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Immunization against bacteria associated with Meningitis A.

Meningococcal immunization Neisseria meningitidis was first isolated by an Austrian pathologist and bacteriologist Anton Weichselbaum in 1887 in Vienna.(Byrne, 2008) This bacterium exclusively colonizes humans. It is part of the normal microbiota of the pharynx in roughly 10% of individuals but rarely spreads to the blood and to the brain to cause meningitis and septicaemia. (Hugo and Russell, 2011) Among several bacteria that can cause meningitis, Neisseria meningitidis is the one with potential to cause large epidemics. (WHO, 2012) “Meningococcal meningitis is a bacterial form of meningitis, a serious infection of the meninges that affects the brain membrane. It can cause severe brain damage and is fatal in 50% of cases if untreated.” (WHO, 2012)

There are 12 serogroups of meningococci based on the immune specificity of their capsule, five of which (A, B, C, Y and W-135) are frequently encountered in invasive infections and ony four ( A, C, Y and W-135) of these five have available polysaccharide-based vaccines. (de Filippis, 2013). Group A is an endemic cause of meningitis in an area between Sengal and Ethiopia in Africa and this area is known as the “meningitis belt”. (Hugo and Russell, 2011) Group C meningitis most commonly affects infants under 1 year old, but has higher mortality among adolescents in the UK. (Hugo and Russell, 2011)

In 1987, the first meningococcal disease vaccine to help protect against 4 of the 5 major groups of meningococcal bacteria is licensed in the United States. (Meningitis, n.d.). The early vaccines were composed of purified polysaccharide that were effective in adults but had poor efficacy in infants. A new vaccine, MenC conjugate vaccine contains capsular polysaccharides conjugated to carrier proteins of usually diphtheria or tetanus toxoid. This new vaccine proved to be effective in protecting infants and is usually administered along with DTap and Hib at 3, 4 and 12 months. This is also used in prophylaxis for adolescents and young adults. A group A vaccine is available to people travelling to areas of the world where infection is epidemic.(Hugo and Russell, 2011)

2011) The first vaccine for H. influenza type b before the introduction of vaccines. influenza type b was first licensed in 1987. The PPV vaccine on the other hand. namely PCV or pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and PPV or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. (Hugo and Russell.B. (Hugo and Russell. Pneumococcal vaccination Streptococcus pneumonia was first isolated by Louise Pasteur in 1881from the saliva of a patient with rabies. Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) immunization Haemophilus influenza was first isolated by Robert Pfeiffer from the sputum of patients during the1892 pandemic. is recommended for adults who are over 65 years old and at-risk groups 2 years and above. the most prevalent of these groups was H. The encapsulated strains are pathogenic to humans and some animals while those non-encapsulated are not. which is about 60% of cases.(Hugo and Russell. 2011) C. n.(Hugo and Russell. 2011) . The non-encapsulated strain commonly causes non-invasive haemophilus disease that are not amenable to typing. otitis media. (Rathore. 2007)The vaccine uses purified preparations of the polysaccharide capsule of the major serotypes of the bacterium associated with disease and are conjugated with protein carriers such as diphtheria and/or tetanus toxoids to enhance its efficacy. (Pneumococcal Disease. The invasive infections that occur most common in young children are usually caused by encapsulated strains of the bacterium that can be differentiated into six capsular serotypes (a-f). PCV is immunogenic to children and infants and it is recommended that doses be given at 2 and 4 months of age and a booster at 13 months. Ninety serotypes have been identified but only 10 most common serotypes are responsible for 62% of invasive cases. (Hib. PCV contains capsular polysaccharides of 7 common capsular types while PPV contains purified capsular polysaccharides of 23 capsular types. 2011) There are 2 distinct kinds of vaccine for Streptococcus pneumonia.d. 2012) It can cause infections ranging from bronchitis and otitis media to life-threatening and invasive diseases such as meningitis and bacteraemia.) It is a versatile pathogen that can cause sinusitis. The most common form of invasive haemophilus disease is meningitis. deep lung infections and even meningitis and bacteremia.

(eds. De Filippis. I and M. Hib. New York: Springer Science + Business Media.) Retrieved January 9. Meningococcal meningitis. Pandemics. Infectious Disease. USA: Greenwood Press. J.meningitis.P.L. 2013 from http://www. 2013 from http://www.who.(n. (2012).(ed.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs141/en/ . (2013) Molecular Typing in Bacterial Infections.org/vaccines/haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-hib Major Milestones in the HISTORY OF MENINGOCOCCAL MENINGITIS.References: Byrne. Retrieved January 9.com/US/about/historymeningitis/#tab_1978 World Health Organization. Retrieved January 9.). 2013 from http://www. and Plagues.d. (2007). (2008).).immunizationinfo. McKee. Encyclopedia of Pestilence.