The Principle of Universal Science of Creation: A Ka:rmik Linguistic Theoretical Analysis

Chilukuri Bhuvaneswar, Convener, The Ka:rmik Linguistics and Literary Association, Hyderabad The theory of language creation in Ka:rmik Linguistic Theory is inspired from the theory of creation in advaitha siddhantha (theory of non-dualism) of Sri: A:di Samkara Bhagavatpu:jyapa:dah and is derived from an empirical, and scientific analysis of the theory of Universal Science of Creation (USC). USC is divided into three sciences of action as proposed in KLT: 1. The Universal Science of Action 2. The Universal Science of Living 3. The Universal Science of Lingual Action. These three sciences are derived from: 1. Physical Sciences (physics, chemistry, mathematics, etc.): The Universal Science of Action (US.A.) 2. Natural Sciences and Social Sciences (Biology, Psychology, Sociology, etc.): The Universal Science of Living (US.L) 3. Linguistics (Formal, Functional, and Cognitive Linguistics): The Universal Science of Lingual Action (US. LA.) [4.The Linguistic System of a Particular Language as the semiotic representation (i.e., as symbolic knowledge) of phenomenal (objects, states of being and) action is derived from the above three sciences according to the Individual-Collective dispositional creativity of the members of that particular linguistic community. It is further applied, transmitted, and stored dispositional socioculturaldispositionally in the context of its birth- sustenance-death. In other words, the apparatus for the creation and use of language is genetically inherited but its transmission and retention are contextually and socially mediated as a means for constructing ka:rmik reality: (15d) D. F. P. Dispositional Creativity of Human Beings Universal Science of (Action + Living + Lingual Action) (A Particular) Language] [ impacts on; gives rise to (by gradual evolution as an emergent phenomenon) D.F.P. Dispositional Functional Pressure] Within this empirical and scientific framework of the theory of creation, the theory of language creation is developed. First, a theory of creation is developed as an experiential theory. To elaborate further,

1. the universe is considered from the perspective of the living systems and how they make use of their environment for their existence, growth, survival, transformation, decay, and death in a birth-death continuum. From our empirical observation, we find that all living systems, especially, human beings, exist to perform action and experience pleasure or pain from the results of their actions. A dog will ‘cry’ if it is injured; a man will laugh when he is praised; and so on. Even plants are shown to experience ‘pain’ by the biologist Bose. Putting it the other way round, we can say that human beings live to experience pleasure by various means by fulfilling their desires. By inference from effect-to-cause, it is not illogical to say that one of the functions of this universe is to facilitate the experience of the living systems. It is done in terms of a theory of action which is approximately as follows: 2. a. Human beings perform three types of action: 1. Mental; 2. Vocal; and Physical (16) Triple Action: i. Mental; Vocal; and Physical ii. Mental Vocal (+Mental) Physical (+Mental ± Vocal) 2. b. Human beings get desires according to their disposition (personality) and try to fulfill them by performing triple action in a context. Disposition (personality) generates, specifies, directs, and materializes all their mental, vocal, and physical activity. In other words, when human beings perform action in a context, they do so to construct their dispositional reality. (17) Action Contextual Action (+Action) Socioculturalspiritual Action [+ Contextual Action + (Lingual) Action] Dispositional action [SCS Action + Contextual Action + Action] Ka:rmik (Experiential) Action [Dispositional action + SCS Action + Contextual Action + (Lingual) Action] 2. c. They experience pleasure or pain as these desires are fulfilled or not in a context. (18) Disposition (Personality) Desire Effort (Lingual) Action Result Experience (of Pleasure/Pain) 2.d. Their existence to experience pleasure/pain from birth-to-death constitutes their living. To add, human beings construct their dispositional reality in order that they live. (19) Existence = Disposition (personality) Living Action Experience

