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This research study examines the role of different leadership styles such as transformational, transactional and democratic style of leadership used by managers in explaining employee’s job involvement in the telecom sector of Pakistan. A total of 200 employees drawn from three organizations in Islamabad will participate in the study. Two research instruments will be used to collect responses from these research participants. The research instruments are Multi Factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) and Job Involvement Scale (JI). The MLQ is a 20 statement version of Bass model (2003). It has been used widely in the capacity of leadership research and is deliberated the finest authenticated measure of transformational, transactional and democratic leadership. Job Involvement will be measured using a 9-statement scale developed by the researcher based on work on Job Involvement and work by J.K White and R.R Ruh (1973). This scale measures the effects of individual values on the affiliation between involvement and job attitudes. Through our research, we have tried to realize as to which leadership style influences job involvement the most whether positively, negatively. Keywords: Leadership Styles, Job Involvement, Transformational Leadership, Transactional Leadership, Democratic Leadership, Work Commitment, Telecom Industry of Pakistan
LEADERSHIP STYLES: A DETERMINANT OF JOB INVOLVEMENT 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................................................2 3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTHESIS...........................................15 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FIGURE............................................................18
1.1. BACKGROUND INFORMATION
In management sciences, leadership has always been an important topic, whether it is related to organizational behavior, organizational environment or organizational psychology. Recent trends show that business schools all around the globe are showing a great level of concern for leadership related studies. It has been widely acknowledged that leadership is extremely crucial for the challenging environment of businesses and
Limitation of this approach is that it has an overly simplified attitude to estimate human motivational factors.LEADERSHIP STYLES: A DETERMINANT OF JOB INVOLVEMENT 3 organizations. In a broader sense. Behavioral and organizational researchers have outlined a number of leadership approaches and styles being practiced in the modern times and the historical eras as well. transactional and transformational style of leaderships. transactional leadership is somewhat conventional leadership. Numerous researches have proved that it is the leadership that really counts and matters in making an overall difference in the organizational efficiency. Our focus of the study will be focused on the two distinctive areas of leadership i. he has completely submitted to manager’s authority. purpose and intention of exertion of influence and its possible outcomes of these attempts. The differences are in the manner of influence exertion.e. Furthermore. This style of leadership . It also assumes that a clear chain of command results in an efficient socio-organizational system. structural way and to facilitate actions and relationships in an organization. it has an assumption that when an individual agrees to do a job. he concedes all authority to his manager i.e. It is the efficient leadership.. which is required to achieve organizational goals like productivity. This leadership style assumes that reward and punishment are the only factors which motivate people in an organization. profitability and customer service etc. Although there are differences in the definition of leadership but most of the times leadership is defined as a process that involves exertion of influence by an individual upon others to guide them in a systematic.
(3) Creativity is promoted and rewarded among the group. Some of the characteristics of this leadership style are. Another assumption is that great things and objectives can be achieved through a leader’s vision and passion. restricting and bounding one’s self to orders. We conceived the idea to work on the topic i. (2) Employees feel more engaged in the process. The democratic leadership style also called participative leadership. It also postulates that enthusiasm is the key to get things done. compensation packages. Teams where the line managers were more inspirational were performing better as compared to teams where the line managers were .e. It has been found that this leadership style is very effective and leads to increased productivity.e. Contrary to the transactional leadership is Transformational leadership style. even though the manager holds the right over the final verdict on a decision. The main difference in the two approaches is the determination of factors of motivation of employees. Transformational leadership argues that people follow a person who inspires them. (1) Employees are stimulated to share their opinions. qualifications and skill sets. is a kind of leadership style where the employees of an organization give their contributions in the decision making process. We observed that the differential lies at the leadership styles of their managers..LEADERSHIP STYLES: A DETERMINANT OF JOB INVOLVEMENT 4 insists that the primary duty of a subordinate employee is to do what is told by the manager i. “Leadership Styles: A determinant of Job Involvement” because while working in the corporate sector we observed that certain teams from different departments are more involved and committed to their work as compared to other teams regardless of having the same work environment. Inspiration is the key motivational factor which instigates followership.
