H. H and G.
all
e H
for
h e
g e
G.
of a group
G is a homomorphismmapping
subgroup
G into
importance
to one
of a
group G?
factor
Students
write
to call attention
theoremsabout
subgroup
groups.
The next
two
exercises
are designed
21. A
student
is asked
proof show does should
to
show
that
if H
is a
normal
of an
abelian
group
G, then
G/H
is abelian. The
student's
starts
as follows:
We must
and
b be
two elements to
find
of G/H.
from
a. Why
b.
c.
What
proof
expect
nonsense
here on
in
the
student's
paper?
the student
Complete
torsion
the proof.
22.
A group is torsion order. group is a group all of whose elements have finite the only element of finite order. A student is asked to prove that if G is a torsion group, H of G. The student writes every normal subgroup We must show that each element of G/H is of finite Let x e G/H. order. Answer the same questions as in Exercise 21.
A
free if
then
the
identity
is
so is
G/H for
23. Mark
each of the a. b.
It
following
true or
false.
makes
sense
to speak
of an
of the
factor
group
G is a
group
if N
is a normal
subgroup
of the
group
G.
Every
subgroup inner
abelian
group
normal subgroup
must
of G.
map.
c. An
automorphism
of an abelian
be just
the identity
Section
14
Exercises
143
d. Every
e. Every
factor
group
group
of a
of a
finite
group
is again
of
finite
order.
factor
factor factor
factor
torsion group is a
group
torsion
group.
(See Exercise
22.)
f.
Every
group group
group
of a torsionfree of an abelian
group
is torsion is abelian.
nonabelian.
free. (See
Exercise 22.)
g. Every
h. Every
i.
of a nonabelian
group is
nR =
Z/nZ
R/nR
is cyclic
is cyclic
of ordern.
of order
n,
j.
Theory
where
{nr  r e
R] and
R is
under addition.
24. Show
that
is a A\342\200\236
normal subgroup of
of Theorem
find a known
of
group
to which
is S\342\200\236/A\342\200\236
isomorphic.
25. Complete
the
proof
14.4
multiplication (aH)(bH)
26. Prove
that
the torsion
by
showing
that
if if
is a
subgroup
a group of G,
G
that
and
if left
coset
subgroup
and
G/
T is
torsion such
27.
A that
subgroup ig[H]
G if
relation
there exists
on the
an
inner
automorphism
equivalence
terms
collection
they
of
subgroups
of
ig of G G.
28. Characterize
normal
subgroups
in find
by the conjugacy
relation
27,
subgroup
the all
of the
cells where
are
appear
in the
partition
given
29.
30.
Referring
to Exercise
conjugate
that
to {p0, /x2}
Let H
Show
be a normal
that any
of a group
G,
let
: H). Show
again
am e
for
every
a e
G.
31.
an intersection subset
[Hint:
of normal
group
subgroups G,
of a group
G is
a normal
subgroup of G.
smallest
32. Given
33. Let
S of a
Use
show
that it makes
normal
subgroup
that
contains S.
Exercise
31.]
G be a
group.
in
An element
G.
commutator
containing
of G that can be expressed in the form aba~lb~l for somea, b e G is a exercise shows that there is a smallest normal C of a group G subgroup the C is the commutator subgroup of G. Show that G/C is an subgroup
exactly
abelian
34.
group. if
Show
Show
that
that
a finite
group G has
N
one
subgroup
H of a
N is
given
order,
in
then H
is a normal
N
subgroup
of G.
Show
35.
if H
and
that
are
by
an example
HON
of a group
G,
in G.
and
normal
G, then
H n
is normal
in H.
be
normal
36. Let
G be a
for
group
containing
at least
normal
one subgroup
subgroup
of a
fixed
finite
order fact
s. Show that if
that
the
intersection
then
of
all
subgroups
of G
all
of order 5 is a
G.]
of G.
H has order s,
so does
x~lHx
x e
37. a.
Show
that
all automorphisms
of a group
G form
a group
function
composition.
b. Show that
the inner
function
automorphisms
of a group
under
composition.
normal
show
subgroup of the group of all automorphisms that the inner automorphisms do form a ie is
subgroup.]
the
set of all
g e
G such
that
the
identity
inner
automorphism
a normal
subgroup
of a group
G.
G'
be groups, and let H and H' be normal of G into G'. Show that 0 induces a natural is used constantly in algebraic topology.)
subgroups of G
homomorphism
and
G',
respectively.
Let 0
be a
c
: (G/H) 0\342\200\236
Part
III
Use
the
properties
det(AB)
\342\200\242
det(S)
and
det(7\342\200\236) 1 normal
for n
matrices
to show
the
following:
a.
The n
matrices
with determinant
with
1 form a
\302\2611 form
subgroup
b. Then
Let
x n
matrices
and
a normal
subsets
of GL(n,
let
dP{G)
e A,b
of all
of G.
A, B
e 3?{G), let us
define
the
product
a. b.
c.
this multiplication of subsets is associativeand has an identity element, but that i/\\ G) is not a under this operation. group of G, then the set of cosetsof N is closed under the above Show that if N is a normal subgroup operation on 2P(G), and that this operation agrees with the multiplication given by the formula in Corollary 14.5. Is Show (without using Corollary 14.5) that the cosets of N in G form a group under the above operation. its identity element the same as the identity element of 3\\ G)?
that
section
15
FactorGroup
Factor computation
groups
can be a
to grasp.
There is
nothing
like
a bit
to
of
understanding improve attempting concerning factor groups. Sincewe will be dealing with normal subgroups a subgroup of a group this section, we often denote G by N rather than throughout by H. the subgroup N acts as Let N be a normal of G. In the factor group subgroup G/N, element. We may regard N as being collapsedto a single element, either to 0 in identity additive notation or to e in multiplicative notation. This collapsing of N together with the algebraic structure of G require that other subsets of G, namely, the cosets of N, also collapse into a single element in the factor group. A visualization of this collapsing is providedby Fig. 15.1. Recall from Theorem 14.9 that y : G \342\200\224>\342\226\240 by defined G/N = aN for a e G is a homomorphism of G onto G/N. Figure 15.1 is very similar to y(a) the homomorphism under is actually formed Fig. 13.14, but in Fig. 15.1 the image group at the bottom of the figure as obtained by collapsing from G. We can view the \"line\" G/N each coset of N in another to a point of G/N thus corresponds copy of G. Each point to a whole vertical line segment in the shaded portion, representing a coset of N in G. It is crucial to remember that multiplication of cosets in G/N can be computed by in G, using any representative of the cosets as shown elements in the figure. multiplying
mathematics.
to strengthen
We start by
our intuition
i'
I I /~</\\T
I I
I I
aN
bN
(ab)N
cN
=(aN)(bN)
15.1
Section
15
145
two elements of G will collapse into the same element of G/N if they an element of N. Multiplicatively, a and b collapse by together if ab~v is in N. The degree of collapsing can vary from nonexistent to catastrophic. We illustrate the two extreme cases by examples.
Additively, differ 15.2
Example
Solution
The
trivial
subgroup
N =
{0} of
is,
of course,
a normal subgroup.
one all,
Compute Z/{0}.
element.
Since N =
the
{0}has
only
one Z is
cosets
are of
Z/{0}
15.3
~ Z. Each m
That is,
\342\226\262
and consequently,
simply renamed
in
Z/{0}.
.
Example
Let and
n be a it is
\\ r
is a subgroup
of E under
addition,
E/nl
x
Solution
A bit
of
thought
that actually
nE =
each E, because
e E nE.
has only
only
one element,the
identity element.
subgroup
n{x/n)
group
is
\342\226\262
of the
G As illustrated in Examples 15.2 and 15.3 for any group G, we have G/{e] of the identity e. where is the trivial element and G/ G ~ {e}, {e} group consisting only We would like knowledge These two extremes of factor groups are of little importance. about the structure of G. If N = {e}, of a factor group G/N to give someinformation G the factor has the same structure as G and we might as well have tried to study group structure to supply information If N = G, the factor has no significant directly. group about of G, then is a G. If G is a finite and N / {e}is a normal group subgroup G/N have a more simple structure than smaller group than G, and consequently G. The may multiplication of cosetsin G/N reflects the multiplication in G, since products of cosets can be computed in G representative elementsof the cosets. by multiplying We give two examples that even when has order 2, we may be able to G/N showing If G is a finite deduce some useful results. and G/N has just two elements, then group H containing we must have \\G\\ =2\\N\\. Note that every subgroup half the elements just of a finite group G must be a normal subgroup, since for each element a in G but not in both the left coset aH and the right coset Ha must consist of all elements in G that H, are not in H. Thus the left and right of H coincide and H is a normal subgroup cosets
of G.
15.4Example
Because
\\Sn\\
\\A\342\200\236 , we
Let a be
An
\"even\"
an
see that An is a normal subgroup of Sn, and Sn/An = in S\342\200\236, so that S\342\200\236/A\342\200\236 A\342\200\236}. {An, a Renaming
has order
2.
the element
A\342\200\236 \"odd,\"
the multiplication
in
shown in S\342\200\236/A\342\200\236
Table 15.5
becomes
15.5Table
(even)(even)
= even
(odd)(even)
odd
An
An
aAn
(even)(odd) = odd
(odd)(odd)
properties
= even.
for all
An
oAn
An
Thus the
Sn.
factor
aAn
oAn
group
reflects these
multiplicative
the
permutations
in
146
Part III
and Homomorphisms
Factor
Groups
that while knowing the product of two cosets in G/N does Example 15.4 illustrates us what the product of two elements of G is, it may tell us that the product in G of two types of elements itself is of a certain type.
not
tell
15.6 Example
(Falsity
of
the
Converse
of
of the Theorem
a finite
of Lagrange)
The
theorem
of Lagrange
H of G having
subgroup
order
group G, then the order of 77 divides the order of G. there must exist a subgroup that if d divides the order of G, then no that d. Namely, we show A4, which has order 12, contains
of order
15.4,
have
6.
Supposethat
Example
would
of order
(crH)(crH)
2,
77 were a subgroup of A4 having order 6. As observed before in of A4. Then A4/H it would follow that H would be a normal subgroup only two elements, H and crH for some a e A4 not in H. Since in a group we would have 7777 = 77 and the of each element is the identity, square = H. Now in a factor group can be achieved by computing computation
in
with representatives
the
original
a e H we
must
have
a2 e
H
A4
and
square of
every elementin
(1,2,3)
group. Thus, computing in A4, we find that for each each P e oH we must have is, the P2 e H. That must be in H. But in A4, we have
for
and
= (1,3.2)2
in and
(1,3,2)
= (1,2,3)2
so (1, 2, 3) and
(1, 3),
3, 2) (2, 3,
are 4),
H. (2,
A similar 4, 3)
the
(1,3,4), (1,4,
least
8 elements
We
in H,
contradicting
computation shows that (1, 2, 4), (1, 4, 2), are all in H. This shows that there must be at 6. \342\226 order fact that H was supposed to have
compute
its
now
turn to
generated
several examplesthat
and abelian,
factor group
then
factor
we
start
such
means classifying it
according
to the
15.7
Example
Let
us compute
Z4
H of
Z(,
((0, 1))is
the
cyclic
subgroup
H = {(0.), 0
Since
(0,
1), (0.
H have
Z4
x Zg
6 elements,
has
of H
is
must
have
order
abelian,
so is
compute
in a factor
notation,
by
means
of representatives
In additive
the
cosets
(2,0)
are
+ 7/,
(0,0) + 7/,
(1,0)+
7/,
(3,0) +
7/.
we Since can compute by choosing the representatives (0, 0), (1, 0), (2,0), and (3, 0), it is clear that (Z4 x Zg)/7/ is isomorphic to Z4. Note that this is what we would expect, since in a factor group modulo 7/, everything in 7/ becomes the identity that is, element; in 7/ equal to zero. we are essentiallysetting Thus the whole second factor everything \342\226 the first factor Z4. Zg of Z4 x Zg is collapsed, leaving just
Example
15.7 is a
acquire
We
should
an intuitive
element.
theorem
theorem
that we
in terms
now
state
and prove.
the
of collapsing one of
factors
to the
identity
Section
15
FactorGroup
147
15.8
Theorem
Let G
= HxK
~ H
in
be
the direct
is a
G/K
normal
subgroup a natural
of G. way.
and
K. to
Then
K in a
Proof
Consider
13.8). n2
the
homomorphism
7t2 : H
>\342\200\242 where K,
Because
Ker(7T2) = H,
we see that
us
is a normal
is onto
We
K, Theorem
14.11tells
that
(H x
K)/H ~
K.
\342\231\246
continue
it
how easy
is to
compute
groups.
in
To illustrate
the
whole
group, we
prove the
15.9 Theorem Proof
A
following
factor
group
of a cyclic
with
group
is cyclic.
Let G
the
be cyclic
aN
in
generator
a, and let N
be a
normal
subgroup
coset
generates
G,
computing,
in
all
G.
Hence
the powers
factor
of aN
group
certainly
give
of N
(0,
and
is cyclic.
\342\231\246
15.10
Example
Let us
compute the
(Z4 x
7/
2) generates
the
subgroup
= ((0,0),(0,2),(0,4)}
of Z4 x Z(, of order 3. Here the first factor Z4 of Z4 x Z(, is left alone. The Z(, factor, on the other hand, is essentially collapsed by a subgroup of order 3, giving a factor group in the second factor of order 2 that must be isomorphic Z2. Thus (Z4 x Zg)/((0, 2)) to to Z4 x Z2. \342\226\262 is isomorphic
15.11
Example
Let us
temptation
compute the
to
factor
group
say that
we are setting
the
3)). Becarefull
the
There
is a great
to
3 of Zg
both equal
isomorphic
that
zero,
so that
to one Note
to Z3, giving
((2, 3)) =
3)) has
to zero
{(0,
0),
(2,
3)}
6.
order 2, so (Z4
make
Z6)/((2.
Setting
doesnot
(2, 0)
so
the
factors
separately.
of order
factor
12 are
Z4
Z3 and
Z2 x
two
Z3,
and we
are most
decide
to which that
one
our
easily
distinguished
not. We
To find must,
the
by
claim the
groups
Z2
x Z2
(Z4
x Z3 does
x Ze)/H. 7/, we that is in
7/ is
of
order
smallest
power of a
representatives,
coset giving
find the
the
modulo
choosing
smallest powerof
+ (1, 0) +
a representative
subgroup
7/. Now,
4(1. 0) =
(1,
0)
(1, 0)
(1,
0)
(0, 0)
(Z4
is the first time that (1, 0) addedto itself gives an element of 7/. Thus of order 4 and is isomorphic has an element to Z4 x Z3 or Zj2.
x Z6)/((2,
3))
\342\226\262
148
Part
III
Homomorphisms
15.12
Example
11.12 the group (Z x Z)/((l, We (that is, classify as in Theorem may Z x Z as the points in the plane with both coordinates as indicated integers, of those points that lie on the the dots in Fig. 15.13. The subgroup ((1, 1)) consists by 45\302\260 line through the origin, indicated in the figure. The coset (1, 0) + of 1)) consists those dots on the 45\302\260 through the point (1, 0), also shown line in the figure. Continuing, lines we see that each coset consists of those dots lying on one of the 45\302\260 in the figure.
Letus
compute
1)).
visualize
((1,
We may
choose
the representatives
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242, (3,
0), (2,
(2,
0), (3,
0),correspond
of these cosetsto
precisely
is
compute of Z
in the
to the
points
on the
group (Z x
Z)/((l, 1))
A
isomorphic
to Z.
15.13Figure
Simple
Groups
As we
one feature of a factor group is that it gives whole Of course, sometimes there group.
10.10
any
be
no nontrivial
a group
of prime
order
Theorem proper normal subgroups. For example, can have no nontrivial of proper subgroups
shows
that
sort.
Section
15
FactorGroup
149
15,14
Definition
Theorem
group
is simple
if it is
An
nontrivial
and
has no
>
proper
nontrivial
normal
subgroups.
\342\226\240
15.15
The alternating
group
is simple
for
5.
Proof
\342\231\246
order 60 and
The
168, betweenthese
complete
groups other than those given above. For example,Ag is of of nonprime 360, and there is a simple group order, namely
determination and classification of all finite were simple groups Hundreds of mathematicians worked on this task from 1950 to 1980. completed. recently It can be shown that a finite has a sort of factorization into group simple groups, where are unique up to order. the factors The situation is similar to the factorization of positive The new knowledge of all finite integers into primes. simple groups can now be used to some problems of finite solve group theory. We have seen in this text that a finite abelian simple group is isomorphic to %p for some prime p. In 1963, Thompson and Feit [21] published their proof of a longstanding that is of even every finite nonabelian simple group conjecture of Burnside, showing strides toward the complete classification were made order. Further great by Aschbacher in the 1970s. Early in 1980, Griess announced that he had constructed a predicted \"monster\" simple group of order
904,
961,
710, 757,
005, 754,368,
000,000, 000.
of the classification in August 1980. The research entire classification fill roughly 5000 journal pages. paperscontributing We turn to the characterization of those normal Nofa subgroups group G for which is a simple group. First we state an addendum to Theorem 13.12 on properties of G/N
Aschbacher
added
the
final details
to the
homomorphism.
The
proof is left
to
Exercises
35 and
36.
G, then 0LV] then 0_1 [N']
Let \302\247 : G
is a normal
>\342\200\242 G' be
subgroup
a normal
subgroup
subgroup
of
of 0[G],
is a
normal
subgroup
of G.
be viewed as saying that a homomorphism G' : G \342\200\224*\302\247 subgroups between G and 0[G]. It is important to note that 0[iV] may in G', even though N is normal in G. For example, not be normal : Z2 \342\200\224*S3, where \302\242) = 0(0) = po and \302\242(1) /xi is a homomorphism, and Z2 is a normal subgroup of itself, but of 53. {p0, /xi} is not a normal subgroup We can now characterize when G/N is a simple group.
preserves
15.17Definition
A maximal
such
of a group G is a
subgroup
normal
subgroup
containing
M not
M.
equal
to
G
\342\226\240
N of
G properly
150
Part
III
Homomorphisms
15.18
Theorem
is a maximal
normal
subgroup
of
G if
and
only
if G/M
is simple.
Proof
Let M be a
y :
maximal
\342\200\224*G/M
given
G. Considerthe
y~l
subgroup
of
G/M
maximal,
so
this
Conversely,
containing M,
is a proper normal subgroup of can not happen. Thus G/M is simple. Theorem 15.16 shows that if N is a normal subgroup If also N / G, then then y [N] is normal in G/M.
y[N]
is
of
G properly
G/M
no
and
yW]
{M}.
such
y[N]
is
\342\23
Center
nonabelian
and
Commutator
G has
subgroup two
Subgroups
important
group
normal is denned
subgroups, by
all
the center
the
Z(G) of
word
and
the commutator
of G.
Z(G)
German
{z&G\\zg = gz for
G}.
Exercise 52 of
Section we
Gandz e Z(G)
subgroup
of
G. If
Z(G) is an abelian subgroup of G. Since for eachg e = zgg1 = ze = z, we see at once that Z(G) is a normal = G; in this case, the center is not useful. G is abelian, then Z(G)
5 shows that have
gzg1
15.19
Example
that
the
group
Exercise
shows ,\302\276
case of
= {e}, It may be that Z(G) examination of Table 8.8 example, so the center of ,\302\276trivial. is (This is a special {/?oK of every nonabelian group of order pq the center elements.
For
the
center
of S3
Zg
must
be
x {/\302\276}
^5,
\342\22
modulo
equal
to
to the commutator subgroup, recall that in forming a factor group a normal subgroup element in G that N, we are essentially putting every in the factor group. This indicates another e, for N forms our new identity
of is in use
N
for
the structure of a nonabelian information about the structure of all 11.12 group G. Since Theorem gives complete sufficiently small abelian groups, it might be of interest to try to form an abelian group as much like G as possible,an abelianized of G, by starting with G and then version that ab = ba for all a and b in our new group To require that ab = ba structure. requiring is to say that aba~lb~l = e in our new group. An element aba~lb~l in a group is a commutator of the group.Thus we wish to attempt to form an abelianized version of G of G by e. By the first observation of this paragraph, we by replacing every commutator to form the factor group of G modulo the smallest normal should then attempt subgroup we can find that contains all commutators of G.
factor groups.
we
are studying
15.20
Theorem
LetGbeagroup.Thesetofallcomrnutatorsafca1^1
(the
G. This
of
G,
G generates a subgroup normal subgroup of subgroup then G/N is abelianif and only if C <
fora, b e C is a
G.
N.
Section15 Exercises
The
151
Proof
commutators
that
G. Note
bab~la~l.
precisely
for all g
inserting
it is normal in C; we must show that certainly generate a subgroup of a commutator is again a commutator, (aba~lb~l)~l namely, Also e = eee~1e~lis a commutator. Theorem 7.6 then shows that C consists of all finite products For x e C, we must show that g~lxg e C of commutators. so is g~lxg e G, or that if x is a product of commutators, for all g e G. By the
inverse
e =
gg~l
show
is sufficient
to
occurring
that
in x,
g~1(cdc~1d~l)g
g\\cdcldl)g
= (glcdcl)(e)(dlg)
= (glcdcl)(gdldgl)(dlg)
=
[(g1c)d(glc)ld~l][dg1d1g],
which
C is normal
theorem
in
G.
of the
is obvious
in this
v groups. Onedoesn'tisualize
acquired the
out
that G/
(aC){bC)
= abC
= ab{b~la~lba)C
=
(bC){aC).
(a~1N)(b~lN)
= N, so
and G/N
aba~lb~l
is abelian,then
e N,
=
if
(aN)(bN)
= abN
= ab{b~laTlba)N
=
= (abb~la~l)baN= baN
15.21 Example
(bN)(aN).
For the
commutator S3/A3
that one commutator is /?i/xi/?j~'/x^' = = M2M3 = Pi Thus the find that paMiP^Vi\"1 = P2M1P1M1 C of S3 contains A3. Since A3 is a normal subgroup of S3 and
8.8, we find
Pi^iPi^i
\342\226\262
= A3.
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
15
Computations
In
Exercises
1 through
12, classify
the
given
group
according 2. (Z2
to
the
fundamental
theorem
of
finitely
generated
abelian
groups.
Z4)/((0,1)) Z4)/((l, 2))
1.
3. 5.
x (\302\276 x (\302\276
4.
6.
8.
x Z)/((0,
1))
(Z x Z x
x Z
9.
(Z
x Z
x Z4)/((3,
0, 0))
10. (Z
12.
x Z8)/((0,4,
11. (Z x Z)/((2,)) 2
(Z x Z
x Z)/((3,
3, 3))
152
13.
Part III
Homomorphisms
and
Factor
Groups
Find
both
the center
and
the
commutator
subgroup of Z3 x of S3 x
C of the
group
D4 of
symmetries of the
square
in
Table 8.12.
14.
Find
both both
commutator commutator
subgroup subgroup
53.
15. Find
D4.
16. Describe
the the
subgroup subgroup
of order < 4 of Z4 x Z4, and in each case classify the factor group of Z4 x Z4 modulo subgroups of Z4 x Z4 modulo by Theorem 11.12. That is, describe the subgroup and say that the factor group is isomorphic to Z2 x Z4, or whatever the case may be. [Hint: Z4 x Z4 has six different cyclic
by giving
Klein
((1, 0)).
of order
2.]
Concepts
In
Exercises
17 and
it is
definition
of the
italicized term
commute
\\a,b
without
reference
to the
text,
if
correction
is
needed, so that
17.
acceptablefor publication.
all elements
The center
of a
G contains
of G that
with every
element of G.
18. The
commutator
subgroup
following factor
19. Mark
each of the a.
Every
G is {a~lb~lab or false.
group
e G}.
of a cyclic
a noncyclic
has
is cyclic.
b. A
c. R/Z
d. R/Z under addition e. M/Z under addition f. If the commutator g. If G/H is abelian,
h. The commutator i. The commutator
group is again noncyclic. of order 2. has elements of order n for all n e Z+. has an infinite number of elements of order 4. G is {e}, then G is abelian. subgroup C of a group
no element
then
j.
In
All
nontrivial
subgroup of C of G contains H. subgroup group G must be G itself. G must be G itself. of a nonabelian simple group subgroup finite simple groups have prime order.
the commutator of a simple
Exercises
23, let F
all
be the
of F
consisting
additive
that
group
multiplicative
of
elements
do not of
into
R, and let
F* be the
F/K
of R.
of F
20. Let
21. Let
subgroup of F
the constant
functions.
Find
a subgroup
to
which
is
isomorphic.
K*
be
F*/K*
F* consisting
of the
nonzero constant
in F.
functions.
Find
a subgroup
of F*
order
to
which
22. Let K
or why
23.
be the not?
subgroup of
subgroup
continuous
functions
Can
you
find
an element
of F/K
find
having
2? Why
Let K*
having
be the
order
of F*
consisting of the
not?
continuous
functions
in F*.
Can you
an element
of F*/K*
2? Why
or why
let U
In Exercises
24 through
U. Show \342\202\254 group
26,
be
the
multiplicative
\\ z \342\202\254 U) is in
group a subgroup
{z
C \342\202\254  \\z\\
and
1}. U/zoU.
that
zqU =
{zqz
of U,
compute
we have
mentioned
the
text is
n e
U/{\342\200\224 1) isomorphic?
= f\342\200\236
cos(2jr/n)
+ i sin(2jr/n)
in the
where the
Z+. To what
group
group
we have
mentioned is
isomorphic? U/{!;\342\200\236}
To what group
mentioned
text is
additive
R/Z isomorphic?
Section 15
Exercises
153
28.
29.
Give
an
example
elements
of a group
are of
finite
G having
order.
no
elements
of finite
having
a factor
whose
Let H
G/H
group
G.
Give an
example
that
we may
while
30.
Describe the
a. abelian
center of every
group.
commutator
simple
group
subgroup
b.
31.
nonabelian
Describe the
of every
simple
a. abelian group
b.
nonabelian
group.
Proof Synopsis
32. Give
a onesentence most
synopsis of
the
proof
of Theorem
proof
15.9. 15.18.
a twosentence
synopsis of the
of Theorem
34. Show
35.
that
cj> :
if a finite
group G contains
group
a nontrivial
subgroup of
index
2 in subgroup
G, then G is not
of G.
simple.
that
Let
G >
G' be a
homomorphism,
and let N
be a normal
Show
cj>[N]
is normal
subgroup of 0[G].
36. Let
homomorphism,
and let
N' be a normal
subgroup
of G'.
Show
that
<j>\"1
[N1]
is a
37. Show
positive,
that
if G
is nonabelian,
37, show
that
then
38.
39.
Using
group G/Z{G) is not cyclic. [Hint: Show the equivalent G is abelian (and hence Z(G) = G).] cyclic nonabelian p and q are primes has a trivial group G of order pq where
the factor
then
contra
center.
Prove
the
steps
a.
b.
every 3cycle if n > 3. Show is generated A\342\200\236 by the 3cycles for {a, c){a, b) = {a, b, c).]
Show
n >
Note
{a, b)(c,
d) =
(a, c, b){a,c, d)
by the
n
and
c. Let
by
r and
5 be of the
3cycles
\342\200\242 is generated fixed elements of {1,2, \342\200\242 for n > 3. Show that A\342\200\236 \342\200\242, n} form (r, s, i) for 1 < i < n [Hint: Show every 3cycle is the product
\"special\"
of \"special\"
3cycles
computing
(r,s, j)(r,s,i)2,
(r. s, jf(r,
s,i),
5. i)2{r,
s, k)(r,
s, j)2(r,s, i).
N =
A\342\200\236. [Hint:
Observe that these products give all possible types of 3cycles.] for n d. Let N be a normal subgroup of A\342\200\236 > 3. Show that if N contains a 3cycle,then \342\200\242 n by that (r, s, i) e N implies that (r, s, j) e N for j = 1, 2, \342\200\242 computing \342\200\242,
Show
((r,s)(i,mr,s,i)2((r,s)(ij))1.]
e. Let N
be a
and conclude
subgroup
of A\342\200\236 for n
A\342\200\236.
> 5.
Show
that
one of the
hold,
154
Part
III
Homomorphisms
Case
N contains
Af
a 3cycle.
[Hint: ShowCT1(ai,
Casell
containsaproductofdisjointcycles,atleastoneofwhichhaslengthgreaterthan3.
the
Suppose
N contains
and
disjoint
product
a =
/x(\302\253i, 02,,0.,.).
02, a3)o{a\\,a.2,
Show
compute
contains
it.]
a disjoint
Caselll
product of the
N,
former
= (1(04,0$, = (i(a\\,
o~l(a\\,
a(a\\, a.2,a4)_1 is in
and compute
CaselV
Case
V
contains
[Hint: number
a disjoint product of the former Show a2 e N and compute it.] a disjoint of disjoint
product a of the former = (i(a3, 04)(01,02), where /x is a product of an even a 2cycles. [Hint: Show that o~Y(ai, C12, 3)a(a\\, ai, a3)~lis in N, and compute it to deduce that a = (02, 04)(01, a3) is in N. Using n > 5 for the first time, find i ^ a\\, a.2, a3, a4 \342\200\242 in {1, 2, \342\200\242 Let /J = (ai,a3, 0 Show that j}~xafia e A7, and compute it.] \342\200\242, \302\253}.
N contains
a normal
subgroup
of G. Let HN = {hn subgroup of G and let H be any subgroup of G, and is the smallest subgroup containing both N and H.
the
\\h e
H,n
that
&
N}.
Show
that
preceding
exercise,
let M
also be a
group
normal
subgroup
of G.
Show
NM
is again a
e ff
of G.
that
if H
e K.
subgroups of a
commutator
G such
hkh~lk~x
all
/z
section 16
tGROup
Action seen
on
a Set of
how the
We
have
examples
or of a
and section
groups
of a
triangle
so on. In
things,
like
the group
general
group
of symmetries
linear
action
of a cube, the
general
group
on a
notion of
counting.
Notion
2.1
of a
defines
S. The in S
function
a function
mapping S
and
xS
an element
si in S
an element
52 in
S.
sets where
A, B,
and C,
we can
a of
A
view times
a map
* :A
\342\200\224>\342\20 C as
any element
any element
some
element
c of
concerned
C. Of course, we write a * b = c, or simply with the case where X is a set, G is a group, We shall write *(g, x) as g * x or gx. action of G on X is a
map
b of B has as ab = c. In this
and
we have
16.1
Definition
Let
X be a
set
and
G a
group. An
*:GxI^I
such
that
\342\226
1.
ex =
x for all x e X,
for
= 2. (gig2)(x) gi(g2x)
Under these
all x
X and \342\202\254
all gu
g2
G.
conditions, X
is a
Gset.
This section is a
prerequisite only
for Sections
17 and 36.
Section 16
Group Action
on
a Set
155
16.2 Example
Let X be any
Then X is an Sx, so
that
set,
and
let H
be a
the
subgroup
of
the group
X
Sx of all
is
permutations
of element
X. of
//set, where
= o{x)
action
of a
e H on
its action
as
an
for all x e X. Condition 2 is a consequence of the of definition as function and Condition 1 is immediate from permutation multiplication composition, the definition of the identity as the identity function. Note that, in particular, permutation \342\200\242 is an \342\200\242 \342\226\262 set. Sn {1, 2, 3, \342\200\242, n}
ax
that for every Gset X and each g e G, the map = gx is a permutation of X, and that there is a homomorby ag{x) the action the Example 16.2action : G + Sx such that of G on X is essentially phism \302\242) of Sx on X of the image subgroup H = 0[G] of Sx on X. So actions of subgroups all possible actions on X. When the set X, actions using describe studying subgroups group G via a group action of G on X. a of Sx suffice. However, sometimes set X is used to study 16.1. Thus we need the more general concept given by Definition
Our
next
X
theorem
will
show
ag : X
+
defined
16.3 Theorem
For each g e G, the function ag : X + X defined for x \342\202\254 a permutation of X. Also, the map 0 : G + Sx defined by X is with the property that <j>{g){x) = gx. homomorphism
Let
be
a Gset.
by
og{x)
0(g)
= gx is a crg
Proof
To show
of
show that it is a onetoone map ag is a permutation of X, we must X. Then itself. Suppose that ag{x\\) = ag(xi) for x\\, X2 \342\202\254 gx\\ = gX2= g~1(gX2) Using Condition 2 in Definition 16.1, we see that g~l(gx\\) Consequently, = (g~1g)x2, so ex\\ = ex2 Condition 1 of the definition then yields x\\ \342\200\224 xi, (g_1g)xi so ag is one to one. The two conditions of the definition show that for x e X, we have = g(g~l)x = (gg~l)x = ex = x, soag maps X onto X. Thus ag is indeed a ag(g~Xx) that
X onto
permutation.
To show
show
that
that $ 4>{g\\g2) =
in
: G + Sx defined
4>{g\\)4>{gi)
by
4>{g) =
for
all gi,
g2
carry
&
G.
permutations
Using obtain
Sx
by showing
they both
ag is a homomorphism, we must the equality of these two into the same element. anieX
We show for
rule
the
two
conditions
in Definition
16.1 and
the
function
composition, we
0(gig2)(*)
agig2(x)
= (gig2)x
=
= gi(g2x) gi(Tg2(x) =
=
agt(ag2(x))
(\302\2760\302\276)^)
(\302\276\302\276)\302\276 (0(\302\243l)0(,g2))(*).
