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Maryam Jahanzad

KEM110702

EXPERIMENT 3: COMPUTERIZED THICK CYLINDER ABSTRACT
This experiment is to obtain the stress strain and determine the minimum and maximum principal stress of thick cylinder. It is also to compare between experimental and calculated values. In this experiment, we use a computerized thick cylinder device to do the experiment. We will set the settings in the computer and the values are taken. These are the calculated an also the measured values. Therefore we are to tabulate the values and make comparison between the two experimental values and theoretical values.

OBJECTIVE
  To obtain the values of stress, strain and determination of minimum and maximum principal stress of the thick cylinder. To compare experimental value with theoretical value.

INTRODUCTION
Thick walled cylinders are widely used in chemical, petrochemical and military industries as well as nuclear power plans. They are usually subjected to high pressure and temperature to analyze the stress distribution in a thick cylinder. Another important aspect of this experiment is to give the ability to students to calculate the principal stress and strain in thick walled cylinders. Some terms related to this experiment are defined as follow; Young’s Modulus    It is the ratio of stress to strain in a particular direction. It has a constant value for a wall material. For this experiment, the cylinder wall is made by aluminum which value of Young’s Modulus, E = 73.1 GN/m2.

Poisson Ratio    The ratio of the strain in a direction of right angles to the applied load to the strain in the direction of the applied load. One strain is compressive, the other is tensile and a minus sign is used in the mathematical statement. The Poisson Ratio for this cylinder (aluminum), υ = 0.33.

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The greatest stresses are on the inside wall of the cylinder.Maryam Jahanzad Principal Stresses     KEM110702 The greatest direct stress in the material (σ1) is the ‘maximum principal stress’ and the ‘minimum principal stress’ (σ2). In a ‘thick’ cylinder these are the hoop and radial stresses. One face of the joint has an eccentric shallow groove containing ten strain gauges at carefully determined radii and orientation. This 2 . There is also a maximum shear stress. Additional strain gauges on the inner and outer walls enable the measurement of longitudinal and circumferential strains. All strain gauges are temperature compensated forming a full bridge high stability circuit for each channel. The cylinder is made from duralumin in two halves cemented together. The cylinder is mounted in a sturdy frame and the whole unit complete with a hydraulic hand pump for applying pressure is fitted to a modular steel base. τmax. Thick cylinder used in lab This apparatus enables the student to investigate the distribution of radial and hoop stresses and strains throughout the wall of a thick cylinder and to compare experimental results with the theoretical results. Figure1. Cylinder pressure is measured by an internal transducer and also by a Bourdon gauge. These measure radial and hoop strains from which the corresponding stresses are calculated. The groove is completely filled with jointing cement.

Under the action of radial pressures on the surfaces the three principal stresses will be σ r compressive radial stress. Theory Consider a thick cylinder subject to internal pressure p 1 and an external pressure p2. Distribution of pressure in thick walled cylinder Consider a microscopically small area under stress as shown. u is the radial displacement at radius r. σ t tensile tangential stress and σ a axial stress which is generally also tensile. An on-board micro-controller and ADA interface with full signal conditioning and an RS232 socket facilitates connection to the users. This condition generally applies away from the ends of the cylinder and away from discontinuities. The circumferential (Hoop) strain due to the internal pressure is. It is assumed that the axial stress σ a is constant along the length of the section. t= 3 . The stress conditions occur throughout the section and vary primarily relative to the radius r.Maryam Jahanzad KEM110702 provides a possible instrumentation based experiment in checking the calibration of the Bourdon gauge. Figure2.

K and R we got: [( Stresses: ) ( )] ) ( )+ Therefore: .(1) .From Theory the equation is as below: *( Substituting the values of E. Longitudinal Strain – From the theory it can be seen as below: *( Substituting the values of E. K and R we got: [( ) ( )] ) ( )+ 3.Maryam Jahanzad KEM110702 At the outer radius of the small section area (r + δr ) the radius will increase to (u + δ ). r= Strain: 1.(2) (N/m2) (N/m2) 4 . K and R [( ) ( )] ) ( )+ 2. Hoop Strain – From the theory it can be seen that the equation is as below: *( Substituting values for E. The resulting radial strain as δr -> 0 is. Radial Strain .

065 P = 1. the individual stress in the cylinder wall can be calculated. and the values of σR at the bore and the outside diameter are – P MN/m2 and 0 respectively.: At bore: At outside diameter: The maximum shear stress (τ) = 1. As strain at the bore and outside diameter cannot be measured.Maryam Jahanzad KEM110702 By substituting into these equations the measured strain values. can be derived and compared with the purely theoretical values. The hoop stress at the bore and outside diameter. therefore. the derived values of hoop stress at these radii cannot be found by simple use of equations. it can be derived as: Where ɛH is the experimental value. i.065 * P *106 N/m3 5 . The above equations can be reduced to: (N/m2) And (N/m2) These equations are related to derived stresses There are also theoretical stresses: ( ( ) ) (N/m2) (N/m2) Results from this table can be represented graphically.e. These values can then be compared with the calculated theoretical values founded. The values of ɛH are known by experiment. However.

50 23.84 -6.48 22.Maryam Jahanzad KEM110702 RESULTS & CALCULATIONS Experiment 1 results: Strain Distribution through Wall Gauge Radius (mm) Number Experimental Nature of Strain (x 10 ) εH εR εH εR εH εR εH εR εH εR εH εL εH 39.0 45.07 -4.20 10.0 63.95 -2.5 75.0 45.0 18.12 -6 Strain Error Difference 28.09 2.01 -0.16 -6.0 56.03 -7.24 -31.13 0.24 1.82 -2.85 9.0 36.86 -18.0 28.93 2.36 78.69 2.83 13.76 -0.10 -3.09 9.55 -20.31 79.60 -0.0 75.0 63.0 36.34 7.87 11.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 6 .18 1.98 -6 theoretical Strain (x 10 ) 36.90 1.24 -12.04 1.49 -10.0 56.56 5.73 10.44 -41.11 15.