intrinsic satisfaction with work. computer technology and professional norms. 1. Another part is that new leaders are chosen whose values are compatible with those of the firm. They would be able to utilize the findings of this research in adopting more beneficial styles of leadership in their organizations to increase job involvement of their staff which will ultimately benefit the organization through increased performance. Hence the study will not only serve the purpose of becoming an additional research literature in the field of leadership but also will provide an insight to managers at their workplaces in the Telecom sector of Pakistan to better understand the influence of leadership on employee commitment and involvement in more depth. Moreover the purpose of this study is to reveal the effectiveness of different leadership styles in Pakistan’s Telecom Industry. PROBLEM STATEMENT . 1. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY The study is aimed at exploring the relationship between different leadership styles and their impact on job involvement of employees at an organization. The support of this argument is that the leader has unilateral control over only a few resources. One of them argues that the factors in the work environment make the leaders’ role almost irrelevant. The second argument states that the situation makes leadership irrelevant. These factors can be teams of highly trained workers.2.3. During the study we found two concepts that were conflicting in nature towards the widely accepted view that the leader affects organizational performance.LEADERSHIP STYLES: A DETERMINANT OF JOB INVOLVEMENT 5 least inspirational and they focused only on assigning tasks to their subordinates and reviewing the outcomes of those tasks.
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY The research objective of this study is to examine the leadership styles of managers and their impact on job involvement and commitment of employees in the Telecom Industry of Pakistan. We will conduct a research on influences and implications of leadership styles on job involvement of employees of above mentioned sectors. To determine the factors that affect job involvement and understand the fundamental reasons for non-involvement iii. What are the qualities of leaders that generally influence staff’s job involvement? ii. Following specific objectives will be addressed through this research.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS The research will seek to answer the following specific questions: i. i. To analyze the degree of influence of leadership styles on employee’s commitment 1. To compare the leadership styles that positively affect job involvement ii.5. What are the factors that cause staff to exhibit low job involvement? . How leaders influence staff to display job involvement? iii.LEADERSHIP STYLES: A DETERMINANT OF JOB INVOLVEMENT 6 Our research study will address the problem that how various leadership styles affect staff’s job involvement and how leaders affect staff’s commitment to work in general? How leadership styles determine the levels of job involvement within the organization will be explored? 1.
it is not possible to generalize the research results to other industries.LEADERSHIP STYLES: A DETERMINANT OF JOB INVOLVEMENT 7 iv. Under what circumstances leadership styles can reduce the rate of low job involvement? v. To what extent does leadership styles in an organization has an influence on job involvement? 1. As the time. ii. Other variables such as organizational citizen behavior or organizational climate are not taken into investigation. budget and manpower of the research project is limited. we will only send out up to a maximum of 200 questionnaires and the sample size is small. iii.6.e. This research only considers the variable in question i. i. DELIMITATIONS OF RESEARCH As the research is limited to the Telecom sector only. job involvement. .
that a strong leader is essential for success in both. Previous researches on this topic have been conducted mostly in North America and Britain. which are highly individualistic and might have this obsession about leadership. 1993). Smith & Peterson 1988. Hunt 1991) It has been proposed in a study that effective leaders are role models who use their dramatic skills to influence others. Netherlands. organization and society (J. G.LEADERSHIP STYLES: A DETERMINANT OF JOB INVOLVEMENT 8 2. Hunt 1992. Furthermore the have these abilities like to create a vision of future. Tichy & Devanna 1986) . which are considered collective societies (Japan. Trompenaars. these societies believe that it is the teamwork yields success. Bass 1985. W. On the contrary in societies. In some societies we find that people are very keen about their leaders. Bennis 1989. but some societies do care more about it than others. Contrary to the highly individualistic cultures. to consolidate values and thoughts and to differentiate themselves from others. while in some societies people seemed to be not worried at all about their leaders. J. (Burns 1978. and Sweden etc) Leaders are admired but need of a superhero is not felt essential. LITERATURE REVIEW Leadership is among the hot debated topics in management sciences. Huge sums of money have been spent to find out the answer to the question: What is an efficient leader? Leadership has a vital role in organizations all around the globe. (Yukl 1989.