= gx.
property
of
follows \302\242)
at once
since
by
our
\342\231\246
from the preceding theorem and Theorem13.15 that if X is Gset, then of G leaving every element of X fixed is a normal subgroup NofG, we and of a coset gN on X is given by (gN)x = gx can regard X as a G/Nset where the action for eachx e X. If N = {e}, then the identity element of G is the only element that leaves every x & X fixed; we then say that G acts faithfully on X. A group G is transitive on
the
subset
a GsetX if
transitive
for
each
x\\,X2
\342\202\254 X, there
exists g & G
on
Exercise
We
49
if the
subgroup
X2
Note
that
G is
in
on
X, as
defined
continue
more examples
of Gsets.
Part III
16.4 Example
Homomorphisms
and
Factor
Groups
Every
group
G is where
the
action If H
multiplication.
That is,
as
16.5
an
//set,
gig2
on g2 e G by is a subgroup of
gi
e G
is given
also
by
left
G, we can
regard
G
A
Example
Let//be
for
a subgroup
and
g e G
/j e
of G. Then G is an //set under conjugation //. Condition 1 is obvious, and for Condition
(hih2)g(hih2r1
where
*(h,
that
g) =
hgh~x
2 note
*(hu*(h2,
*(hih2,
g) = this
hx{h2gh~^)h~x
g)).
abbreviation
We
always
write
action of
definition
H on G by
would
conjugation
as hgh\"x.
The
the
hg
described
before the
cause
terrible
confusion
with
group
operation
ofG.
16.6
\342\2
Example
For students who have studied vector spaces with real (or complex) scalars, we mention that the axioms (rs)\\ = r(s\\) and lv = v for scalars r and 5 and a vector v show that for the multiplicative group of nonzero the set of vectors is an R*set (or a C*set) \342\2 scalars. Let H
a Gset,
16.7
Example
be a
that
subgroup the
of action
where
Observe shows
Gsets
that
this
action
and g{yH)
= (gy)H
every
= = (gxh)H (gx)(hH)
is isomorphic to
let L# be the set of all left cosets of H. Then LH is = (gx)H. e G on the left coset xH is given by g(xH) = xh for some h e //, is well defined: if yH = xH, then y
G, and of g
=
(gx)H
may
= g(xH).
be formed
17.)
series
of exercises
left
Gset
one that
as building
using these
coset
\342\2
16.8
Example
Let G
described
in
be
the
group
{p0, p\\,
Fig.
p2,
Fig.
horizontal
that
pi
1, 2, 3, 4 as sides the and d2, vertical and si, 52, s3, s4, d\\ diagonals axes m\\ center point C, and midpoints P, of the sides 5,. Recall to rotating the square counterclockwise corresponds through ni/2 radians, /x,in Example 8.11. We also
h\\, the
S2]
the
square,
16.9
Figure
Section
16
Group
Action
on
a Set
157
16.10 Table
1
Po
2 2 3
Si \342\200\24251
S\\ S2 S3
S3
m\\ \342\200\24254 S4
m2 tn2
di
di di di d2 di di
dx
Pi
Pi Pi P3 P4
Pi
P3
P4 P4
Pi
4 1 2
4 1
2
S3
mi m2
Si
S3
Pi
Pi
Mi M2 Si S2
4 2 4 3 1
4 1 1 3 2
S4 Si S4
S4 Si s3
mi \342\200\24252 mi \342\200\242S3
Si \342\200\242S3
3 1
mi
2 1 3
Si Si S3
Si
S4
S4 Si
ffjT \342\200\242S3
mi m2 mi mi m2 mi
nil
di d2
Pi
p3
Pi
P4
di di
di
di
P3 P4
Pi
P4
Pi Pi P3
Pi
di
di
P3
Pi
mi \342\200\24251
di
di
Pi P4
Pi
P4
Pi Pi P3 Pi P4 P3
Pi
p3
Pi
corresponds
to flipping
X
on
the
axis
flipping
on di.
the diagonal
di. We let
{1, 2,
3, 4, si,
as a
52,
mi, mi,
d\\,
C, P\\,
ThenX can
action
be regarded
X
in \302\243>4set
a natural
way. Table
of D4 on
be
and
We should
sure
is given to provide geometric illustrations of ideas to be introduced. this table is formed before continuing. \342\226\262 that we understand how
Isotropy
Subgroups
be
Let let
a Gset.
Let x
&
X and
g e
G. It
will
be important
to
know
when
gx =
x.We
{x e 16.11 Example
gx
= x]
and
GA
{g e
gx
= x}.
For the
Z)4set
X in
Xpo=X,
XIM={sl,S3,mum2,C,PuP3}
Also,
with
= D4,
Gi = We leave the
Note
subgroups
lp0,S2},
of the
GJ3={po,Mi}other Xa
in and
Gdl Gx
= {p0,p2,Si,S2}.
computation
to Exercises
1 and
2.
in
\342\226\262
that
of
the
preceding
example
were,
each
case,
G. This
is
true
in general.
16.12 Theorem
Let X
be
a Gset.
Then Gx is a
g\\,
subgroup
of
G for
each ieX,
Proof
Let x
&
g\\{g2x) =
courseex
g~lx,
16.13
and
= Then g\\x = x and g2x = x. Consequently, (gig2)* e Gx, and Gx is closed under the induced of G. Of x,sogig2 g\\x operation = = = If g e Gx,then gx = x, sox Gx. (g~lg)x g~l(gx) e Gx. Thus Gx is a subgroup of G. \342\231\246 g~l consequently and
let
g2
e Gx.
x, soe e
and
= ex =
isotropy
Definition
Let X be a
Gset
let
&
X.
The
subgroup
Gx is
the
subgroup
of x.
\342\226\240
158
Part
III
Homomorphisms
Orbits
For
the
ZVset
X of
Example 16.8with
carried
the
action
table
in Table
same
16.10, the
under
elements
in the
by
subset {1,
Furthermore,
2, 3, 4} are
each of
the
into
elements
1, 2,
of
this
subset
action
Z)4.
elements
3,
and
the subset by
be partitioned
various
elements
of D4. We
type.
elements
of
can
Gset
16.14
Theorem
Let
gX\\
be
X2
a Gset.
Then
For
x\\,
~ is an
let
x\\
only
if there
exists geG
such
that
Proof
For
each
x e
X, we have
x\\ ex\\
(g~lg)xl =
Finally,
Suppose
if*
~ =
1
and
is reflexive.
Then
^2 ~
g~lX2
= g~~l(gxi)
X3,
thengi*i =
Then
(g2gi)xi
= g2(gixi)
\302\2432*2
*3, so *i
\342\202\254 G.
\342\231\2
16.15
Definition
Let X be a Gset. Each cell in the partition in X under G. Theorem 16.14 is an orbit of x. We let this cell be Gx. between
that that
of the
equivalence
cell
described
in
orbit
If x e
X, the
containing
x is
the
\342\226\2
The
relationship
the
appear
orbits
in
X and
heart
of the
applications
of a
in Section
of G
theorem
lies
gives
in
at
the
this
and
for
number
of elements
X,
Let X be a
divisor of
Gset
and let
leX.
Then
\\Gx\\
(G
Gx).
If
\\G\\
is finite,
then
\\Gx\\
is a
\\G\\.
Proof
We define
Let
left choice
x\\
Gx.
Gx e
onto
the collection
of left cosetsof
define
Gx
in G,
the
G such that
gi* =
*i. We
i/{x\\)
to be
coset
g\\ Gx
of g\\
must g\\x
show =
and giGA = g\\'Gx. = To show the map f is one to one, suppose & Gx, and \\jr(x\\) x\\,X2 = = ft^, and ,\302\276 gi Gx. Then there exist g\\, g2 e G such that x 1 e gi x. *2 some g e Gx, so ^2 = ^2^ = gi(gx) = g\\x = x\\. Thus \342\226\240f to one. is one
8i\\gix)
so g\\
= gil(gi'x),
which
e giG.r,
map ty is well defined, independent of the = g\\x, so xi. Suppose also that g\\x = xi.Then, g\\x = (gilgi')x. Therefore we deduce x g^x g{ e Gx, Thus the map ^ is well defined.
that this
^(\302\276). ,\302\276
Then
^1 g
for
Finally,
we
show
that each
left
coset
of Gx in
=
a'i e
Gx. Let giG* be a left coset. Then if g\\x maps Ga:one to one onto the collection of right
If \\G\\
is finite,
then the
equation
\\G\\
G is of the form ^f(^i) for some = x\\, we have g\\Gx i/r(xi). Thus ^ = (G : so \\Gx\\ cosets \\GX\\(G : Gx) shows that \\Gx\\ = (G : Gx)
Gx).
is a divisor
of IGI.
\342\231\2
Section
16
Exercises
159
16.17 Example
Let X be the
G
Z)4set
in Example
(G : GO
that
g\\
= Z)4,wehaveGl
=
should
= {1,
2, 3, 4}andG[= {p0,
the
into
cardinality
16.8,
with
action
table
S2}. Since
4.
remember
We
Gx.
not only
equation
16.16
but
also
the elements
Namely,
then gi\\g2x)
= gi(gx) = g\\x.
g\\X are
precisely
On
the
elements
of the left
coset
g\\x,
the other
hand, if g2x
x. Thus
g~lg2 e Gx so g2
e g^Gx.
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
16
Computations
In
Exercises
1 through
3, let
X
{1, 2,
3, 4,
action
S].s2,s3,s4,m\\,m2,
table
dud2,
C, Pu
the
be the
ZVset fixed
of Example sets Xa
16.8 with
in Table
16.10.Find
G2,
following,
= D4.
1. The
3. The
for each a
e D4,
that
is, X^
,XPi,,X^
is,
2. Theisotropy
orbits
subgroups in X
Gv for each x
&X,
that
Gj,
under D4
Concepts
In
Exercises it is
so that
4. A
4 and 5, correct the definition of the italicized term in a form acceptablefor publication.
on X if
on
without
reference
to the
text, if
correction
is needed,
5. A 6. LetX be a
Gset
X
and only if gx X
if
= x implies
that
g =
e.
a Gset
and
S for
subGset
of a
7.
8.
Characterize Mark
a transitive
Gset
true
in
terms or false.
of its
orbits.
each
of the
following
a. Every Gset is alsoa group. b. Each element of a Gset is left c. If every element of a d. Let X be a Gset with e. Let
X
fixed
by the
identity
of G.
Gset x\\,x2
is left
& X
fixed by
and g
g\\,
the
same
gxi
g\\x
element g of
= gx2,
=
thenx\\
G, then
=
g must
be the
identity
e.
e G. If
G. If
x2.
be a
Gset
of
with
jel
let
and
transitive
g2 e
g2x, then gi
= g2.
way
in
f. Each orbit
g. Let X
a Gset X is a
subGset.
X
be a Gset and
H <
G. Then
can
be regarded
in a
natural
as an
ffset.
G.
h. With reference to (g), the orbits in X under H are the same i. If X is a Gset, then each element of G acts as a permutation Let X be a Gset and let x e X. If G is finite, then \\G\\ = j.
9. Let
if X
as the
of X.
orbits
X under
\\Gx\\
\342\226\240
G.V .
and
Y be
to
Gsets
onto
with
that is
such
one
one,
an isomorphism
between 7 Gsets X and 7 is a map cj> : X \342\200\224>\342\200\ group G. An isomorphism Two Gsets are isomorphic for all * e X and geG. 7, and satisfies g0(.x) = cpigx) between them exists. Let X be the ZVset of Example 16.8.
the
same
160
Part III
Homomorphisms
and
Factor
Groups
a.
Find Show
two that
distinct
orbits of
that
are isomorphic
fashion
subZ)4sets.
are
n\302\260t isomorphic
b.
the orbits
acts
of G that
c. Are
the
orbits
{1, 2, 3, 4} and {s\\ in an essentially different you gave for your answer
Example
,\302\25321*314} *
subZ)4sets.
on the
two orbits.]
only
to part
(a) the
two different
of isomorphic subZ)4sets XI
10.
Let
X be
the Z)4set in
Z)4
16.8.
a. Does
act
faithfully
on XI
which
b.
Find
all orbits
in X on
Z)4 acts
faithfully as a
subZ)4set.
Theory
11. Let
12. Let 13. Let
the
X be a
Gset. Show
that
G acts
faithfully on
=
if and
only
=
if
no
two distinct
elements of G have
GY
the
same
action on
X
each element
a Gset
Theorem
of X.
Y
be
and let
X. Let
GY
{g e
G  gy
action
y for of 9
all
y e
Y}. Show
is a
subgroup
of G,
generalizing
16.12.
G be the
plane
Let the
through
9 radians.
e G on the real plane M2 be given by rotating Let P be a point other than the origin in the
plane.
the
orbit containing
P.
up to
fl Xj
c.
Find
the
group
Gp.
17 show
how
all
possible
Gsets,
be
formed
from
Let
{Xt
\\i
e 7}
be a disjoint
can
collectionof sets,so Xj
natural
^ j.
Let each Xt
of the
be
a Gset
for
the
same
group
G.
that that
\\Ji\342\202\254lXj
a.
Show Show
be viewed in a
union
xo
way
as a Gset,
the
union
Gsets Xt.
b.
left
of its
orbits.
that X is isomorphic (see Exercise to the Gset L of 9) For igl, suppose x = gxo, and define <f> : X > L
and all by
15. LetX be a
cosets
=
Xt <f>{x)
transitive
and let
X. Show \342\202\254
of
GXo,
gGXo. Be
for i e 7
sure
to
16. Let
X'i
{{x, i)\\x
way. 7^
group G,
simply
suppose are
the sets
i
X,
are
not necessarily
still
disjoint. Let
as a Gset in
7. Then
Xj
disjoint,
be regarded
an obvious Xj for;
elements
of
j.)
The Gset
1J.\302\243/Z
is the
disjoint
to a disjoint union of left coset Gsets, every Gset is isomorphic show 17. The preceding exercises that every Gset X is isomorphic question then arises whether left coset Gsets ofdistinct subgroups Note that the map defined in the hint of Exercise 15 depends on the
by goXQ and if form distinct GXo
to distinguish of them from the elements Xt. Using Exercises 14 and 15, show that as described in Example 16.7. a disjoint union of left H and KoiG can themselves
to
coset
Gsets.
The
be isomorphic. If xq
choice
of xq as
\"basepoint.\"
cosets
is replaced
\342\200\224
Gsets
that
\342\200\224and
L% of left
K =
of K
GgoXo
a. Let X be a
and go
transitive
Gset
and let
xq
& X
and go
subgroups
e G. If
GXo
describe
GgQXo
in terms
of H
b. Basedon
and
part
K are
conditions (b).
on
H and
K of G such that
the
left coset
Gsets of H
c. Prove your
in part
Section 17
Applications
of GSets
to Counting
161
18. Upto
isomorphism,
how many
listing the set
transitive Z4 sets X are there? (Use the preceding exercises.)ive an example G an action table of eachas in Table 16.10. Take lowercase names a, b, c, and
X.
1,(,.
the the
group group
Exercise 18for
&. List
the
elements
of & in
section
17
Applications
This
of GSets
presents
to count
to Counting
an application of our work with Gsets to counting. Suppose, for how many distinguishable ways the six faces of a cube can be marked with from one to six dots to form a die. The standard die is marked so that the 6 is on when placed on a table with the 1 on the bottom and the 2 toward the front, top, the 3 on the left, the 4 on the right, and the 5 on the back. Of course,other ways of
section
example,we wish
a distinguishably different die are possible. between the faces of the cube for the moment and call them the can have any one of six marks bottom, top, left, right, front, and back. Then the bottom from one dot to six dots, the top any one of the five remaining marks, and so on. There the cube faces can be marked in all. Some markings yield the same are 6! = 720 ways can be carried into another die as others, in the sense that one marking by a rotation die described of the marked cube. For example, if the standard above is rotated 90\302\260 as we look down counterclockwise on it, then 3 will be on the front face rather than 2, but it is the same die. There are 24 possiblepositions of a cube on a table,for any one of six faces can be \342\200\242 and then any one of four to the front, down, placed giving 6 4 = 24 possible positions.
marking
Let
the cube to
give
us
distinguish
Any
position
can
G,
form a group
We the
which
any to
other
by a
rotation of
of
S%
the
die.
These
rotations
a subgroup
(see
Exercise
45 of
Section 8).
the 720 possibleways of marking the cube and let G act on X by rotation of two markings to give the same die if one canbe carried into the other under action by an element of G, that is, by rotating the cube. In other words, we consider each orbit in X under G to correspond to a single die, and different to orbits of the number of distinguishable dice thus leads give different dice. The determination to the question of determining the number of orbits under G in a Gset X. The following theorem of orbits in a Gthe number gives a tool for determining set X under G. Recall that for each jeGwe let Xg be the set of elements of X left = {x e X  = x}. Recall also that fixed for each x e X, we let by g, so that gx Xg = {g \342\202\254 = x], and Gx is the orbit of x under G. G  gx Gx
let
X be
cube.
We consider
17.1Theorem (Burnside'sormula) F
of orbits in X
Let
then
G be
finite
group
and X
finite
Gset.
If r
is the
number
under G,
r\\G\\
J2\\Xg\\g\342\202\254G
(1)
This section is
not used in
the remainder
of
the text.
162
Part III
Proof
We
consider
and first
let
each
member.
N =
J2\\Xg\\
?eG
On the other
hand,
for
each
x e
there
are  Gx 
pairs
having
x as
we also have
n
=
Y,\\\302\260*
x&X
By Theorem
16.16 we have
\\GX\\
\\Gx\\
(G
Gx).
But we
know
that
(G
Gx)
\\G\\/\\GX\\,
so we
obtain
\\G\\/\\Gx\\.
Then
k\\G*\\
Now
\\k\\Gx\\)
in
l/\\Gx\\
has the
the
same
orbit, and if
we let O be any
orbit,
then
y z_^ xeO
Substituting
\342\200\224 = Irjv1 X] I
\\n\\ x<=0 ^1
y \302\243j
\342\200\224 =
i
(4) w
(4)
in
(3),
we obtain
of orbits
N =  G  (number
Comparison
17.2
in X under
r. G) = G \\ \342\226\240
(5)
of Eq.
group
2 and
Eq.
5 gives
Eq. 1.
Gset,
\342\231\2
Corollary
If G
is a finite
and X
is a finite of
orbits
then
(number
in X
under G)
Proof
corollary
follows
immediately
the
from
the
preceding
theorem.
\342\231\2
us continue
our computation of
number
of distinguishable
17.3
Example
We let
number
be
the set
of 720
different
markings
group
of 24
rotations of the
number =
e G where
0,
any one
element
of the
720
markings
of a cube using from one to six above. We saw that the = 24. of orbits in X under G. Now \\G\\ because any rotation other than the identity into a different one. However,  Xe  = 720
of faces
cube
as discussed
sincethe
fixed. Thenby
30,
Corollary
17.2,
of orbits) =
dice.
\342\226\26
Section
17
Applications
of GSets to Counting
163
Of
course
the number
of
distinguishable
dice
could
be counted
without
using
the
rotation
if necessary,
assume
the
face
for
the
the top
remaining
as using elementary combinatorics often marking a cube to make a die, we can, marked 1 is down. There are five choices the die as we look down on it, any one of
choices
are3
four faces could be brought to the front position, so there are no different involved for the front face. But with respect to the number on the front face, there \342\200\242 2 \342\226\240 1 possibilities forthe remaining three side faces.Thus there are 5 \342\200\242 1 = 30 3 \342\200\242 2 \342\200\242
in
possibilities
The
elementary
all.
next two
means.
math texts and are easy to solve we have more practice thinking
by
in
terms
of orbits.
17.4 Example
seven people be seated at a round table, where table? Of course there are 7! ways to assign peopleto the different chairs. We take X to be the 7! possible assignments. A rotation of each person to move one placeto the right results in the same people achieved by asking Such a rotation generates a cyclicgroup G of order 7, which we consider arrangement.
How
many
distinguishable
ways can
there is no
distinguishable
\"head\"
to the
to act on X in the obvious way. Again, only the identity e leaves and it leaves all 7! arrangements fixed. 17.2 By Corollary
any
arrangement
fixed,
(number of orbits)
17.5
\342\200\242 7! =
6! =
720.
\342\226\262
Example
no clasp) How many distinguishable necklaces (with can be made using seven differentcolored beads of the same size? Unlike the table in Example the necklace can be 17.4, turned over as well as rotated. Thus we considerthe full dihedral group Dq of order 2 \342\200\242 as acting on the set X of 7! possibilities.hen the number of distinguishable 7 = 14 T
necklaces is
of orbits)
(number
\342\200\224 = \342\200\242 7!
360,
\342\226\262
17.2, we have to compute using Corollary and the exercises,  G  will pose no real examples
In
\\Xg  is
not as trivial
to compute elementary
as in
knowledge of very
17.6 Example
\\Xg\\ for each g e G. In the Let us give an example where problem. the preceding examples. e will continue to assume W
\\G\\
and
combinatorics.
Let us find
be painted
of distinguishable ways the edges of an equilateral triangle can colors of paint are available, assuming one color is used only on each edge,and the same color may be used on different edges. Of course there are 43 = 64 ways of painting the edges in all, since each of the three be any one of four colors. We considerX to be the set of these 64 edges may The group G acting on X is the group of symmetries of the possible painted triangles. which is isomorphic to .\302\276 which we consider to be .\302\276. use the notation for and We triangle,
the
number
if four
different
164
Part III
Homomorphisms
and
Factor
Groups
elements
inS3. ^ Pol
in
53 given
in Section
8. We
need
to compute
\\Xg
for
each
of the
six elements(
= 64
xPl\\
=4
=
triangle is left fixed by p0. To be invariant under p\\, all edges must be the same colors. color, and there are 4 possible
Every
painted
Xpi\\
Same
reason
as for
p\\.
xM,l = 16
The
edges
be the
same
(4 possibilities) and the other edge may also be any of the colors (times 4 possibilities).
color
xMJ =
Then
\\x,
= 16
Same
reason
as for
\\i\\.
^2\\Xg\\
g\342\202\254S3
= 64 +
4 + 4+16+16+16=
120.
Thus
(number
and
of orbits)
\342\226\240 120 =
20,
there
are 20
17.7 Example
We The
repeat number
the set
to
of 24 possiblepainted
53. Since
Again,
color,
be
are a
different
color is used on each edge. 4 \342\200\242 24, and we let X be 3 \342\200\242 2 = on X can be considered the group acting = 0 for we see ZW = 24 while \\Xg\\
a different
is then
/ p0. Thus
(number
of orbits) triangles.
\342\200\242 24 =
4,
distinguishable
\342\22
EXERCISES
17
Computations
In
each
of the
by more
elementary
the the the
17.2
to work
the problem,eventhough
the the can
the answer
might be obtained
1. 3. 4.
Find
{1,2, {1,
2. Find
Find
2,
of distinguishable
tetrahedron,
5, 6,
cyclic
subgroup
((1,3,5,6))
by
of 58.
(1,
subgroup be made
of 58 generated
3) and
three,
and four
faces
Wooden many
of a
regular
rather
than a
cube.
make
cubes
of the
distinguishable
same size areto be painted a different color on eachface to blocks can be made if eight colors of paint are available?
children's
blocks. How
Section 17 Exercises
165
5.
Answer
Exercise identity,
4 if 9 that
of the
and
colors may be repeated different on faces at will. [Hint: The 24 rotations leave a pair of opposite faces invariant, 8 that leave a pair of opposite
edges invariant.]
be tipped with one of distinguishable the
6 leaving
a pair
of opposite
6. Each of the
one to
all
eight
corners corners.
eight
of four
colors,
each of
from
markings possible.
of cardboard
(See the
painted
in Exercise
if six
7.
Find
the
number
of distinguishable
edges
of a
square
can be
are
available
and
b. the
number
of edges.
with
100ohm resistor
2
ft
of equal
lengths
is to
many
ends
soldered
in
be inserted
essentially
the
middle
together to form edges ofa regular of each wire. Assume there wirings are
tetrahedron. are
at least
six
of eachtype
of resistor
available. How
long
different
9.
rectangular
colors.How a. no color
b. each
prism
many
with
distinguishable
one of
six possible
of faces?
PART
Rings
and
Fields
IV
Section
18
Rings
and
Fields
Section
19
Integral Domains
Section 20
Fermat'sand
The
Rings Field
Euler's
Theorems of an Integral
Section 21
Section
of Quotients
Domain
22
of Polynomials
Section
23
Factorization
of
over
a Field
Section 24
!Noncommutative
fOrdered
Section25
Rings and
section
18
Rings
All
and Fields
work
thus far has been concernedwith sets on which a single binary operation defined. Our yearsof work with the integers and real numbers show that a study of sets on which two binary operations have been defined should be of great importance. t Algebraic structures of this type are introduced in this section. In one sense,his section more intutive than those that precede seems for the structures studied are closely it, related to those we have worked with for many years. However, we will be continuing with our axiomatic approach. o,from another this study is more complicated S viewpoint than to deal with. group theory, for we now have two binary operations and more axioms
our
has been
Definitions
and
general
Basic
Properties
structure with two
binary
The most
called
with
algebraic
operations
that
a ring.
rings
Definition
18.1 indicates,
18.1 Definition
ring
{R. +,
and
set R together
defined
with
two
binary
that
operations
the
and
which \342\200\242,
we call
addition
multiplication,
on R such
following
axioms
are satisfied:
^\302\276). {R,
+} is an
abelian group.
is associative.
J%2. Multiplication
For \342\226\240M3. all
the right
distributive
b) \342\226\240 c =
law, a
\342\226\240
\342\226\240
(b + c)
c) =
(a
\342\226\240
b) +
(a
\342\226\240 and
c)
(a
c) +
(b
\342\226\240 hold.
\342\226\240
Sections
remainder of the
text.
167
168
Part IV
18.2 Example
Rings
and
Fields
We
are
well
a ring
complex
numbers
is a group
(Q, +, \342\200\242>,
that is
any
subset
of the
multiplication.
For example,
(Z, +,
(ffi, +, \342\200\242>,
+,
\342\226
\342\226\240 Historical
Note invited
secure
of
of two of rings grew out of the study theory The particular classes of rings, polynomial rings in n variables over the real or complex numbers
(Section 22)
her to
Gottingen
in
1915,
but his
efforts
to
of
an
algebraic
number
first
field. It was
introduced
latter
example,
the
with the
until
the second
fully
decade
her candidate is an argument against [to the faculty]. After all, we are a not a bathing establishment.\" Noether was, university, however, able to lecture under Hilbert's name.
of
twentieth appeared.
definition
abstract
commutative rings
was given a firm axiomatic foundation by Emmy Noether (18821935) in her monumental paper \"Ideal Theory in Rings,\" which appeared in 1921. A
chain of this paper is the ascending concept condition for ideals. Noether provedthat in any ring in which every ascending chain of ideals has a maximal element, every ideal is finitely generated. the Emmy Noether received her doctorate from of Erlangen, Germany, in 1907. Hilbert University
major
the political changes accompanying First World War reached Gottingen, she was given in 1923 a paid positionat the For the next decade, she was very influential University. in the development of the basic concepts of modern with other lewish faculty members, algebra. Along however, shewas forced to leave Gottingen in 1933. She spent the final two years of her life at Bryn Mawr College near Philadelphia.
Ultimately, the
after
end
of the
It is customary of a
\342\226\240 b. We
in a ring to denote multiplication shall also observe the usual convention in the absence of parentheses, so the
by
using ab in place juxtaposition, that multiplication is performed left distributive law, for example,
a(b + c) = ab
ac,
without the parentheses on the right side of the equation. Also, as a convenience analogous to our notation in group theory, we shall somewhat incorrectly refer to a ring R in place of a ring {R, +, \342\200\242}, that no confusion will result. on Z In particular, from now provided and will always be (Z, +, \342\200\242},Q, ffi, and C will also be the rings in Example 18.2. We on occasion refer to (/?,+) as the additive may group of the ring R.
18.3
Example
Let
be as
of R
and
multiply
let M\342\200\236(R) the collection of all n x n matrices having elements be and in R allow us to add operations of addition multiplication in the usual in the appendix. We can quickly fashion, explained
an
+} is
abelian
laws
The associativity of matrix group. in Mn{R) are more tedious to demonstrate, that they follow
multiplication
but
calculations
indicate
from
the
same
properties
in R.
We will
Section
18
Rings and
Fields
169
assume rings
from
now
on that we
know
that
Mn{R)
Note M\342\200\236(\302\243).that
n
we have
a commutative
the
\342\226\262
operation
18.4
in
the usual
any
of these
rings for
>
2.
Example
set
of all
function
functions f
addition,
E. We : E \342\200\224*
+} is an
abelian
group
if +
We
8)(x) =
f(x) + g(x).
define
multiplication
on F
by
(fg){x)
= f{x)g{x).
function
whose
value at x is
cr(p,(x))
f(x)g(x).
have
It
is readily
checked
that F is a
notation
we
leave
used
this juxtaposition
a/x
for the
composite
both
when
we were
to use
notation
function
multiplication
the
use
Greek
the
f o g
for
usual
composite
with
function.
However,
we
will
be
using
by
compositionof
functions
almost
exclusively
product
homomorphisms,
which
we will denote
when
letters,
and the
defined
confusion
in this
example chiefly
result.
multiplying
\342\226\262
polynomial
18.5
function f{x)g{x),
theory,
so no
is the
should
Example
of Z under addition consisting of cyclic subgroup n. Since {nr){ns)= n{nrs),e see that nL, is closed w integer assure under The associative and distributive laws which hold in Z then multiplication. on in the text, we will consider us that {nL, +, \342\200\242} is as ring. From now nL to be this ring.
nZ
of the
\342\226\262
18.6
Example
remainder
the cyclic group the product ab as the (Z\342\200\236, If we define for a,b e Ln +}. of the usual product of integers when that divided by n, it can be shown is a ring. We shall feel free to use this For example, in L\\q we have fact. +, (Z\342\200\236,\342\200\242} is multiplication on modulo n. We do not check the ring (3)(7) = 1. This operation Z\342\200\236 axioms here, for they will follow in Section 26 from some of the theory we develop will there. From now on, Z\342\200\236 always be the ring \342\226\262 (Z\342\200\236 ,+,\342\200\242}.
Consider
If Rx,
18.7
Example
\342\226\240 \342\200\242 of all ordered \342\200\242 x Rn Rn the set R\\ x R2 x \342\200\242 \342\200\242. R2, \342\226\240 are rings, we can form \342\200\242 where \342\200\242 addition and multiplication of ntuples e Rt. Defining rt r\342\200\236), ntuples (rj, r2. \342\200\242, as for groups), we seeat once from the ring axioms in each by components (just component that the set of all these n tuples forms a ring under addition and multiplication by \342\200\242 \342\200\242 The ring R\\ x R2 x \342\200\242 is the direct product of the rings /?,. x R\342\200\236 \342\226\262 components.
Continuing
matters
inverse a sum
ring. The
additive
always
let 0 is
be
the
additive
identity
of a
of a
+
ring
\342\200\224a. We
shall
frequently
have
occasion to refer to
a +
a+
\342\200\242 \342\226\240 \342\200\242 a \342\226\240 n a using the dot. However, \342\226\240 the ring, for the integer n may
having n summands. We shall let this sum is not to be constructed a multiplication as not be in the ring at all. If n < 0, we let
n \342\226\240 a =
be n
ofn
a,
always
and
in
(a)
+ (a)
\\
(a)
170
Part IV
Rings and
Fields
for
\\n\\
summands.
Finally,
we define
Qa = 0
left side of the equations and 0 e R on the right side. Actually, the holds also for 0 e R on both sides. The following theorem this proves and various other elementary but important facts. Note the strong use of the distributive laws in the proof of this theorem. Axiom for a ring concerns only and addition, c%j This shows that in order to prove axiom ^%2 concerns only multiplication. that anything to have to use axiom between these two operations, we are going gives a relationship For show in Theorem 18.8 is that 0a = 0 for the first thing that we will ,^B3. example, element a in a ring R. Now this relation and multiplication. involves both addition any The multiplication 0a stares us in the face, and 0 is an additive Thus we will concept. law to prove this. have to come up with an argument that uses a distributive
for
0 e
Z on
0a
the
equation
= 0
18.8 Theorem
If
R is a
identity
0,
then
for
any
a,b
e R
we have
1. 0a
2.
= aO
0,
a(b)
= (a)b
=
= (ab),
by
3. (a)(b)
Proof
ab.
