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**EXPERIMENT 1: Characteristics of Passive and Active Filters
**

Objective: To understand the behavior of passive filters and active

**filters based on RC networks and operational amplifier
**

In circuit theory, a filter is an electrical network that alters the amplitude and / or phase characteristics of a signal with respect to frequency. Ideally, a filter will not add new frequencies to the input signal, nor will it change the component frequencies of that signal, but it will change the relative amplitudes of the various frequency components and / or their phase relationships. Note that the change in phase is directly related to the change in time (Think Delay).

The voltage transfer function of a filter is defined by H ( S ) = VOUT ( S ) / VIN ( S ) . The transfer function for nth order network (one with ‘n’ capacitors and inductors) is defined by

**S n + bn −1S n −1 + bn − 2 S n − 2 + ... + b1S + b0 H (S ) = H 0 n S + an−1S n −1 + an − 2 S n − 2 + .. + a1S + a0
**

The filter characteristics is completely defined by the filter coefficients

ai and bi .

Butterworth Characteristics

It exhibits nearly flat pass band with no ripple. The roll-off is smooth and monotonic, with a low-pass or high-pass rolloff rate of 20dB/decade (6dB/Octave) per pole. Note that the phase response of Butterworth filter is non linear.

382 1. L or C. 3.Butterworth Quadratic Factors (up to n=6) are given in the table 1.8478S+1) (S+1) ( S2+0. Given R=1K and C=1uF.482 Passive Filters and Active Filters Passive filters include the element such as R. Passive Filters 1.235 1.152 Optional 1. 2. fifth order Butterworth filter can be realized by cascading one first order and two second order sections. Active filters can provide gain and the inter-stage loading problem is reduced in case of active filters. (S+1) (S2+1. Gains for Butterworth Filter Poles Roll-off (Decade) 20dB 40dB 60dB 80dB 100dB 120dB 1st Section (1 or 2 Pole) Optional 1. Determine the cut-off frequency of the RC low pass filter. 2 2. 1 fc = 2π RC . L or C.586 Optional 1. RC filters are commonly used for audio application and LC filters are employed at RF or high frequencies.586 2.4142S+1) (S+1) (S2+S+1) (S2+0.618S+1) ( S2+1. 2.7654S+1) (S2+1.6180S+1) Table 1. 4.068 Table 1.382 2. Active filters employ transistors or op-amps in addition to R. 5. 4.1 This show. 5. 3. A.1[Normalized] n 1. 6.2 2nd Section (2 Poles) 3rd Section (2 Poles) 1.

TR= 0. . Using the phase of Bode plotter find the phase shift at the cut-off frequency and find the maximum phase lag that one RC section can offer. B. 2. 3. to = tm 2 − t r 2 Where. The BW is given by . 8. Set the function generator to square wave @ 80Hz and 10V. The critical frequency is determined by the zeometric mean of critical frequencies of a LP and HP filter respectively. Connect another RC section to make second order LPF and find the BW. To realize a HP responses simply interchange the role of R and C. Verify that the filter rolloff rate is -20dB/decade. Verify that the roll off rate is 40dB/decade above the cut-off. If you use an oscilloscope with inherent rise time of tr and if you are measuring a signal with high speed rise time then use a formula. Find the maximum phase lag that two RC sections can offer Note: You can use AC analysis also instead of Bode Plotter. Rise Time and Bandwidth Verify the relation between the rise time and bandwidth using low pass filter.35 BW 1.2. 5. 6. 9. tm is the measured rise time and tr is the oscilloscope inherent rise time to find the actual rise time of signal with no measurement error. 7. Verify the time domain analysis using oscilloscope. To realize a BP response simply cascade a HP and LP filter. 4.374 / (CR). Use Measure in the digital oscilloscope to measure the rise time.

e.Be AWARE OF RISE TIME OF OSCILLOSCOPE ITSELF C. Here. We assume the pass band gain of 6dB i. Design a first order LP active filter having a cut-off frequency at 1 kHz with an optional pass band gain.01uF. Verify that the roll-off rate is 20dB/decade above the cut-off.I am GBWP ] . The circuit is shown below. R = 15. 2. WHY?? [I am Slew rate . ii) Obtain the magnitude response for a cut-off frequency of 2 kHz with pass band gain of 6dB.9K and C= 0. A Word Of Caution The Response of HP active filter (op-amp based) will be seen like band pass response. 2π RC i) To obtain a high frequency responses simply change the role of R and C. The cut-off frequency is given by f c = 1 .

586 = 1 + 1 where. Design Equations R Gain = 1. Design a narrow band reject filter of 60Hz. Design a second order Sallen key LPF with upper cut-off frequency of 7.e.2. The design equations are same. To design a second order Sallen Key high pass filter simply interchange the role or resistors and capacitors. The gain is found from Table 1. The feedback capacitor (CA) provides the feedback for shaping the response near the edge of the pass band. Optimize the filter for Butterworth response.96 kHz. fc = 1 2π RA RB C ACB fo = f c1 f c 2 E.D. The centre frequency will be the zeometric mean of low pass and high pass critical frequencies i. We use Twin-T notch filter. To design a second order Sallen Key BP filter simply cascade second order HP and second order LP Sallen Key filter. R1 is the R2 feedback resistor. The notch frequency is given by 1 fN = 2π RC .

The phase shift is in degree. . Circuit Diagram This is nothing but like a first order low pass filter (Which you have seen in question no. all pass filters can provide phase change so they are used as a phase correctors. F. Design Equation φ = −2 arctan(2π fRC ) Note that the phase shift is the function of input frequency. Design of a All Pass filter All pass filter passes all the frequency components of the input signal without attenuation. they undergo change in the phase. while providing predictable phase shifts for different frequencies of the input signal. When a signal is transmitted through a communication channel (REMEMBER COMMUNICATION CHANNEL IS A LOW PASS FILTER). All pass filters are also called phase correctors or delay equalizers.The magnitude response is shown on the right. C). the only difference is that the grounded 10K resistor is connected to the input. To compensate for this change in phase all-pass filter is required. In summary.

Design a phase corrector that provide -90 degree phase shift for a input signal of 1kHz frequency. . Select a value of R or C and find the value of C or R using the design equation for φ = −90ο . Given is f = 1 kHz. Note the upper frequency limitation by op-amp and note the gain of the filter. For this simple interchange the position of R and C. The phase response and magnitude response is shown below. Design a phase corrector that provide +90 degree phase shift for a input signal of 1kHz frequency.

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