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History of English English belongs to the Germanic Branch of Indo-European English has changed more than most

IE languages INDO-EUROPEAN PERIOD (? 8,000 to 4,000BC ?) Indo-Europeans were some of the world's first farmers homeland - probably western half of the Black Sea Kentum languages spread through Europe, Inner Asia by 3,000BC Satem languages - Indo-Iranians, after 4,000 BC Proto-Germanic was a Kentum language that started spreading north from Black Sea, reaching the North Sea by 2,000BC COMMON GERMANIC PERIOD (? 4,000BC - to 500 BC) Proto-Germans mix with aboriginal farming peoples in Northern Europe North Sea Aborigine words and traits borrowed into Germanic: 1. Toponyms: Sweden (Sverige), Scandi and Finn 2. Nature: sea, land, strand, mew, eider, auk, seal, sturgeon, herring. (<sing), flounder (<flat) 3. Sea travel: ship, keel, sail, oar. 4. Religion: hel, ragnarok. 5. Society: wife, bride, groom, husa replaces domo, folk replaces manni, which replaces vir/wer, aboriginal words sometimes survive in negative meaning knapa (youth)->knave karl (man) became churl. New coinages: swan

6. farming or animal husbandry: hafur (oats; haversack) mare. Also: ram, lamb, sheep, kid, bitch, hound, dung. 7. Other basic words: risan, rise, hlaupan, leap, lagjiz, leg, handuz, hand, skuldar, shoulder, bainam, bone, seukaz, sick, hairsaz, hoarse, newhiz, near, lik, like, ibnaz, even, kak, a round object, hence cake, kr -> crooked, cripple, creek, etc.

Probably two replacements in North Europe: Non-IE hunter-gatherer (before 5,000 BC) replaced by First IE farmers (who borrowed heavily from them) Second IE farmers (Proto-Germans) mixed with the first farmers Germanic is more changed than many other IE branches, probably due to this double dose of mixing. Germanic has many unique words, grammatical and phonological patterns. WEST GERMANIC PERIOD (500 BC - 430 AD) Germanic spreads, develops three main dialects: North Germanic - Scandinavia free from Roman, Celtic influence, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian East Germanic - Gothic, moves into E. Europe, destroyed by Huns West Germanic - yields Modern German, Dutch, English West Germans called themselves Teutes (<Teuton, Dutch, Deutsch) All modern Germanic languages are closely related: English sing, sang, sung Dutch zingen, zong, gezongen Swedish sjunga, sjo:ng, sjungit later becomes

West Germanic influenced by Latin (Roman) culture and vocab. First Latin borrowing into what became English (100BC to 400AD): 1. Foodstuffs: oleum-> oil, olive, butirum-> butter, caseus -> (cheese/Kase, replaces yustas/ost), piper-> pepper, coquina-> kitchen, panna-> pan, cuppa->cup, discas->dish, kaula-> cabbage, cauliflower, kohlrabi, coleslaw; petrosileum->parsely. 2. Time: yarum -> year, mannoth -> month, langtinus -> Lent weekday names are Germanic calques (loan translations) based on Latin: sol-dinus sun-day lun-dinus moon-day mar-dinus Tiw's-day mercur-dinus Wotan's-day (Jupiter) Thor's-day (Venus) Freya's-day

Saturday was borrowed, since Germans had no god equivalent to Saturn EARLY ANGLO-SAXON, or Early Old English (430-800 AD) By 430 AD the Celts had lost out to the Germans and Romans, refuge was in Britain (Welsh) and Ireland (Irish, later Scots Gaelic) By 600 AD Celts and Romans (Latin speakers) lose out to Germans After 430 AD Germanic tribes - Angles, Saxons, Jutes move to Britain, begin displacing Celts there. Their dialects partly merge to become Anglo-Saxon (OLd English) The growth of Anglo-Saxon 1. Celtic borrowings: very few in number, town <-tun (fortified hill) iron, crag, rix ->king (cf. regal, Reich, rex, bishopric), curse, cross (original Germanic gives us crutch), ass (borrowed earlier by the Celts from the Latin asinus) 2. Aboriginal borrowings (perhaps through Celtic) dog, girl, boy, Britain, Ire (Eire) land 3. Drift of /sk/ to /S/ by 600 AD: scield -> shield, scip -> ship, disc -> dish, scirt -> shirt 4. 587AD conversion to Christianity, Second Latinate Borrowing: Cultural, religious words from Old French: preost, biscup, nonne, monoc, diafol, engel; Calque based on Old French: par-don -> for-give. Some Anglo-Saxon words gained new, Christian meaning: synn, hel, God, Easter OLD ENGLISH, or Late Anglo-Saxon (800-1066 AD) Late 700's to 900 AD Norse invasions, many Vikings settle North England, mingle with Anglo-Saxons. Anglo-Saxon mixes with Old Norse (Old Danish) creates a new language called either Late Anglo-Saxon or Old English. Two major effects: 1. Many new lexical doublets (synonyms from different sources: Early Anglo-Saxon rear carve craft Old Norse raise cut skill

hide from no heaven

skin fro nay sky

Some lexical doublets are also Cognates - words with a single origin found in different languages Early Anglo-Saxon /S/ shin shirt ship shatter Old Norse reintroduces /sk/ skin skirt skipper scatter