For Property
1, note that
axioms
&x
and
\302\253>g2, aO
aO +
aO =
the
a(0 + 0) =
additive
0 +
aO. we have aO =
Then by
the
cancellation
law for
0a
group
(/?,+},
0. Likewise,
+ 0a
= (0 +
0)a = 0a = 0 + 0a
remember
to
0. This provesProperty 1. to understand the proof of Property 2, we must is that when added to ab gives 0. Thus \342\200\224(ab) the element = 0. By the left we must show precisely that + a(\342\200\224b) ab
implies
that
0a =
In order
that, by that
definition,
=
show
a(\342\200\224b) \342\200\224(ab),
distributive
law,
a(b)
+ ab
aO =
0,
since aO= 0 by
Property
1. Likewise,
(a)b
+ ab
0b =
0.
that
(a)(b)
by
= (a(b))
Property
2. Again
by Property
2,
(a(b)) = ((ab)),
and
of
element that when added to \342\200\224(ab) 0. This is ab by definition gives = ab. the uniqueness of an inverse in a group. Thus, (\342\200\224a)(\342\200\224b) by that you understand rules for signs.
the
\342\231\
important
preceding
proof. The
theorem allows us
to
use
our usual
Section 18
Rings
and
Fields
171
Homomorphisms
From
and Isomorphisms
theory,
our
work
into
a ring
it is
quite clear
how
a structurerelating
map of a ring
defined.
: R \302\242)
>\342\226\240 R' is
18.9Definition
For
rings
are
R and
R', a map
a homomorphism
if the
following
two
conditions
satisfied b) =
=
for alla,b
+
e R:
0(fe),
\342\226\240
1.
2.
<t>(a <j>{ab)
<t>(a)
(p(a)(f>{b).
that 0 is a definition, Condition 1 is the statement relate group {R, +} into (/?', +}. Condition 2 requires that \302\242) is the multiplicative structures of the rings R and R' in the same way. Since \302\242) also a group homomorphism, all the results concerning group homomorphisms are valid is structure of the rings. In particular, \302\247 one to one if and only if its for the additive kernel Ker(0) = {a e R  0(a) = 0'} is just the subset {0} of R. The homomorphism of {R, +} gives rise to a factor group. We expect that a ring \302\242) the group This is indeed the case. We delay of will discussion give rise to a factor ring. homomorphism this to Section our treatment of factor groups in will 26, where the treatment parallel
In
the
preceding
homomorphism mapping
the abelian
Section
14.
18.10 Example
Let F be the ring of all functions mapping E into E defined in Example 18.4. For each : a e E, we have the evaluation homomorphism \302\247aF >\342\200\242 E, where 0a(/) = /(\302\253)for e F. We definedthis homomorphism for the group (F, +) in Example 13.4, but we f
did not rest of
precisely
with
do
this
much
text,
for finding
theory. solution
We of
will
be working a great
a polynomial
to finding
ael
such that
equations.
4>a{p)
= 0.
Much of the
the
deal with it in the equation p(x) = 0 amounts remainder of this text deals
of the
solving
polynomial
We leave
demonstration
multiplicative
\342\226\262
homomorphism property
18.11
35.
Example
n is a ring is the remainder of a modulo n. We know + b) = 4>{a)+ <j>{b) by group theory. <j>(a positive integer To show the multiplicative property, write a =qxn + r\\ and b = qin + r2 according to the division algorithm. Then ab = n(qiq2n Thus + r\\q2 + q\\ri) + r\\r2. (j>{ab) is the remainder of rxr2 when divided by n. Since 4>{a) = n and 4>{b)= r2, Example 18.6 indicates that 0(a)0(fo) is also this same remainder, so (f>{ab) = 0(a)0(fo). From group to a factor ring Z/nZ. This theory, we anticipate that the ring Z\342\200\236 be isomorphic might in Section 26. is indeed the case; factor rings will be discussed \342\226\262
The map
for homomorphism
each
We
realize
that in the
concept
study
of
any sort
of mathematical
structure,
an
idea
except
of two
identical,
always
that is,
called
isomorphism.
172
Part IV
Rings and
Fields
things being just alike exceptfor
the
The
concept
of two
to
names
of elements
leads us,
just
as
it did
for groups,
following
definition.
18.12 Definition
An to
isomorphism one
: R \302\242)
\342\200\224*R' from
a ring R
to a ring
R'
is a homomorphism
that is
one
and onto
R and
R' are
we
then
isomorphic.
\342\226
From
our work in
theory,
expect
relation
on
any
collection
of rings.
the
We need to
check
isomorphism
is satisfied for
Similarly,
inverse
argument).
multiplicative
transitivity
we
check
that if
the
R (to map 0_1 : R' \342\200\224* complete the symmetry : R' \342\200\224* also a ring ismorphism, then R\" is the \\i composite
requirement
argument).
map
: \\l\302\247R
\342\200\224*R\" (to
complete
the
We ask
do
this in
Exercise 36.
0 :Z
=
18.13Example
As
and
(2Z,
+}
are isomorphic
a ring
under
the
map
>\342\200\242 Z,
Here
is \302\242)not
isomorphism, for
4>{xy)
2xy,
while
A
Multiplicative
Many
Questions:
Fields
of the rings we have mentioned, such as Z,Q, and R, have a multiplicative identity Note also element 1. However, Z does not have an identity element for multiplication. 2 in the matrix rings in Example 18.3. that multiplication is not commutative described the zero It is evident that {0}, with 0 + 0 = 0 and (0)(0) = 0, gives a ring, ring. Here 0 acts as multiplicative as well as additive identity element. 18.8, By Theorem this is the only case in which 0 could act as a multiplicative for from element, identity 0a = 0, we can then deduce that a = 0. Theorem 3.13 shows that if a ring has a it is unique. a multiplicative We denote element, multiplicative identity identity element in a ring by 1.
18.14 Definition
ring
in which
the
multiplication
is commutative
with
is a commutative
the multiplicative
ring.
ring
with
multiplicative
unity;
identity element
1 is called \"unity.\"
In
\342\226
a ring with
unity
1 the
distributive
laws show
that
(1 +
1+
1),
summands
that is,
observation.
(n
\342\226\240\342\226\240 =
l)(m
1)
(nm)
\342\226\240 1. The
next example
gives an
application
of this
18.15
Example
We claim
that
for
integers
they
1,
rings
Zrs
and Zr x Zs
rs with
are
of order
<j>{n
Thus
<f>
: Zrs
\342\200\224>\342\226\240 Zr x
Zs denned
by
isomorphism.
To check
the
multiplicative
Condition
Section 18
we use the observation and compute.
=
Rings
and
Fields
173
preceding
the
unity
(1, 1) in
the
ring
Zr
x Zs,
4>{nm)
(nm)
\342\226\240
(1,
1) =
[n
\342\226\240
(1,
l)][m
\342\200\242
(1,
1)] =
0(n)0(m).
\342\226\262
Note if and
that a direct
product
unity
Ri
R2 x
is commutative or has
unity
R* of nonzero if closed under elements, 1/0, if multiplicative will be a multiplicative inverses exist. ring multiplication, group A multiplicative 1 / 0 is an element inverse of an element a in a ring R with unity = 1. Precisely as for groups, a~l e R such that aa~l a multiplicative =a\"la inverse for
the an
is commutative
respectively.
element
a in R
is unique,
have
if it
18.8
shows
that
it would
be hopelessto
(0)(0)
a multiplicative
= 0, with
to discuss
unity.
multiplicative
inverses
for
a ring
with nonzero
section
is unavoidably
a lot
done.
of terminology
defined in
this
introductory
on rings.
We are almost
18.16
Definition
Let
be
inverse in
An element
in R
element of R
division
ring.
is a A
field).A
a \"strictly
18.17
is a commutative field.\"
is a unit of R if it has a multiplicative unit, then R is a division ring (or skew noncommutative division ring is called
\342\226\240
Example
Let us
see
find
the
units
in Z14.
Of course, 1 and
= 11 \342\200\2243
= 13 \342\200\2241
3 and 5
therefore can
and
= 9 \342\200\2245
multiple
(3)(5)= 1 we
None
or
of the
10
be units,
they
since no
all
of 14;
that
have
a common
14.
Section
20 will show
\\.
the
units
in
gcd(m,
ri) =
can
with
that
A
18.18
Example
Z is in Z.
strictly
not
a field,
because
units
The only
skew
in Z
inverse,
ffi
are
fields.
field
is given
Section
24.
of a
ring;
for
a of this set, field, integral domain, vectorspace,nd so on), then any subset a natural an algebraic structure induced algebraic structure that yields of the same type, is a substructure. If K and L are both we shall let K < L denote structures, K is a substructure of L and that K < L denote that K < L but K / Exercise 48 of R. gives criteria for a subset S of a ring R to form a subring
have the natural concepts of a subring of a ring and subfield of a field.A subring induced from the whole ring is a subset of the ring that is a ring under operations a subfield for a subset of a field. In fact, let us say here once and is defined similarly all that if we have a set, together with a certain specified type of algebraic structure
We
(group,
ring,
with
together
L.
174
Part IV
Rings and
Fields
Finally, the
be
careful
not to
confuse
our
use
unit
of the
is any
words
element
unit
and
unity.
Unity is
multiplicative
inverse.
unity.
Thus
For
while a
having a
but
multiplicative
or unity
not
is a unit,
that is,
unity,
1
/ 1.
is
\342\226\240 Historical
Note
in
the early
work
and
solvability
of equations
by Abel
it was
in connection published
Leopold Kronecker (18231891) with his own work on this subject he called in 1881 a definition of what
\"The
a \"domain
(/?', rationality
quantities quantities
of rationality\":
which
domain
every
of of those
R\", R'\",
are rational
\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 with
functions of the
integral
R',
R\", R'\",
coefficients.\"
that
insisted
any
in
subject
must
not
did
finitely
rationality
entity, but merely as a regionin which place various operations on its elements. Richard Dedekind (18311916), the inventor of a real number, of the Dedekind cut definition
In
1871,
in his definition edition of Dirichlet's text on of number theory: \"By a field we mean any system which in infinitely many real or complex numbers, that the addition, itself is so closed and complete, and division of any two subtraction, multiplication, numbers always produces a number of the same system.\" Both Kronecker and Dedekind had, however, dealt with their varying ideas of this notion as early as the 1850s in their university lectures. A more abstract definition of a field, similar to the one in the text, was given by Heinrich Weber (18421913)in apaper of 1893. Weber's definition, that of Dedekind, specifically included fields unlike with finitely many elements as well as other fields, such as function of fields, which were not subfields the field of complexnumbers. he published
supplement to the
following
the
second
EXERCISES
18
Computations
In
Exercises 1.
1 through
6, compute
the
product
in the
given
ring.
(12)(16)
in Z24
in
2. (16)(3)n i
4. (20)(8) x Z9
13,
Z32
3. (11)(4)
Zis Z5
through
in Z26
in
5. (2,3)(3,5) in
In Exercises 7 (closed) on
state the
6. (3,5)(2,4)
decide
Z4
x Zn
whether
structure.
the
If a
indicated
of addition
and
the
multiplication
are
defined
set,
and give a
ring
and
whether
nZ
is commutative, addition
addition and
whether multiplication
multiplication
case.
If a ring
is formed,
7.
9.
with
with
8. Z+
usual
addition
Z x Z
by components by components
10. 2Z x Z with
addition
Section 18
Exercises
175
11.
12. 13.
[a
+ b*/2
b\\fl
\\a,b e Z} with

the the
usual usual
[a +
a, b e pure
Q}
with
The set
of
all
imaginary
reR
addition
and
multiplication
In Exercises
14 through
19, describe
the
given
ring 16. Z5
15.
matrix
x Z x Z
18. Z x Q
ring M2(Z2).
that
19. Z4
the
all
order
units
b. List
is, the
number of
elements in
it.
21. If possible,ive g
1'
/ 0',
and
where
0(1)
/ 0' and
R and
with
unity
1/0
A
and
M where
det(A) is the
of the
matrix
for
or why
not?
of Z into
Z. x Z.
Z. x Z
Z into
of Z into Z of Z x Z
How
many
homomorphisms solution
of Z x
X2
into Z?
ring
27. Considerhis t
whence
Is this
equation
/3
I3 in
the
M3(R).
X2 = 73 implies
either
\342\200\224 =
0, the
=
zero matrix,
error,
so factoring,
we have (X
\342\200\224
h)(X
+ 73) =
X = /3
or
\342\200\224/3.
reasoning
solutions
correct? If not,
of the
point
out the
and
if possible,
give a counterexample
to
the
conclusion.
28. Find
with
all
equations2 +x
\342\200\224 6 =
OintheringZubyfactoringthequadraticpolynomial.Compare
Exercise
27.
Concepts
29 and 30, correct the definition of the italicized term without reference to the needed, so that it is in a from acceptablefor publication. 29. A field F is a ring with nonzero unity such that the set of nonzero elementsofF is a group
In Exercises
text, if
correction is
under
multiplication.
30.
unit
in a ring
example
is
an
element
of magnitude
1.
b such
subring
31. Give an
of a ring having
with
that ab
with
= 0 but
nonzero
neither
a nor
b is zero.
Consider
32. Give
1/0
that has a
unity 1'
/ 1. [Hint:
of 1^.]
33. Mark
each of the a. b.
c. d.
Every Every Every Every
true or
false.
is also a
ring.
at at
least
most
176
Part
IV
Rings
and
Fields
e.
g.
f. The distributive h.
i.
j.
Theory
to be a ring but not a subfield, under are not very important. Multiplication in a field is commutative. Thenonzero elements of a field form a group in under the multiplication Addition in every ring is commutative. element in a ring has an additive inverse. Every
It
is possible
for a subset
laws
of some field
the induced
operations.
for a ring
the
field.
34. 35.
Show
that
defined on
the
set
F of
functions
in
Example
18.4 satisfies
,i%3
for a ring.
Show
that
map 0fl
outlined
of Example
multiplicative
requirement
for a homomorphism.
equivalence
after Definitions
units
18.12to
show
that isomorphism
gives an
relation
Show
sure
that
if
U is
to show
that
all
in a ring
(R, +,
then (U,
is a \342\226\240)
group. [Warning:
Be
multiplication.] b)
38.
Show
a2 \342\200\224 (a b2 =
all a
and
b in a
ring R ring
that
if
if
and
only if R
is commutative.
+) that
group.
and
that
(R,+,
is a \342\226\240)
we
define
ab =
0 for all
C are
a, b
e R.
2Z
3Z
are not
a, b
e Zp.
[Hint:
the fields
and
not isomorphic.
for
all
Show that
the unity
in a subfield
be the
of the
whole field, in
contrast
to Exercise
32
for
43.
rings.
Show
An
that the
multiplicative
inverse
of a unit a ring
if
with
unity
is unique.
44.
element
Show Find
a of a ring R
that
is idempotent
idempotent
a2
= a.
a.
the set
of
all
elements
of a commutative
ring
is closed
under multiplication.
b.
Z12.
column
45. (Linear
P =
Recall
AT
is the j'th
row of A.
A(ATA)~]
that for an m x n matrix A, the transpose AT of A is the matrix whose jth that if A is an m x n matrix such that ATA is invertible, then the projection is an idempotent in the ring ofnxn matrices.
Show
matrix
46.
47.
An
element
a of a ring R
then
is
nilpotent
if a\" =
0 for
element
some n
if and
R
e Z+.
Show
if 0
that
if a
and b
solution hold:
are nilpotent
of x2
elements
of a commutative
48.
ring, Show that a ring R has no nonzero Show that a subset S of a ring R
a + b
is also
nilpotent
nilpotent. only
is the
only
= 0 in
R.
gives
a subring
of
if and
only if the
OeS;
following
(afe)e
5 for
all
a,
fee
5; e S. of R.
of F. = 0}.
ab e
S for
all a, b
that that
an intersection an intersection
of of
subrings sub
of a
fields
a subring a subfield
R \\ ax
a ring,
and let a
be a
fixed
element
Let Ia = [x e
Show
that
Ia is a
subring of
R.
Section 19 IntegralDomains
51.
177
and let a be a fixed element of R. Let Ra be the subring of R that is the intersection of all of R generated 49). The ring Ra is the subring by a. Show that the containing a (seeExercise abelian group {Ra, +} is generated (in the sense of Section 7) by [an \\ n e Z+}. 52. (Chinese Remainder for two congruences) Let r and .s be positive integers such that gcd(r, s) = 1. Theorem the 18.15 to show that for m, n e Z, there exists an integer x such that x = m Use isomorphism in Example (mod r) and x = n (mod s).
Let fibea
subrings
ring,
of R
53. a. State
54.
18.15 n factors. for a direct product with prove the generalization of Example \342\200\242 n Let a,, bt e Z+ for i = 1,2, \342\200\242and let gcA{bt, bj) the Chinese Remainder Theorem: \342\200\242, \342\200\242 i / j. Then there such that x = a; (mod b{) for i = 1,2, \342\200\242 n. exists ieZ+ \342\200\242, \342\200\242 Consider (S, +, \342\200\242), S is a set and + and are binary operations on S such that where and
b. Prove
= 1 for
(S, +)
(S*,
is a group,
group where
+ (ac)
of S* consists
is a \342\200\242)
all elements
of S
for
except the
all a,b,c
additive
\342\202\254 S.
identity
element,
a(b
Show that
tativity
+ c) = (ab)
{S, +,
and
is a \342\200\242)
division ring.
a2
Apply
the distributive
laws
to
(1 +
\\){a +
b) to
prove
the commu
of addition.]
= a
for
all
a e
R, so
that
every
element
is idempotent.
SP(S)
Show
that
every
56.
(For
students
subsets of S.Let
having
binary
some knowledge of the laws of set theory) For a on SP{S) be defined by + and \342\200\242 operations B =
set S, let
be the
collection of all
A +
{A\\JB){AC\\B) = {x\\x&Aovx
=ADB
\302\243Bbu\\.xi{AC\\B)}
and
AB
for A,B&
SP{S).
tables for + for any has four elements.] and \342\200\242 for SP{S), where S = [a, b). [Hint: SP{S) is a Boolean ring (see Exercise 55). set S, {^(S), +, \342\200\242)
a. Give
b.
Show
the that
section 19
Integral Domains
While motivation
a careful we
shall
given in this
of
Divisors
One
of Zero
the
and Cancellation
most important algebraic propertiesof our usual number system is that a is 0. We have used of two numbers can only be 0 if at least one of the factors product times in solving equations, perhaps without that we were using this fact many realizing for example, we are askedto solve the equation it. Suppose,
of
x2
The
 5x + 6 = 0.
side:
first
thing
we do
is to factorthe
x2
left
 5x +
6 = (x
2)(x
 3).
Part
IV
Rings
and
Fields
Then
we
conclude
that the
only
possible
values
for* are
2){a
2 and
3)
3. Why?
if x
is replaced
and
only
\342\200\224 \342\200\224 of
the
equation
5x
+ 6
= 0 in
Z12.
Solution
The factorization
x2
\342\200\224
5x
+ 6
in
= (x
Zj2,
\342\200\224 \342\200\224 is
2)(x
3)
for
any
number
in Zi2. (2)(6)
But
not only
is 0a
of x
as standing
also
Zj2, but
= (6)(2) =
(8)(3) (6)(6)
= (6)(8)
= (8)(6) =
We
= (6)(10)
(8)(9)
= (9)(8)
= 0.
6 and
for (6 
find,
2)(6
in fact, that
3)
our equation has not only 2 and 3 as solutions, but also  3) = (9)(8) 0in Z12. = 2)(11 (4)(3) = 0 and (11
importance
11,
A
are of such
that we
formalize them
R such that
in
a definition.
If a
and
b are
divisors of
Example
0 (or
elements of a
ring
ab
\342\200\224 0, then
a and b
are
\342\226
19.1
that
the
elements
in
2, 3, Zn
4, 6,
that
8, 9, and
relatively this
10
are divisors
of 0. Note
that
these
the numbers
1. Our
that are
not
is,
whose
gcd with 12 is
is an
to 12, example of a
prime
generalsituation.
19.3
Theorem
In the
relatively
ring
of 0
are preciselythose
nonzero
elements
that are
not
prime
to n.
Proof
Let m
e Z\342\200\236, where
m ^
0,
and
let
the gcd
of m
and
nbed
1. Then
(2)(^)and
(m/d)n
is 0, so m is On the
ms =
gives a divisor
other
0 as a multiple
of n.
Thus m{n/d)
= 0 in
while Z\342\200\236,
neither
m nor
n/d
of 0.
is relatively suppose m e Z\342\200\236 prime to the product ms of m and s as elements 1 following
hand,
n. If for s
in
we e Z\342\200\236have
0,
then
n divides
the
ring
that
Z. Since
n divides
is
relatively
so s
19.4
= 0 in
prime to m, boxedProperty
Z\342\200\236.
Example
6.9 shows
s,
\342\231\
Corollary
If p
is a prime, then
corollary
Zp
has no
divisors of 0.
Proof
This
is immediate indication
from Theorem
19.3.
shown
\342\231\
Another
of the
be
Let R
a ^
of 0 divisors is importance of the concept and let a,b,c e R. The cancellation implies b = c, and ba = ca with a ^ 0 implies a ring,
in
the
laws
b
hold in = c. These
Section 19
Integral Domains
laws hold
179
are
multiplicative
cancellation
laws. Of
course, the
additive
cancellation
in
R,
since
{R, +) is a group.
cancellation
19.5 Theorem
The
laws
hold in a ring
if and
only if R has no
divisors of 0.
Proof
a ring in which the cancellation laws hold, and R. We a or b is 0. If a 0,thenafo a, b \342\202\254 must show that either cancellation laws. Similarly, b ^0 implies that a = 0, so by
Let
be
suppose ab
=
= 0 for
divisors
some
a0 implies
that b
= 0
of
there can be no
that
0 if the
a ^
Conversely,
that
R has no
divisors of 0, and
a(b
\342\200\224 =
suppose
ab =
ac
with
0. Then
ab
Since a
A
\342\200\224 ac =
c)
0.
\342\200\224 =
^ 0, and
that R
at
since
i? has
similar
argument
shows that
0, so b
= c.
\342\231\246
Suppose
is a ring
x\\
with
of 0. Then an
for if
ax\\
equation and
ax
fc,
= b,
then
with
in i? can have
and
most
one solution
=
in
i?,
fo
ax2 =
R has
a ^ 0, = a^2, ax\\
and
by
Theorem
19.5
X2, since R
in
has no divisors of 0. If
the
solution
of ax = b is a ~1 In b.
unity
1^0
a is the
commutative,
if R
are equal by commutativity) notation must not be used in the event that know whether denotes a~lb or ba1. In b/a element a nonzero a of a field may be written
ba~l
(they
is a field, it is customary to denote a~lb This quotient by the formal quotient b/a. R is not commutative, for then we do not the multiplicative inverse a1 of particular,
I/a.
Integral
Domains
The integers are really our most familiar number system. In terms of the algebraic we are discussing, Z is a commutative with unity and no divisors of 0. ring properties this is responsible for the name that the next definition to such a structure. Surely gives
19.6 Definition
An
integral
domain
D is a commutative ring
with
unity
1^0
and
containing
no divisors
\342\226\240
ofO.
Thus, a polynomial
if the
are from an integral domain, one can solve coefficients of a polynomial in which the polynomial can befactored in the into linear factors equation
usual fashion by setting each factor equal to 0. In our hierarchy of algebraic structures, an integral domain commutative with unity and a field, as we shall show. Theorem ring cancellation laws for multiplication hold in an integral domain.
19.7Example
have seen that Z and Zp for any prime p areintegral is not but Z\342\200\236 an integral domains, domain if n is not prime. A moment of thought shows that the direct product R x S of two nonzero rings R and S is not an integral domain. Just observe that for r e R and s & S both nonzero, we have (r, 0)(0,s) = (0,0). \342\226\262
We
Part
IV
Rings
and Fields
19.8Example Solution
Show
that
although
Z2 is
an
integral
domain,
the matrix
ring
M2(%2)
has divisors
of zero.
We
need
only
observe
that
0
field is
0 0
Our
next richest)
theorem one we
is,
the
structure
of a
still
the
most
restrictive
(that
19.9Theorem
Proof
Every
field
F is
an
integral
Let a,b
e F, and
suppose
that a
^ 0. Then if ab
W)
= 0, we = 0.
have
()0) \\a
But then
0=
(ab) =
\\a
lb
b =
unity,
a ^ 0 implies that We have shown that ab = 0 with of 0 in F. Of course,F is a commutative ring with Figure having
0 in F,
so our
theorem
\342\231\24
19.10
gives a Venn
diagram view
of containment
for the
concerned.
we ask
will It
which we will two binary operations with this figure to include strictly to redraw you
far
be
chiefly
20
skew
fields
Thus
exhibit is done
the
only
some
know
are
order! is one
by counting.
of the
most powerful
19.10 Figure
A collection
of rings.
Section 19
Integral Domains
181
19.11
Theorem
Every
finite
integral
domain is a field.
Proof
Let 0, l,ax,
be
all
the elements
of a
finite
domain
D. We
need
to
show
that for
a e
D, where
a ^
0,
there exists b
e D such
that
ab
= 1. Now
a\\, aa.\\.
consider
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 aan. \342\200\242,
distinct,
for acn
that is,
in an
of these elements
1, a\\,
is 0.
we find
= 1, that
aj, by divisors, none \342\226\240 al, aa\\, \342\226\240 are elements aan \342\226\240, a = 1, or act; = 1 for some i.
at no 0
\342\231\246
Corollary
If p
is a prime, then
a 7LP is
field.
from
Proof
7LP
is an
integral
domain
and
from
\342\231\246
19.11.
preceding
about
talking
a ring the
we
the
consider
typical
the
ring
Mn(Lp),
we
are
undergraduate
linear algebra
much
course,only
rule, a matrix
of the
systems, determinants,
to
try
Cramer's to diagonalize
the
similarity
any
transformations they
are
valid
matrices
over
solutions
field;
depend
involving
only on
notions
arithmetic
magnitude,
Considerations of linear
approximate
an
algebra or orthonormal
of
bases, only
make senseusing
where
we have
idea
of magnitude. p.1=1+
The
1 +
relation
... + 1 = 0
of magnitude
in
p
indicates
summands
that there
can be no
very
natural
notion
the
field
Zp.
The
Let
Characteristic
R be
of a Ring
any ring.
18. For
for
all a
We might ask whether there is a positive integer n such that n \342\226\240 a \342\200\224 0 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 a means a + a + \342\200\242 for n summands, as explainedin e R, where n \342\226\240 + a
example,
the
Section
integer
m has
this
property
for
19.13 Definition
If for a ring R a positive integer n exists such positive integer is the characteristic exists,then R is of characteristic 0.
We
us
such
that n
of the
shall
to show
of a characteristic be using the concept chiefly for that the characteristic of an integral domain is either
19.14
Example
The
ring
is of Z\342\200\236
characteristic
n,
while
Z,
Q, M,
182
Part
IV
Rings and
Fields
At
unless
of that
the if
first glance, of a ring seems to be a tough determination of the characteristic job, the ring is obviously of characteristic Do we have to examine every element a 0. Definition theorem 19.13? Our final of this section shows ring in accordance with it suffices the ring has unity, to examine only a = 1.
19.15 Theorem
Let R
n
be
a ring with
unity.
1 ^ 0 If n \342\226\240
for all
e Z+,
\342\226\240 1 =
0 for
some n
n
e Z+,
then the
0. If
R.
Proof
If
n \342\200\242 1 ^ 0
for all
e Z+,
then surely
have
positive
so by n is a
Defimtion
19.13,
has
that
characteristic
n \342\200\242 1 = 0,
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 +
0 for all 0.
any
a e
a
for
some
e R,
we have
na = a + a + +a
Our theorem followsdirectly.
= a(l + 1+
1) =
\342\200\242 =
aO =
0,
\342\231\246
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
19
Computations
1.
Find
of the
3x = of the
x2
equation
2. Solve the
3. Find
4.
all
2 in
field Z7; in
the
field
Z23.
Find
all solutions of
equation x2 + 2x + 2 + 2x + 4 = 0 in Z&.
the characteristic of
\342\200\224Z&, 0 in
In Exercises
5 through
10, find
the
given
ring.
5. 2Z
6.
x Z3
R
x Z
7. Z3 x
3Z
b)4 for a, b + b)g for a, b
for
8.
Z3
9. Z3 x Z4 commutative commutative 1
10.
4. Compute and 3. Compute and
3. Compute
Z6
x Zi5
11. Let
be a
ring
ring
ring
with with
unity unity
of characteristic of characteristic
simplify simplify
simplify
(a + (a
12. Let
13.
R be a
e R. e R.
R.
Let R be a commutative
Show
with unity
of characteristic
of zero in
and
(a + b)6
a, b e
14.
that
the matrix
2 4
is a
divisor
M2(Z).
Concepts
In
Exercises
15 and
it is
definition
of the
italicized term
without
reference
to the
text, if correction is
needed, so that
15.
If ab
= 0, then
are divisors
16. If
n \342\200\242 a = 0
a ring
characteristic
of R.
true or
false.
a. nZ has zero divisors if n is not prime. b. Every field is an integral domain. c. Thecharacteristic of nZ isn.
Section 19
Exercises
183
d.
e.
As The
a ring,
Z is isomorphicto
law holds
in
nZ
for all n
> 1.
to
cancellation
an integral
domain.
two
domains
is again
unity
an
integral
domain.
zero in
a commutative of Z.
ring
with
can have
no
multiplicative
inverse.
nZ is a
subdomain
j.
ZisasubfieldofQ.
six
18. Each
ring the
of the
numbered circle),
of the six
who have
to regions in Fig. 19.10 corresponds a certain type of a ring. Give an cells. For example, a ring in the region numbered 3 must be commutative
have
unity,
but
not be an
19.
(For
different
characterizations
of the
elements A
Fig.
of M\342\200\236(F) that
of 0.
skew fields.
20. Redraw
19.10 to
include a subset
corresponding
Proof Synopsis
21. Give
a onesentence
synopsis of
the
proof
of the
\"if\"
part
of Theorem
19.5,
of the
23.
An element
a of a ring
R is
idempotent
subdomains
if
a2
= a.
Show
that
a division
ring contains
a subdomain
exactly
two
idempotent
elements.
24. 25.
Show
that
an intersection
of
of an
integral domain
D is again
of D,
Show that a finite ring R with unity 1/0 and no divisors of 0 is a division a field, although ring. (It is actually In your proof, to show that a / 0 is a unit, commutativity is not easy to prove. See Theorem 24.10.)[Note: inverse\" of a / 0 in R is also a \"right you must show that a \"left multiplicative inverse,\"] multiplicative R R
26. Let
be such
be
contains
at least
= a. no divisors of 0.
unity. division
each
nonzero
\342\202\254 R, there
exists a unique
a.
c.
d.
Show
b. Show
Show
= b.
R has
Show
that R is a
ring. of a
27.
characteristic
subdomain
of
an
integral
domain
D is
equal
to the
characteristic in every
If the
of D.
subdomain
28.
29.
that
if D
is
an
integral
domain,
then [n
\342\226\240 n
11
e Z} is a
subdomain
of D
contained
ofD.
Show
that
the
characteristic (m
that
of D is mn,
characteristic
consider
\342\226\240 \342\226\240 in
\\){n
D must
be either
0 or a prime
to a ring
if R Z\342\200\236
p.
[Hint:
every
Let S
x Z
necessary) 0, and
with
unity,
having
R x
has characteristic n.
Let addition
in S
be the
addition
by components,
be defined
\342\226\240 +
by
(r\\r2 + 18.
n\\
r2
n2
\342\226\240
n,n\\n2)
\342\226\240 r has
in
Section
Part
IV
Rings and
Fields
a. Show
b.
c.
Show
that that
S is a S has
and
ring.
unity.
Show
Show
that S
that
R have
d.
the
map 0 : /?
by 0(r)
(r,
0) for
r e
maps
R isomorphically
onto a subring
of S.
SECTION
20
FERMAT'SAND
Fermat's
EuLER's
THEOREMS
Theorem
that
are naturally isomorphic, with the coset in Z/nZ of cosets Zn. Furthermore, addition them in Z, and finding the be performedby choosing may any representatives, adding can be made into a ring by coset of nZ containing their sum. It is easy to see that Z/nZ cosets in the same fashion, that is, by multiplying any chosen representatives. multiplying While we will be showing this later in a more general situation, we do this special case is well defined, because the now. We need only show that such coset multiplication of multiplication and the distributive laws will follow immediately from associativity of the chosen representatives Z. To this end, choose representatives in those properties a + rn and b + sn, rather than a and b, from the cosets a + nZ and b + nZ. Then
as additive
We know
groups,
for
a + nZ
corresponding to a
each
a e
which
is also
an
+ the
(as
+rb
+ rsn)n,
is welldefined,
18.
and
multiplication
Section
our
cosets
form a ring
The
following
For
any
field,
the nonzero
under
the field
multiplication.
In
particular,
for Zp,
the elements
1,2,3,,/7form
we must
under multiplication modulo p. Since the order of any we see that for b ^ 0 and b e Zp, we divides the order of the group, = 1 in Zp. Using the fact that Zp is isomorphic to the ring of cosets of the a + pZ described above,we see at once that for any a e Z not in the coset 0 + pZ,
a group
of order
\342\200\224 1
a group
have
ap~l
= 1 (mod
p).