Transactional and transformational leadership (Tichy & Devanna. 1993) Some researchers have found that the concepts like transformational and transactional leadership are universal. Yammarino & Bass. Researchers are working on devising some measurement scale for possible outcomes of leadership.e. there is little known about the leadership practices being affected by the environmental and organizational factors and what are their possible outcomes (Bass. A study found followers attitudes.LEADERSHIP STYLES: A DETERMINANT OF JOB INVOLVEMENT 9 There are two major types of leadership which have provided foundation for studies in this discipline. 1990) Transformational leadership is somewhat an addition to transactional leadership. 1986). Researchers have classified leadership in two major types i. 1990). Leader commits rewards and benefits to the subordinates in return to the fulfillment of agreements with the leader (Bass. 1985. 1998). (Bass & Avolio. They are also trying to work on questions about absolute values which underlie the leader’s vision. it involves elements of change or transformation of behaviors. performances and perceptions to be positively related to transformational leadership. It is assumed that this relation of leader and follower bringing together change results in positive results in the organization. However. Transactional leadership is based on the transaction that occurs between the leader and followers. attitudes and values (Bass. This postulates that change agents are the leaders who have ability to influence others to change them. .
job performance. This study also proposed that there is basic difference in the approach of transactional and transformational approach. retention and empowerment. Transformational leadership discriminates itself from other forms of leadership in a way that it tries to raise the levels of morality and human and ethical conducts of both leader and those being led. showing a transformational effect on both.LEADERSHIP STYLES: A DETERMINANT OF JOB INVOLVEMENT 10 Various impacts of leadership on employees can be observed like job satisfaction. Bass 1990. In our study we focus on the impacts and effects of leadership pertaining to job involvement. 1999).. A study results supported the findings above suggesting the efficient performance of employees can be achieved only if they are stimulated and motivated. Their purposes could be separate from one another but their interests are fused together. The transformational approach focuses the objectives like . Transformational leadership is an approach in which leaders and followers help one another to higher levels of morality and motivation (Downton J. 2002). 1973). In a nutshell transactional leadership focus traditional managerial aspects keeping n view the idea of stick and carrot. A leadership that should take into account the organizational needs of both the employee and employer. The first approach to define a new style of leadership was adapted by the doyen’s research on leadership which focused transformational style of leadership (Bernie. The ultimate goal of a leader in an organization is to run an organization efficiently and effectively (Connie Vance & Elaine Larson. Some researchers have suggested that this approach might be applicable to stable situation but in rapidly changing global environment management and leadership styles have to be revised.
He treats individually his followers and has check and feedback as well. Bennis & Nanus. 1990) Following dimensions of leadership have been postulated from (Bass. values and beliefs among subordinates. Charisma: Leader has a vision and has a mission. (Bass. As soon as transformational leadership was introduced as a major type of leadership necessary for any comprehensive conceptualization (Burns. Intellectual Stimulation: Leader storms the followers with new ad challenging ideas and motivates followers to think actively to solve problem and use of reasoning in taking an action. 1978). coaches. 5. on one hand. Idealized Influence: Leader transmits a strong sense of purpose. respect. change oriented while transactional approach is restricted to the routine and control. faith and honor. 2. and visionary elements. He emphasizes higher level of moral and ethical conduct. 3. and transformational.LEADERSHIP STYLES: A DETERMINANT OF JOB INVOLVEMENT 11 equality. on the other (Bass 1985. . teaches and stimulates the subordinates to learning experiences. Conger & Kanungo 1987. 1985. 4. charismatic. He has this ability to excite and arouse the people and subordinates. collective welfare. Individual Consideration: The leader directs. and instrumental aspects of leadership. 2003) 1. Inspiration: Leader act as a role model for followers and he provides a rationale for his followers through communication. Leader comprises of pride. a debate began raging about the relative importance of transactional. managerial.
and. Although the shrillness of the transactional versus transformational debate has subsided. some comparisons for the second question. Kotter 1990. a benchmark for future research. Schein 1985). Kouzes & Posner 1987. the fundamental question remains interesting and varied..g. does the level of transformational leadership desired by followers vary over time as circumstances shift such as demand for organizational change from the environment? This research seeks to provide one assessment of the first question.LEADERSHIP STYLES: A DETERMINANT OF JOB INVOLVEMENT 12 1998. does transformational leadership seems to make as much of a difference in the public sector as it does in the private sector? Third. They linked leadership roles comprising different behaviors from the competing values framework to see which would have a greater impact on perceived effectiveness in different sectors. . In particular. elevating transformation and thus requiring a new culture of dynamism rather than stability. related to the third. Second. “change requires leadership” (1983). Their research indicates that monitoring and facilitating roles have more of an impact on perceived leadership effectiveness in the public sector. Transformational leadership theory evolved rapidly in the late 1970s and 1980s because the organizational universe shifted dramatically. Zaleznik 1977). As Rosabeth Moss Kanter notes succinctly. Hooijberg & Choi (2001) conducted a study of private and public sector employees to see whether the generic theories of leadership in the current literature could explain differences in these sectors. the new transformational school has been eager to prove the overriding importance of transformational characteristics or even to assert that transactional elements are not a true form of leadership at all (e.
