^^x^^ Insc^^

Chiefly from Nippur
H. V.


presentcJ) to

tTbe Xibrarp
of tbe

"inniversit^ of



The Department of Oriental Languages Of uoo in tho Jy

''rlr n t n l

n rm lini L





. 3 D. Printer and Lithoobapheu 1896 . No. Vol. S. XVIII. MacCalla & Company Incorpobatj:d.^uojl PHILAUELPOIA fleprint from the Transactions of the Amer.THE BABYLONIAN EXPEDITION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA SERIES A: CUNEIFORM TEXTS EDITED BY VOLUME Part II. N. Pkinters Anson Partridge. I Plates 51-100 56i^. Philos. Society.


Professor of Assyrian Ph. HILPKECHT.D.. and Curator of the and Comparatite Semitic Philology Babylonian Museum in the University of Pennsylvania PHIIvADEIvPHIA.D. D. V. 189Q / .OLD BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS CHIEFLY FROM NIPPUR / \ PART II Plates 36-70 and XVI-XXX By H.


ENERGY AND HEARTY INTEREST IN THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE ARE CHIEFLY DUE THE GREAT RESULTS ACHIEVED AT NUFFAR . President of the Department of Archmology EDWARD Chairman of the W..M. CLARK H. A.TO CHARLES C.D. Babylonian Section of the Department of Archmology and Palaeontology CLARENCE Chairman of the Publication CLARK Committee and Treasurer of the Department of Avchaology and Paleontology AND TO ALL OTHER MEMBERS OF THE BABYLONIAN EXPLORATION FUND TO WHOSE LIBERALITT. and Palmontology Provost of the University of Pennsylvania WILLIAM PEPPER. M. HARRISON". LL.D.


results obtained have been extraordinary. 353-368 (with copious extracts from Mr. The members expedition left America in the summei-. 386-391 . and. it seems now- necessary to summarize the principal results' and submit them to a wider circle of students. Terrell.000. the United States Minister in Constantinople. The editor." in Part I. and has continued to the pres- ent day. . in the opinion of the undersigned have fully repaid the great amount of time and unselfish devotion. which up to date has reached the sum of $70." in Zeitschrift fur Assy riologieYIlI. the constant sacrifice of health and comfort. In view of the increased interest ^ in these excavations. summer.Old Babylonian Inscriptions Chiefly from Nippur. Assyriaca. W." in The American Journal of Archaeology X. 1894. with but short intervals required for the welfare and temporary rest of the in the field and for replenishing the exhausted stores of the camp. to his government in Washington. " details cf. announced in the Preface to the first part of the present work. ' Gf. has been delayed by unforeseen circumstances. III-VI. Three periods can be distinguished in the history of the exca- vations. A. pp. 45. Recent Research in BOile Lands. PREFACE. . 45-63. pp. Hilprecht. especially the official report on the results of the excavations sent by Hon. 1888. To the list there given may be added Some Eecent Results of the University of Pennsylvania Excavations at Nippur. 'For Peters. and the large pecuniary outlay. PART II. the "Bibliography of the Expedition. "Aus Briefen an C. Playnes' veeekly reports to the Committee in Philadelphia) Sections I. 13-46. pp. Bezold. The publication of the history of the American Expedition to Nnffar. A brief sketch of the history and chief results of the " American Excavations in Nuffar " will be found in Hilprecht. p.