Fermat.
This gives
20.1
us
at once
Theorem
(Little Theorem
ap~l
20.2
 1,that
then
of Fermat)
= a
e Z
and
p is a
prime not
p).
dividing
a,
then
p divides
is, ap~l
= 1 (mod
p) for a
any
# 0 (mod
p.
Corollary
If a
e Z,
ap
(mod p) for
prime
Section
20
185
Proof
Theorem 20.1if
#0
(mod p). If a
= 0 (mod
p),
then both
\342\231\246
p.
\342\226\240 Historical
Note
of Theorem
statement
20.1 occurs
in
a letter
this
correspondence
that
Fermat's
of
interest
perfect
in
this
to Bernard The from Pierre de Fermat (16011665) 18 October 1640. Fermat's Frenicle de Bessy,dated was that for any prime version of the theorem p and
any
result the
came
from his
study
numbers.
geometric
progression
a, a2,
is a least
progression
curious
that
that
Fermat
failed
to note
the
it was fails in that case.) Fermat did not in the letter or elsewhere of the result and, in fact, never indicate a proof But we can infer from other parts of mentioned it again.
conditionthat
p not
divide a;
result
perhapshe felt
that
obvious
the
is a positive (A perfect number integer m that is sum of all of its divisors less than m; for 6=1 Euclid + 2 + 3 is a perfectnumber.) example, if 2\"  1 is had shown that 2n~x(2n  1) is perfect prime. The question then was to find methods for whether 2\" \342\200\224 prime. Fermat noted 1 was determining \342\200\224 1 was composite if n is composite, and that 2\" from his theorem the result that if n then derived 1 are is prime, the only possible divisors of 2\" \342\200\224 those of the form 2kn + 1. From this result he was 1 was to show, for example, that 237 \342\200\224 able quickly \342\200\242 = 2 \342\200\242 + 1. 3 37 divisible by 223
20.3 Example
Let us compute
have
the
remainder
of 8103 when
divided
by 13.
gl03
s (812)8(37) s
=
e87e (1^)(87)
(5)7
(25)3(5)s
divisible
(l)3(5)EE5(modl3).
by 11.
20.4 Example
Solution
Show
that
211213
 1 is
not
By Fermat'stheorem,
210
10 = 1 (mod 11),
10.1,121
[(21U) 23
so
23]l
_ 211.213 l
= [lU21
11).
23] 1
1
8 1 = 7 (mod
Thus
is prime,
2P
20.5
\342\200\224 the remainder of 211213 1 when divided by 11 is 7, not 0. (The number 11,213 1 is and it has been shown that 21L213 \342\200\224 a prime number. Primes of the form
\342\200\224 1
where
p is
prime areknown
the
as Mersenne
primes.)
\342\200\224 n is
\342\226\262
Example
every integer n,
an
number
n33
divisible
by 15. 233
\342\200\224 333 \342\200\224 \342\200\224 433
Solution
incredible
result. It means
shall
that
15 divides
2,
3,
4,
Now 15 by both 3
and
= 35,
5 for
and
we
use Fermat's
n33
theorem to show
n(nn
\342\200\224
that
n33
\342\200\224 n is
divisible
every
n. Note that
\342\200\224 n =
1).
Part
IV
Rings and
Fields
If
3 divides
n, then
=
n32
surely
3 divides
n(n
\342\200\224 If
1).
3 does
not
divide
n, then by
Fermat's theorem, n2
1 (mod
3) so
1 ee
(n2)16 \342\200\224 n =
1 = 116
0 (mod
0 (mod
3),
and hence 3 divides n32 \342\200\224 1. If n = 0 (mod 5), then n33 theorem, n4 = 1 (mod 5), so
n32 \342\200\224 n =
5). If
1
0 (mod
5),
then
by
Fermat's
1 =
(n4)8
 1=
18
s 0 (mod 5).
^
Thus
n33
0 (mod
5) for every
n also.
Generalization
theorem.
by
will
follow
at once
theorem,
which
is proved
counting,
essentially
Theorem
19.11.
elements
20.6 Theorem
The
set
of nonzero G\342\200\236
of
that Z\342\200\236
are
not 0
divisors
forms
a group
under
multiplication modulo n.
Proof
under multiplication modulo n. Let a, b \342\202\254 is closed Gn. If G\342\200\236 would exist c ^ 0 in Z\342\200\236 that (ab)c = 0. Now (ab)c = 0 implies such = 0. Since b e G\342\200\236 c ^ 0, we have be ^ 0 by definition But and of G\342\200\236. then that a{bc) that a ^ Gn contrary to assumption. Note that we have shown that a{bc) = 0 would imply for any ring the set of elements that are not divisors ofO is closed under multiplication. other so far. No structure of Z\342\200\236 than ring structure has been involved n is associative, We now show that Gn is a group. Of course,multiplication modulo and 1 e G\342\200\236. It remains to show that for a e G\342\200\236, is b e G\342\200\236 that ab = 1. Let there such
First
we
must
show that
ab
Gn, \302\242.
then there
1,a.\\,
be the
elements of
The G\342\200\236.
elements
a\\, aa\\,
are all
= aaj, then
a,\342\200\224 =
a,
must
be 1, so a
and 0, and since a & G\342\200\236thus is not Therefore by counting, we find that a;. \342\231\2 inverse. multiplicative
Note that the only property of Z\342\200\236 in this last theorem, other than used the fact that it was a ring with unity, was that it was finite. In both Theorem 19.11 and Theorem 20.6 a counting argument. we have (in essentially the same construction) employed Counting are often simple, but they are among the most powerful toolsof mathematics. arguments Let n be a positive integer. Let <p(n) be defined as the number of positive integers less than or equal to n and relatively to n. Note that q>(\\) = 1. prime
20.7 Example
Let n = 12. The positive integers less than 1,5, 7, and 11, so \302\242)(12)= 4.
or equal
to 12
and
relatively
prime
to 12 are
\342\226\2
Section
20
Fermat's
and Euler's
Theorems
187
are
now
By
Theorem
19.3,
function
<p(n) q>
is
the
divisors of
describe
0. This
: Z+
nonzero elements of
Euler
that Z\342\200\236
not
phifunction.
We can
Euler's
generalization
a is
of Fermat's an integer
theorem.
prime
20.8Theorem Proof
(Euler'sTheorem) If
by n,
If that
relatively
to n,
then
av{n)
\342\200\224 1 is
divisible
is,
avin)
= 1 (mod
to
n).
the coset
a is
relatively
prime
modulo
n, then
a + nL of
the
nZ
containing
a contains
an
integer
b < n
and
relatively
prime
to n.
Using
fact
that
multiplication
have
of these
cosets by
multiplication
n of
w representatives is welldefined,e
a<p(n) ^
bVln)
(mod
ny
But by Theorems
group
19.3 and
<p(ri)
20.6,
b can of the
be viewed
<p{ri)
as an
of
element
Z\342\200\236 relatively
of the
of order G\342\200\236
consisting
elements n),
prime
multiplicative to n. Thus
b^
and our
20.9
= 1 (mod
theorem follows.
\342\231\246
Example
Let n = relatively
74 (mod
12. We
saw
(49)2= 2, 401=
12),
so \342\200\2245
in Example a4 =
+
20.7
that
\302\242)(12)
4. Thus
if we
take
way In
any
integer
1 (mod
1, so Euler's
a =
7, we have 74
to compute Z12,
easy
using
is
to
compute
it in
Z12. 1.
we have
7 =
72 =
(5)2 = (5)2 =
and
74
12 =
Application
Using
to ax = b
20.6, we
work
(mod
all
m)
Theorem
can find
solutions
We prefer to
with
an equation
and
in
a e
Zm
and
interpret
20.10Theorem Let m
the
be
a positive
integer
a unit
let
Zm
equation
ax = b has a unique in
Zm
solution and
be relatively in Zm.
m. For eachb e
Zm,
Proof
By Theorem20.6,a is
Multiplying
5 =
the
a~lb is
by
certainly
a solution is
both
sides
of ax
= b on
left
the
Interpreting
this theorem
at once
the following
b, the
corollary.
20.11 Corollary
If
a and
m are
m)
relatively
prime
then for
precisely
any
integer
b (mod
has as
Theorem20.10serves
20.12 Theorem
lemma for
the
general
Let m
ax
= b has a
has
integer and let a, b e Zm. Let d be the gcd of a and m. The equation solution in Zm if and only if d divides b. When d divides b, the equation exactly d solutions in Zm.
be
a positive
Part
IV
Rings and
Fields
= b in Zm unless d divides b. Suppose e Zm is 5 so b = as \342\200\224 Since d divides both a and m, we qm. the righthand side of the equation b = as \342\200\224 and hence divides qm, 5 can exist only if d divides b. that d does divide b. Let
solution
Proof
First
we
show
there is no
b
of ax
a solution.
Then as
\342\200\224 =
qm in Z,
a = aid,
Then
bid,
and
mid.
as d{a\\s
\342\200\224 =
b\\) dqmi. We see of m^. Thus the solutions 5 of ax = b in Zm are precisely the elements that, read modulo mi, yield solutions of = = bi in be the unique solution of a\\x \302\2531* fci in Zmi. Now let 5 e Zm, given by Zmi in Zm that reduce to 5 modulo mi Theorem 20.10. The numbers those that are precisely can be computed in Zm as the
thatas
\342\200\224
as equation Ms a multiple
\342\200\224 =
qm in Z
can be rewritten
\\fais
of m if and
only
\342\200\224
bi is a
multiple
Thus
there
Theorem
\342\200\224
l)mi.
equation
in Zm.
\342\23
gives us
at
once
this
classical
result on
the
solutions
of a linear
congruence.
20.13 Corollary
Let d be the
solution exactly d
Actually,
gcd
if and
distinct
of positive integers a and m. The congruence ax = b (mod m) has a if d divides b. When this is the case, the solutions are the integers in only
residue
classes
modulo
m.
more
our
proof
of Theorem
about
stated in this corollary; namely, it shows that are precisely all elementsof the residue where mi = m/d and k runs through the integers from 0 to d can find such an 5 by finding a\\ = aid and b\\ = b/d, and solving a\\x To solve this congruence, we may consider a\\ and b\\ to be replaced by modulo mi and solve the equation a\\x = b\\ in Zmi.
(mod then
the solutions of ax = b if any solution 5 is found, classes (s + km\\) + (mZ) \342\200\224 1. It also tells us that we
= their b\\ (mod
mi).
remainders
20.14 Example
Find
all
solutions
of the 18 is
congruence 6, and
6 is
Ylx
27 (mod
18).
by
Solution
20.15
The gcd of
12 and
not a divisor
the preceding
corollary,
there are no
Example
Solution
solutions.
of the
18 is congruence
\342\226
15*
= 27
divide
as explained before 27. Proceeding consider the congruence 5ih9 Example everything by (mod 6), which amounts to solving the equation 5x = 3 in Ze Now the units in Zs are 1 and Thus in this group of units. the solution in Z(, is 5, and 5 is clearly its own inverse x = (5_1)(3)= the solutions of 15* a 27 (mod Consequently, 18) are the in the three residue classes. integers
gcd
and
of 15
3, and 3
does
20.14,
we divide
3 and
= (5)(3) 3.
3 +
9 + 15
18Z =
18Z = 18Z =
\342\200\242 33. \342\200\242, {\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242, 27, {\342\200\242 \342\200\242 21, \342\200\242, {\342\200\242
15, 9,
3, 21, 9, 27,
45,
3,
Section
20
Exercises
189
illustrating
Corollary
in the three
3+
6Z modulo
solutions 18 can
the
solution
Zi8 the
3
solutions
one residue
class
A
in 1,(,.
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
20
Computations We will
see
later that
the multiplicative
for the
group
of nonzero
field.
elements of a finite
field
is cyclic.
Illustrate
this
by finding
a generator 1. Z7
4.
for
this
group
given
finite
2. Zn Fermat's
3.
of 347 when it
Z17
Using
theorem,
find
the
remainder
is
divided
by
23.
5. Use
Fermat's theorem
the
to find
it is
[Hint:
divided by 7.
You
6.
Compute
remainder
of 2(2' * of
divided by 19.
will need
to compute the
remainder
of
217 modulo
18.]
of values
<p{n)
7. Makea table 8.
Compute Compute
for
n <
30.
<p{p2) <f>(pq)
where where
p is a prime. both p
and
9.
q are
primes.
find
of Fermat's
theorem to
of the
the
remainder
of
71000
when did
divided
by 24.
Exercises
11 through
solutions
given congruence,as we
12.
in Examples
20.14
and
20.15.
11.
2* =
=
6 (mod
4)
22* = 5
(mod 15)
24) 9) 130)
\342\200\224
13. 36*
15. 17. 19.
15 (mod
24)
9) 65) >3.
14. 45* =
16. 18. Use Exercise
find find find
15(mod
125 (mod 52 (mod
of (p
39* =
41* = 39* =
28 below to
remainder remainder remainder
find
the
remainder
2)!
modulo
p.
20.
of 34! modulo of of
23. Mark
each
of the
following
true
or false.
a. ap~l
b. ap~l
= 1 (mod s 1 (mod
< n for
p)
for all
p) for all
integers a integers a
and such
primes that
p. a ^
0 (mod p) for
a prime
p.
c.
<p(ri)
all n e
d. (p{n) e. The
f. The
all n e
units
in
positive integers
in
is always Z\342\200\236
in
relatively prime
to
n.
product of two
of two of a
nonunits
Z\342\200\236 be may
in Z\342\200\236 is never
190
Part
IV
Rings
and
Fields
i.
j.
Every
congruence
Let d
has
be the
exactly
multiplication
p is a m. If
ax = b
(mod m)
4 is
it
24.
Give the
isomorphic?
group
for the
multiplicative
group
of units
To which
group
of order
Proof
Synopsis
of the
26. Give
Theory
a onesentence
synopsis of the
of Theorem
20.8.
27. Show
28.
Using
that
1 and
\342\200\224 1 are
Consider the
Exercise
equation
x2
\342\200\224 1 =
of the
field
Zp that
are
their
own
multiplicative
inverse. [Hint:
1 theorem that states that if p is a prime, then (/? \342\200\224 \342\200\22 27, deduce the half of Wilson's 1)! = \342\200\224 1 (mod n), then n is a prime. >1 such that (n half states that if n is an integer (mod p). [The other think what the remainder of (n \342\200\224 Just 1)! would be modulo n if n is not a prime.]
1)!s
29. UseFermat's
383838
for any
positive integer n,
the
integer
n37
\342\200\224 n is
[Hint:
30.
Referring
29,
find
a number
that
divides
n37
\342\200\224 n for
integers
n.
section
21
The
If
Field
integral
of Quotients
domain
of an Integral
every integral
It
Domain
an
is such
that
then
it is a
too serious.
element has a multiplicative inverse, such as the integers domains, Z, do not form a to show that every is the purpose of this section
nonzero
in integral regarded as being contained a certain field, afield of quotients the integral domain the integral domain. This field will be a minimal field containing of in a sense that we shall describe. For example, the integers are contained in the field can all be expressed as quotients of integers. Our construction of a Q, whoseelements field of quotients of an integral domain is exactly the same as the construction of the
can be
rational
from the integers, which often in a course in foundations numbers or appears advanced calculus. Tofollow this construction is such a good exercise the use in through of definitions and the concept of isomorphism that we discuss it in some detail, although to write out, or to read, be tedious. We can be motivated at every every last detail would step by the
way
Q can
be formed
from Z.
The Construction
Let
D be
an integral
outline
of the
we
desire
to enlarge
to
a field
of quotients
F.
coarse
follows: of F
1.
2.
Define what
Define the
elements
operations
are to
be.
of addition
and
multiplication
on
F.
Section
21
The Field of
Quotients
of an
Integral Domain
191
3.
4.
Check
all
that
the field
F
axioms
to
show
that
F is a field
D
under
these
operations.
Show
can be
viewed as containing
and
as an
integral subdomain.
with
Step
3 is
largely a mechanical
chore. We
Step 1 Let D be a
given
integral
domain,
Cartesian
product
DxD
We
= {{a,b)\\a,b
pair
e D]
quotient for
are
going
to think
of an
pair
ordered
will
(a, b)
that
is, if D
= Z,
subset
as representing a formal
represent
we
a/b,
the
(2, 0) representsno
Let S
(2, 3) element of Q of D
eventually
x D down
us.
be the
x D
given
S =
{{a,b)\\a,b
\342\202\254 D,b
^0}.
Now S is
different
number.
element
going to be our field as is indicated by the fact that, with D = Z, of integers such as (2, 3) and (4, 6) can represent the same rational pairs the same We next define when two elements of S will eventually represent of or, as we shall say, when two elements of S are equivalent.
still
not
F,
21.1 Definition
Two
elements
(a, b)
and
(c,
d) in
only
if
ad = be.
that this
by
(a, b)
(c, d),
if
and
\342\226\240
definition is reasonable, sincethe criterion for (a,b) ~ (c, d) is an ad = be involving elements in D and concerning the known in multiplication equation of equality of definition D. Note also that for D = Z, the criterion gives us our usual  = since (2)(6) = (3)(4).The rational that we usually with f\302\260r number example, 2, \302\247 f of as the collection of all quotients of integers that reduce denote by  can be thought
Observe
are equivalent
to,
. elements
Therelation
~ between
of
the
set
S as just
described is an relation.
equivalence
relation.
three
properties
of an equivalence
in D is commutative. Reflexive(a, b) ~ {a,b) since ab = ba, for multiplication If {a,b) ~ (c,d), then ad = be. Since multiplication in D is Symmetric ~ {a, b). that cb = da, and consequently we deduce commutative, (c, d)
Transitive
If
{a, b)
and
~ (c,
the
d)
and
(c,
d)
~ (r,
5), then
in
ad
foe
and
cs =
these relations
fact
that multiplication
is commutative,
asd =
Now in
bdr
= ford.
d the
^0,
and
Z)
argument.
is an integral domain, so cancellation valid; is this is a crucial step Hence from asd = brd we obtain as = br, so that (a, b) ~ (r, s).
\342\231\246
192
Part
IV
Rings and
Fields
t of Theorem 0.22,hat ~ gives a partition of S into equivalence To avoid long bars over extended classes. we shall let [(a, b)], rather than expressions, class of (a, b) in S under the relation ~. We now finish Step 1 (a, b), be the equivalence by defining F to be the set of all equivalence classes[(a,b)] for (a, b) e S. We
now
know,
in view
The
next
lemma
serves to define
addition
and
multiplication
in F.
applied
if D
= Z and
operations. d)] in
as (a/b)
e Q,
these definitions
to
usual
[(c,
F,
the
equations
[(a, b)]
and
+ [(c, d)]
[(a,b)][(c,d)]
operations give welldefined
of
addition
and multiplication
on F. (c, d)
Proof
Observe
first
that if
integral domain, bd ^ 0, soboth (ad + be, bd) and (ac, bd) shows are in 5. (Note the crucial use here of the fact that D has no divisors of 0.)This are at least in F. that the righthand sides of the defining equations It remains for us to show and multiplication that these operations of addition are in S of elementsof well defined. That is, they were defined by means of representatives that if different representatives in S are chosen, the same element F, so we must show of F will result. To this end, suppose that (a\\, b\\) \342\202\254b)] and (ci, d{) \342\202\254d)]. We [(c, [(a,
and d
Z ^0. Because)
[(a, b)]
is an
and
[(c,
d)] are in
F,
then
(a,
b) and
are in
S, so fo ^
must
show
that
(a\\di
and
+ b\\Ci, b\\di) e
[(ad +
be, bd)]
(axci,bidx)
Now
e [(ac,bd)].
b\\)
b\\) (\302\253i,
e [(a,
b)] means
that
(a\\,
~ (a,
b\\a.
b); that
is,
a\\b =
Similarly,
(c\\, d\\)
that
c\\d = d\\c.
(common
second
(c,
d), and
(c\\,
d\\),
we multiply
by
b\\b.
Adding
the resulting
a\\bd\\d
four
pairs
(a, b),
second
equation
following d\\cb\\b.
equation
in D:
c\\db\\b
b\\ad\\d
Using various
axioms for an
integral
domain,
we see
(a\\d\\
+ b\\C\\)bd
b\\d\\(ad
be),
Section
21
The Field of
Quotients
of an
Integral Domain
193
so
(a\\d\\
+ b\\C\\,
b\\d\\) ~
{ad +
be,bd),
care
and
giving
{axd\\ in
+ b\\Cx, b\\d\\) F, on
multiplication
of addition
c\\d = d\\c,
in
F.
For
we
obtain
a\\bc\\d
= b\\ad\\C,
so,
using
axioms
of D,
we get
a\\C\\bd
b\\d\\ac,
which implies
that
(aiCi,
b\\d\\)
~ (ac,
M).
proof.
\342\231\246
[(ac,
M)],
meaning
of the last
lemma
and
the
necessity
for
2. it is
we
Step 3 is routine,
reason
good for us
details.The
what
for this
is
that
cannot
we have
this construction.
Therest are
1. Proof
Now
through
to work a few of these through work through them unless we understand them will contribute to our understanding
of
that must
be provedand
prove
a couple
of them.
Addition
F is
commutative.
[{ad + be, bd)]. Also to show that {ad + be,
bd
[{a,
definition
is
true,
= db, by
the
is
by
\342\231\246
This
2.
is associative.
an
3.
4.
5.
[(0, 1)]is
[(\342\200\224a, b)]
identity
element
for
addition
in F. F.
is an
[{a,b)] in
Multiplication
Multiplication
associative.
6.
is commutative.
7. The distributive laws hold in F. 8. [(1, 1)]is a multiplicative identity element in F. 9. If [{a, b)] e F is not the additive identity element, [{b, a)] is a multiplicative inverse for [{a,b)].
then
^ 0 in
and
Proof
Let
[{a,
b)] e
F. If a
= 0, then
a\\
=^0
= 0,
so
194
Part
IV
Rings
and Fields
that
is,
[(a, b)]
the Now
= [(0, 1)].But
identity b)][(b,
[(0,
1)] is
the
^
additive
identity
is not in F.
additive [(a,
a)]
0, so it makes in D we have
by Part sense to
if
[(a, [(b,
b)] a)]
ab =
ba, so
= (ba)l,
and
(ab,ba)~(l,
Thus
1).
=
[(a,fe)][(fe,a)]
and
[(l, 1)],
[(1, This
1)] is
the
multiplicative
identity
by Part
8.
\342\23
completes
It
Step 3.
D. To do to show that F can be regarded as containing of F. Then if we is an isomorphism i of D with a subdomain of D, we will be done. of D under i using the names of the elements We use the letter i for this isomorphism to us this isomorphism. gives D into F. the footnote on page 4); we will inject (see
Step 4
this, we
The next
show
remains
for us
that image
there
renamethe
lemma
map
i : D \342\200\224>\342\226\240 F given by
i{a) =
[(a, 1)]is
an
isomorphism
of D
with
a subring
off.
Proof
For a Also,
and
b in
D, we
have
[{a +
b, 1)].
[{b. 1)]
= [(al
lfe,
1)]
[(a + b,
1)].
+ i{b). Furthermore,
i(ab)=
[(ab.
1)],
i(a)itf>) = so j'(afc)
=
[(a, l)][(fe,
that i is
1)]
[(ab, 1)],
= i(b),
i(a)i(b).
to
It remains for us
show
only
one to one. If
[(ft,
i(a)
then
[(a, 1)] =
so (a.
1)],
1) ~ (b, 1) giving
al
lfo; that
is,
a =
Thus i
b.
of course,
is
an isomorphism
of D
with
;'[\302\243>], and,
i[D] is
then
a subdomain
off.
Since
\342\23
[(a.
now
b)] =
proved
[(a, 1)][(1,&)]
the following
[(a.
l)]/[(fc.
1)] =
i(a)/i(b)
clearly
holds
in F,
we have
theorem.
(or
21.5 Theorem
Any
integral
domain
element
of F
embedded
of two
every
F is a
field of
quotients of
Section
21
The Field
of Quotients
of an
Integral
Domain
195
Uniqueness
We
said
in the
D.
beginning
This
that
could
evident,
containing
is
intuitively
all elements
with
field
two
containing
contains
a subfield
as a minimal field D must contain will show that every of D, and that any
fields
of quotients
field
of D are
isomorphic.
21.6
Theorem
Let F
map
be a
of quotients
of D
and
let
L be
any
field
with
containing
a subfield
ty : F
\342\200\224> L that
for a
e D.
subring
gives an isomorphism
of F
Proof
The
and mapping
diagram
in
Fig.
21.7
may help
you
to visualize
the situation
for
b e /l
this
theorem.
An element of F is of the form a /F b where /f denotesthe quotient of a e D by to map a /r b onto a /i b where D regarded as elementsof F. We of course want the quotient of elementsin L. The main job will be to show that such a map denotes
We
is well defined.
must
define
ir :
\342\200\224>\342\226\240 L, and
we start
by
defining
\\jf{a) = a
Every
for
two
a e
elements
D.
a and
e F
to
is a
quotient
/r
b of
some
b, b ^
0, of
D.
Let us
attempt
define
ty by
if
(a
/F b) =
^ (a)
/L
if(b).
sense. If a
the identity
show that this map if is sensible and welldefined. of ir (a /F ^ Owe have i/{b) ^ 0, so our definition b = c /f d in F, then ad = be in D, so ir{ad) /F on D,
Since
ir is
/i
the
identity
b) as i/r(a)
=
\\jr{bc).
ir{ad) = ir{a)ir{d)
Thus
and
ir{bc)
ir{b)ir{c).
ir{a)
in
/L
ir(b)
= f{c)
/l f{d)
L, so ir
is welldefined.
The equations
ir(xy)
= ir{x)ir{y)
21.7 Figure
196
Part
IV
Rings and
Fields
and
follow
easily
If \\jf{a
/f
and
from
ty
is the
identity
on D.
t(a)/l
so
i/{a)i/{d)
=
deduce
i/r(b)i/r(c).
that ad
Since ty is one to
is the one.
identity
on D,
we then
a
= be,
soa /p b = c /p
d.
Thus
By definition,
i/r(a) =
a for
e D.
\342\231
21.8
Corollary
Every field
containing
an integral
domain element
of
D.
Proof
21.6
every
subfield
ty [F]
of L is a quotient
in L
\342\231
21.9
Corollary
of quotients
of an
integral
domain D
are isomorphic.
of D,
Proof
in Theorem 21.6 that L is a field of quotients in the form a /L b for a,b e D. expressed of Theorem 21.6 and is thus isomorphic to F.
can
so that every
field
ThenL is the
\342\231
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
21
Computations
1. Describe the
field
F of quotients
of
the
integral
subdomain
{n
D =
+ mi
\\ n,
m e Z} up the field
of C. \"Describe\"
means
D are
make
of quotients
subdomain
of D
in C.
(The elementsof
\\n,m&Z}
the
Gaussian
the sense
integers.)
F of
2. Describe(in ofR.
quotients of the
integral
D =
{n
+ mj2
Concepts
3.
Correct
the
definition
of the
italicized term
without
reference
to the
text,
if
correction
is needed,
so
that
it is
in
a form
A field
acceptablefor publication.
domain
D is a
field
in which
every
nonzero
Section
21
Exercises
197
4. Mark
each
of the
following
field
true
or false.
a. Q is a
of Z. of Z. of E. of E.
to
b. c. d. e.
R is a field R is a field
C is a field of If D is a field,
fact
that
quotients
then D
times in the construction domain D. integral quotients of D. g. Every element of an integral domain D is a unit in a field F of quotients D is a unit in a field F of quotients of of an integral domain h. Every nonzero element D' of an integral domain D can be regarded i. A field of quotients F' of a subdomain of some field of quotients of D. j. Every field of quotients of Z is isomorphicto Q. f. The
of D is isomorphic any field of quotients has no divisors of 0 was used strongly several
D. of a
field
F of
of the
D.
as a
subfield
5. Show by an
example
that
a field
F' of
quotients
of a
proper subdomain
D' of an
integral
domain
D may also
be a field Theory
of quotients
for D.
6. Prove
Part
2 of
3 of 4 of 5 of 6 of 7 of
7. Prove Part 8. Prove Part 9. Prove Part 10. Prove Part 11. Prove Part 12. Let R
this
this
any preceding any preceding any preceding any preceding any preceding any preceding
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3.
be
a nonzero
containing
for
section, 15
and subset of R closed under commutative ring, and let T be a nonempty multiplication the construction in neither 0 nor divisors of 0. Starting with R x T and otherwise following exactly we can show that the ring R can be enlarged to a partial ring of quotients T). Think about Q{R, and see why things still work. In particular, show the minutes or so; lookbackover the construction if R
following:
a. Q(R,
b. 13.
T) has unity
even
does
not.
In Q(R,
Prove
element every
of T
is a unit.
a that is ring containing an element 30 of Section 19. Compare with Exercise are there in the ring Q(Z^, {1,3})? {2n  n
not
nonzero
ring
commutative
elements
ring
a divisor
of 0
with unity.
With With
reference reference
12, how
many
g(Z,
e Z+}), by
describing
a subring
of R
of R
to
which
it
is isomorphic.
With
reference
to Exercise
ring
<2(3Z,
{6\"
n e
Z+}) by describing a
subring
to which
it
is isomorphic. the condition that T have no divisors of zero and just require reference to Exercise 12, suppose we drop that nonempty T not containing The attempt to enlarge R to a commutative 0 be closed under multiplication. of T is a unit must fail if T contains an element element a that is a ring with unity in which every nonzero of 0, for a divisor of 0 cannot where a construction parallel to that in the divisor also be a unit. Try to discover text but starting with R x T first runs into trouble. In particular, for R = Z6 and T = {1, 2, 4},illustrate the
With
first difficulty
encountered. [Hint:
It
is in
Step 1.]
198
Part
IV
Rings
and
Fields
section
22
Rings
of Polynomials
in an
Polynomials
We in
Indeterminate
a pretty workable idea of what constitutes a polynomial in x with coefficients R. We can guesshow to add and multiply such polynomials and know what is with meant by the degree of a polynomial. We expectthat the set R [x] of all polynomials in the ring R is itself a ring with the usual operations of polynomial addition coefficients and that R is a subring of R[x]. with and multiplication, However, we will be working different than the approach in high school algebra from a slightly viewpoint polynomials or calculus, and there are a few things that we want to say. rather than a variable. Suppose, for In the first place, we will call x an indeterminate in the ring Z[x] is Ix, our ring of coefficients is Z. One of the polynomials that example which we shall write simply as x. Now x is not 1 or 2 or any of the other elements of Z[x]. Thus from now on we will never write such things as \"x = 1\" or \"x = 2,\" as we have
all have a ring done change.
in other Also,
\342\200\224 4 is
courses. We callx an
we
will
indeterminate
never
write
an expression such
in our ring not the zero polynomial and will be a polynomial equation,\" \"solving refer to it as \"finding a zero of a polynomial.\" our text discussing this, but we will always of algebraic structures not to say in In summary, we try to be careful in our discussion context that they are not equal. one context that things are equal and in another
x2
than a variable to emphasize this 4 = as \"x2 \342\200\224 0,\" simply because to speaking of Z[x], We are accustomed a lot of time in the remainder of spending
rather
\342\226\240 Historical
Note
x
use of
and
the
end
of
false
everything
it
The the alphabet to represent an \"indeterminate\" is due to Rene Descartes (15961650). Earlier, Francois Viete (15401603) had used vowelsfor indeterminates
since
was
the
least was
doubt; thinking of
but, was
principle The
\"I think,
most
and
consonants
for known
the
quantities.
Descartes
is also
responsible for
appeared
first
(Corollary23.3)in
as an
This
appendix to
work
(1637).
of the
also
of analytic
geometric
geometry; curves
Descartes to
Discourse on Method, however, The Optics, The Geometry, appendices: It was here that Descartes and The Meteorology. provided examples of how he actually applied his method. Among the important ideas Descartes discovered and published in these works were the sine law of refraction of light, the basics of the theory
enlighteningparts
of the
arethe
three
can be
described algebraically.
born
Descartes was
La Haye,
a wealthy
in
of delicate France; since he was always health, he formed the habit of spending his mornings in bed. It was at these times that he accomplished his most productive work. The Discourse onMethod was Descartes' to show the proper attempt procedures for \"searching for truth in the sciences.\"The first step in this process was to reject as absolutely
of equations, and a geometric explanation of the rainbow. In 1649, Descartes was invited by Queen Christina of Sweden to come to Stockholm to tutor her. Unfortunately, the Queen required him,
contrary hour.
to his He
soon
longestablished contracted
habits,
a lung
to
rise
at an
early
in
disease and
died
1650.
Section 22
Rings of Polynomials
199
If a person
knows
nothing
about
polynomials,
it is
not
precisely
the
nature
such a polynomial
x with sum +
coefficients
22aix'
= ao
a\\x
+ anx\",
where a, e R, we get ourselves into a bit of trouble. For surely 0 + a\\x and 0 + a\\x but we want to regard them Ox2 are different as formal as the same polynomial. sums, as an infinite formal sum solution to this problem is to define a polynomial practical
+
A
oo
2^ajXl
(=0
flo
+ a\\x
+ '
''
+ anx\"
' '
'
where
more
a,
than
there is no problem of having number of values of i. Now 0 for all but a finite one formal sum representwhat we wish to consider a single polynomial.