This is a theory of creation. It is called the Ka:rmik Theory of Living and is subsumed in the Universal Science of Living. It is different from other theories mentioned in Gleitman, et al (2000: 582-3;624-25) such as Trait Theory, Behavioural Cognitive Approach, Psychodynamic, Humanistic, and Sociocultural Approaches to

personality. This is the model adopted in the Ka:rmik Linguistic Theory to motivate the formation, application, transmission, and retention of language in an integrated framework of form, function, cognition, and disposition (personality). In trait theory, the differences in the characteristic modes of thought, desires, and behavior (patterns of personality) are explained with reference to the underlying trait dimensions; in behavioural-cognitive approach, these differences are explained by stressing the importance of the situation and of learning; in the psychodynamic approach, they are explained in terms of submerged feelings, unconscious conflicts, and desires; in the humanistic approach, they are explained via how people achieve selfhood, and realize their potential, and in the sociocultural approach, they are explained in terms of how a particular culture is described in terms of another cultures’s (Western Culture) conceptions of human individuality and the self. All these theories are atomic and take into consideration only one or more aspects of living but not all into consideration; that is why each is true in its own limited way but not true as a whole. The Ka:rmik Living theory takes all of them into consideration and develops the theory of language. This is the crucial difference between the Ka:rmik Linguistic Theory and other atomic theories. In the Ka:rmik Living Theory, as an individual is born, he is born with a set of characteristics genetically inherited – characteristics related to physiology, and basic mentality. They are already there in the individual as can be seen in the visible physical features, and the invisible mentality seen through the physical actions and reactions reflecting his mentality in a effect – to – cause inferential evidence. This constitutes his disposition at his birth. This is unfolded further as he grows up through his dispositional actions and reactions in the context and his learning in the context: he acts on with what he has and adds to it, as he grows, from his further experience and activity. Thus, both the trait theory and the cognitive-behavioural approach are integrated in it. Again, as he lives, his submerged feelings, unconscious conflicts, and desires impact on his existing disposition and shape it; in addition, as he lives, he works to achieve selfhood, and realizes his potential, something like his mission in life. Finally, he develops his own vision of life and integrates all his experience into that vision in his own dispositionally mapped out world and experiences the pleasure and pain of living in the spatiotemporalmaterial, socioculturalspiritual contextual world of his action and reaction network. All this is achieved through his disposition and its choice of action and the emergent experience as this and that, as so and so, and as such and such. Within this Ka:rmik Living Theory in the Universal Science of Living is seated another theory of language creation: in order to facilitate the experiences of the human beings, speech is created; and then, by a reversal of order principle, the same language is used to coordinate the coordination of experience.

To make it clear, first, human beings created language in the process of living to facilitate experience of their immediate activity; second, they used the same created language to process their living; later, they used the same language to order and produce their living, their experience: the first is a product; the second is a tool as a system; and the third is a resource. Disposition (personality) directs experience and to do so uses language as dispositional action. When language is used to process living, culture emerges as patterned behavior of living. Therefore, culture a:nushangikally contains language and in that sense lingual action becomes cultural action but it is much more than that as a product of disposition (personality), as experiential action. In the case of proverbs, it becomes proverbial experiential action. This much is the difference. (20) Theory of Creation Theory of Creation Theory of Living Theory of Language [ Reversal of Order] Theory of Language Theory of Living

3.a. Language is formed, used, and transmitted to fulfill the function of facilitating the experiences of human beings by becoming a tool used as a system used as a resource. (21) Tool System Resource

In other words, language is used as a resource for the construction of dispositional reality which is realized through desires, the ensuing actions, and the results of actions leading to their experience; the dispositional reality is further constructed by (22a) observation, interpretation, identification, representation, creation, communication, initiation, and experience of action

which are facilitated through language as speech. 3.b. Since all action is generated, specified, directed, and materialized by disposition (personality) within the theory of creation, lingual action also should be so. Disposition (personality) again creates speech under dispositional functional pressure for communication within the framework of creation of action in general. [There is a D.F.P. to: observe, interpret, identify, represent, create, initiate, and experience activity in the actual, possible, and imaginary worlds out there, in here, and beyond inside, and outside.] In other words, speech is created by making use of the principles in the Universal Science of Action and integrating it in the Universal Science of Living. To explain it further, there is the principle of networks-within-networks operating in the creation of speech. First, the universe is created by material action; next, seated within that space-time-matter dimension, the non-living and living systems are created by biological action; and then speech is created by biological-material (here as sound) action.

