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Test Saliwanoff’s

Reagent Resorcinol in 6M HCl

Visible (+) Result Cherry red

Bial’s Orcinol Molisch’s Benedict’s *Na citrate keep Cu++ ions in solution Barfoed’s

Orcinol in conc. HCl with FeCl3 α-naphthol, H2SO4 Cu++ in alkaline medium

Blue-green soln Violet interface Brick red ppt

Cmpd resp for vis. result 6C Ketoses (hydroxyl methyl furfural) ex: fructose 5C (pentoses) Presence of carbs Cu2O (oxidized reducing sugar); all mono and disaccharides Cu2O (oxidized reducing sugar); mono (1st to become positive) Galactaric acid (insoluble – mesocompoundinternal mirror image)

Principle Furfural formation

Redox (mild)

Cu++ in acidic medium

Brick red ppt

Redox (sensitive)

Mucic Acid


Insoluble yellow broken glass-like crystals

Redox (Strong)


Yellow crystals


2,4-DNPH *No basic hydrolysis due to Lobry di Bruyn Van Eckenstein Rearrangement (isomerization or epimerization) *H+ hydrolysis complete hydrolysis into monosaccharide units *Enzymatic- amylase is specific for α-1,4 (amylose glycosidic bond); partial hydrolysis *Isolation of Starch- solubility in water (potato) Glycogen- precipitate protein w/ Acetic acid  gather filtrate ethanolic precipitation of glycogen (chicken liver) *I2 test- monitoring extent of hydrolysis