22.1 Definition
Let
R be a
ring.
polynomial
oo
f{x) = ao
with coefficients
in
R is
an
infinite
formal
sum
2_\\ciix' (=0
a.\\x
at e R and a, = 0 for all but a finite number of values of i. The a, are coefficients of f{x). If for somei > 0 it is true that a, ^ 0, the largest such value of i is the degree J of f{x). If all a, = 0, then the degree of f{x) is undefined
where
To
\342\226\240
simplify
working with polynomials, let us agree that = 0 for i > n, then we may denote f(x)
1 ^
if f{x)
by
= ao
+ Q\\x
+
+
a\\x
a0
1 a\342\200\236xn.
lxk in such a sum as xk. For example, Ix as 2 + x. Finally, we shall agree that we may omit altogether from the formal sum any term Ox', or a0 if ao = 0 but not all at = 0. Thus 0, 2, x, and 2 + x2 are polynomials with coefficients in Z. An element of R is a
Also,
in
if R
has
unity
0, we
will
write
a term
Z[x],
we will
write
the
polynomial
2 +
constant
Addition in
polynomial.
and
multiplication
of polynomials
with
coefficients
in a ring R
are defined
a way
familiar
to us. If
f(x) =
and
a0
+ axx
h anx\"
g(x)
then
= bo
biX
 +
+ \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240, b\342\200\236xn
for polynomial
f(x)
addition, we have = co +
C]_x H
+ g(x)
h cnxn
where
The degree of the zero polynomial is sometimes defined to be \342\200\224 1, which is the first integer less than 0, or to be \342\200\224that the degreeof f(x)g(x) oo so will be the sum of the degrees of f(x) and g(x) if one of is zero. them
defined
'
200
Part IV
Rings and
Fields
and
for
polynomial
multiplication,
d0
we have
H
f(x)g(x) =
Observe definitions
+ dxx
h d\342\200\236x\" H
but
where
d\342\200\236
^=0
aib\342\200\236i
that
make
a finite
need
so these
R
is not
commutative. theorem.
of addition
and multiplication,
we have
the
following
22.2 Theorem
of
all polynomials
in an indeterminate
x
If R
with
coefficients
under
if
polynomial
addition
and
1 is
multiplication.
is commutative,
then
in a ring R is a so is R[x],
and
Proof
R has
unity
1^0.
then
also
unity
for
R[x].
law is apparent. The associative but slightly cumbersome, straightforward, the associative law. proving to at, bj, ck e R, we obtain axioms ring
is an
abelian
group
for
multiplication computations.
laws
are
2>*'')
2>,v
J=0
ckx
J2
,,=0
ckx \302\243*'\342\226\240*\302\273'\342\226\240*\"
\\ ('=0
.4=0
J2
n=0
(Ea'fc\302\253''
\\ i=0
E(
aibJck)xs
Efc
,;=o
E
50
E^\342\204\242 m=0
J^mj
m=0 \\ j=0
oo
/
\\
\302\260\302\260
./=0
/ \\i=0
Whew!!
should
under value
the fourth expression, having computation, just two summation signs, as the value of the triple product f (x)g{x)h(x) of thesepolynomials this associative we view f(g(h(x))) as the fashion, multiplication. (In a similar of the associative composition (f o g o h){x) of three functions f, g, and h.)
In
this
be
viewed
The distributive
The ring
if
definition
are similarly proved. (See Exercise26.) to the statement of the theorem show that R [x] is a commutative R is commutative, and a unity 1 ^ 0 in R is also unity for R[x], in view of the in R[x]. of multiplication \342\231
laws comments
prior
Thus
Z[x]
ring
is the
ring
of polynomials
Q[x] the
of polynomials
in x
with
rational
coefficients,
Section22
Rings
of Polynomials
201
22.3 Example
In la
[x
], we
have
(x +
Still working
in
x2 +
(1 +
l)x + 1 = x2
1.
7Li\\_x\\, we
(x +
Ifi?
(1 +
then
1) = Ox +
we
0 = 0.
the ring
(/?[>])[)>],
\342\226\262
is a ring
ring
and*
of
y are
can form
that
is, the
polynomial
naturalway
in
that are polynomials in x. Every in y with coefficients polynomials that are polynomials in x can be rewritten in a with coefficients in x
with
as a polynomial
coefficients
that
are polynomials
in
y as
illustrated
to (/?[)>])[;t], 20. This indicates that isomorphic (R [*])[>'] is naturally a careful these rings by means of this natural although proof is tedious. We shall identify isomorphism, and shall consider this ring R[x, y] the ring of polynomials in two inde\342\226\240 in in R. The ring R[xi, \342\226\240 of polynomials terminates x and y with coefficients \342\226\240, x\342\200\236] the n indeterminates defined. xt with coefficients in R is similarly We leave as Exercise 24 the proof that if D is an integral domain then so is D[x]. In is not a field, for if F is a field, then is an integral domain. Note that F[x] F[x] particular, x is not a unit in F[x]. That is, there is no polynomial f(x) e F[x]such that xf(x) = 1. of F[x]. Any element F{x) By Theorem21.5,one can construct the field of quotients in F{x) can be represented as a quotient of two polynomials in F[x] with f{x)/g{x) of F[x\\, define F(x\\, \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240, of quotients to be ,.\302\275]. g(x) ^ 0. We similarly x\342\200\236) the field \342\226\240 This field F{x\\, \342\226\240 is the field of rational functions in n indeterminates over F. \342\226\240, x\342\200\236) These fields play a very important role in algebraic geometry.
by Exercise
The
We
Evaluation
are
Homomorphisms
used to study what we F be fields, with F the existence of very important will be the fundamental tools
can be
Let
to proceed to show how homomorphisms to as \"solving a polynomial equation.\" a subfield of E, that is, F < E. The next theorem asserts of F[x] into E. These homomorphisms homomorphisms for much of the rest of our work.
now ready
have
always
referred
E and
22.4 Theorem
Homomorphisms element
for
Field Theory)
an
Let F
The
be a
subfield
4>a
of a field
: F[x]
\342\200\224*E
of E,
and let x be
indeterminate.
map
by
4>a(aa +axx
for
+ (\302\253o
and (f>a
h anxn)
= a0
+ axa \\
\\
anan
a\\x
maps
a,
homomorphism
F[x] is ahomomorphism of F[x] into E. Also, 4>a{x) = that is, 4>a{a) = aforae f. The by the identity map; at a.
in
Proof
The
subfield
and mapping
diagram
an
Fig.
22.5
may help us
to
visualize is really
this
situation.
The dashed
lines indicate
element
of the
an immediate
IV
Rings and
Fields
[fix]] N
a = <pa{x)
\"\342\226\240 a = (pa{a)
22.5
Figure
consequence
of our
that
definitions
of
addition
well defined,
is,
independent
of our
and multiplication
in
F[x].
The
a finite
map 0a is sum
a0 + axx
since
h a\342\200\236x\",
such
a finite which
of terms
If
Ox',
f(x) + g(x)= co
f(x) =
sum representing f(x) can be changed does not affect the value of 4>a(f(x))+
only
by insertion
+ bmxm,
or deletion
and
+ \302\253o axx
+ cxx +
b\\x
\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240
h{x) =
crxr,
then
\302\242(^(/^)
+ g(x))
= 4>a{h{x)) =
Co
qa
crar,
while =
0\302\253(/(^))
+ Mg(x))
(a0 +
(b0 +
bxa +
+ bmam).
Since by definition
of polynomial
Mf(x)
we have c,
a,
+ fc,, we
see that
+ g(x)) =
we see that
= d0
Mf(x)) +
if
$a(g(x)).
Turning
to multiplication,
f(x)g(x)
dxx
+ dsxs,
then
t>a{f{x)g{x)) = d0 +
while
[<M/(*))H<MS(*))]
+ (\302\253o
axa
+ bxa
+ bmam).
Section
22
Rings of Polynomials
203
Since by
definition
of polynomial
fa(f(x)g(x))
multiplication dj = X!/=oaibji,
= [0a
we seethat
Thus
4>a is a
homomorphism.
definition polynomial by the identity
of 0a applied to a constant so 0a maps F isomorphically gives 4>a{a) of 0a, we have 4>a{x) = <j)a{\\x) = la = a.
The
very
a e
e F.
\342\231\246
= a,
map.
by definition
with the identical proof if F point out that this theorem is valid commutative rings with unity rather than fields. However, we shall be they are fields. primarily in the case in which We
and
are
merely
interested
It is hard to overemphasize the importance of this simple theorem for us. It is the very It is so simple that it could justifiably foundation for all of our further work in field theory. a little misleading to write be called an observation rather than a theorem. It was perhaps that notation makes it look so complicated out the proof because the polynomial you it is a difficult theorem. may be fooled into thinking
22.6
Example
in
Theorem
22.4,
and consider
the
evaluation
homomorphism
a\\x +
+ \302\253i0
+ anQ\"
\302\253o
every
polynomial
E
constant
\342\226\262
22.7
Example
be Q and : QM + K02
Let F
be E in
and
consider
homomorphism
Here = + a\342\200\236x\")a0
+ 02(\302\2530 Note
a\\x
+ a{l
a\342\200\2362\".
that +x
4>2{x2
 6)
of 02
22
26
= 0.
Thus x2 + x
\342\200\224 6 is
in the
kernel TV
x2 +x
Of course,
6 = (x 2){x + 3),
that
and
the reason
that 02(;t2
+x
 6) = 0 is
22.4
02(;t
2)
22 = 0.
\342\226\262
22.8
Example
Let F
in Theorem
and
consider
the evaluation
homomorphism
+ a\\x
1
anxn)
= a0
+ axi
\\
\\
anin
and 4>i{x)
= i.
Note that
kix2
+ 1)
= i2+1
= 0,
so x2
1 is
in the
kernel TV* of
204
Part
IV
Rings and
Fields
22.9Example
Let
0JT
F be
: Q[x]
and
let
E be
in
Theorem
22.4
and consider
the
evaluation
homomorphism
> E.
Here
H
fa(a0 + a^x
It can
Thus
h anx\")
= a0
aXTZ
\\
+ if a, =
an7tn.
a0
+ a\\Tt +
if and
only
Ofon
= 0,
polynomials
way
it =
is map. This {0}, and \302\242^ a onetoone with rational coefficients form a ring isomorphic
4>M is
shows that
all formal
to Q[x] in a
natural
with
n. (j>\342\200\236(x)
\342\226
The
New
Approach
the connection
We now
solving
complete a polynomial
shall
refer to finding
F
a zero
equation. of a
new
ideas
and
of solving
polynomial.
and
22.10Definition
Let
be a subfield
22.4.
of a field E,
a\\x
of Theorem
Let
element of E. Let f{x) = a0 + E be F[x], and let 0a : F[x] >\342\200\242 the evaluation homomorphism f(a) denote
let
a be an
4>a{f{x))=
If f(a)
In
a0
+ axa
h ana\".
= 0, then
terms
a is a
zero of
f(x).
can rephrase
\342\226
of this
that
definition,
we
, numbers
r such
r2
+ r
 6=
0 by
letting
F =
all alia
real e E
such
that
4>a{x2
that
+x
 6)
= 0,
the
is, finding
all zeros
same
answer, since
{a e
It
E $a{x2 x +
that we have
In fact,
0} =
[r e
E  r2
phrase
 6
= 0} = {2,3}.
problem seem quite
in
may
seem
in merely succeeded
making
complicated.
what we have
use
its
done is to
the
language
of
all the
solution.
mapping machinery
we
have
developed
and
Basic
Goal
to
We continue
concerned
and
attempt
in
to put
ring
our
with topics
rings
theory
homomorphisms
in perspective. Sections 26 and 27 are on factor groups analogous to the material theory. However, our aim in developing these analogous
future
work
that are
from our aims in group theory. be quite different In group the concepts of factor groups and homomorphisms to study the structure of a given group and to determine the types of group structures of certain orders that about homomorphisms and factor could exist. We will be talking rings in Section 26
conceptsfor
theory
we
used
Section22
with an eye to
fundamental
Rings
of Polynomials
205
finding
zeros
of polynomials,
problems
in algebra.
history,
mathematical
using
which is one of the Let us take a moment to talk about the language of \"solving polynomial
oldest
and most
in
this aim
the
equations\"
light of to which
we are accustomed.
start with the Pythagorean We school of mathematics 525 B.C. The of about that all distances are commensurable: that Pythagoreans worked with the assumption a and b, there should exist a unit of distance u and integers ;; and m is, given distances and b = (m)(u). In terms such that a = {n){u) of numbers, then, thinking of a as being one unit of distance, they maintained that all numbers are integers. This idea of comcan be rephrased according our ideas as an assertion that all numbers to mensurability are rational, for if a and b are rational numbers, then each is an integral multiple of the For example, if a = reciprocal of the least common multiple of their denominators. ^ = (35)(^) and b = (76)(^). and b = f, then a The Pythagoreans knew, the Pythagorean of course, what is now called theorem; of length that b and a hypotenuse c, is, for a right triangle with legs of lengths a and a2 +
b2 =
c2.
had to grant the existence of a right triangle two also of a hypotenuse having of such a right triangle would, say one unit each. The hypotenuse legs of equal length, consternation and as we know, have to have a length of V2. Imagine then their one of their society\342\200\224according himself\342\200\224 to some stories it was Pythagoras dismay when in our terminology in the following is stated came up with the embarrassing fact that
They
theorem.
22.11 Theorem
The polynomial
number.
x2
\342\200\224 2 has
no zeros
in
the
rational
numbers.
Thus y/2 is
not
a rational
Proof
Suppose that
that
lowest
m/n
for m, n
any
e Z is a rational
factors
number
such
that (m/n)2
= 2. We
assume
we have canceled
terms
common
to m and n,
so that
the
fraction
with gcd(m, n)
= 1. Then
m
\342\200\224 2n ,
m/n
is
in
where
both m2
and
2n2 we
factor of 2n2, m2 has as factorsthe 2n2 must have two as a factor. We have
2 is a
contradicting
for
Since m2 and
must
2n2
are the
same
integer,
and
since
be
one
of the
factors of m2.
But
as a square.
factors
factors
deduced
that
2, so n2
the
the fact
repeated twice. Thus m2 must have two factors 2. Then must have 2 as a factor, and consequently ;; has 2 from m2 = 2n2 that both m and n must be divisible by 2, fraction terms. Thus we have 2 ^ (m/n)2 m/n is in lowest
\342\231\246
any m, n e
Thus
Z.
ran
right
the Pythagoreans
into
equation, x2
 2
= 0. We
the question
of a solution
3],
of a
polynomial
refer
the student
Pythagorean
to Shanks
dilemma
[36, Chapter
and its
for a lively
in
and
totally
delightful
account
of this
significance
mathematics.
206
Part
IV
Rings and
Fields
\342\226\240 Historical
Note
of polynomial mathematics developed
solution
equations
has been a
carry
out
the
computation rational
fact,
to as
many
places the
as
The goalof
Babylonians
necessary
distinction between
and could
thereforeignore
quadratic equations. For example, to solve x2 \342\200\224 870, the Babylonian scribe x = to take half of 1 (), square it instructed his students and add that to 870. The squareroot of 870, (), is then added to  to give 30 as the namely 291, was the scribes did not discuss, answer. What however, what to do if the square root in this process was not a rational number. Chinese mathematicians, however, from about 200 B.C., discovered a method similar to what is now called Horner's method to solve since they used numerically; equations quadratic a decimal system, they were able in principle to
formula
to solve
Chinese, in
techniques
extended
to
polynomial
world,
In the
Arab
Omar Khayyam for solving cubic equations geometrically by of intersection of appropriately finding the point(s) while Sharaf alDin alTusi chosen conic sections, (died u 1213)sed, in effect, techniques of calculus to or not a cubic equation had a real determine whether positive root. It was the Italian Girolamo Cardano (15011576)who first published a procedure for solving cubic equations
algebraically.
In our of a group, we commented on the of motivation of the definition necessity such as x + 2 = 0 might have solutions. having negative numbers, so that equations caused a certain amount of consternation in some The introduction of negative numbers circles. We can visualize 1 apple,2 apples,and even j apples, but how can philosophical and say that it is \342\200\22417 consideration of the equation we point to anything Finally, apples? of the number i. The very name of an \"imaginary x2 + 1 = 0 led to the introduction number\" this number was regarded. Even today, students many given to i shows how are led by this name to regard i with some degree of suspicion. The negative numbers were introduced to us at such an early stage in our mathematical that we development
accepted them
We first
without
question.
in high school freshman algebra. The first there problem in both freshman was to learn how to add, multiply, and factor polynomials. Then, algebra in the second course in algebra and in high school, considerable emphasiswas placed on solving polynomial equations. These topics are exactly those with which we shall be concerned. The difference is that while in high school, only polynomials with real
met polynomials
shall be doing our work with for polynomials coefficients from any field. Once we have developed the machinery of homomorphisms and factor rings in Section with our basic goal: to show that given any polynomial of 26, we will proceed of the polynomial may be from degree > 1, where the coefficients any field, we can find a zero of this polynomial in some field containing the given field. After the machinery is developed in Sections 26 and 27, the achievement of this goal will be very easy, and is really a very elegant piece of mathematics. All this fuss may seem ridiculous, but just think back in history. This is the than 2000 years of mathematical in working with polynomial culmination of more endeavor the After achieving our basic goal, we shall spend the rest of our time studying equations.
Section
22
Exercises
207
nature
of these
solutions of polynomial equations. We need have no fear in approaching We shall be dealingwith familiar topics of high school algebra. Tins work
than that
is not
ideas
necessary
[27,
goal.
see Artin
that
p. 29].
we should
grasp,
and
our
basic
are fundamental ring homomorphisms once we have goal will follow very easily
and
mastered them.
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
22
Computations
In
Exercises
1 through
4,
find
the
sum and
the
product
of the
given polynomials
in
the
given
polynomial
ring.
1. f(x) = Ax Ax + 2 in Z8[x}. = x + 1,g{x) = x + 1 in Z2[x]. 2. f(x) 3. f{x) = 2x2 + 3x + 4, g(x) = 3x2 + 2x + 3 in Z6[x]. 4. f{x) = 2x3 + Ax2 + 3x + 2, gix) = 3x4 + 2x + A in
 5,
g{x) = 2x2 
Z5[x].
5. How
many
polynomials
are there
of degree <
in Z2M? Z5 [x]?
6.
In
How
many
polynomials
are
there of degree< 2 in
in Theorem
Exercises
7 and
+ 3)
8, F
= \302\243 C =
22.4. Compute
the indicated
evaluation homomorphism.
7.
faix2
8. ^i2x3
x2+3x
the
+ 2)
evaluation
In Exercises
9 through
11, F
3x2
= E = Z7
in Theorem
indicated
homomorphism.
9. &[ix4
+ 2x)ixi + 5x\"
+ 3)]
[Hint:
2)iAx2
+ 3)(x7
+ 3x2
+ 1)]
11. 04(3x106
+ 2x53)
15, find
way
Use
Fermat's
is simply
given
polynomial
with coefficients
in
+ 1 in
Z2
2x
13. x3
in Z5
+ 2x +
2 in
Z7
+ 3x3 + x2 +
where
15. fix)gix)
16.
fix)
= x3
+ 2x2 + 5 and
gix)
= 3x2
+ 2x
in
in
Z7
Let
ipa
: Zs[x]
\342\200\224> Z5 be
an evaluation homomorphism as
Theorem
22.4.
to
evaluate
03 ix231
+3x111 2x53
theorem
+ l).
find
17.
Use
Fermat's
to
all zeros
in Z5 of 2x219 +
3x1A
+ 2x51
+ 3x44.
Concepts
In
Exercises
18 and
it is
definition
of the
italicized term
without
reference
to the
text, if correction is
needed, so that
acceptablefor publication.
208
Part
IV
Rings and
Fields
R is an =
18. A
polynomial
with coefficients
in oo
a ring
infinite
formal
sum
y]atx'
i=0
flo
+ o\\x
+ a2X2
+ a\342\200\236xn + \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240
where
19.
a,
/? for \342\202\254 2
0, 1,2,
Let F is the
be a field and let f(x) e f[i]. Aze/wo//(x)isana x into a. evaluation homomorphism mapping
element
e F such
that
0a(/(x))
= 0, where
0a
: F(;c)
\302\273 F
20. Considerthe
f{x,
of
y) =
(3x3 +
2x)y3
(x2 6x+
l);y2 + (x4 
2x)y
(x4
 3x2 +
2)
of the
(QM)[;y]the
Write
f(x, y) as it
would
appear
if viewed
as an
element
of (Q[j])M.
in
21. Consider
05homomorphism
evaluation
homomorphism
05 : Q[x]
\342\200\224>\342\226\240 R. Find
six elements
the
kernel
22.
Find a polynomial
of degree>0 in
following
Iii[x]
that is a unit.
true or
(anxn
false.
+
1
a. Thepolynomial
b. If R
a\\x
flo)
\342\202\254 R[x]
is 0
if
and
only if
a,
0, for
0, 1,
R[x] is commutative. ring, then D[x] is an integral domain. c. If D is an integral domain, d. If R is a ring containing divisors of 0, then has divisors of 0. R[x] e. If R is a ring and f(x) and g(x) in R[x] are of degrees3 and 4, respectively, then f(x)g(x) may be of degree 8 in R[x]. f. If Ris any ring and f(x) and g(x) in R[x] are of degrees 3 and 4, respectively, then f(x)g(x) is
is a commutative
then
always
of degree
7.
E and
\342\202\254 a \302\243 is
zero of
/(x) e F[;c],then
a is a
zero of
h(x) =
f(x)g(x)for
h. If F is a field,
i. If
R
is a
j.
Theory
If
R is a
in F. then the units in F[x] are precisely the units then x is never a divisor of 0 in R [x ]. ring, the ring, then the zero divisors in R[x] are precisely zero
divisors
in R.
24. Prove
25. Let
that
if D
is
an
integral
domain,
then D[x] is
an
an
integral
domain.
D be an
integral
domain
in D[x].
and x
indeterminate.
a. Describe b. Find
Z[x].
Z7
c.
26. 27.
Find
units
in
[x].
Prove the
distributive
law for
Let F be a field
of characteristic D(oq
R is a ring and x is an indeterminate. R[x], where D be the formal polynomial differentiation zero and let
map, so that
a.\\x
+ a2X2
+ anxn)
a\\
+ 2
a.
ShowthatD
: F[x]
\342\200\224>\342\226\240 F[x]
isagroup
homomorphism
of {F[x], +) into
itself.
Is Da ring
homomorphism?
Section 23
Factorization
of Polynomials
over a
Field
209
b. Find
c.
28.
Find
the the
kernel image
subfield
of D. of F[x]
of a
under
D.
Let F be a
field E.
homomorphism
: F[xu ,\302\276] 0\302\253,,...,\302\253\342\200\236 >
a. Define an
evaluation
for
a,
\342\202\254 \302\243,
stating
b. With
c.
3^14\302\276).
of a zero of
of a RR
a polynomial
{x\\,
a way
analogous
to
the
zero of
f(x).
functions
29. Let
by
be the
set of all
mapping
R into
R. For
e \302\242,^/
RR, define
(0+^)(r)
and
= 0(r)
+ ^(r)
the
product
\342\200\242 \342\226\240f by
(0
\342\200\242
i;){r)
= 0(rW)
that
Note
that
\342\200\242 is not
function composition.
Show
(RR, +,
is a \342\200\242)
ring.
function
to Exercise that
29, let F
0(a)
be a
field.
all
An element
a e
of \302\242)FF
is a polynomial
of
on
F, if there
exists
f(x) e F[x]such
a.
Show
= f(a) for
polynomial
F. on F forms a
subring
that
the set
Pf of all
functions
FF.
that
b. Show that
the
F[x] don't
PF is not necessarily isomorphicto F[x]. ring even have the same number of elements.]
[Hint:
Show
if F
is a
finite
field,
PF and
31. Refer
to Exercises
many
29 and
30 for the
(Z3 Zl,
following
questions.
Z^z,l
a. How
elements
are there in
Z2Zi? in
b. Qassify
(Z2Zl, +} and
+} by Theorem
then FF
11.12,the
Fundamental
Theorem
of
finitely
generated
abelian
groups.
c.
Show
Note
if F is a finite that if .
that
field,
= PF. [Hint:
Of course,
PF c
as elements
a \\,
f,(x) =
then
\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240 c(x  a{) \342\226\240 ati)(x  ai+l) \342\226\240 a\342\200\236), (x (x
fi(cij)
= 0
function
for
j on
that every
can be controlledby
the
choice
of c
e F. Usethis
to show
SECTION
23
Factorization
Recall
of Polynomials
concerned
that with
over a Field
zeros
that
we are
finding
with F
g(x),h(x)
< E.
Suppose
f{x)
e F[x]
factors
\342\202\254 F[x]
and let
a e
E. Now
for
be fields,
we
g{x)h(x) for
<j>a,
have
f(a)
= = <t>a{f{x))
= (pa(g(x)h(x))
g(a)h(a).
attempt f(x).
Thus if a e E, then f(a) and only if find a zero of f(x) is reducedto the problem is one reason why it is useful to study factorization
= 0 if
to This
Part IV
Rings and
Fields
following
theorem
algorithm
is the
work
in this
the
section. Note
importance
the
similarity
with
the division
for
Theorem 6.3,
of which
has
been amply
23.1
demonstrated.
Theorem
(Division Algorithm
f{x) = anxn
and
H a\342\200\236i*\"_1
H \302\253o
g(x)
= bmxm +
and a\342\200\236bm
bm~\\xm~l
b0
be two
where
q(x)
degree
and
of
r(x)
set
= 0 or
the
elements of F and m > 0. Then + r(x) in F[x] such that f(x) = g{x)q{x) r{x), r(x) is less than the degree m of g(x).
both nonzero
there
Proof
Considerthe
such
that
f{x) done.
we are
for
S = {f(x)  g(x)s(x) s(x) e F[x]}. If 0 e S then \\ = q{x) g(x)s(x) = 0, so f(x) = g(x)s(x). Taking
exists
s{x) and
S. Then
r(x) = 0,
an s(x)
Otherwise,
let r{x)
be an
element
of minimal
degree
in
f(x)
some
= g(x)q(x)
that the
q(x)
e F[x].
We must
show
m.
Suppose
that
r(x) =
with
Cj
H c,x' + c,xx'~l
co,
F and
c, ^
0. If
form
t >
m, then
f(x)q(x)g(x)(ct/bm)x'mg(x)
and
= r(x)(ct/bm)x'mg(x),
of lower degree),
the degree of r (x). However,
(1)
the
latter
is of
the
r(x)
which
\342\200\224
(c,x'
+ terms
is a
polynomial
in Eq.
of degree lowerthan
in the
t, the
polynomial
form
fix)
so
fact
+ g{x)[q{x) (c,/bm)x'm],
that r(x) was selected to m of g(x). the degree
= g(x)ql(x)
it is
the
contradicting
the
have minimal
degree
in S.
Thus
degree
of r(x)
is less than
For uniqueness,if
f{x)
and
+ rl(x) + r2(x),

fix)
then
= g(x)q2(x)
subtracting
we have
 q2(x)]=
or
the
r2(x)
r^x).
\342\200\224
rx(x)
= 0
degree
of r2(x)
r\\{x)
is less than
of g{x),this
r2(x)
\342\200\224
the degree
must
can
hold
only if q\\{x)
r\\{x)
\342\200\224
q2(x)
= 0
so
q\\{x)
q2(x).
Then we
have
ri(x)
= 0
so
r2(x).
\342\2
We
can
compute
the polynomials
in M.[x]
q(x) and
in high
r(x)
of Theorem
23.1
by
long
division
just as
we divided polynomials
school.
Section23
Factorization
of Polynomials
over a
Field
211
23.2Example
Let
us work with
polynomials
in
Z5 [x]
and divide
3x3
f(x) =x4
by
2x3 + Ax
g{x)
= x2
\342\200\224
2x
+ 3
to
find
q{x)
andr(x)
of Theorem
Zs[x],
division
should
be easy to follow,
but
remember
that we x
are in
x
so, for
\342\200\224
x2x
,4 + 3 ;r 
3x3
2x2
+ Ax
 1
x4
\342\200\224
2x3
+ 3x~
 x3
\342\200\224
x2
Ax
3x
x3
+ 2x~
\342\200\224
 3x2
3x2
+ 2x  1 x  4 + x +
3
Thus
q{x)
= x2
\342\200\224 \342\200\224
3,
and
r(x) = x
+ 3.
first
We
give
three
important
the
school algebrafor
mapping
(homomorphism)
corollaries of Theorem23.1.The case F[x] = Rpc]. We phrase special 22. approach described in Section
element
one
our proof
23.3 Corollary
a e
e F[x]
if
and
only
if x
\342\200\224 a is
Proof
for a
such
&
we
have
0. By
Theorem
23.1,
there
exist
q(x),
r(x)
\342\202\254 F[x]
that
f(x) = (x
where for
a)q(x) + r(x),
is less
than
either c e
r(x)
= 0 or
the
degree
of r(x)
1. Thus
we must have
r(x) = c
F, so
/(*) =
Applying
(^
a)q(x)
:
+ c.
\342\200\224>\342\226\240 F of
our
evaluation
homomorphism,
0 =
4>a
F[x]
Theorem
22.4, we find
/(a)
= 0q(a)
+ c,
f{x).
applying
so it
must
be that
if
c=
x
0. Then
\342\200\224 a a is
Conversely,
= (x \342\200\224 so x \342\200\224a factor of a is a)q(x), /(x) factor of f{x) in F[x], where a e F, then
our
\342\231\246
evaluationhomomorpohism4>a
to f{x)
= (x \342\200\224 a)q(x),v/ehave
(a) = 0q(a)
= 0.
212
Part
IV
Rings and
Fields
23.4Example
Working
again
in Zs[x], note
that
1 is a
zero of eZ5W.
factor
(x4 +
Thus
by
3x3
+2*+4)
Corollary
23.3,
find
we should
factorization
be ableto
x4 +
3x3 +
2x + 4
into
(x
Y)q
(x)
in Zs[x].
Let us
the
by long
division.
Ax
x3 +
x ~l
Ax2
+ +
+ 1
2x +
x4 +
3x3
4x3
4x3 4x2
4x2
2x
4x2
 4x
x+
x
2x +
4 = (x
+
4x2 + 4x
 1)03+ 4x2
r +4
4x +
this
1) in
Z5[x].
Since by x
1 is
seen
get
to
be
1 also,
we can divide
polynomial
\342\200\224 1 and
x~
x3
4x2
+ 4x
+ 1
+ 4x + 1
4x
4
Since x2 +
4 still
has
1 as a
zero, we
can divide
x + 1
again
by x
\342\200\224 1 and
get
+4 x+
x
4
0 Thus x4 +
The
3x3
2x +
should
4 = (x
also
 l)3(x+ 1)in
look
Z5[x].
next corollary
polynomial
familiar.
23.5 Corollary
nonzero
f(x)
e F[x]
of degreen
can
have
at most
zeros
in a field
F.
Section 23
Factorization
of Polynomials
over a
Field
213
Proof
The
preceding
corollary
shows that if
f(x)
a\\
F is a
zero of
fix),
then
= ix
ai)qiix),
\342\200\224 1. A
where, of course,the
factorization
degree
of qiix)
is
zero a2
&
of q\\(x)
then results
in
fix)
Continuing
= ix
at
 ai)ix 
a2)q2ix).
this process,
we arrive
fix)
= ix
 ai)
side
ix
ar)qrix),
of fix)
zeros righthand
in F.
F, then
Since
the
degree
is n,
at
most
n factors
of the
preceding equation,
so r
< n.
Also, if
b ^ a; for
i =
1,
&
fib)
= ibai)ibar)qrib)^Q,
and
since F
the
Our
has
no
divisors
of 0
none
the
of b
zeros
\342\200\224 or
a;
in F
construction.
Hence
\342\231\246
final
corollary
nonzero elements of a
surprising
that
that
of the multiplicative F* of the structure group than with factorization in F[x]. It may at first seem such a result follows from the division in F[x], but recall that algorithm a subgroup of a cyclic group is cyclic follows from the division algorithm
field
is concerned with
F, rather
23.6 Corollary
If G is a
finite
subgroup
the
of the
multiplicative
group
{F*,
of a \342\200\242)
field F,
finite
then
G is
In particular,
multiplicative
group
of all nonzero
elements of a
field
cyclic. is cyclic.
Proof
as By Theorem11.12
a finite abelian group, G is isomorphic to a directproduct Z,*, x where each dt is a power of a prime. Letus think of each of the Z^. as a Zdr, notation. Let m be the least common cyclic group of order dt in multiplicative multiple \342\200\242 of all the d; for i = 1, 2, \342\200\242 note that m < d\\d2 \342\226\240 a, e Z^, then a; ' = 1, so If dr. \342\200\242, r; a.m = 1 since d; divides m. Thus for all a e G, we have am = 1, so every elementof
Zd2 x
G is
zero of
in
xm
\342\200\224 But
1.