Language acts as a link (a tool, a system, a resource) between disposition (personality), and action on the one hand in generating action, and action and experience in interpreting action through results on the other hand. Furthermore, language is created as any other creative innovation by the simple principles of [IUP-Troubleshooting-Problem Solving Strategies-Solution] and [IUPCreative Exploration-Innovation Strategies-Innovation]. It is similar to a bird like a crow trying to get ants from a marrow in a tree with the help of a twig or break nuts by putting them on a busy road where vehicles pass over them, or a monkey or a primitive man trying to get fruits from the inaccessible branches of a tree. Once I watched a documentary on Brazilian crows trying to eat ants from the marrows of a tree. A crow holds a twig in its beak and inserts it into the hole in a tree and gets it out. The ants that stick to it are then eaten by it; bears also use such a technique to get ants out of anthills. Another example is that of eagles hunting the ostrich eggs, grabbing them with their talons, flying high and then dropping them to bump them on to hard rocks for breaking them. At a more advanced level of dispositionalcreativity, a Brazilian crow collects hard nuts and throws them on to the road at the zebra line in Sao Paolo. When the cars pass through and roll on the nuts, they will break. Again, when the red signal is shown and the traffic stops, they will quickly catch the broken seeds and eat them. There are so many such instances to illustrate these simple procedures of [IUP-Troubleshooting-Problem Solving StrategiesSolution] and [IUP- Creative Exploration-Innovation Strategies-Innovation] like this in natural history which are shown in the Discovery and National Geographic Channels. These strategies are generally developed when there is a dispositional functional pressure (D.F.P.) to fulfill a desire in hostile circumstances: necessity is the mother of invention. The ants/seeds of nuts are food (theory) and the birds get a desire to eat it (desire); it is there but not accessible; so, the dispositional functional pressure to get them builds up and a technique has to be developed to implement the procedure of getting it for eating it. As a result, troubleshooting is done and a problem solving strategy is evolved and finally a solution is found. From biological disposition (personality) - source, a desire (to satisfy hunger) is born - cause; to satisfy it, an effort (mental and physical exertion) is made to perform an action (catching the ants or getting the seeds of a nut) – means; again, to perform the action, a theory, a procedure, and a technique are developed and the twig, or the cars passing through the zebra lines are used as a tool (another sub-means) by inserting it to catch the inaccessible ants from trees and anthills, or by dropping the nuts on the zebra lines and waiting for the cars to pass over them and break them for eating as a technique to implement the procedure of getting food to satisfy hunger under the theory that ants satisfy hunger when eaten; then the action is performed which gives a result - effect; finally the result is experienced as pleasure/pain - experience.

To implement the theory by a procedure, and implement the procedure by a technique, the bird does contextual exploration of variables, and gets a twig or the cars passing through the roads as a tool and applies them in a process (technique) to implement the procedure of getting and eating food. It succeeds and so internalizes that technique and it is passed on to the next generation and so on. A monkey gets a desire to eat inaccessible fruits. But they are at the far end of the fragile branches of a tree and cannot be reached since the branch will break if it goes there (problem) and that it can be solved by reaching there through some other means. It develops an Intuitive Understanding of the Phenomenon [IUP] that it is so – it is a recursive process which is the basis of all stages of action from its creationto-completion-to-modification-to-repetition. The desire is not fulfilled and it is strong. Therefore, a dispositional functional pressure develops; the bird is desperate to satisfy its hunger and is determined to get the fruits. In that dispositional functional struggle, it does troubleshooting by thinking seriously using its previous knowledge (may be of) of winds shaking the branches and fruits falling to the ground, and also fruits falling to the ground when they jump from one branch to another branch and hits upon an idea in a flash of dispositional creativity to shake the branches as a problem solving strategy (technique). As it shakes the branches, the fruits may or may not fall; so by trial and error, it hits upon a critical technique to make the fruits fall by shaking in a particular way (insightful behavior) and when they fall, it discovers it as a solution to the problem. [In psychology, Kohler conducted experiments with a chimpanzee to see how it gets a banana hung at a high place through insightful behavior by complex cognition. The ape used a stick as a club to hit the banana and a pole to climb up to the banana and even used boxes to erect a three and four storey structure to reach a banana hanging high to get the fruit (see Gleitman et al 2000: 131-132 )]. In that heuristic process, an automatic process is developed which becomes a technique. The ape uses it again and again and so it is passed from one generation to another. If a monkey cannot reach the fruits, it will discover or invent a technique to get the fruits. It will shake the branches of the tree and the fruits fall to the ground and then it picks them up to eat. In all these cases, they are only tool users but not tool makers. In other words, they have conducted formal-functional structuration of action (like human beings using wood for creating fire – firewood). Apes have also demonstrated tool-making ability as shown by the chimpanzee Sultan when it was faced with a banana far out of its reach.”There were two bamboo sticks in his cage, but neither of them was long enough to rake in the lure. After many attempts to reach the banana after one stick or another, Sultan finally hit upon the solution. He pushed the thinner of the two sticks into the hollow inside of the thicker one and then drew the banana towards himself, his reach now extended by the length of two sticks (Ibid.)