Likewise in the job satisfaction case. the transformational school of leadership has claimed elements of what has long been a part of the transactional literature: consideration and basic follower support. Job involvement can be described as the extent to which an individual is immersed in his present job (Brown. Democratic style of leadership is a participatory style of leadership also known as participatory or leaderful leadership. individuals who have some sort of intrinsic motivation have a much better level of job involvement (Gagne & Deci. Individuals who have a high level of job involvement have a kind cognitive relation to the job. while on the other hand individuals with low job involvement find themselves alienated in the organization (Brown.e. 2012)..LEADERSHIP STYLES: A DETERMINANT OF JOB INVOLVEMENT 13 As previously discussed. Normally. dialogue and deliberation and a leaderful managing approach. which ensures participation of both the manager/leader and subordinates (Joseph A. it is used in decision making process. Good contingent reward management should be in place in order to build highperformance systems utilizing transformational leadership competencies. It also suggested that a proper leadership approach is also essential in achieving above explained goals (Boleslaw Rok. This study places follower support back into transactional leadership because the augmentation effect that Bass asserts theoretically allows for this dual role. Highly . A study on participatory leadership style and a possible relation between employee’s job involvement and moral conduct with the leadership styles revealed that higher levels of moral and ethical values results in a better determination of overall CSR related motivation. Dialogue is a communication mode. 1996). Raelin. 2009). 1996). 2005). in practice attributes which are referred to this style of leadership i.
LITERATURE GAP Previous researchers have focused more on the study of relationships between leadership styles and organizational performance. Job involvement may allow the managers to effectively use this information to a better utilization of human resource of an organization because it urges employees to seek out the meaning and purpose of their job.1. motivation. job stress. 2000). There are a number of factors which are identified to be related to job involvement somehow. & Heather. team interactions and intrapreneurship. Soong. employee performance. Laschinger. 1997). A better understanding of job involvement could lead to a better understanding of employee behavior (Manojlovich. . 2002.LEADERSHIP STYLES: A DETERMINANT OF JOB INVOLVEMENT 14 involved employees enjoy a better time on job tasks and intensely get themselves immersed in the job (Csikszentmihalyi. staff retention. After reviewing the literature we sensed this gap from previous work and decided to work on this area. change management. However no research work has been done on analyzing and comparing the different leadership styles and their impact on job involvement. 2. In a study a research urged his finding in a statement that job involvement is a better predictor of absenteeism and work behavior than job satisfaction.
1986) Transformational leadership is an extension of transactional leadership to include a change or transformation of attitudes. In this conceptualization. Yammarino. 1986) was used by other researchers. and Arthur (1993) found transformational leadership to be positively associated with followers’ attitudes. This results in followers identifying with the . Spangler. 1990. House (1992). leaders are agents of change—people whose actions influence others and who are also then changed. Bass and Avolio (1993). Burris’s typology (Hater & Bass. & Dubinsky. Transactional leadership is based on transaction or exchange between the leader and the led. Hollander. Yammarino & Bass. and Shamir. 1998). Transformational leaders offer a purpose that transcends short-term goals and focuses on higher order intrinsic needs. values. Transactional and transformational leadership had been analyzed by Burns (1978). 1988. The theoretical assumption is that this relational influence further creates transformative change or positive outcomes in organizations. and behaviors as a result of interaction between leader and follower (Bass. and performance.1985. House. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTHESIS During the last 20 years two major styles of leadership have evolved which have established the basis for the research of leadership. and with organizational transformation. Ticky & Devanna.LEADERSHIP STYLES: A DETERMINANT OF JOB INVOLVEMENT 15 3. wherein leaders exchange promises of rewards and benefits to subordinates for their fulfillment of agreements with the leaders and their contributions to goal achievement (Bass. perceptions. 1990.