G has
prime
d\\d2
\342\226\240 \342\226\240
dr
elements,
> d\\d2
while xm
dr.
\342\200\224 1 can
have at most m
d\\d2 \342\226\240 so \342\226\240 \342\226\240
zeros
the
field
F by Corollary
in
23.5, so m
m =
and
dr,
the
isomorphic to
Exercises
the
cyclic
d\\,d2,,dr
are distinct,
of
the group
G is
\342\231\246
5 through
the
cyclic
groups
of units for
field
of units
of a finite
is cyclic
Polynomials
definition
Our next
importance school
to us. algebra
out a type of polynomial in singles The concept is probably already familiar. in a more general setting.
F[x] We
that
really
214
Part
IV
Rings and
Fields
e F[x] isirreducible over be expressedas a product
23.7Definition
A nonconstant
polynomial
in
g(x) and
is over
h(x)
both of
lower degreethan
not
the
a nonconstant F.
polynomial
that is
irreducible
over
F, then
f{x) is
reducible
not
\342\226
just
definition A
concerns
polynomial
f(x)
be irreducible
viewed
over
a larger
field E
the concept irreducible over F and may be irreducible over F, but may F. We illustrate this. containing
not
23.8 Example
2 viewed in Q[x] has no zeros in Q. This shows that that x2 \342\200\224 2 = over Q, for a factorization x2 \342\200\224 (ax + b){cx + d) for a,b,c, 2 viewed in R[x] is not 2 in would give rise to zeros of x2 \342\200\224 Q. However, x2 \342\200\224 deQ \342\226 2 factors in R[x] into (x  */2)(x + V2). irreducible over R, because x2 \342\200\224
Theorem
22.11
shows
x2
\342\200\224 2 is
irreducible
the
units
in F =
an irreducible f{x)
polynomial
such that in
any
factorization
the [x] areprecisely nonzero elements polynomial f{x) as a nonconstant g(x)h(x) in F[x], either g(x) or h(x)
is a unit.
23.9
Example
Let us show 3x +
that
f(x)
= x3
+ 3x
+ 2 viewed
in
Zs[x]
is irreducible
over Z5. If
would
then
x3
= 2, /(2) = 1, and /(0) = 2, /(1) = 1, = \342\200\2242, has no zeros in Z5. Thus f(x) is irreducible over that f(x) /(2) showing and cubic Z5. This test for irreducibility by finding zeros works nicely for quadratic \342\226 over a finite field with a small number of elements. polynomials
into
f(x)
of lower degree then there polynomials a for of the form x \342\200\224 some a e Z5. But
exist at would
f{a)
However,
/(1)
Irreducible
polynomials
of determining
now
The problem
difficult.
illustrated
We
give for
will play a very important role in our work from now on. irreducible F may be whether a given f(x)&F[x]is over that are useful in certain cases. some criteria for irreducibility irreducibility
One technique
determining
of
quadratic
and
cubic
polynomials
was
in Examples
23.8 and
23.9. We
formalize
it in a
23.10 Theorem
let F.
f(x)
be of
degree 2 or
3. Then
f(x)
zero in
Proof
is reducible so that f(x) = g(x)h(x), where the degree of g(x) and the degree of or cubic, h(x) are both less than the degree of f{x), then since f(x) is either quadratic either g(x) or h(x) is of degree 1.If, say, g(x) is of degree 1, then except for a possible factor in F, g(x) is of the form x \342\200\224 that f{a) = 0, so a. Then g{a) = 0, which implies f(x) has a zero in F.
If f(x)
that
if f(a)
= 0 for a
e F, then
a is x \342\200\224a
factor
\342\231
We turn to some conditions for irreducibility most important condition that we shall give is not this theorem here; it involves clearing prove
over
Q of
polynomials
the
in
Q[x].
The
contained in
denominators
next
theorem.
We shall
messy.
Section
23
Factorization
of Polynomialsover
a Field
215
23.11 Theorem
If f(x)
r
and
e Z[x],then
and
f(x)
only
factors
if it
s in
Q[x] if and
s in 7L\\x\\.
two
polynomials with
of lower
degrees
polynomials
of the
same
\342\231\246
degreesr
Proof 23.12
is omitted here.
x\"
Corollary
+ anixn~l
+
in Z, Q,
it has a
zero m
a
in
with
a0
0, and if
a0\342\200\224
Proof
f(x) then
has a zero
then
/(x)
am
somem
a linear
f(x) =
Thus ao/m
{x
m)(xn~l
ao/m).
\342\231\246
is in
Z,
so m
divides oq.
23.13
Example
2 2 over Q, for x2 of the irreducibility of x2 Corollary 23.12 gives us another proof in Q[x] if and only if it has a zero in Q by Theorem 23.10. By factors nontrivially i Corollary23.12,t has a zero in Q if and only if it has a zero in Z, and moreover the only are the divisors \302\261 none of these numbers 1 and \302\2612 2. A check shows that of possibilities
\342\200\224
\342\200\224
2. is a zero of x2 \342\200\224
\342\226\262
23.14
Example
Let us
use Theorem23.11 to
show
that
f{x)
viewed
=x42x2
+ 8x +
zero in
either
has a linear factor in Q[x], then it has a Q[x] is irreducible over Q. If fix) and by Corollary 23.12, this zero would have to be a divisor in Z of 1, that is, Z, = 8, and /(1) = \342\200\2248, But /(1) \302\2611. so such a factorization is impossible.
in
factors
If fix)
factorization.
into
two
quadratic
factors
in
Q[x],
then
by Theorem
23.11, it
has
ix2 +
in Z[x].
Equating
ax + b)ix2
ex +d)
that 2,
coefficients
of powers
of x, we find
b
we must and
have
a +
bd=l,
for
ad + be = 8,
ac+
+ d
\342\200\224
c= 0
In any
e Z. From either bd = 1, we see that b = d = lor b = d b = d and from ad + be = 8, we deduce that dia + c) = 8. But case, a factorization into two quadratic impossible since a + c = 0.Thus polynomials and is irreducible over Q. fix) impossible
integers
a, b,c,d
=
this
\342\200\224
1.
is
is also
\342\226\262
We
irreducibility.
conclude
An
additional
our irreducibility criteria with the famous Eisenstein useful criterion is given in Exercise 37. very
Let
criterion for
23.15 Theorem
(Eisenstein Criterion)
in Z[x], and
an
e Z
but
be a prime. Supposethat
fix)
= anxn
with
+ a$
is
^k 0 (mod
p),
over
at = 0
ao
# 0
(mod p2).
Then fix)
is
irreducible
Q.
216
Part
IV
Rings
and
Fields
Proof
only
does not
factor
into
polynomials
of
(brxr +
^ 0,
b0)(csxs
c0)
Z[x],
not
bo and cq
are
both
p).
Now
smallest
cs ^0andr,s < \302\253,thenao # 0 (mod p2) implies that modulo p. Suppose \302\243>o0 (mod p) and congruent # = brcs. 0 (mod p) implies that br,cs a\342\200\236 ^0 (mod p), sincea\342\200\236 ^ value of k such that q ^ 0 (mod /?).Then
withfor
to 0
+ b\\Cm\\
fcmCo if
m, brcmr if r < m.
r >
The
\342\200\242 \342\200\242, cm_i, \342\200\242 are all co p while congruent to 0 modulo s = n, congruent to 0 modulo p implies that am ^ 0 modulo p,som =n. Consequently, was nontrivial. contradicting our assumption that s < n; that is, that our factorization
fact
that neither
fo0
nor
cm are
\342\231\
Note
that
if we take
p = 2, the
Q.
Eisenstein
criterion
gives us
still
another
proof
of
irreducibility
2 over of x2 \342\200\224
Taking
= 3,
we see by
Theorem
23.15
that
9x4
3x2
12
Corollary
The polynomial
<M*) =
is
xl
prime
= xp~l
+XP~2 + .
+x+ I
irreducible
over Theorem
Theorem
Q for
any
p
only
Proof
Again following
by
23.11,
22.5
commutative
we need
that its
It
consider
actually
factorizations
shows
in Z[x].
We remarked
can be
phism
used for
: Q[x]
proof
that
0X+1
+ Q[x].
by f(x
+ 1) for
f{x)
6 QM.Let
g{x) =
The
= + $\342\200\236(x 1)
coefficient
by Thus
of xp~r
p
(x +
l)p  1
xp
PX
because
pi
but
does
\342\200\224which
r)!]
g{x)
= xP1
+ (PA Xp2 +
+ p
Section
23
Factorization of Polynomials
over
a Field
217
satisifies the
$>p(x)
Eisenstein
h{x)r{x)
and
is thus
of
&p(x)
ever Z.
Br: r
+ 1)
= g(x)
= h{x + l)r(x+ 1)
$p(x)
would
give a nontrivial
must
also be
irreiuc:rle
\342\231\246
over Q.
The
polynomial
23.17 is thepth
cyclotomic
polynomial.
Uniqueness
Polynomials
of Factorization
in
in F[x]
a product
F[x]
can be
factored into
For
of irreducible
that
in an
f(x), g{x) divides essentially unique way. if there exists q(x) e F[x]such that f(x) = g(x)q(x). Note the similarity F[x] theorem that follows with boxed Property (1) for Z following 6.9. Example
irreducible
polynomials in
fix
F[x]
i
in
of the
23.18 Theorem
Let p{x) be an
polynomial
F[x], Proof
23.19
We
then
either
p(x)
divides r(x) or
this
r(x)s(x)
for r(x),
s(x) e
delay
the proof
of
theorem
to Section
\342\231\246
Corollary
F[x],
Proof
23.20
we
find that
Theorem
23.18.
\342\231\246
Theorem
is a field,
a product
then
every
nonconstant
polynomial
the
F[x] can
be
factored
in F[x]
of irreducible
for
unit
(that is,
polynomials in F.
irreducible,
being
unique =
If f(x)
is
both not,
not
then
f(x)
and the
degree ofh(x)
here. If
this
less
than the
g{x)
and
h(x) are
both
irreducible,
we stop
Continuing
polynomials
of lower
degree.
f(x)
process,
= Pl(x)p2(x)pr(x). 1, 2,
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 r. \342\200\242,
for
to
i =
for us
show
uniqueness.
Suppose
that qi(x)q2ix)
\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240
fix) =
are two
qs(x)
factorizations of
some
fix)
into
irreducible
polynomials.
Since
Piix)
divides
qj(x),
let us
23.19,
uiPiix),
substituting
where
u\\ ^
0, but
u\\
is in
F and
thus
is a
unit. Then
u\\P\\{x)
for q\\(x)
and
canceling, we get
Piix)
\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240
Prix)
= u\\qiix)
qs(x).
218
Part IV
Rings and
Fields
= u2p2ix),so
By a
similar
argument,
say q2(x)
in this
manner, we eventually
1 =
arrive
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242
at
\342\226\240 \342\226\240 \342\226\240
uiu2
urqr+\\{x)
qs(x).
This
1 =
mm
ur.
possiblyfor
order
and
the unit
factors.
23.21
\342\231\246
Example
is (x \342\200\224 + 1). of x4 + 3x3 + 2x + 4 in Zs[x] \\)3(x Example 23.4 shows a factorization These irreducible factorsin Zs[x] are only unique up to units in Zs[x], that is, nonzero \342\226\262 constants in Z5. For example,(x \342\200\224 + 1) = (x \342\200\224 \342\200\224 + 3). l)2(2x 2)(3x \\)3(x
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
23
Computations
In with
Exercises r(x)
1 through
4,
find
q(x)
= 0
and r(x)
the
the
division
algorithm so
that
f(x)
= g{x)q{x)
+ r(x)
andg(x)
= x2 + 2x = 3x2
in Z7[x].
3
 3x
+ 2 and
g(x)
g{x)
2x 
in Z7[x].
 5
and
and
= 2x
+ 1 in
=x4 + 5x3 5
through
g(x) = 5x2
 x + 2 in
the
8, find
all generators of
6.
cyclic
multiplicative
group of
units
of
the given
8.
finite
field.
Corollary 6.16.)
Z7
linear
5.
Z5 polynomial polynomial
7.
factors
Z17 Find in
Z23
x4 x3 2x3
+ 4
in Zs[x].
this
+ 2x2
+ 1 can
5 can
be factored
Z7[x].
factorization.
factorization.
polynomials
11. Thepolynomial
12. Is x3
ofZsM.
+ 3x2
\342\200\224 \342\200\224
be factored
linear Express
factors
in Zn
[x].
Find
this
+ 2x + 3
an irreducible
polynomial
of Zs[x]? Why?
in Z5 [x]?
over
it as a
product of irreducible
it as a
13. Is 2x3
polynomials
+ x2 + 2x + 2 an
in Ijs[x]. fix)
that
irreducible
polynomial
Why?
Express
product of C?
irreducible
14. Show
= x2
+ 8x
 2 is irreducible
= x2
Q. Is
fix)
irreducible
over
E? Over
x3 + x4
21,
of fix).
ducibility over
18 through Q.
determine
whether the
polynomial
in
Z[x]
satisfies an Eisenstein
criterion
for
irre
Section23 Exercises
219
18.
x2
12
 9x3
20. 4x10
22. Find
18
21. 2x10
25x3
\\0x2 school
 30
algebra problem.
You
use a bit
of 6x4 + 17x3+ lx2 + x \342\200\224 Q. (This is a tedious 10 in of analytic or and calculus and make a graph, geometry best candidates for zeros.)
all zeros
high
might
use Newton's
method
to
see
which
are the
Concepts
In
Exercises
23 and
that
definition
of the
italicized term
F if
without
reference
to the
text,
if
correction
is
needed, so
23.
it is
acceptablefor publication.
is irreducible
A polynomial g(x),
over
the
field
and only
the field
if f(x)
^ g(x)h(x) for
only if in
any
polynomials
24. A
25.
nonconstant
in F[x],
Mark
one of the
of the
polynomial
factors
f(x)
is in
true
e F[x] is irreducible F.
or false. over
over
if
and
any
factorization
of it
each
following
6 is
a. x
b. 3x
 2 is irreducible
\342\200\224
Q.
over Q. c. x2 \342\200\224irreducible over Q. 3 is d. x2 + 3 is irreducible over Z7. the units of F[x] are precisely the e. If F is a field, f. If F is a field, the units of F[x] are precisely the
irreducible
nonzero nonzero
elements elements
of F. of F.
at at
g.
polynomial
f(x)
that
of degree
< E. of degree
in F[x]
with
coefficients
most most
n zeros
in
F.
any
h. A
n with
coefficients
has at
most
n zeros in
given
field E
i. 26.
In
Every
1 in
F[x]
at
j. Each
Find
can have
x +
field F.
all prime
numbers p
that
2 is a factor
of x4
x2
\342\200\224 1
x +
in Zp[x]. in the
given
Exercises
27 through
in in
30,
find
all irreducible
polynomials
of
28.
indicated
in in
degree
Z2[x] Z3[x]
ring.
Degree 2 Degree 2
Z2[x] Z3 [x]
Degree 3
30. Degree 3
in Zp[x], where Find the number of irreducible p is a prime. [Hint: quadratic polynomials of reducible polynomials of the form x2 + ax + b, then the number of reducible quadratics, from the total number of quadratics.]
Find
the
number
and
subtract
this
Proof Synopsis
32. Give
33.
a synopsis
of the proof
of Corollary
of Corollary
23.5.
Give a synopsis
of the
proof
23.6.
Theory
for p a
field
prime,
a ^
a0xn.
the
polynomial
xp +
f(x)
a
=
in flo
Zp[x]
is not
irreducible
+ anxn
for
any
a e
show
Zp.
that 1 /a
and
0 is a zero of
+ a\\x H
in F[x],
is a zero
of
+ an_\\x
220
Part IV
Rings and
Fields
field, and let a e F. Show algorithm, is /(a).
by
36. (Remainder
fix)
Theorem)
Let f(x)
e F[x]
where with
F is a the
that
the remainder
r(x)
when
is divided by
am : Z
x
be
\342\200\224 in
a,
accordance
division
given
37. Let
>
Zm
the natural
for a
e Z.
that
homomorphism
given
H
amia)
= (the remainder
of a
when
divided
by m)
a.
Show
5^
: Z[x]
>\342\200\242 Zm[x]
by
1
ff^(a0 +
is a homomorphism b. Show
that
flix onto
anxn)
ffm(a0)
am(tfi)*
1
^(aj*\"
if fix)
7Lm\\x\\.
ffm(/(;c))
then
both have
fix)
degree
\302\253 and
a^ifix))
does not
factor
in Zm[x]
into two
polynomials
c. Usepart
the
(b)
is irreducible
+ 36is irreducible
in Q[x].
of m
that simplifies
coefficients.]
SECTION
24
^NoNCOMMUTATrVE EXAMPLES
Thus
ring
nothing
have
presented
of a ring that
is
We
not
commutative
is the
with
entries
strictly
in a field
skew
F.
shall
be doing
there
almost
are other
several
noncommutative
rings and
rings
fields.
occurring
very
naturally
we
give
Rings
Let
of Endomorphisms
the
into itself is an endomorphism Since the composition of two such a homomorphism, we define multiplication of A into itself is again homomorphisms on End(A) is associative. by function composition, and thus multiplication we have to describe the value of (0 + xjs) on To define addition, for 0, xjs e End(A), each a e A. Define
A be
of A.
Let
of A
be
End(A).
(0 + f){a) = 4>ia)
Since
f{a).
(0 +
f)ia + b)
= =
$ia ma)
+ b) +
+ fia 0(i>)] +
Vr(fl)]
+ b)
[Vr(fl)
irib)]
= [^a)
[00)
+
+ irib)]
=
we see
that <f>
i<t>
ir)ia)
i4>
ir)ib)
\\[r
is again
Since A
is commutative,
in End(A). we have
+
(0 +
for all a
f)ia) = 4>ia)
=
xjs
ir{a)
= ir{a)
in
4>ia)
(i/r +
0)(a) The
A,
so
+ \302\242)xjs
+ 0
and addition
End(A)
is commutative.
of addition associativity
follows
from
This section is
not used in
the remainder
of
the text.
Section
24
Noncommutative Examples
221
+ [\302\242
(^+
6)](a)
= 0(a)
=
=
+ [(^ + 0)(a)]
+
0(a)
[Vr(a) if (a)]
+ 9(a)]
[\302\242(^+
+ 0(a)
If
e is
the additive
identity
of A,
then
by
= e
Finally,
for a
is an
additive
identity
in End(A).
0 e
for
End(A), = 0(a)
=
defined \342\200\2240
by
(0)(a)
is inEnd(A),
since
(0)(a
+ b)
= 0(a = 0(a)
+ ft)
[0(a)
=
+ 0(fo)] + (0)(^),
0(fo)
(0)(a)
and
= 0 + (\342\200\2240) 0.
are homomorphisms except Thus the set AA of all functions homomorphisms. definition of addition, and, from A into A is an abelian group under exactly the same in AA. of course, a nice associative multiplication function composition again gives are homomorphisms now to However, we do needthe fact that these functions in End(A)
to
Thus (End(A), +} is an abelian group. Note that we have not yet used the fact that our functions
that 0
show
i/r
and
are \342\200\2240
again
prove satisfies
the left
all the
End(A).
Let
0,
xjs,
law, (AA, +, Except for this left distributive and 0 be in End(A), and let a e A. Then
=
\342\200\242}
0(0(a)
+ f{a)).
0(0(a)
+ Vr(fl)) =
=
0(0(a)) +
(00)(a)
0(Vr(a))
+ (0V)(a)
= (00 + 0iA)(a).
Thus
0(0
+ i/r) =
00 +
0i/f.
The
right
distributive
trouble,
even
in AA,
+ 0)0)(a)
(Vr
0)(0(a))
+
=
Thus
(Vr0)(a)
(00)(a)
= (Vr0
+ 0(0(a)) + 00)(a).
we
have
proved the
of
following
theorem.
24.1
Theorem
addition
of
an
abelian
group
A forms a
ring
under
multiplication
(function
composition).
to show relevance to this section, we should give an example that Again, showing Since function composition is in general not End(A) need not be commutative. in some seems reasonable to expect. However, nd(A) be commutative commutative,this E may
us
to show that
222
Part
IV
Rings and
Fields
24.2Example
Consider
verify
the abelian group (Z x Z, +} discussed that two elements of End((Z Z, +}) are
in Section
<f> and xjs
11. It is
defined
\302\253))
straightforward
to
by
=
\302\242((171, n))
\342\200\224 +
(m
n, 0)
first
and
ir((m,
(0, n).
xjs
everything
onto the
factor
of Z
x Z,
and
collapses
the
first
(\\[r4>){m, while
n)
\\[f(m
+ n,
0) =
(0, 0).
(0i/O(m,
n) =
Hence0i/r
24.3
^\302\242.
\342\226\262
Example
Let F
ring
be a field of characteristic
of polynomials
F[x]
additive element
and let {F[x], +} be the additive zero, group of the with coefficients in F. For this example, let us denote this O this notation. We can considerEnd(F[x]). ne group by F[x], to simplify in F[x] of End(F[x]) acts on each polynomial by multiplying it by x. Let this
endomorphism be X, so
X(ao
+ a\\x
+ \302\2532*2
1 a\342\200\236x\")a$x
a\\x
+ \302\2532*3
+ anxn+
Another
formula is differentiation
\"the derivation
differentiation sum
of the
be
Let Y
(Thefamiliar
that
Y(ao +
Exercise
a\\x to
+ 2\302\2532*
1, where 1 is unity (the identity map) in in F[x] of End(F[x]). Thus XY ^ YX. Multiplication of polynomials by any element F also gives an elementof End (F[x]). The subring ofEnd(F[x]) generated X and Y by and is important and multiplications of F is the Weyl algebra in quantum by elements
17 asks
us
show
that
YX
\342\200\224 = XY
mechanics. and
e
\342\226\262
Group
Rings
Group
any
Algebras
written
Let G = {gi\\i
ring
with
1} be unity.
group
nonzero
Let RG
be the
set
and let
be
any commutative
sums.
iel
for
at
\342\202\254 R and
two elements
a finite
number
of
the
at
are
0. Define
the
sum
of
( J2a'Si \\ iel
( J2biSi )
\\
= J2(a> + b^Siiel
of indices
group
is/
Observe
is again
that in
(at RG.
finite
number
i, so
with
Sj\302\243/(a,' +
bfigi
+} is an abelian
additive
identity
E/6/0&.
Section 24
Noncommutative
Examples
223
Multiplication
in
G and R
of two as follows:
elements
of RG
is defined by
the
use
of the
multiplications
\\
iel
J \\
iel
sum
iel
in G.
\\gjgk=gi
the sum E,e/fc,gj and rename a over Since at and bt are 0 for all but a finite of nonzero summands number of i, only a finite number \342\202\254 R and may thus be viewedas an element of R. Again, at most a finite number of cijbk are nonzero. Thus multiplication is closed on RG. such sums Y,g.gt=g.ajbk The distributive at once from the definition of addition and the formal laws follow Naively, term a
distribute
we formally
the
E,\302\243/a,g,
way we
used
distributivity
to define
multiplication.
For
the
associativity
of multiplication
=
!>\342\226\240
iel
J2b'Si)(j2CiSi) iel I \\
iel
/J
=
!>\302\243<)
\\
iel
I L iel
I]
J2
\\gjgi.=gi
bJCk
jSi
.
I]( iel
I]
\\ghgjgk=g,
ahbjCk\\gi
'
J2\\ iel
J2
\\gi,gj=g,
ahbj\\gi
[J^CigA
\\
iel
the following
theorem.
and
24.4 Theorem
R is a
commutative ring
with
nonzero
Corresponding
1g
to
each {RG,}
with g,
we see that
we identify
as a
(rename)
multiplicative
RG
is not a
Definition
The ring
the
group
group
ring
of G
is a field,
then FG is
\342\226\240
24.6
Example
Let us give
addition
and
G=
{e,a}is
cyclic
of order
group
algebra
1aG,
where
Oe +
Oa.
la,
le + Oa,
natural
and
le +
la.
If we denotethese
elements
obvious, a,
way e +
by
0,
e,
and
a,
224
Part IV
24.7
+
Table
24.8
Table
e e+a
respectively,
a 0 e e+ a a 0 e e+ a e a 0 e+ a a e e+ a 0 e e+ a a 0
we
0 a e e+ a
For example,
0 0 0 0 0
a e 0 0 e a a e e+ a e + a
(e +
e +
e+ a
e+ a 0
a) = 0,
get Tables
24.7
and
24.8.
a)(e +
we have
(le
This
+ \\a)(le
+ la)
= (1 +
\\)e
(1 +
Oe+ 0a.
Indeed,
this
example
shows
that a group
algebra may
have
0 divisors.
is usually
the
case.
The
\342\226\2
Quaternions
not
We have
yet are
of Hamilton
a noncommutative of a strictly
division skew
ring.
The quaternions
field;
let us
describe them.
Historical
William
Note
Rowan
Hamilton in
years earlier he had numbers abstractly as pairs (a, b) developed the complex of real with addition {a, b) + {a'+ numbers = + b') and multiplication (a + a',b (a, b){a'b') \342\200\224 for an bb', ab' + a'b); he was then {aa' looking for 3vectors that was analogous multiplication and distributive such that the length of the product of the lengths of the vector was the product factors. After many unsuccessful attempts to multiply of the form a + bi + vectors 1, i, j are (where
to
along
the
Royal
Canal
in
Dublin
on October
16,
b') =
k 1843, that he needed a new \"imaginary symbol\" to be perpendicular to the other three elements. He could not \"resist the impulse ... to cut with a knife on a stone of Brougham the fundamental Bridge\" these defining formulas on page 225for multiplying
quaternions.
The
exampleof
quaternions
were
the
first known
many
a strictly
skew field.
Though
others
were subsequently discovered, it was eventually noted that none were finite. In 1909 Joseph Henry
Maclagan Wedderburn
tor at Princeton
University,
(18821948), gave
thenaprecepthe
cj
mutually
perpendicular),
he realized
while
walking
Theorem24.10.
first proof
of
Let
group
be E
x E x E x E. Now
(E
x E
x E
addition
x E, +} is
with elements
certain
itself of
1=
1 j = (0,0, ,0),
(1,0,0,0),
i = (0,l,0,0),
and
= \302\243 (0,0,0,1).
Section
24
Noncommutative Examples
225
We
furthermore
agree
to let
ai =
a2i and
(0, a2,
a4k
0,0), a4).
= (0,0,0,
we
then
have + o.2i
a3, a4) =
a\\
+ a3j
+ a4k.
Thus
(ai
+ a2i
=
+ a3j
+ a4k)
+
b2)i
(b\\ +
+ by
b2i +
(a3 +
(a\\ +
bi) + (a2 +
To
define
multiplication
on H, we start
la =
a\\
defining
for
aei,
and
ij Note
to
= k,
jk = i,
ki
j,
ji =
\342\200\224k, kj
and \342\200\224i,
ik =
\342\200\224j.
remember
of
vectors.
These formulas
are easy
of the
sequence
i, j,
k, i, j, k.
Theproduct
from is the next one to the right. The left to right of two adjacent elements of the next one to the from right to left of two adjacent elementsis the negative product it must be to make the left. We then define a product to be what distributive laws hold,
namely,
(a\\
+ a2i ~
+ a3j
a4k)(b\\
b2i +
a4b4)
b3j +
+ (a\\b2
b4k)
(aib\\
a2b2
a3b3
a2b\\
+ a3b4
\342\200\224
a4b3)i
+ (a\\b3
\342\200\224
a2b4
+ a3b\\
\342\200\224
+ a4b2)j
+ a4b\\)k.
(a\\b4
+ a2b3
a3b2
are isomorphic to a subring Exercise 19 shows that the quaternions of M2(C), so we multiplication is associative. Since ij = k and ji = \342\200\224k, see that multiplication is not so H is definitely not a field. Turning to the existence of multiplicative commutative, inverses, let a = a\\ + a2i + a3j + a4k, with not all a, = 0. Computation shows that
(a\\ If we
+ a2i
+ a3j
+ a4k)(a\\
0
\342\200\224 \342\200\224\342\200\224
a2i
a3j
a4k)
a^ + a22 +
a3 +
a4~
let 0
\\a\\
0
ax
0 + a2
+ a3 + ai
0
a4
and
a =
a\\
\342\200\224 \342\200\224\342\200\224
a2i
a3j
a4k,
we see that
a
12
/\302\2532
._
\302\253
._
U.
Via12
i\342\200\2362
\\\\a\\2
Vial2/
226
Part
IV
Rings
and
Fields
is a
multiplicative
inverse
for a.
We consider that
we
have
demonstrated
the
following
theorem.
24.9
Theorem
The
quaternions
H form G =
a strictly
skew field
under
addition
and multiplication.
quaternion
Note
This multiplication.
that
group
is generated
i and
a group of j, where
and
order 8 under
= i3j.
i4 =
1,
j2 = i2
proof.
finite
ji
the
There are no
Wedderburn,
finite
which
fields. This is
content
of a famous
theorem of
24.10Theorem
Proof
(Wedderburn's heorem) T
See Artin,
Nesbitt,
Every
division
ring is a field.
theorem.
and Thrall
\342\231
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
24
Computations
In
Exercises
1 through
3, let
in
G=
the
{e,a, b}
re
be
a cyclic
identity
element
e. Write
the
element
in the
form + sa+tb
2
r,s,(eZ5.
+ 2a
1. <2e
+ 3a
+ Ob) + 4 through
(2e +
in the
3\302\253 0b)(4e +
+ 3b) +
a$k
In Exercises 4.
the
element
of
EI
form
a\\
+ aii
+ a3j
a;
\342\202\254 ffi.
(i +
3/)(4 +
2/ 
5.
ffkji5
6. (i+JT]
7. [(1+30(4/
to the
+ 3^1
+ 1/ii + 0fl2
+
8.
Referring
group S3 given
lyoi
in Example
8.7, compute
lfl2
the
product
(Opo +
+ 0p2
+ 0/ii
l/i3)(lpo
+ lPi + 0p2
l(l3)
in the
group
algebra
Z2S3.
group
9. Find the
Concepts
center of the
(H*,
where \342\200\242),
H* is
quaternions.
EI
induced
addition
each other,
each
of which
is a
field
isomorphic
to C
under
11.
Mark
each of the
following
true or
a. b.
c.
has M\342\200\236(F)
Every End(A)
n and
nonzero
of M2CZ2) is a unit.
unity
=\302\243 0 for =\302\243 0 for group
is always
A. A.
d. End(A)
is never a ring
with
unity
any abelian
Section
25
Ordered
Rings and
Fields
227
e. The
End(A)
subset
Iso(A)
for every
the
isomorphisms
of A
onto
A,
forms
a subring
of
f. R(Z,
g. The
unity.
+) is isomorphic
ring
+,
commutative commutative
group
RG
of an abelian
G is a
ring R
with
h. The
i.
j.
quaternions are a field. is a group where HI* (HI*, \342\200\242) No subring of HI is a field. following
by
is the
set of nonzero
quaternions.
12.
Show
each
of the
giving
with
an example. in a strictly
skew
a.
polynomial
of degree n
coefficients
skew
field
may
have more
than
n zeros
in the skew
field.
b.
Theory
finite
multiplicative
subgroup of a
strictly
field need
not be cyclic.
13.
Let
be \302\242)the
element of
that is \302\242also
of 0. Show
in Example
24.2. That
these
exampleshowedthat
units.
0 is a
right divisor
14. Show
0 and
15.
that 1.]
that
M2(F)
every
field F.
to (Z,
Exhibit
[Hint: F has
at
least
two elements,
Show
Show
End
((Z,
naturally
isomorphic
+,
End((Z\342\200\236, +))
is naturally
isomorphic
to
(Z\342\200\236,+,).
16. 17.
that End((Z2
Z2,
+))
is not
Referring
to Example
group^of
24.3,
K e
show
to
(Z2
x Z2,
+,
\342\200\242).
= RG
HI
1. is isomorphic M2(C) ^
18. If G
= {e},he t
one element,
to
for
any ring
R.
19. Thereexists
a matrix
M2(C) such
+ cj
0 : a
^
defined _, n
by
(f>{a
+ bi
dk)
\342\200\236+ i
~*~c '
~*~ ^^'
for all a,
b,c,d e
matrix
K,
gives
an isomorphism
of
HI
with
0[HI]
a. Find the
b. What 8
K.
should
equations
you
check
to see
to
that
is a homomorphism? an isomorphism
c.
What
other
show
that
gives
of
HI
with
0[H]?
section
25
^Ordered
We
on any subset of E. (We Definition 0.7.) We regard < as providing an ordering of the real numbers. In this section, we study orderings of that the rings this section under discussion and fields. We assume throughout have rings 1. nonzero unity < a is In the real numbers, a < b if and only if b \342\200\224 positive, so the order relation We use the determined if we know which real numbers are positive. on E is completely the notion of orderin a ring. to define idea of labeling certain elements as positive are
familiar
remind
< on
the set E
and
discussedin
Section
0. See
This section is
not
used in
the remainder
of the text.