In the case of human beings also such procedures are used to develop problem solving strategies and new techniques are created in our daily life. The primitive man does not have the knowledge of modern science and technology but he must have had the common powers of reasoning, planning strategies and problem solving by using simple techniques. If he feels hungry and wants to eat (i.e., gets a desire), he must have been prompted (i.e., effort) to seek the fruits on a tree. If they are easily available, he must have plucked them using his hands – the very act of using the hands is a technique; if not, he must seek other means to achieve his goal. After an IUP of the inaccessible fruits, he will be impelled by his disposition (personality) to do troubleshooting and develop a strategy and solve the problem (through his inherent powers of reasoning, and decision making). He does exploration of the contextual variables and sees which fits best to solve the problem. In that process, he hits upon the idea of jumping up, if the fruits are not too high; or takes the help of a stick like the monkey to hit the fruits; or climbs up the tree if they are too high; or takes a stone and throws it to hit the fruits to make them fall. To arrive at these solutions, he must have used his experience and knowledge gained previously from living. Whatever strategy is used, it is used according to his dispositional cognition and choice of the strategy. Finally, he gets the fruit, and fulfills that part of his desire and feels happy (experience of pleasure); if not, he feels unhappy (experiences sorrow). Language too must have been developed in a similar way as a tool, as a system, as a resource to fulfill the desire for communication (as a means) to achieve the effect of coordination of coordination of action for its ultimate experience. This is a theory of language creation. A very important point to note is that the human beings are genetically endowed with intelligence, reasoning, logic, memory, and creativity to solve problems and that power (called the power of analyticity, for short) is not just simple as in animals but complex. To explain it further, his mental powers are capable of solving complex problems arising out of complex desires arising out of complex disposition with complex solutions: complexity is at the root of all human activity, and experience. To put differently, human beings are genetically endowed with a complex disposition unlike the other animals. His disposition can impel not only simple desires of plucking fruits from a tree but also complex (group) desires from complex cognition which require the coordination of coordination of action to fulfill them which is a complex solution. For example, warning the members of a group about wild animal threats; harvesting food; etc. In other words, human beings have a complex disposition that triggers not only simple desires but also complex desires and complex coordination of activity to fulfill the complex desires. This is the basic difference between humans and animals – we have a complex personality that produces complex desires and they do not have have it; furthermore, humans are endowed with complex creativity which they do not have. It is during this process of fulfilling desires, speech is caused by the dispositional functional pressure and achieved by complex dispositional creativity, like a man holding on to a branch of a tree when he slips and shouts; something like: a baby cries out of hunger, or discomfiture; or a man threatened

shouts, or cries; or a man shouts to threaten, or cries to evoke sympathy. That is the beginning of speech! The rest is history!!! (22 b) Complex Disposition Complex Desires Complex Action Speech Complex Solution

As seen from the above discussion, this theory is not derived from religion but from empirical observation. It may or may not be confirmed in religion - that is a different issue. To recapitulate, the theory of language is that human beings are embodied and they exist for the karmaphalabho:gam of their karmaphalam of their karma and language is not only used as a tool, as a system, as a resource for constructing ka:rmik reality for karmaphalabho:gam but it is also produced by it.

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