promote the self-efficacy and . Beyond providing a vision. inspirational motivation. Leaders who convey high expectations. intellectual stimulation and individual consideration. The underlying philosophy behind this approach is contained in the belief that existing traditional organizational practice could render employees “less involvement” to utilize their full productive and creative potential. that higher the job involvement higher the productivity and creativity of employee. Bennis and Nauus (1985) conclude that great leaders involve others to translate their vision into reality and to sustain it. Thus it can be said. it is expected that employees would perform at their productive and creative best. In theoretical model of job involvement in the workplace. transformational leaders engage in “inspirational” behaviors which build subordinates’ self-confidence with respect to goal attainment (Bass and Avolio. By changing or removing the conditions that lead to feelings of less involvement. the emphasis was on the energizing effect of job involvement. Leaders with vision can create a participate climate and involve condition in which organizational members assume the involvement to take actions to enhance the vision. These authors’ further comment that leaders with transformational behavior energize and hence involve their followers to act by providing an exciting vision for the future rather than through rewards and punishments. thus resulting in passive mind-sets and ineffective performance. Thomas and Velthouse (1990) suggested that the organizational environment can have a powerful influence on cognitions of job involvement. The four dimensions of transformational leadership are idealized influence (or charisma).LEADERSHIP STYLES: A DETERMINANT OF JOB INVOLVEMENT 16 needs of the leader. In the past leadership research. 1993).
Management by exceptional behaviors. for example. and goal-attainment (Eden 1992). Such transactional behaviors are likely to suppress involvement norms. achievement. To the extent that transformational leaders inspire followers to accomplish more difficult objectives. which can inadvertently communicate to subordinates that poor performance is anticipated but they are not expected to take initiative to correct it.LEADERSHIP STYLES: A DETERMINANT OF JOB INVOLVEMENT 17 motivation of subordinates. to solve problems from new and different approaches. In contrast we can assume that transactional leadership might have the opposite effect. and ultimately establish norms for individual initiative. focus primarily on mistakes or slipping of performance below certain levels. . and to develop themselves to higher levels capabilities.oriented behaviors.
1 .LEADERSHIP STYLES: A DETERMINANT OF JOB INVOLVEMENT 18 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FIGURE TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR TRANSFORMATI ONAL LEADERSHIP DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR JOB INVOLVEMENT Figure .
work experience etc. 4= Often. SAMPLE AND RESEARCH DESIGN Primary data for this study will be collected from a sample of telecom companies in Islamabad through self-reported responses. The questions will contain quantitative measures of Job Involvement. 2=Seldom. Organizational Commitment and Leadership styles. 4. Demographical factors such as age. where 1=Never.R Ruh (1973).LEADERSHIP STYLES: A DETERMINANT OF JOB INVOLVEMENT 19 4. Respondents indicate how frequently their supervisors displayed the behavior described in each statement using a five-point response scale. This scale measures the effects of personal values on the relationship between participation and job .K White and R. 3=Sometimes. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4. We will adopt this design because it has the slightest biasness tendency and offers the most generalizability.2. A simple random sampling design will be used for the collection of data. 5= Always. MLQ has been used extensively in the area of leadership research and is considered the best validated measure of transformational and transactional leadership. DATA.1. Questionnaires will be distributed and employees from various departments will be requested to honestly respond to the questions. gender. education level. Job Involvement will be measured using a 9-statement scale developed by the research based on Job Involvement by J. This primary data will then be analyzed and interpreted. MEASUREMENT TOOLS Leadership styles will be measured using a 20 statement version of Bass model (2003) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). will be obtained from this questionnaire.
HYPOTHESIS We have proposed the following hypothesis: Hypothesis 1: Manager’s transformational leadership style will have a positive relationship with employee’s job involvement Hypothesis 2: Manager’s democratic leadership style will have a lower positive relationship with employee’s job involvement as compared to the transformational style. Hypothesis 3: Manager’s transactional leadership style will have a negative relationship with employee’s job involvement . 4.LEADERSHIP STYLES: A DETERMINANT OF JOB INVOLVEMENT 20 attitudes.3. All statements are rated using a five point scale from 1= Strongly Disagree to 5= Strongly Agree.
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