228
Part IV
Rings and
Fields
subset P are in
P. following
25.1Definition
An
ordered
ring is a
ring
together
of
R satisfying
these
two properties.
Closure
Trichotomy
For
all
a, b e
P,
R,
both
a + b
For each
a e
a e
one
and only
one of the
\342\200\224a e P.
holds:
P,
a = 0,
Elements
It is
of P
are called\"positive.\"
see that
P if R
then
\342\226\24
is an ordered ring with set P of positive elementsand S is in satisfies the requirements for a set of positive elements the This is the induced an ordering of S. (SeeExercise 6.) gives 2 ring ordering from the given ordering of R. We observeat once that for each of the rings Z, Q and ffi the set of elements that we satisfies the conditions of closureand trichotomy. have always considered to be positive We will refer to the familiar and the induced ordering on their ordering of these rings as the natural ordering. We now give an unfamiliar illustration. subrings easy to
a subring
of R, S, and thus
D S
25.2
Example
elements. There are two Let R be an ordered ring with set P of positive define an ordering of the polynomial R[x]. We describe two possible ring in R[x] of positive elements. A nonzero polynomial can be written Aiigh,
natural
ways
to
f(x) =
where
arxr + ar+\\Xr+l
that and anx\" are the nonzero terms of lowest and arxr Let Ptow be the set of all such f(x) for which ar e P, highest degree, respectively. e P. The closure and trichotomy and let Phigh be the set of all such f(x) for which an that P\\ovl and Phigh must satisfy to give orderings of R [x] follow at once from requirements of addition and multiplication those same properties for P and the definition in R[x].
ar ^
and
a\342\200\236 ^
0, so
Illustrating
would not
same
in
Z[x],
with
ordering
given
by
Piow,
the polynomial
With
f(x) =
given
in Z.
ordering
by
this
positive
in Z.
in
\342\226\262
Suppose
any
nonzero
elements
\342\200\224a is in
an
by
ordered
closure,
P, so any
ring R. a2 =
particular,
Let a be
is (\342\200\224a)2 1 =
also in
ring has characteristic zero. must be positive, we see that the natural are precisely the ordering of E is the only possible ordering. The positive real numbers and the set could not be enlarged without destroying squares of nonzeroreal numbers 1 + 1++1 Because must be positive, the only possible trichotomy. ordering of Z is the natural ordering also. All ordered rings have characteristic zero so we can, by identification consider every ordered ring to contain Z as an ordered (renaming), subring. \342\200\224 If a and b are nonzeroelements of P then either \342\200\224a is in P and or a either b or \342\200\224 either ab or ab is in P. By trichotomy, b is in P. Consequently by closure, ab cannot be zero so an ordered ring can have no zero divisors. We summarize these observations in a theorem and corollary.
an ordered
of R
are positive. In
12
1 +
number
of summands
Because squares
of
nonzero
elements
Section
25
Fields
229
25.3Theorem
25.4 Corollary
Let
R be an
ordered
ring.
characteristic 0, and
We
there
of nonzero
elements of
are
positive.
R has
divisors.
ring R,
possible
and
can
consider
R
Z to
Z from
ordering.
is
the natural
the
induced
ordering
the
of
ordering
of 5 is
natural
be ordered, because that the field C of complex numbers cannot i2 are squares. It also shows that no finite can be ordered ring is zero. because the characteristic of an ordered ring The theorem that follows defines a relation < in an ordered ring, and gives properties of <. The definition of < is motivated that, in the real numbers, a < b by the observation
Theorem
1=12
25.3 shows
\342\200\224 1 =
both
and
if
and
only
if b
terms
\342\200\224 a is
positive.
also shows
that
ordering
could have
been
definedin
25.5 Theorem
of a relation
the
listed
properties.
read
Let R
the
be
an ordered on R
relation
ring defined
with by
set
P of
\"is less
than,\" be
< b if
and
only
(1)
for a,b
\342\202\254 R. The
relation
One
a, b, c e holds:
R.
Trichotomy
Transitivity \342\226\240
only
one of
the
following
lfa<b If b <
If
b < a.
a
< c.
Isotonicity
c,
then
a + b <
a +
ab
c.
< ac
b <
c and
0<
a, then
and ba
< ca.
Conversely, the
given
set
P =
{x e
Definition
25.1,
< on a nonzero ring R satisfying these three conditions, satisfies the two criteria for a set of positive elementsin x) and the relation < P defined this P is the given as in Condition (1) with
a relation
 R
0 <
relation <.
Proof Let R
be an
ordered ring
three
with
set
P of
let a
< b mean (b
\342\200\224
a)
e P.
We prove the
properties
for <.
R. By
b a,
trichotomy
Trichotomy
Let a, b e appliedto
property
of P in
Definition 25.1
e P
\342\200\224
exactly
one of
(ba)&P,
holds. These
translate
ba
in terms
b,
= 0, (a of < to
b)
a <b.
respectively.
a=
b <
b <
Transitivity
Leta <
closure
and
of
P under
eP.By
(ba)
(cb)
= (ca)&P
soa < c.
230
Part
IV
Rings
and
Fields
Isotonicity
Let b < c, so (c 
b)
P.
Then
b)a
P so a + b
\342\200\224 =
<
a +
c. Also if
= (c of P
b) e
both
a(c
and
b)
ac
\342\200\224
aband(c
\342\200\224=
ba
are in
P, so ab
exercise.
< ac
(See
ba
\"conversely\"
of the
theorem as an
feel free
equally
easy
\342\231\2
view
25.5, we will
and
now
to use the
in terms
< notation
in an ordered
=.
The
notations b >
>
are defined
as
usual
of <
a
and
Namely,
a means a
< b,
< b,
b =
a.
25.6 Example
of R[x] given by to think what the orderings ring. It is illustrative 25.5. Example 25.2 mean in terms of the relation < of Theorem \342\200\224 x is positive sox < a. Also, Taking Piow, we observe, for every a > 0 in R, that a \342\200\224e x = x \342\200\224positive, so 0 < x. Thus 0 is 0 < x < a for every a e R. We have (xl x;) Piow when i < j, so xi < x' if i < j. Our monomials have the ordering
be
Let R
Piow
an ordered
and
Phigh in
0 <
x^ < x4
<x <
x2
< x
< a
for
any
positive many
a e
R.
Taking
infinitely
positive
similar
elements
We leave a
Exercise
The
E, we see that in this ordering of Rpc] that are less than any positive real number! of R[x] given by discussion of < for the ordering
R =
there are
P^h
to
1.
an ordering
\342\226\2
Archimedian.
preceding example is of interest because it exhibits We give a definition explaining this terminology. consider to be a subring of every orderedring.
Remember
that is that we
not
can
25.7
Definition
An ordering
of a ring
R with positive
this property:
a and
in
R,
there
such
that
ordering.
\342\226\2
but the ordering of R[x] given by Piow ordering of E is Archimedian, in Example 25.6 is not Archimedian because for every positive integer n we have (17 \342\200\224 e Piow, so nx < 17 for all n e Z+. nx) We give two examples and fields that are of interest describing types of ordered rings in more advanced work.
natural
discussed
25.8 Example
Let R be a ring. In Section 22 we defined a polynomial of the a, are 0. If formal sum X!^o aix> wnere ^ but a finite number we do not require any of the at to be zero, we obtain a formal power series in x with coefficients in the ring R. (The adjective,/orwa/, is customarily used becausewe are not with convergence of series.)Exactly the same the formulas are used to define dealing sum and product of theseseries for polynomials as in Section 22. Most of us had some
in
to be a
Section 25
Ordered Rings
and
Fields
231
practice
ring
the
and multiplying series when we studied calculus.These series form a adding which we denote by /?[[*]], and which contains R[x] as a subring. If R is an ordered to R[[x]] exactly as we extended ring, we can extend the ordering
ordering
not?)
25.9
the the
set same
Pjow of
ordering
Phiah
Why
\342\226\262
25.6.
Example
with Laurent Series Fields) Continuing the idea of Example 25.8,we let F series of the form Y^n a'x' where and consider formal N may be any integer, zero, or negative, and a, e F. (Equivalently, we couldconsiderY2u=oc positive, aix' where all but a finite of the a, are zero for negative number values of i. In studying for functions of a complex variable, oneencounters of this form called \"Laurent calculus series With the natural addition and multiplication of these series, we actually have a series'') + 0 + (k + Ox2 + \342\226\240\342\22 ^zeW which we denoteby F((x)).Theinverseofxistheseriesx_1 Inverses of elements and quotients can be computed three by series division. We compute \342\226\240 terms of (x 1 +x \342\226\240x2 + \342\226\240 + 2x4 + 3x5 + \342\200\242) in R((x)) for illustra+x3 )/(x3
(Formal
be a field
tion. 3x~' +
x6 +
Ax~l
+ +x3
2x4 +
3x5 +
x  1+
x~l
x2
+ 2
+ 3x +
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 2x + \342\200\242 6x  9x2 + Ax
\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240
If
an
F is an
ordering x~3,x~2,
of F((x)).
x_1,x\302\260
\342\200\242 \342\200\242
l,x,x2,x3,
of Pjow in i?[[x]] to define analog to symbolically order the monomials you \342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242 did for as we 25.6. Note that R[x] in Example
obvious of
F[x],
and thus
induces an
It is
ordering
\342\226\262
R be an
that by
^ R'
map
4>
be a ring
can
isomorphism.
intuitively
of
to provide
for a skeptic,
leave
the proof
with
the ordering
to
be
proved
25.10Theorem
Let
R be an
ordered
The
isomorphism.
set of
positive
4>{b)
4>{a) <'
set P of positive elementsand let <j> : R * R' be a ring P' = 0[P] satisfies the requirements of Definition 25.1 for a elements of R'. Furthermore, in the ordering of R' given by P', we have in R' if and only if a < b in R.
ring
subset
We call
by\" <^> from
the preceding
theorem
the \"ordering
induced
25.11Example
Example
22.9
that the
evaluation
homomorphism
0W : Q[x]
\302\261 E
where
0(ao +
is one
aix +
a\\it
to one. Thus
it
provides
an isomorphism
of Q[x]
with
0[Q[x]].
We denote
this
232
Part
IV
Rings
and
Fields
image
Examples
ring
by
25.2
the ordering Q>[tt]. If we provide Q[x] with using on Q[7t] induced by (j>\342\200\236 is very and 25.6, the ordering
the set
different
it
Piow
of
that any
from
than
induced element An
Theorem 25.10 automorphisms
by the of Q>!
ordering
of
ffi.
In the
Piow ordering,
is less
\342\226
onto
is called
an an
automorphism ordered
different
carry
orderings
of
of R. R if there ring
itself.
exist
that do
not
P of positive elementsonto
We give
an example.
25.12 Example
11 Exercise of
ring
Section
18 shows
ring <f>:
that {m +
n*Jl \\m,n
e Z}
from <j>{m
is a ring.
ffi
by Z[\\/2].
This
It is
has
a natural
order induced
and onto
in
which
w However, e claim
automorphism.
that
Z[V2]
by
+ n*jT)
ny^is
an
clearly one to
to
one
homomorphism
property
Exercise
\342\200\224 is
17.
of the Z[V2]. We leavethe verification Because 0(\\/2) = \342\200\224we see the ordering \\/2,
induced by
m +
order on Z[V2], an element positive! In the natural both positive, or if m is positive and 2n2 < m2, or if n is positive and m2 < 2n2. In Exercise 3, we ask you to give the analogous descriptions A for positive elementsin the ordering of Z[s/2] induced by \302\242.
4> will
be one
where
and
^/2
n~j2 is positive if m
n are
of Examples 25.11and 25.12, the induced orderings, e wonder w one. Our final theorem shows that
ordered
which
whether this
of ffi that exhibit orderings on subrings other than the Q can have an ordering is not possible.
integral
domain
with P
as set of
positive
elements,
and let
F be a
of quotients
of D.
The set
=
P' = {xe F  x
a/b
for a,b
induces
D and \342\202\254
ab e
P}
Furthermore,
is welldefined gives an order on F that and P' is the only subset of F with this property.
Proof
the given
order on D.
suppose that x = a/b = a'/b' for a, b, a', b' e D and show that a'b' e P. From a/b = a'/b' we obtain that ab We must ab' = a'b. we have (ab)b' = a'b2. Now P and by assumption, ab & P. b2 \342\202\254 Multiplying by b, = = and the properties of Using a(\342\200\224b) {\342\200\224a)b \342\200\224(ab) a ring, we see that trichotomy a' and b' are both in P or both not in P. In either case, we have either a'b' e P. We proceed to closure for P'. Let x = a/b and y = c/d be two elements of P', so P and ab \342\202\254 cd e P. Now x + y = (ad + bc)/bd and (ad + bc)bd = (ab)d2 + b2(cd) is in P because squares are also in P and P is closed under addition and multiplication. Thus (x + y) e P'. Also xy = ac/bd is in P' because acbd = (ab)(cd) is a product of two in P. of P and thus elements that for x = a/b, the product For trichotomy, we need only observe ab satisfies just To show
that
P'
is welldefined,
& P.
one of
ab \342\202\254 P,
by
ab
= 0,
into
ab i P
&
trichotomy
for P.
shown
For P',
that
if
thesetranslate
give
in an
We have
is
in
P'
if and
only
al
P' does = a is
P,
so
= 0, and* \302\243 respectively. P', For a e D, weseethata ordering =a/\\ the given ordering on D is indeedthe induced
x P',x of F.
ordering
from F by P'.
Section 25
Exercises
satisfying
233
Finally,
of Definition 25.1 and such that P\" n D = = ab must be in P\", so ab e (P\" flfl) xb2
suppose
trichotomy
shows
maintains
of F
that
P\" where P. Let* = a/b \342\202\254 a. b e D. Then = P. Thus xeP'so P\" c P'. The law of that we then must have P' = P\". herefore P' gives the only ordering T \342\231\246 order for elements of D. original
that
P\" is a
set of positive
elements
of F
the
conditions
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
25
Computations
1. Leti?
be an
in R[x]
of a positive element a of .Rand ordered ring. Describethe ordering as we did in Example 25.6, but using the set Phigh of Example 25.6
ordered
the monomials*,
x2, x3,
elements in F,
2. LetF be an
Example
field and
that
25.9. Describe
in described
let F((x)) be the field of formal \342\200\242 \342\200\242 the ordering of the monomialsx~3, x~2, x~l,
example.
ordering
of R[x].
in
discussed
\\,x,x2,x3
\342\200\224 is
ordering
of F((x))
3. Example
in
an 25.12 described
terms
of m
and
n,
all positive
e Z}
in which
V2
positive. Describe,
In Exercises
4 through
9, let
R[x] have
the
ordering
given
by
ii Phigh
i. Pi0w
as described in order corresponding
25.2. In Example to increasing
and
(ii), list
polynomials
as described
the
given
< of
4. a.
5. a.
6.
5 + 3x
1
3 + 5x2
a.
c. x
c. +x3
+ lx2
+ lx2
5x
d. x  llx4 d. %x2
lx2
2 + Ax2
+ x5
e. 3x3
Ax5
c.
5
7. a.
2x2 + 5x3
Ax
x3 +
Ax
Ax4
c.
c.
2x x
3x2
e.
e. e.
Ax4
8x4
5x5
2x 3x x +
8. a.
 3x2
3x2
b.
+ 2x2
c. Ax
 6x3
Ax3
d. 5* d.
6x3
9. a. x In Exercises
the
+ 5x3
b. 2
 3x2 + 5x3
the
 3x2 +
x +
3x2 +
e.
Ax3
given
elements
ordering
to increasing
labels
a, b, c,
d, e of
< of
by the relation
Theorem 25.5.
10. a.
J\\,
b. \342\200\224
^V
c.
^V
d.
\342\200\224 ^V
11.
a.
1
 x
b.'
l+x
\342\200\224\342\200\224
c.
xx2
1 +2x \342\200\224\342\200\224
d.
\342\200\224\342\200\224t
l+x2
e.
x3
+ Ax
12. a.
5lx
x2+3x3
,_
2
, , \342\200\236
b.
+ Ax
A3x
c.
A~3x
d.
9  3x2 2 + 6x
3 5x
e.
~6+2x
234
Part
IV
Rings
and Fields
13 a'
l~X
1+x
b' 3~5x
3+5x
1
Ax+x2
\"
a'
l
~3x + x2
&
Ax
+ x2
ix
Concepts
14. It
can
be shown that
\\i2{~l+^).
containing
ordering
of a
subfield of C that
following
of R containing ifl is isomorphic to there is no ordering why this shows that, although contains some elements that are not real numbers.
the
smallest
for
subfield of
C
an
C, there may
be
15. Mark
each of the
true or
false.
a. Thereis only
b. The field
c. d. e.
Any If R
An An
one ordering possible for the ring Z. R can be ordered in only one way. in only one way. subfield of R can be ordered
The field
Q can be ordered
ordered
in only
one
way.
is
an
ring,
in be ordered
a way
fo
that induces
the n
given e Z+
order
on R.
f.
ordering
of a
g.
foreacha, if for
e R,
there exists
such
such that b
exists
< na.
each a,b
that 0
< a,
there
n e Z+
h. If R i. If R
a e a e
R, then
\342\200\224a cannot
be positive.
j. Every
ordered ring
of the
an
16. Describe an
number.
ordering
ring Q[tt],
Example
25.11,
in which jt is greater
than
any
rational
Theory
17.
Referring morphism.
to Example
25.12, show
that
the
map
<f>:
Z[V2]
\302\273 R
where
(p(m
+ n^/l)
m\342\200\224 n4l
is a homo
In Exercises
18 through
24, let R
be
an ordered
given
ring
\"We
Theorem 25.5. Prove the Theorem 25.5. For example,you must 0 < b then ab < 0.\
R defined in
statement.
not say,
on set P of positive elements, and let < be the relation 25.1 and (All the proofs have to be in terms of Definition know that negative times positive is negative, so if a < 0 and
with
18. IfaeP,thenO<a.
19.
20.
21.
If
a, b
e P
and
ac
= bd, then
d = either c \342\200\224 0 or cd
&
P.
If a If a
0 < b,
then ab
< 0.
then a/b is l/a.
< 1.
22. If
23. If
24. If
R is R is
R
a field and
positive.
is a
field and
l/a
text. set P
if R
requirements
elements in
S is gives
n S
satisfies
27. Show
a ring R exists a
the
isotonicity
elements
Section
25
Exercises
235
in
Definition
25.1,
and such
that
the
relation
by
a <P
b if and only
if
(b
a) e
n is
P is the
same
as
the relation
<.
integral
28. Let
then
R be
an ordered
domain.
Show
a2n+l
= b2n+l
where a,b
and
a positive
integer,
a =
b.
29. Let R
in two variables with coefficients in R. the ring R[x, y] of polynomials be an ordered ring and consider on and two Example 25.2 describes ways in which we can order R[x], and for each of these, we can continue two ways, giving four ways of arriving at an ordering of R[x, y]. There are order (/?[;c])[y] in the analogous then (/?[y])[;c]. Show that another four ways of arriving at an ordering of R[x, y] if we first order R[y] and of R[x, y] are different. You might start by considering whether x < y or all eight of these orderings [Hint: < x in each of these orderings, and continue in this fashion.] y
PART
Ideals
and
Factor
Rings
Section
26
Homomorphisms
and Factor
Ideals Ideals
Rings
Section
27
Prime and
Maximal
Section
28
fGr6bner Basesfor
section
26
Homomorphisms
and Factor
Rings
Homomorphisms
We'defined
the wished
since we
isomorphic
concepts to talk
for rings
in Section
18,
a
for polynomials
and
about that
rings.
homomorphism
We repeat is a structurerelating
and R into
some
definitions
here
for
easy reference.
Recall
relate
map.
A homomorphism
for
rings
must
both
their additive
structure
their
multiplicative
structure.
if +
\302\2420))
26.1 Definition
map
0 of
ring
a ring
and
= 0(a)0(fc)
for all
elements a
and
bin
R.
showed
by
In Example 18.10we defined evaluation and Example 18.11 homomorphisms, that the map 0 : Z ^ Z\342\200\236, where is the remainder of m when divided 0(m) We give another n, is a homomorphism. simple but very fundamental example of a
homomorphism.
26.2
Example
Let Rl,R2,,Rn be rings. For each i, the map m : (Projection Homomorphisms) \342\200\242 > \342\200\242 \342\200\242 x Rn Rx x R2 x \342\200\242 Rt defined by jt, (ry, r2, \342\200\242 = r, is a homomorphism, \342\200\242, r\342\200\236) onto the ith component. The two required projection of a homomorphism hold properties
Section
28 is not
required for
the remainder
of
the text.
237
238
Part
Ideals
and
Factor
Rings
for
iti
since
both
addition
and
multiplication individual
in
the
direct product
are computed
by
addition
and multiplication
in each
component.
\342\226
Properties
of
our
Homomorphisms through
We 26.3 Theorem
work
way
for
ring
homomorphisms.
Let R into a ring R'. If 0 be a homomorphism of a ring in R', and if a e R, in R, then 0(0) = 0' is the additive identity identity = If S of R'. Going the then of R, then 0[S] is a subring \302\242(a) \342\200\224\302\242(a).is a subring of R. Finally, if R has unity of R', then 0_1 [S'] is a subring other way, if S' is a subring to subrings, and for 0[/?]. 1, then 0(1) is unity Loosely speaking, subrings correspond to rings with unity under a ring homomorphism. with unity correspond rings
0 is the
Proof
Let 0
viewed
be a homomorphism
as a
0(0)
= C
Theorem
R into a ring R'. of {R, +} into (/?',+'), group homomorphism is the additive element of R' and that identity
of
a ring
Since,
Theorem
0(\342\200\224a)
13.12
set
also tells us
(0[S],
then
that
if S
is a
subring
of R, of
group
+'} gives
a subgroup
=
then, considering the additive (/?', +'}. If 0(si) and 0(\302\276)are two
0(^)0(\302\276) and
0(^1\302\276) \342\202\254 0[5].
0(^1\302\276)
Thus
0(^)0(\302\276)
e 0[5],
so 0[5] is
that
closed
if S' that
under
multiplication.
Consequently,
0[5]
is a
subring
of
i?'. 13.12
Theorem
also shows
is a
0(a)
subring
of
R',
then
of (#,+}.Leta,fo
=
e 0\"1 so [5'],
4>{a)4>{b).
e S'and0(fo)
e 5'.
<p{ab) Since
<j>{a)<j>{b) \342\202\254 5', we subring if
see that
R.
afo
e 0_1
[5'] so
multiplication
and thus
is a
of
Finally,
R has
unity 1, then
for
all r
e i?,
0(l)0(r)
= 0(r
)0(1),
0[/?].
\342\231
in Theorem
to illustrate
26.3
that
0(1)
is unity
for 0[/?],
but
not
necessarily
for R'
as we
in Exercise
9.
of rings.
a map
0:7?^
R be a homomorphism 01[O'] =
The subring
{retf0(r) = O'}
of {R, +} homomorphisms
is the
kernel
Now
of 0,
denotedby
Ker(0). group
\342\226
this
Ker(0)
into
(/?',
+} given by
once
give us at
is the same as the kernel of the 0. Theorem 13.15and Corollary results for ring homomorphisms. analogous
homomorphism
13.18
on group
Section
26
Homomorphisms
239
26.5
Theorem
: R (Analogue of Theorem 13.15) Let \302\247 => R' be a ring homomorphism, = \302\253 // = // +a, where a + H = Ker(0). Let a e R. Then + 0_1[0(a)] a of the commutative is the coset containing additive group {H, +}.
and
H = H+a
a onetoone
let
26.6 Corollary
(Analogue map
of
Corollary
13.18)
ring
homomorphism
: R \302\247
=> R' is
if and
only if Ker(0)
= {0}.
now
analogue
for rings
of Section
14. We
start
with
the
26.7
Theorem
(Analogue
of Theorem
additive
Then the
choosing
cosets
representatives.
=>
R' be
a ring
homomorphism
with kernel
H.
+ H)
+ (b +
by
H) = (a
b) +
H,
and
the
product
of the
cosets is defined
(a
+ H)(b
+ 7/)
by
= (ab)+ H.
+ 7/)
Also,
the
map
the
/x : R/H
additive
> (j>[R]defined
part
(i(a is done
= 4>{a) s an i
in
isomorphism.
Proof
Once again,
of the
theory
for us
Theorem
14.1.
We proceed is well
of
of cosets by
consider
end,
let h\\,
h2, e 7/
and
a +
7/
+ 7/.
Let
+
c = (a + h\\)(b
We must
show
hi)
= ab
+ ah2 + h\\b
h\\h2.
+
that
0(c)
+ a/i2 +
h\\b
^\302\276)
<$>{ab) + 0(a/i2)
0(afc) 4>{ab)
+ 0(/ii&) +
+ 0>(fo)
0(/ii/i2)
(1)
= =
Thus
To multiplication multiplication are
+ +
0(a)O' 0' +
+ 0'0'
0' +
0' =
4>{ab).
show
by choosing
is a
ring,
it remains
the
associative
property
for from
well
the
distributive
7v.
laws hold
R/H.
Since
addition
follow
and
at once
computed
by choosing
corresponding propertiesin
Theorem defined,
14.1 shows that the map /x defined in the statement of Theorem 26.4is one to one, onto 0[7v],and satisfies the additive property for a homomorphism.
240
Part
Ideals and
Factor Rings
Multiplicatively,
we have
fi[(a +
H).
This completes
26.8
the
that
/x is an
isomorphism.
\342\23
Example
Example
remainder
shows
18.11 shows that the when divided by that Z/nZ is a ring where
of m
that
choosingepresentatives r
: Z defined by 0(m) = r, where r is the \302\242) > Z\342\200\236 Since Ker(0) = nZ, Theorem 26.7 ahomomorphism. on residue classes canbe computed by operations the corresponding operation in Z. The theorem also and performing
map
n, is
shows
this
ring
Z/nZ
is isomorphic to
Z\342\200\236.
\342\22
It remains
multiplicationof multiplication
additive
Eq. (1)is
H =
Theorem 26.9
due
Ker(0),
H of a ring R such that only to characterize those subrings is well defined. The coset cosets of H by choosing representatives in Theorem to be well defined in Eq. (1). The success of 26.7 was shown = 4>{hxb) = ${hxh2) = 0'. That H where to the fact that 4>{ah2) is, if h \342\202\254 then for every a,b e 7? we have ah e H and Kb e H. This suggests
below,
which is
Theorem
the
analogue
of Theorem
14.4.
of
26.9 Theorem
(Analogue
of
14.4)
Let H
be a
the
subring
the
ring R.
Multiplication
of
additive
cosets of
H is well defined by
(a +
equation
H)(b +
H)=ab + H
\342\202\254 R and
,if and
Proof
only
if ah
\342\202\254 H and
Kb
H for \342\202\254
all a,b
&
H. e H.
ah
& H
+ /i2
a and
&
R and cosets
all
a +
/i
Let /ii,
h2
\302\243 H
so
7/andfo +
//containing
b. Then
(a + Since ah2
afo and
h\\){b
hi)
in
\342\200\224 ab +
ah2 +
h\\b
h\\h2.
(a
h\\b
and h\\h2
that
are all
by hypothesis,
we see that
+ h\\){b
+ h2) e
//.
of additive cosets by representatives is well the coset product {a + //)//. Choosing representatives = 0+// =//. Sincewe a e (a + //) and 0 e //, we see that =a0+// (a + //)// also compute can a e (a + //) and /i e //, we see that (a + //)// by choosing any ah & H for any /i e //. A similar argument with the product //(fo + //) shows starting
Conversely,
defined. Let a
eR
suppose
and
multiplication
consider
that
hb
&
for any
/i
e //.
\342\23
In group the type of substructure are precisely of groups theory, normal subgroups with a welldefined operation on cosets given required to form a factor group by operating with chosen representatives. Theorem26.9 shows that in ring theory, the analogous substructure must be a subring H of a ring R such that aH c H and H Hb \302\243 for \342\202\254 a// = {a/j  /i e //} and //fo = {/jfo  /i e //}. From now on we will alla,b /?, where we started usually denote such a substructure using N by N rather than H. Recall that to mean a normal subgroup in Section 15.
Section
26
241
26.10
Definition
An addive subgroup aN
is an
of a
ring
satisfying
the properties
for
c N
and
Nb\302\243N
all a,b
ideal.
\342\226\240
26.11
Example
We see
that
nL
is an
ideal
all
in
the
ring
L since we
know
it is
a subring,
and
s{nm)
=
\342\226\262
{nm)s = n{ms)
e nL for
of all
constant
seZ.
26.12
Example
Let F
be
the
ring
into
E, ideal
and
let C
be
the
subring
of F
C an
in F7
Why?
a constant
is not
of a constant
product
function
with every
2 is
function is again
function.
an
of sin
and
the function
2 sin
x.
Thus
C is
not \342\226\262
ideal
\342\226\240 Historical
Note
Eduard
of
unique
who (18101893) an \"ideal complex concept in 1847 in order to preserve the notion in certain rings of factorization
Kummer
the
necessary
to preserve
Kummer
unique
factorization.
By use
prove states
&
of
of these,
certain
was
in fact
able
to
cases
of Fermat's
y\"
that x\" +
zn
L+
if
algebraic
integers.
In particular,
into
Kummer
numbers
wanted
to
n >
2.
It
be able
+ \302\253o a\\a
to factor
+
of
primes
\342\200\242 \342\200\242 \342\200\242
+ \302\2532<22
api<xp~1,
turned
in general
determined
not a
by
\"number\"
at all,
was
complexroot
does
prime) and the a,Kummer had noticed that ordinary integers. of primes as \"unfavorable naive definition
numbers\" product of
xp =
1 (p
to the expected results; the such \"unfavorable\" numbers may well be divisible by other \"unfactorable\" numbers.
not lead two
Kummer defined numbers\"
the set of integers it \"divided.\" Richard took advantage of this fact to identify the ideal factorwith this set; he therefore called the set itself an ideal, and proceeded to show that it satisfied the in the text. Dedekind was definition given then able to define the notions of prime ideal and
Dedekind
in terms
these\"ideal
prime factors\" and \"ideal of certain congruence relationships; factors\" were then used as the divisors
\"ideal
any
ideal
number
be written
uniquely
as a
product of prime
26.13
Example
Let F
that
be as in
= 0.
the
preceding
an
/(2)
Is N
let
ideal
in Fl
the
subring
of all
functions f such
Solution
Let/
we
e N
and
g e
F. Then (fg)(2)
N kernel
find that
gf e
N. Therefore
the
is
0,so also
by
just
observing
that N is
of the
242
Part
Ideals and
Factor Rings
denned on
and
Once
additive
we know
cosets
that multiplication
by the
choosing associative
of a
subring N of R,
is well
multiplication
R.
the
distributive
laws for
corollary
these cosetsfollow
of Theorem
at once
from the
We have
at once
this
26.9.
additive
26.14 Corollary
(Analogue
of
Corollary
R/N
of N
form a ring
with
cosets
N) +
(b + N)
= (a + b)
=
and
(a +
N)(b + N)
ab +
factor
N.
ring
26.15 Definition
The
ring
R/N
in the
(or quotient
ring) of
of the,
byN.
* If we
use
the
term
ring, be sure
not
to confuse Section
it with the
notion
field
of
quotients
of an
integral
domain, discussed in
21.
Fundamental
Homomorphism
our
Theorem 13 and
14, we
Tocomplete
and
analogy
with Sections
give the
analogues of Theorems14.9
14.11.
26.16
Theorem
be an
with
: R
Proof
The additive
see that
part
is done in
the multiplicative
question, we
y(xy) 26.17
= (xy)
+ N)(y +
N)
y(x)y(y).
\342\231
Theorem
Let 0 : Theorem; Analogue of Theorem 14.11) with kernel N. Then 0[/?] is a ring, and the map ring homomorphism (i: R/N > 0[/?]given by /i(x + N) = 4>{x) is an isomorphism. If y : R \342\200\224>\342\200\242 R/Nisthe homomorphism given by y{x) = x + N, then for each x e R, we have <j>{x) = /J,y(x).
R
Homomorphism
Proof
This follows
Fig. 14.10.
at
once
from
Theorems
26.7
and
26.16.
Figure
26.18 is
the
analogue
of
\342\231
W)
R/N
26.18 Figure
Section 26
Exercises
the factor
shows
n
243
26.19
Example
Example Example
/j,
nZ 0 : Z
is an
ideal of Z,
where Z\342\200\236
so we
can
form
ring
nZ. n is
>
0(m)
is the
remainder of m
is
modulo
homomorphism, and
: Z/nZ
an
>
where Z\342\200\236
is
isomorphism. In
R gives rise to a factor ring every ring homomorphism with domain ring R/N gives rise to a homomorphism mapping R into R X. An ideal in ring theory is analogous to a normal Both are subgroup in the group theory. needed to form a factor structure. the type of substructure to Theorem 26.3 on properties of homomorphisms. We should now add an addendum and let N be an ideal of R. Then 0[7V]is an ideal Let \302\247 > R' be a homomorphism, : R summary,
every
R/N,
and
factor
of 0[/?],
although
0_1
it
need
not be an
N' is an
of
this
ideal
of either
0[.R] or
of R', then
[W]
is an ideal
of R. We
the proof
to Exercise
22.
