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THE VERB Affirmative Interrogative Negative PRESENT SIMPLE S + V/V...s. (pers. a III sg.) Do/Does + S + V ? S + don’t/doesn’t + V.

We write a composition every week. Do you write compositions every week ? We don’t write comp. every day. He usually writes good composition. Does he usually write good compositions ? He usually doesn’t write bad comp. It is used to express Translation λ actiuni obisnuite, repetate. Se foloseste cu:  prezent  every day/week/year,etc.  once/twice a week/a month,etc  usually,always,never,often,seldom,etc. PRESENT CONTINUOUS S + am/is/are + V...ing. Am/Is/Are + S + V...ing ? S + ain’t/isn’t/aren’t + V...ing. We are studying English now. Is he studying English now ? I am not studying Biology now. It is used to express Translation λ actiuni in desfasurare in momentul vorbirii. Se foloseste cu:  now,at the moment,at present,etc.  prezent PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE S + have/has + Verb 3rd. Have/Has + S + Verb 3rd ? S + haven’t/hasn’t + Verb 3rd. He has drunk his tea. Has he already seen the photographs ? He hasn’t been here since November. They have just said “ Good-bye”. Have you seen him lately ? We haven’t talked to her this week. It is used to express Translation A.λ o actiune terminata al carei moment nu este precizat exact  perfectul compus λ o actiune trecuta incheiata recent.Se foloseste cu: just,lately,recently  already,yet  adverbe de frecventa λ o actiune terminata intr-o perioada de timp care nu s-a incheiat. Se foloseste cu:  today,this week/year,etc. B.λ o actiune inceputa in trecut care continua in prezent. Se foloseste cu:  since,for  prezent PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS S + have/has + been + V...ing. Have/Has + S + been + V...ing ? S + haven’t/hasn’t + been + V...ing. We have been looking a photo’s for 2 hrs. Have you been living here since 1978 ? They haven’t been reading all this time. It is used to express Translation λ o actiune inceputa in trecut care continua in prezent.  prezent PAST SIMPLE S + V...ed/Verb 2nd Did + S + V ? S + didn’t + V Yesterday,he reached school at 7.30 am. Did he reach school at 7.30 am yesterday ? He didn’t reach school at 7 yesterday. He went to school when he was younger. Did he go to school when he was younger ? He didn’t go to school when he was y... It is used to express Translation A.λ o actiune savirsita si incheiata intr-un moment trecut. Se foloseste cu:  perfectul compus  yesterday,last{week month,etc.}  ..... ago  in 1980,on Monday,etc. B.λ actiune obisnuita, repetata in trecut. Se foloseste cu:  often,frequently,usually,etc.  imperfect PAST CONTINUOUS S + was/were + V...ing Was/Were + S + V...ing ? S + wasn’t/weren’t + V...ing He was teaching at 9 am yesterday. Was he teaching at 9 am yesterday ? He wasn’t teaching at 7 yesterday. We were waiting for him when he arrived Were you waiting for him when he arrived We weren’t reading, when he arrived. It is used to express Translation λ o actiune in desfasurare intr-un moment trecut. (specificarea momentului trecut e obligatorie)  imperfect Momentul trecut se exprima prin:  adverb (locutiune):  by 6 o’clock,Saturday,etc.  subordonata temporara:  at this time, yesterday PAST PERFECT SIMPLE S + had + Verb 3rd Had + S + Verb 3rd ? S + hadn’t + Verb 3rd We had already left when you arrived. Had he left before they arrived ? He hadn’t left by 6 p.m. yesterday. It is used to express Translation λ o actiune din trecut anterioara unui moment in trecut sau a unei alte actiuni din trecut.  mai mult ca perfect Momentul trecut se specifica prin:  adverbe (locutiuni):  by 6 o’clock,Saturday,etc.  subordonate temporale:  at this time, yesterday PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS Situation: Yesterday afternoon at 4 Mary started practicing the piano. At 5 o’clock when

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her sister arrive from work she was still practicing.