2. Anglo-Saxon inflectional system collapses (most endings lost) a. Most plurals regularized: stan/stanas, nama/namen, remain: ox/oxen; foot/feet. ship/shipu, sunu/suna. A few

b. Many strong verbs regularized: help -> helped (not holp) c. Grammatical endings drop: stan, stanas, stanu, stanam, stone, stone's, stones, stones' stanum, stanos, etc. ->

Old English in 1066 was still mostly Germanic; Latin/French words limited to food, religion. Old English sounded more like modern Icelandic than modern English: Fæder ure, Du De eart on heofunum Si Din nama gehalgod, Tobecume Din rice GewurD Din wille On eorDan swa swa on heofonum MIDDLE ENGLISH (1066 - 1450-ish) William defeats Harold at Hastings in 1066. Norman French kings rule England in place of Anglo-Saxons

Diglossia -Norman French spoken by upper class, Anglo-Saxon by lower. The two languages gradually merge into one, called Middle English Impact of Norman French vocabulary (Third Latinate borrowing) is enormous: 1) governmental: count, heraldry, fine, noble, parliament. 2) military: battle, ally, alliance, ensign, admiral, navy, aid, gallant, march, enemy, escape, peace, war (cf. guerilla). 3) judicial system: judge, jury, plaintiff, justice, court, suit, defendant, crime, felony, murder, petty/petit, attorney, marriage (Anglo-Saxon wedding), heir. 4) ecclesiastical: clergy, altar, miracle, preach, pray, sermon, virgin, saint, friar/frere. 5) cuisine: sauce, boil, filet, soup, pastry, fry, roast, toast. 6) personal names: John, Mary (Biblical Hebrew or Greek) and Norman French (Charles, William, Richard) New lexical doublets (stylistically marked) Anglo-Saxon cow calf swine sheep deer sweat Norman French beef veal pork mutton venison perspire

Doublet phrases: law and order, lord and master, love and cherish, ways and means. New derivational morphology: many suffixes: -or vs. -er; -tion, -ment, -ee, -able most prefixes: ex-, pre, pro, dis, re, anti- inter. Anglo-Saxon: be- in besmirch, or for- in forgive, forstall; Phonology: Norman French phonemes /z/ and /v/ borrowed More than 50% of modern English words are Norman French

But most function words and basic vocabulary are Anglo-Saxon The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. With this ring I thee wed, to have and to hold, from this day forward, for better or for worse. . . in sickness and in health. . . Thank God. Go to hell. Drop dead! I love you. Up yours! . MODERN ENGLISH (1450 - PRESENT) Anglo-Saxon/Norman French completely merge English becomes a world language, overseas dialects develop Changes in Early Modern English 1450-1600 1. Phonological: a. velar fricative [x] drops or becomes /f/: night, light, though, enough b. velar +nasal clusters simplify: know, gnat, knee, gnome . c. GREAT VOWEL SHIFT - all tense vowels change pronunciation 2. Vocabulary -Fourth Latinate Borrowing -mostly learned terms ( enormous, action, item, suicide, etc.) Latin, Greek plurals: datum/data; cactus/cacti, formula/formulae. New lexical doublets Older Norman French example pensive New "artificial" Latin exemplary ponder

Aspects of English artificially made to follow Latin No split infinitives painture ->picture; dette ->debt, verdit ->verdict. Minor grammatical changes after 1600 a) some irregular verbs became regularized: spake>spoke b) 3rd person singular verb ending: he doest/doth/does.

c) thou, thee, thy/thine replaced by: you, your. d) plural /es/ to /s/ or /z/ except after sibilants. English after 1600 - only major changes are 1) dialect development 2) vocabulary expansion mosquito (Portuguese or Spanish); pajamas (Hindi); bungalo (Bengali); tulip, turban (Turkish); taboo (Tahitian); okay (Chocktaw?); So long (Malay) Origin of Modern English vocabulary 1) North European aboriginal terms into Common Germanic (before 2000BC) 2) Latin terms from Romans into West Germanic (100BC-400AD) 3) Christianized Latin terms into Anglo Saxon (after 587AD) 4) Old Norse into Anglo Saxon (700-900AD) 5) Norman French into Old English (1066-1300AD) 6) Ancient Latin and Greek into Modern English 1500- through the present) Lexical doublets forgive/pardon Latin borrowing from the Christianization vs. Norman French borrowing shirt/skirt cow/beef dish/disk chief/chef Native Anglo-Saxon word vs. Old Norse borrowing Native Anglo-Saxon vs. Norman French borrowing Older Latin borrowing vs. later Latin borrowing Older Norman French borrowing vs. recent borrowing from French