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
26
Computations
1. Describe all
0((1,
2.
Find
of Z x Z into Z x Z. [Hint: Note that ring homomorphisms = 0((1, 0))0((1,0)) and 0((0, 1)) = 0((0, 1))0((0, 1)).Consider 0)) a subring isomorphic to all positive contains integers n such that Z\342\200\236
all
if 0 also Z2.
is such
0((1,
a homomorphism,
then
0)(0, 1)).]
3. Find
ideals
N of
Zi2.
?
In
each
case compute
Z^/N;
that
is, find
a known
ring
to which
the quotient
ring
is
isomorphic.
4.
Give addition
and
multiplication
tables
for 2Z/8Z.
Are 2Z/8Z
and
Z4 isomorphic
rings?
Concepts
In
Exercises
needed, so that
5.
An
5 through it is in
definition
of the
italicized term
without
reference
to the
text, if correction is
for publication.
a ring
isomorphism ideal
TV
R' is
a homomorphism
of (R,
that Ker(0)
all n
= {0}.
we have
6. An
of a
ring R is an
additive
subgroup
+) such that
all r
and
iV,
rn
&
and nr
e N.
of a
7. Thekernel
8.
/?' is {0(r) = 0'  r e W}. a ring R into a ring 0 mapping Let F be the ring of all functions mapping R into R and having derivatives of all orders. Differentiation gives = /'(*)\342\226\240 5 a homomorphism? Why? Is a map 5 : F \342\200\224>\342\226\240 F where S(f(x)) the connection between this Give exercise and Example 26.12.
homomorphism
9. Give an
unity
example
of a ring
homomorphism 0 : R
true or
has
unity
1 and
0(1)
7^
0',
but 0(1)
is
not
for R'.
following
false.
ring.
a. Theconcept
b.
A ring
A
c.
ring
of a ring homomorphism is closely connected with the idea of a factor R' carries ideals of R into ideals of R'. homomorphism 0 : R \342\200\224>\342\226\240 is one to one if and only if the kernel is {0}. homomorphism ideal
d. Q is an
in R.
244
Part
Ideals
and
Factor
Rings
e.
f.
in a ring
g.
h.
is a subring of the ring. of every ring is an ideal of the ring. ring of every commutative ring is again a commutative
Z4 are R
ring.
The rings
An
i.
ideal
all
of R
if and
only the
if 1 e concept
N.
of a
ideal
concept
of a
ring as
normal
subgroup
is to
the
11.
Observe
that
{0} and
are
both
ideals of R.
Are
the
factor
rings R/R
and
R/{0}
of real
12.
example
example
to
show
that a
that that
factor
ring
of an
integral domain
domain divisors
may
be a
field.
13. Give
to show
a factor a factor
14. Give
15.
Find
an example a subring
to show of the
ring
be
an integral
domain.
if and
Z x
that
an ideal of Z
x Z.
R modulo
16. A
(rs
student sr)
\342\200\224 e
Assume
to prove that a quotient ring of a ring N for all r, 5 & R. The student starts out: rs = sr for allr.se R/N is commutative. Then
is asked the instructor the student
should
an ideal
is commutative
only
if
R/N.
from there on?
a. Why
b.
c.
What
does
this
expect
nonsense
Prove
\"if and
only if.\
Theory
17. Let
that
R =
{a +
b\\[2
\\a,b
e Z}
x 2 matrices
show
of the
form
cj> :
yt
for
a, b e
<j>(a
Z.
Show
R is
[a ,
a subring
of M2(Z). Then
ring is
R >
that
R >
R', where
+ bsl%
18.
Show
each homomorphism
if
from a field
are
to a
either
one
to one
R'
or maps everything
Section
onto
0.
R,
R', and
R\"
rings,
R\"
and if
<p :
R' and
\\fr :
composite
R
function
\\jf<j> : R
>
is a unity
homomorphism.
(Use Exercise 49 of
homomorphisms,
13.)
(f>p
then the
be
a commutative
(j>p(a) =
ap is a homomorphism
R' be
ring
with
p.
Show
that
the map
: R \342\200\224>\342\226\240 R given by
21. Let R
unity
and 1 and
rings
no
and
0 divisors,
such that
0[i?]
{0'}. =\302\243
Show
that if R has
R > that
a ring
is an
homomorphism
be
an
ideal
of R.
ideal of cf)[R].
of cf)[R]
b. Give an
example
to show that
either
N'
be an
ideal
F[xi,
an ideal
that
cj>~1
of R'.
[N1]
is an
ideal of R.
the
28 of
is 24. 25.
an
\342\226\240 \342\226\240 x F of F x F x \342\226\240 for n factors. Show that of have every element(^, \342\200\242\342\200\242 a zero(see Exercise \342\200\242, S as ,xn) an) \342\226\240 in F[x\\, \342\226\240 This is of importance in algebraic \342\226\240, xn]. geometry.
a field,
be
Show Show
a factor if R
ring of a field
with
is either
the
trivial an
(zero)
ring of
to the with
is a ring
unity and N is
ideal
of R
such
that
R/N is a ring
Section
27
Ideals
245
26. Let
be
that
a commutative
an intersection
ring
and
and
let a
e R.
Show
27. Show
of ideals
let N
of a ring
R is
{x e W  ax an ideal of R. again
that
Ia =
= 0}
is
an
ideal
of W.
28. Let
into
R and
R' be
that
rings
and W
be ideals
of
R and
R'. Show
0 induces
natural
homomorphism
0* : R/N
of
39 of
Section 14.)
29. Let0 be a homomorphism is a unit in R'. 30. An element a of a ring elements in a commutative
of a ring R is
R with
unity onto
a nonzero
R'. Let
be a
unit
in
W. Show
that o(;/1
nilpotent an
if a\" ideal,
ring R is
in
that
the
collection
of all nilpotent
that it
31. Referring
the
to the
definition given
Exercise
the
nilradical
of the
observe
is one of
ideals
of Z12
found
in
Exercise
that
3. What
if N
is the
nilradical
of Z?
of Z32?
ring
32.
Referring
to Exercise ideal
30, show
is the nilradical
of a commutative
R, then
R/N
has
as nilradical
the
trivial
{0 +
N}. ring
and that
be
a commutative
and
is nilpotent
be
n
to Exercise N an ideal of R. Referring 30, show of R/N is R/N, then the nilradical of R is R. that the set */N of all a a commutative ring and N an ideal of R. Show of N. Z+, is an ideal of W, the radical
if every
element of N
a\" & N
the nilradical
e R,
such
that
for
35.
Referring
to Exercise equal
34, show
N of the
by
examples
that for
proper ideals N
b. JN
of a
may
commutative
equal
ring R,
a. */N neednot
36. What is the
N.
30)?
relationship
34 to
the nilradical
of R/N (seeExercise
Word
your
answer
37.
carefully.
Show
that 0
:C^
Afc(R)
given
*(* +
for
K)=(4
subring
\302\273)
a,
fc
e K
gives an isomorphism
ring
of C with
the
0[C] of M2(IR).
ring
with
24. Let
a e
R,
be the
by
of endomorphisms
of (R, +)
as described
in
Xa(x)
=ax
for* e
R.
that that
a. Show b. Show
Aa is an R' =
analogue
{Xa
c. Prove the
SECTION
endomorphism of (/?,+). of End((/J,  a e tf} is a subring +)). of Cay ley's theorem for R by showing
that R'
of (b) is isomorphic
to R.
27
Prime
Exercises rings
where
preceding
have
section
very
different
asked us to structural
provide
examples
to those
of factor
with
properties. We start
some
examples
shown
of
this
and in
exercises.
is a
27.1 Example
As
was
for p
a prime.
Thus
in Corollary a factor
isomorphic to
Z/pZ,
may be afield.
field A
246
Part
Ideals
and
Factor
Rings
27.2 Example
The
ring
Z x
Z is
not
an
integral
domain,
for
(0,1)(1,0) =
showing
(0,0),
=
the
that
(0,1)
Z x
where original
Z, and (Z x
meZ. ring
and (1,0)
L are 0divisors. et
{(0, n)
an
\\n
e Z}.
Now N is an
[(m, 0)
ideal
of
Z)/N is
isomorphic
ring
to Z
of
under
correspondence integral
a ring may
be
domain,
\342\226
27.3
Example
The subset N
= {0,3} of
Z6 and
+ N,
Z3
is easily 2 + N.
seen
to
be
an ideal
multiply
of Z(,, and
in such
Z(,/N
has
three
as
fashion
to
under
the correspondence
(1+A0\302\253*1,
(0 +
N)**0,
(2+A0\302\253*2. domain,
This example shows that ifR is not even it is still possible for R/N to be afield.
an
integral
that is,
27 .4 Example
Note
that
that
Z is an
a
showed
This
the
example
original Every
~ Z^ is integral domain, but Z/6Z factor ring may have a structure that seems indicates that the structure of a factor ring
not.
The examples preceding better than the original ring. seem worse than that of may
ring. nonzero
\342\226
ring R has
at
least
the improper
has
theseideals,the
nontrivial
factor
are R/R,
'R/{0},
of and
which
is isomorphic
to R.
ideal
is
and the trivial one element, and which only Just as for a subgroup cases. an ideal N of R such that N ^ R
ideal R
While factor
above
rings
of
rings
and integral
which
domains
follows
may
be
of great
examples
indicate,
Corollary 27.6,
useful
our next
factor
ring of
is a
to us. of R
27.5 Theorem
If R
an
ideal
containing a unit,
then
N =
R.
Proof
LetN be an
rN
then
of R, and suppose that u e N for some unit uin R. Then the condition ideal c N for all r e R implies, if we take r = u~l and u e N, that 1 = u~l u is in N. But c N for all r e R implies rN N = R. that r 1 = r is in N for all r & R,so \342\231
no
27.6
Corollary
A field contains
proper
nontrivial
ideals.
it follows
Proof
that
Since every nonzero elementof a field is a unit, an ideal of a field F is either {0} or all of F.
and
take
at once from
Theorem 27.5
\342\231
Maximal
We
Prime
Ideals of when
is a factor
now
up the question
with
groups
case
in which
in Section a field.
Section 27
Ideals
247
27.7 Definition
maximal
ideal
idealN of
27.8
R properly
different
from
R such that
there is no proper
\342\226\240
Example
Let p
about
be a prime
multiplication
positive
We know
that
Z/pZ
normal pZ must be a maximal 15.18. Since Z is an abelian Theorem is a subgroup by group and every subgroup of Z. Since pZ is an normal subgroup, we see that pZ is a maximal proper subgroup that pZ is a maximal of Z. We know that Z/pZ ideal of the ring Z, it follows ideal is
we know
that of Z
Z/pZ
is isomorphic and Zp
to Zp. as
additive
Forgetting
groups,
isomorphic
illustrates Theorem
to
the
ring
Zp, and
that
Zp
is actually
a field. Thus
Z/pZ is a field.
This
\342\226\262
the next
theorem.
Let
27.9
(Analogue
maximal
R be
R/M in R.
a commutative is a field.
that
ring
with
unity.
Then M is
Proof
a commutative ring with if M ^ R, which is unity ring + M) e R/M, with a ^ M, so that a + M is not (a a the additive inverse identity element of R/M. Suppose + M has no multiplicative in R/M. Then the set (R/M)(a + M) = {(r+ M){a + M) e #/M} does not + M)  (r of R/M. It is nontrivial 1 + M. We easily see that contain + M) is an ideal (R/M)(a it does not contain because 1 + M. By the because a \302\242 and it is a proper ideal M, is the of Section 26, if y : R \342\200\224>\342\226\240 canonical homomorphism, then final paragraph i?/M of R properly + M)] is a properideal containing M. But this contradicts y~l[(R/M)(a our assumption that M is a maximal ideal, soa + M must have a multiplicative inverse
ideal
Suppose M is a
Observe
if
R is
commutative
with
in
R/M.
Conversely,
suppose
of R
that R/M
that
N is any
ideal
such
c N
is a c
field.By the
R
and
onto R/M, then y[AT is an ideal of R/M with states that the field contrary to Corollary 27.6,which ideals. Hence if R/M is a field, M is maximal.
27.10
of Section final paragraph is the canonical homomorphism y {(0 + M)} cy[N]c R/M. But
26, if
of this
R is
R/M contains no
proper
nontrivial
\342\231\246
Example
Since Z/nZ
the
maximal
and is isomorphic to Z\342\200\236 Z\342\200\236field if and only if n is a prime, we see that is a ideals of Z are preciselythe ideals pZ for prime positive integers p. \342\226\262 with
27.11
Corollary Proof
A commutative Corollary
ring
unity
is a field if and
only
if it
has no
ideals. proper R,
proper nontrivial
nontrivial
ideals.
27.6 shows that a field has no proper nontrivial if a commutative ring R with unity has no ideal and R/{0], which is isomorphic to {0} is a maximal
Conversely,
ideals, then
27.9.
is a
field
by
Theorem
We now turn to the question of characterizing, for a commutative R with unity, ring N ^ R such that R/N is an integral domain. The answer here is rather obvious. The factor ring R/N will be an integral domain if and only if {a + N)(b \342\200\224 N A\") =
the
ideals
implies
that
either
a +
N = N
or
b+ N
N.
248
Part
Ideals
and
Factor
Rings
This is exactly the statement of 0, since the coset N plays that R/N has no divisors the role of 0 in R/N. at representatives, we see that this condition amounts to Looking that ab e N implies that either a e N or b e N. saying
21.12Example
All
is an
are of the form nZ. For n = 0, we have nZ = {0}, and Z/{0} ~ Z, which and is an domain. For n > 0, we have Z/nZ ~ Z\342\200\236 Z\342\200\236 integral domain if integral if n is a prime. Thus the nonzero and ideals nZ such that Z/nZ is an integral domain only a field, so that pZ are of the form pZ, where p is a prime. Of course, Z/pZ is actually is a maximal ideal of Z. Note that for a product rs of integers to be in pZ, the prime \302\243> in this example makes the use of the must divide either rors. The role of prime integers \342\226\262 in the next definition more reasonable. woidprime
ideals
of Z
27.13
Definition
An ideal N
in a
commutative
ring
is a
prime
ideal if ab
TV
implies
that either
a&Norb&Nfora.b&R.
Note
\342\226\240
that
{0} is
a prime
ideal
in Z,
and indeed, in
any
integral
domain.
t {0},hen
27.14 Example
Note that
have bd
x {0}
that
is a prime
= 0 in
Z. This
Z x
{0}.Note
Our
ideal of Z x Z, for if (a, b)(c, d) e Z x implies that either T> = 0 so (a, b) e Z to Z, which is an is (Z x Z)/(Z x {0}) isomorphic
x {0} rd = 0 o
integral
we
so
must
d) e domain.
(c,
\342\226\262
27.12 constitute
a proof
of the
following
theorem,
27.15 Theorem
Let R
an
be
a commutative domain
ring
only
with
unity,
integral
if and
if TV is a
an
ideal
in R.
Then R/N is
27.16
Corollary
a commutative
ring R with
unity
is a
prime ideal.
domain,
Proof
a field, hence an
integral
and therefore
\342\231\246
material
important
shall be using
been presentedregarding maximal and prime ideals is the main ideas well it quite a lot. We should keep of maximal and prime understand the definitions ideals and facts that we have demonstrated.
For a commutative
1.
An An
R with unity:
M of R
TV
is maximal if prime if
R is
and
and only
only
if R/M is
a field.
integral
2.
3.
of
R is
if R/N
is
an
domain.
a prime
ideal.
Ideals
249
Prime
Fields
proceed
We now
with
to show that
that
the
rings
Z and
form Z\342\200\236
similar
rings
unity
rest, and
Q and
1. Recall
+ (1)
fields. Let R be any \342\200\242 \342\200\242 1 we that by n \342\226\240 mean 1 + 1 + \342\200\242 for n summands for + 1 n \342\226\240 for 1 = 0 for n < 0, while +  + (1) for \\n\\ summands
service
Zp perform a
0.
27.17 Theorem
If
is a
ring with
unity
1, then
the map
: Z \302\242)
n
\342\200\224>\342\226\240 R given
by
0(n) =
for n
\342\200\242 1
e Z is a homomorphism
of Z
into R.
Proof
Observethat
0(n
+ m)
laws
(ft
m)
that
\342\226\240 1 = (ft
\342\200\242
1) +
(m
\342\226\240 =
1)
0(n) +
0(m).
The distributive
in i? 1 +
show
(1 +
+
1)(1 +
m
1 + +1)
summands
= (1+1+ +
nm
summands
1)
\342\226\240
n summands Thus
(n
\342\200\242\342\226\240 =
l)(m
1)
(nm)
\342\226\240 1 for
ft, m
with
the distributive
laws show
that
for
all n, m
e Z,
we have
\342\200\242\342\226\240 =
(ft
l)(m
1)
(nm)
\342\226\240 1.
Thus
(p(nm) =
27.18
1 = (n (nm) \342\226\240
\342\200\242\342\200\242 =
l)(m
1)
<j>(n)$(m).
\342\231\246
Corollary
If R to
is a ring
If R Z\342\200\236.
with unity and characteristic n > 1, then i? contains a subring a subring isomorphic to has characteristic 0, then R contains : Z \342\200\224>\342\226\240 i? given by
isomorphic Z.
Proof
m e Z is a homomorphism by ideals in Z are of the form sZ for some 5 e Z. By Theorem19.15 we see that if R has characteristic n > 0, then the kernel of <f> < is ftZ. Then the image \302\242[7,] R is isomorphic to Z/nZ ^ Z\342\200\236. characteristic If the of i? < R 1 ^= 0 is 0, then m \342\200\242 for all m ^= 0, so the kernel of 0 is {0}.Thus, the image \302\242[1,] The map
Theorem27.17. <f> m \342\200\242 1 for
0(m) =
ideal
The kernel
must be
an
in Z. All
is isomorphic
27.19
to
Z.
\342\231\246
Theorem
A field
F is either of prime
characteristic
p and
contains a
to
subfield
isomorphic
0 of characteristic and
Proof If the
to Zp
or
contains
a subfield
0, the
isomorphic
Q.
characteristic of
to
F is not
n must
that
contains
a subring
isomorphic
characteristic
p, or F
would
have
0 divisors.
If F is
Corollaries
of
isomorphic
to Z.
In
this
case
PartV
Ideals and
Factor Rings
show
21.8
and 21.9
that
must
contain
a field
Q.
of quotients
of this
subring
and
that
this
field
of quotients must
Thus
to be isomorphic
\342\231\24
subfield
which
field contains either a subfield to Q>. These fields Zp and isomorphic all fields rest.
every
isomorphic
Q are the
to Zp
fundamental
ova
blocks on
27.20 Definition
The fields Zp
Ideal
and
Q are
\342\226\24
Structure
the
in
rest of
Throughout
that F is a field. We give the next definition this section, we assume in the case for a general commutative ring R with unity, although we are only interested R = F[x]. that for a commutative ring i? with unity and a e R,theset{ra \\r e R] Note is an ideal in R that contains the element a.
27.21 Definition
If R of a
is a commutative ring with unity and a e R, the ideal {ra \\ r e R] of all multiples is the principal ideal generated a and is denoted by {a). An ideal N of R by
is a
principal
27.22
ideal
if
{a) for
Z is
some a
form
e R.
\342\226\24
Example
Every ideal
of
the
nZ,
which is
generated by
n,
so every
ideal of Z
\342\226\26
27.23
Example
The ideal
consists
of
all
polynomials
in F[x]
having zero
constant
term.
\342\226\26
The
algorithm
next
for
theorem
F[x].
is
the
another
simple
but very
(See Theorem
division the
division
algorithm
division
in F[x]
algorithm
as
proof
a subgroup
of a cyclic group
is
cyclic
is to
the
in Z.
27.24 Theorem
Proof
If
is a field,
every ideal in
of F[x].
F[x]
is principal.
If N = {0},hen N = (0}. Suppose that N ^ {0}, and let g(x) t If the degree of g(x) is 0, then of N of minimal e F degree. g(x) and is a unit, so N \342\200\224 = (1) by Theorem 27.5, soN is principal. If the degree of g(x) F[x] is >1, let f{x) be any element of N. Then by Theorem 23.1, f(x) \342\200\224 + r(x), g(x)q(x) where r(x) = 0 or (degreer(x)) < (degree Now f(x) e N and g(x) e N imply g(x)). = r{x) is in N by definition of an ideal. that f{x) \342\200\224 Since g(x) is a nonzero g{x)q{x) elementof minimal degree in N, we must have r{x) = 0. Thus f(x) = g(x)q(x) and
Let N be an
ideal
be a
nonzero
element
N =
(g(x)).
We
\342\231\24
can
now characterize
the
maximal
achieving
our basic
goal:
to
show F.
that
containing
Section
27
Prime and
Maximal Ideals
over F.
251
27.25
Theorem
An
ideal
{p(x)} ^
{0}of F[x] is
maximal
if and
only
if
p{x)
is irreducible
Proof
Then {p(x)) ^ F[x], so p(x) \342\202\254 F. {p(x)) ^ {0} is amaximal idealof F[x]. = f(x)g(x) be a factorization of p{x) in F[x]. Since {p{x))is a maximal p(x) ideal and hence also a prime e {p(x)} implies that f(x) e {p(x). or ideal, (f(x)g(x)) that e {p(x)}; is, either f{x) or g{x) has p{x) as a factor. But then we can't have g{x) the degrees of both f{x) and g{x) less than the degree of p{x).This shows that p(x) is
that Suppose
Let
irreducible over F.
Conversely,
if
p{x)
Now
is irreducible
N
over F,
ideal
that suppose
is an
ideal such
that
ip(x))
someg(x)
p{x)
0, that
q{x)
27.24, F[x]. by that p{x) = g(x)q(x) for some q(x) e F[x].But .Then p(x) e N implies is irreducible, which implies that either g{x) orq(x) is of degree0.If g(x) is of degree a nonzero constant in F, then g(x) is a unit in F[x], so {g(x)) = N = F[x]. If is, = c, where c e F, and g(x) = (l/c)p(x) is in (/?(*)), so is of degree 0, then q{x)
Theorem
cJVc
is a principal
so N
= {g(x))for
e N
N =
F[x]
is impossible,
so {p(x)}is maximal.
\342\231\246
27.26
Example
Example
x3
is a
{x2
field.
Theorem
We
shall
in + 2 is irreducible Z5[x], so Z5[x]/{x3 + 3x + 2) 2 is 22.11 shows that*2 \342\200\224irreducible in Q[x], so Q[*]/ such fields in more detail later. \342\226\262 examine
+ 3x
Application
In
to
23,
Unique
Factorization
in F[x]
we stated without Theorem 27.27, which follows. (See proof this theorem, we provedin Section 23 that factorization of in F[x] polynomials into irreducible polynomials is unique, for order of factors and except in F, We delayed the proof units of Theorem 27.27 until now since the machinery we us to give such a simple, fourline proof.This proof fills the gap have enables developed in F [x]. in our proof of unique factorization
Section
Theorem 23.18.)
Assuming
21.IH Theorem
polynomial
in F[x].
If p{x) divides
s(x).
r(x)s{x)
for r(x),
s{x) e
divides r{x)
or p{x) divides
r(x)s(x)
Proof
p(x) divides
Therefore,
that
r(x)s(x). Then
e {p(x)},
Corollary
which is maximal
27.16.
by
{p{x))imphes
Hence
that
r(x)s(x)
e
\342\231\246
divides
r(x), or
s(x)
e {p(x)},
A
We
of Our
this
have outline.
Basic Goal of
the
goal.
Show
demonstration
in Section
can
at hand
fill in
from this
Basic
that
goal:
there
Let F
exists
be a
field
and
let f(x)
F
be a nonconstant
polynomial
a field
containing
and containing
a zero
a of f(x).
252
Part V
Ideals
and
Factor
Rings
Outline of the
Proof
irreducible factor of f{x) in
F[x]/{p(x)}.
different F[x]. field
two
1.
2. 3.
Let
p{x)
be an
Let E
be the
(See Theorems of F
27.25 and
the
27.9.)
Show that no
and
elements
are in
same
to)
coset of
deduce the
consider F to be (isomorphic
E.
a subfield
F[x]/{p(x)), of E.
is a zero
4. Let a be f(x)
in
x +
{p{x)) in
Show
homomorphism
E.
: F[x]
\342\200\224>\342\226\240 E, we
is, a
of
to An example of a field constructed according this outline is given in Section 29. and multiplication tables for the field Z2[x]/{x2 + x + 1). We There, we give addition the cosets show there that this field has just four elements,
0+{x2
and
+x +
1),
(x
\\
{x2 +x+\\),
x + {x2+
x + l),
+ \\)+{x2+x
\\).
We
rename these four cosets 0, 1, and 29.21 for addition and multiplication
are
a{\\ and
and obtain Tables a + 1 respectively, 29.20 in this 4element field.To see how these tables a + a = that we are in a field of characteristic so that 2, constructed,remember = a0 \342\200\224 0. Remember also that a is a zero ofx2 +x + l.sothata2 +a + 1 = 0 + 1) \342\200\224 = \342\200\224a = a + I. a2 I consequently
and
a,
\342\226\240 EXERCISES
27
Computations
1. 2. 3.
all prime all prime all prime all prime all c all c all c
all
of Zeof Znof Z2 of
4. Find 5. Find
6.
Find Find
x Z2. Z2 x Z4.
e Z3 such e Z3 such e Z3
such
Zt,[_x]/(x2 Z3M/U3
is a field.
+ x2 +
c) is a field.
7.
that
that
Z3 [x] /(x3
Z5[x]/{x2
+ ex2+
+ x
1)is
a field.
8. Find
c e
Z5 such
such
9. Find
all c
e Z5
that
Z5M/(.x2
+ c) is a field. + ex + 1) is a field.
Concepts
In
Exercises
is needed,
10.
so that
italicized term
in
without
reference
to the
text,
if
correction
A maximal
Aprime
ideal of a ring
R is
an ideal
that
is not
contained
the
any
other
ideal of R.
11.
ideal
of a commutative
ring
is an
ideal of
form
pR
= {pr  r
R}
for
some
prime p.
Section 27
Exercises
253
12.
13.
A A
prime principal
field
is a field
ideal
that
has
no proper
subfields.
unity
that N
is
each
the
smallest
is an ideal
with
the property
that
there
exists
a e
.V
such
14. Mark
of the
following
true
or false. commutative
commutative
a. Every
ring with
ring
unity
is a
maximal ideal.
b.
Every
ideal prime
of every
with unity
is a prime ideal.
c. Q is its
d. The prime
subfield.
of C
subfield
is E. isomorphic
to
e. Every
f.
A
field
contains
a subfield
a prime
field.
as a subring. divisors may contain one of the prime fields a subfield g. Every field of characteristic zero contains isomorphic to Q. h. Let F be a field. Since F[x] has no divisors of 0, every ideal of F[x] is a prime i. Let F be a field. Every ideal of F[x] is a principal ideal. ideal of F[x] is a maximal ideal. j. Let F be a field. Every principal ring
with zero
ideal.
15. Find
a maximal a prime
ideal of
Z x Z.
prime.
16.
17.
Find Find
ideal of
a nontrivial
5x 6x
field? Why?
+ 6) a field?
Why?
Proof Synopsis
of \"only of \"if
if part
part
of Theorem
synopsis
of the
\"only
of Theorem
27.25.
Theory
24. Let
If it 26.
R be a
finite commutative
27.18
ring
with
unity.
Show
that
every
prime
ideal in R is a maximal
to
ideal.
some
Is it Z\342\200\236.
25. Corollary
possible
that
a ring
is possible,
that every ring with unity with unity may simultaneously give an example. If it is impossible,
tells us
contains
either
Z or
to
and Zm Z\342\200\236
for n ^ml
isomorphic
Continuing
Exercise
25, is it possible
7Lq for
that
a ring
with
to the
fields Zp
the TLq for
and
p and
ql
or prove it
is impossible.
27. Following
Zp and
idea
of Exercise
26, is
it
possible
p ^q
and p
and
q both prime?
two subrings
isomorphicto
28.
Prove directly from the definitions of maximal and prime ideals that ideal of a commutative every maximal ring R with unity is a prime ideal. [Hint: M is maximal in R, ab e M, and a g M. Argue that the smallest Suppose a and M must contain 1 as ra + m and multiply ideal {ra + m \\ r e R, m e M) containing 1. Express by b.]
Show
29.
that
N is a
nontrivial
maximal ideal
ideals.
in
a ring
no proper
(Compare
that
is, it
is nontrivial
and
has
254
Part
Ideals
and
Factor
Rings
if F field field
nontrivial
prime
ideal of
F[x] is maximal.
if
g(x) e
divides g(x)
and
only if g(x)
e {f(x)).
is an
both
ideal of
F[x]. Show
to
that
if f(x)
degrees
and N ^
F[x],
then
/(*)
and g{x)
cannot
be irreducible
over F.
prove
33.Use Theorem27.24
Fundamental
Nullstellensatz
the equivalence
Every
of these
nonconstant
two
theorems:
Theorem
for
of Algebra:
Let f\\{x),
polynomial
in
in C[x]
every
has
a zero
in
C
is a the
C[x]:
e C[x]
these polynomials is also a zeroof a polynomial of C[x] that contains the r polynomials f\\{x),
There
a e
that
zero of
smallest
all
r of
g{x)
Then
of g(x) is in
and
ideal
is a sort
and
of
arithmetic
of ideals
in a ring.
The next
B =
three and
exercises B is
product,
quotient
of ideals.
34. If A
a.
S are
ideals of a ring
R, the
sum A +
A +
B of A
defined
b e
that
by
{a + b  a
e A,
B}.
A c
Show
that
A +
B is
an
ideal. ring
b. Show R. The
A+
by
B and
B c
A+
B.
35. Let
A and
B be
ideals of a
product AS
f n
of A
and
S is
defined
n e Z+
AS
AB
= i
e A, fc, e S,
a. 36. Let
Show
that
AS is an
ideal
in
R.
that
c (A
n S).
defined
A and
S be
ideals of a
commutative
A : S
of A by S is
by
S = {r
tf
rb
e A
for all b e
S}.
Show
that that
S is
an ideal
of i?.
set
37. Show
for a field
F,
the
S of all
matrices of the
form
(oo)
for a, b
38.
e F is a
the
right
ideal
but not a
any
left
multiplication
on the matrix
right
by
element
of M2(F). That is, show that S is a subring of M2(F), but is not closed under left multiplication.
ideal that
closed under
Show
that
ring M2(la) is a
simple ring;
is, MiJJLj)
has no proper
nontrivial
ideals.
section
28
^Grobner
This concerned
Bases
for Ideals
In particular, we are we can of the set of common accomplish our goal in a single
section with
gives a brief introduction to algebraic geometry. the problem of finding a description as simple as
finite
zeros of a
section
number
of
this
text, we
book by
Adams
of polynomials. In order to be stating a few theorems without We recommend proof. and Loustaunau for the proofs and further study. [23]
will
the
This
section
of
the text.
Section
28
Ideals
255
Algebraic
Let
Varieties
a field.
X\\,X2,
and Ideals
that
be
Recall
F[X\\,X2,
,xn]
the ring
of
be
polynomials
in
n inde
terminants
coefficients
in F.
We let
F\"
the
Cartesian
For easein writing, we denote an element {a\\, ai, \342\200\242\342\200\242\3 \342\200\242\342\226\240\342\200\24 For ,xn]. Using similar economy, we let F[x] = F[X\\,X2, each a g f\", we have an evaluation F just homomorphism 0a: F[x] \342\200\224* as in \342\226\240 That is, for /(x) = f(xu x2,\342\226\240 e F[x], we define 0a(/(x)) = /(a) \342\200\224 Theorem 22.4. \342\226\240, x\342\200\236) \342\200\242 \342\200\242 The follows from the ci2, \342\200\242, an). proof that 0a is indeed a homomorphism f(al, and distributive properties of the operations in F[x] and F. Just as commutative, associative, = 0. a of F\" is a zero of /(x) e F[x] if /(a) for the oneindeterminate case, an element
n factors.
of
F x
product
F\" by
a,
in
bold
type.
In what
numberof the
In this
a polynomial of finding
of a finite
/i, /2,
F[x]. Finding
subject
studying
geometric
properties
of
of algebraic
geometry.
V(S)
28.1 Definition
Let S be a
In our
finite
of F[x].
in F\"
is
the
set
of all
\342\226\240
common zeros in
of the
polynomials
S.
illustrative
use*, y, 28.2Example
Let
z in place
usually
involve
at most three
indeterminates, we
S =
R[x, y].
2.
The
algebraic
variety
V(S)
in E2 is
the
line
with
\342\226\262
intercept
to Exercise
29 the
with
straightforward
proof
that for r
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