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PROGRAM EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE (PERT) (1) PERT embraces a group of management concepts, each of which can be used

effectively by itself; but when grouped together into an integrated system, they ensure the optimum use of time and resources available to accomplish a known goal. Among these concepts are: (1) the use of a network to represent plans, (2) the prediction of time needed to complete each phase of the project, (3) the recognizing and measuring of uncertainty, and (4) the continual revision of plans and operations to meet unpredictable situations and environment. By combining these time-tested management procedures in one overall approach, PERT provides a means of defining, interrelating, and integrating what must be done to accomplish project objectives on time. PERT, then, is a detailed and interrelated master plan that has sufficient built-in flexibility to serve as a stable guide for a complex project through its many steps to completion. (2) PERT is specific and is based primarily upon goals. Before beginning to use the PERT network to plan a major project in detail, the manager or work systems analyst should organize his thoughts concerning the project by defining his objectives and dividing his large project into its major work areas. In developing program objectives, the manager's first job is to define the project. Before using PERT to aid in the planning of a complex project, a person must know exactly what he hopes to accomplish. (3) At this point, the manager must itemize the various tasks that need to be accomplished to meet the final objective. These tasks should be arranged in the order that they will occur and should be assigned to managers who will have primary responsibility for their completion. To do this, the top manager uses a work breakdown structure in which he takes the final, intermediate, and initial objectives and converts them into work areas. (4) After the manager has completed his work breakdown structure to determine the basic administrative and physical task involved in the project, the actual construction of a PERT network is not difficult. This network is a visual presentation of the flow plan of the project objectives and is based upon the Gantt charting technique developed by Henry Gantt. (5) The following terms are unique to the concept of PERT:

Through the use of detail nets (which show the project plan in complete detail). In depicting the truth on the PERT network. an event is shown as a circle. or other similar symbol. This tool. They will also better understand their responsibility toward securing the goal. 1985. ACTIVITY: An activity is represented on a PERT network by an arrow and each activity separates one event from another. "Does this network show the truth—the real way the project will be accomplished"? How it should be done is a problem that should be resolved long before the actual construction of the PERT network. planning. An activity is a clearly defined task to which a known quantity of manpower and other resources is applied.. Reston.EVENT: An event is an identifiable point in time at which something is accomplished. is a powerful but simple technique that is particularly useful in analyzing. you must accurately show the interrelationship. In the PERT network. In this way the manager may design the level of detail to be consistent with the level of management. subordinate participants may clearly see what parts they must carry out and how their work relates with the work of others. Virginia: Reston Publishing Co. and subnets (which portray sections of the master plan). summary nets (which depict the major events and activities of the plan). square. The event labeled within a circle merely means that this action is completed. which is based upon the network theory. It also provides a means of determining which jobs or activities comprising a project are critical in their effect on the total project time and how best to schedule all jobs in a project to meet a target date at minimum cost. Industrial Engineering Methods and Controls. To determine this interrelationship and interdependency of events and activities is the most difficult task of the PERT analyst. (7) PERT is but one of the operational tools developed to aid management in planning and scheduling work. and higher levels of management can also be quickly informed of a proposal for their consideration or approval. Donald. (Herzog. NETWORK: The network shows the interdependencies among the tasks or activities and illustrates the sequence in which they are planned.) . (6) One question that should always be asked during the construction of a PERT network is. For each step of the plan it shows the work that must precede the other steps and activities that may be carried on simultaneously or independently. and scheduling large complex projects.

. According to lines 1 . As competition rises – you decide to change your factory into a shopping mall.25. In line 14. Complete the following sentence with any appropriate word: If PERT is to work well. the author refers to PERT as a "network".You are the general manager of a furniture manufacturing company. B . what can't PERT do? 3. What does he mean by this term? 4. those using it must fist determine the _______________ of a particular project.Answer the questions based on the text above: 1. Draw a PERT network depicting your project.PERT Network A . What is PERT (explain in your own words)? 2.