(Series1) Poly. (Series2) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 7 .Maryam Jahanzad KEM110702 graph of hoop strain against radius 90 80 hoop strain (x 10-6) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 radius (mm) 60 80 Series1 Series2 Power (Series1) Power (Series2) graph of radial strain against radius 5 0 -5 0 radial strain (x 10-6) -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 radius (mm) Series1 Series2 Poly.

1 0.7 18.4 1.5 0.Maryam Jahanzad Experiment 2 results: Stress Distribution through Wall Internal cylindrical pressure= 4.1 0.3 4.5 28 36 45 56 KEM110702 63 75 4.2 -0.4 0.9 -0.00 MN/m2 Radius.5 2. r (mm) Calculated (MN/m2) Derived (MN/m2) Calculated (MN/m2) Derived (MN/m2) -2.4 -4.6 0.6 -0.2 -0.6 0.0 -0.5 -0.1 1.1 1.2 0.3 -1.0 -1.4 2.7 0.3 - graph of stress against radius hoop stress (MN/m2) 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 radius (mm) 60 70 80 Series1 Series2 graph of stress against radius 1 radial stress (MN/m2) 0 -1 0 -2 -3 -4 -5 radius (mm) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Series1 Series2 8 .0 0.

0 18. τmax is: 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Nature of Strain εH εR εH εR εH εR εH εR εH εR εH εL εH Percentage of discrepancy (%) 8.33 2.0 56. σ2 σ2 = -4. σ1 σ1 = 4.0 45.0 63.0 63.5 75.02 15.0 45.52 MN/m2 Minimum principal stress is the radial stress at the inner surface. Gauge Radius (mm) Number 28.5(σ1 – σ2).90 0.83 31.0 36.Maryam Jahanzad Experiment 3 results: Principal Stresses Principal stress at a cylinder pressure of 4.93 15. τmax = 4.26 MN/m2 KEM110702 DISCUSSION  for first part of experiment we have.63 85.43 1.0 75.00 MN/m2 Maximum Shear stress.00 MN/m2 Maximum principal stress is the hoop stress at the inner surface.80 3.66 28.99 47.73 117.0 28.28 123.0 36.0 56.77 9 .

22 140.  At third part of experiment we have. results from the hoop stress are more reliable than those of radial stress. Therefore. it is consider everything as assumptions.00 20. As it was mentioned earlier there are some errors during this experiment which caused discrepancy of experimental values from theoretical values.. the force acting on the cylinder is not the same on every place.00 0. many things are fluctuating such as different area of the cylinder can withstand different values of stress and strain.00 80. when it comes to real life.00 - As we can see from the table above.  There are also some computer errors or the difference in detecting the experimental values.00 200.00 0.  There is always a deviation between the actual and the calculated value. there are some of the measured strains that give extremely large percentage of discrepancy. Percentage Difference (%) Radius. σR 43.93%. which is over than 100%.  For second part of experiment we have.99%. This is because when calculating the values. It is observed that most of the measured strains are very close to the calculated strains with percentage difference less than 10% and these strains are considered to agree with the theory. The maximum principal stress obtained is the hoop stress (tensile) with positive value and the minimum principal stress is the radial stress (compressive) with negative value. These results totally agree to the theory.00 Radial Stress. r (mm) Hoop Stress. This may be due to some errors that will be discussed later.00 0. However. Some of these errors are as follow. 10 . The smallest percentage difference obtained is 0. σH 18.Maryam Jahanzad KEM110702 The table above shows the percentage of discrepancy of strains for each gauge number.5 28 36 45 56 63 75 2. as the percentage difference of experimental values from theoretical values are generally less than percentage difference of radial stress since they are all more than 20%. The largest percentage of discrepancy is 123.75 22.00 50.22 0.

Inc.com/Materials-Testing/Stress-Strain/SM1011. This causes differences between the measured and calculated values as in calculations. some of the results give large percentage difference and the possible reasons or errors that may occur are discussed. 7th edition. 2012//2013.26MN/m2. that is not perpendicular to the pressure gauge’s scale when setting the internal cylindrical pressure to 4. Hibbeler. Semester 1.Maryam Jahanzad KEM110702  There is a parallax error when we have to take the reading of pressure reader. To prevent zero error we can either consider uncertainty into our calculation or the pressure on the diaphragm was ensured to be zero by checking that the hand wheel was unscrewed enough to rotate without resistance and the pressure gauge on the equipment reads 0. It can be concluded that most of the experimental values agree with the theoretical values. The eye positions are incorrect.  CONCLUSION The stress and strain value is able to be retrieve from the computer and the values are almost accurate but there is still some difference in values.52 MN/m2.00MN/m2 whereas the maximum principle stress is 4. Mechanics of Materials.tecquipment. REFERENCES     http://www.00 MN/m2 and this is actually considered as zero error.   To prevent parallax error we can use digital pressure gauge. The experimental values and theoretical values are also compared and percentages of discrepancy are calculated.00 MN/m2.00 MN/m2. The maximum shear stress is 4. Prentice Hall International. But the pre cautions we can take into consideration during carrying out the experiment are might be. However.org/publication/IMECS2009/IMECS2009_pp1649-1654. (1997). The minimum principle stress is determined to be -4.iaeng. Actually.pdf 11 . http://www.. Keep our hands away from equipment and table that equipment are placed on.aspx lab sheet.  Extra pressure is applied by the subject while setting the internal cylindrical pressure to 4. the pressure is assumed to be exactly 4. Russell C.