S + had + been + V...ing Had + S + been + V...ing ? S + hadn’t + been + V...ing She had been practicing for an hour when Had she been practicing for an hour ? She hadn’t been practicing for an hour. her sister came from work. It is used to express Translation λ o actiune inceputa inaintea unui moment sau actiuni din trecut, continuind pina in acel moment sau  imperfect pina la acea actiune. Se foloseste cu:  since, for FUTURE SIMPLE S + shall/will + V Shall/Will + S + V ? S + shan’t/won’t + V We shall go to the seaside next summer. Shall I find them home if I go now ? We shan’t be there when he arrives. Our friends wil come with us if they can. Will he arrive next week ? She won’t come back tomorrow. It is used to express Translation λ o actiune care are loc intr-un moment viitor. Momentul viitor se exprima prin:  viitorul simplu  adverbe:  tomorrow,next week/month/year,etc.  subordonate temporale λ o actiune viitoare a carei act. e conditionata de alta actiune. Conditia se exprima prin subordonata conditionala(if) FUTURE CONTINUOUS S + shall/will + be + V...ing Shall/Will + S + be + V...ing ? S + shan’t/won’t + be + V...ing They will be visiting the Village Museum. Will they be waiting for me when I arrive? They won’t be standing outside... It is used to express Translation λ actiune in desfasurare intr-un moment viitor. Se foloseste cu:  viitor  adverbe(locutiuni):  this time,tomorow,at 5pm,on Monday

Situation:The 9th form pupils are standing outside the V. M.Peter who is always late hasn’t arrived yet.The form teacher is buying the tickets. In a few moments (aff).(neg) any longer when Peter arrives.On his way to the museum Peter is wondering (int)

You got up late. He said he didn’t know what to say. principala) they would have gone for a swim. I have learnt it. PRESENT CONDITIONAL (Would + Verb) Y would follow MAIN CLAUSE (propozitia prin. I asked if/weather he could go out. CAN. fine. WILL (Yes / No Questions) DO. The weather is not fine. (WH. The weather was not fine. He said he would learn the poem the next day.. PAST TENSE if X happened IF CLAUSE (subordonata cond. He asked me not to play. You reach school late. I asked how he knew about it. PAST PERFECT TENSE if X happened IF CLAUSE (sub.next Sunday vom merge la M. I asked when he had phoned you the day before. They did not go for a swim.. T. Perhaps he will agree. INDIRECT SPEECH He asked me to tell him the poem..) they would go for a swim. principala) we shall go to the T.) If the weather were. I asked if/weather he had any books. If you had not got up late. You get up late. Museum next Sunday. conditionata) If the teacher agrees. I learnt the poem yesterday. nu ai fi ajuns la scoala tirziu. until as soon as . conditionata) If the weather had been. They would not go for a swim. Daca nu te-ai fi sculat tirziu. PAST CONDITIONAL (Would + Have+3rd Verb) Y would have followed MAIN CLAUSE (prop. Daca nu te-ai scula tirziu. s-ar duce sa inoate. MAY. you would not have reached school late. duminica viitoare. direct speech today / tonight tomorrow next week indirect speech that day / night the next day the next week Direct Speech Questions Is he ill ? Has he any books to read ? Can you go out ? May I see you him ? Will he get better soon ? When do you want to see him ? How does he know about it ? When did he phoned you yesterday ? CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE 1 Tense sequence Example State of facts Translation Tense sequence Example 1 State of facts Translation Example 2 State of facts Translation Tense sequence Example 1 State of facts Translation Example 2 State of facts Translation BE. Daca vremea ar fi fost buna. ne-am fi dus sa inotam. CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE 2 BE WERE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE 3 Future Simple is not used in adverbial clauses of time and conditions after this words: if before when after Present till unless Perfect is used instead.. You reached school late. FUTURE TENSE Y will follow MAIN CLAUSE (prop. DOES. If you did not get up late. He said he had learnt it after a verb in Past Tense ! Imperative Past Tense Past Perfect Past Perfect Future in the Past Should / Would +Verb He said he had learnt the poem the day before. nu ai ajunge tirziu la scoala. DID.Questions) PRESENT TENSE if X happens IF CLAUSE (sub. Then we shall go to the Technical M. you would not reach school late. Daca profesorul va fi de acord. HAVE. I asked when he wanted to see him. In Indirect Speech you must remember that after a verb in the Past Tense ! direct speech now this these indirect speech then that those direct speech yesterday two day ago last week indirect speech the day before two days before the week before Indirect Speech Questions I asked if/weather he was ill.. I asked if/weather he would get better soon. I shall learn the poem tomorrow. Daca vremea ar fi buna. I asked if/weather I might see him. fine.DIRECT SPEECH Imperative Present Tense Present Perfect Past Tense Future Tense Affirmative: Tell me the poem ! Negative: Don’t play now ! I don’t know what to say.