whence he returned to America. presented to the temple by Cassite kings c. 1888-18S9. Prince. fragments of inscribed vases (among them two of King Lugalzaggisi and of Erech). 61 inscribed vase fragments of Alusharshid . Assyriologists J. a number of inscribed bricks. 'These numbers PI. copper. P. Peters. Second Camptaign. April 15. Interpreter perintendent of Workmen. as indicated on the plan published in Part I. . various sizes and shapes terra-cotta images of gods . by and trial trenches. . F. c.—Staff: John P. Haynes. Ob- Row of rooms on the S. 1889. Objects carried away : Over 2000 cuneiform fragments (among them three dated in the reign of King Ashuretililani of Assyria).^ Excavations from February 6 to Peters. Hilprecht and R. — Staff: J. etc. a few vase fragments of Lugalzaggisi 2 door-sockets lios. of New York. XV. with a maximum force of 400 Arabs. 25 Hebrew bowls. 75 Hebrew and other inscribed bowls . J. . and an Ottoman Commissioner. inscribed stone tablet (PI. . OLD BABYIiONTAN INSCRIPTIOKS V. H. E. Harper. silver. door-socket of Kurigalzu. bronze and various precious stones a number of weights. their ancient moulds . intag. etc. CommisD.- Many clay coffins tablets examined and photographed. Commissioner of the Ottoman Government. II. fragment of a 6). Commissary and Photographer D. 1890. Principal results : Trigonometfield survey of the ruins and their surroundings. H. with a rical maximum force of 200 Arabs. Haynes. Excavations from January : 14 to May 3. several barrel cylinder of Sargon of Assyria. 1 enameled clay coffin and first many other antiquities similar in character to those in greater excavated during the • campaign but number. and Su- Business Manager. reliefs. Director . Business Manager. a large number of stone and terra-cotta vases of . examination of the whole systematic excavations chiefly at III. side of the ziggurrat and shrine of Bur-Sin II excavated. Noorian. . I^oorian. in diorite of Bur-Sin II over 100 inscribed votive axes. knobs.. H. jects carried in the reigns away : About 8000 cuneiform tablets and fragments (most of them dated of Cassite kings and of rulers of the second dynasty of Ur). Field. 8 First Campaign. terra-cotta brick stamp of Naram-Sin. . 3 brick stamps in terra-cotta and three door-sockets in diorite of Sargon 1 brick stamp of Naram-Sin . seals and seal cylinders. G. . I and X. a number of .. . but during the march across the Syrian desert he fell so seriously sick that he had to be left behind at Bagdad. D. refer to the corresponding sections of the ruins. 2 vase fragments of Entemena of Shii-purla several vase fragments of 1 inscribed unhewn marble block and Lugalkigubnidudu . V and X continued. Architect Bey. Interpreter Bedry sary and Photographer P. Principal results Examina- tion of ruins by trial trenches and systematic excavations at III. V. 1889-1890. . Director. new inscribed bricks I . and metal jewelry in gold. figurines and toys in terra-cotta weapons and utensils in stone . was the eighth member of the expedition.

and an Ottoman Commissioner. plans of estates. and of Darius II and Artaxerxes inscribed brick of inscribed torso of a Mnemon) many bricks of Sargon I and Naram-Sin. equal to that of Layard and Victor Place in Assyria and something without parallel in previous expeditions to Babylonia. The systematic and is careful in manner of laying bare the vast ruins of the temple of Bel and other buildings Nuffar. 1896 (with an to in- two months. 9 Tllircl Campaign. kigub-nidudu and over 500 vase fragments of pre-Sargonic kings and patesis scribed vase fragments of Alusharshid. systematic study of the ancient system of Babylonian drainage . Examination of the lowest strata . 15 brick stamps of Sargon I. 1893. drain a collection of representative bricka from coffins all the buildings found in Nippur. with an average force of 50-60 I. building inscriptions. contracts. Only an exhaustive study and which will finally a systematic publication of embrace twelve volumes of two to three letters. from Jnne to ^^Tovember. removed the preserved portions of Ur-Gur's ziggurrat uncovered on all four sides . chronological lists. ISDi. c. . Joseph A. to February 15. can disclose the manifold character of these documents —syllabaries. 1 door-socket and 1 votive tablet of Ur-Gur kings . and critical searching for the original bed and banks of the Shatt-en-N"il. historical fi-agments. parts each. Architect and Dranghtsman. 1 of Sargon. Director. the later additions to the ziggurrat studied. II.. statue in diorite (| of life size. photographed and. The . 1 votive tablet of Dungi . structures built by I^aram-Sin and pre-Sargonic buildings and their con- c. the first Dungi in Nii)pur. etc. Arabs. 1893-1 89G. . Meyer.— Staff: J. 50 clay and burial urns. CHIEFLY FROM NIPPUR.) and fragments of other statues of the same period. YI-X. votive tablets.000 cuneiform tablets and fragments (among them contracts dated . 3 unfinished marble blocks of . high water cocks. astronomical and religious texts. incised votive tablet of Ur-Eiilil. inscribed lapis lazuli discs of Cassite fragment of a barrel cylinder of the Assyrian period in fragments of an Old Babylonian terra-cotta fountain tiles. tax lists. 3 of 60 in- Entemena.. Haynes. whenever necessary. the two most ancient arches of Babylonia discovered vases unearthed tents saved. 400 tombs of various periods and forms excavated and in the reign of Diingi Objects carried away: About 21. . Lugalc. terruption of Excavations from April 11. Principal results: Systematic excavations at III. three sections excavated down to the water level determination of the different layers on the basis of uncovered pavements and platforms . and many other antiquities of a character similar to first those excavated daring the two campaigns but its results this in greater number and variety. 3000 B. H. c. of the temple. April 4 June 4. selected cuneiform texts. 1 of Naram-Sin. a number of relief.. With regard to the wealth of Philadelphia expedition takes equal rank with the best sent out from England or France.C. etc. inventories. with a view to a complete and connected conception of the whole. 1894).

Meyer. achieved at innumerable sacrifices and under a burden of labors enough for a giant. Layard. had regarded in the lower regions as practically impossible to excavate continuously of Mesopotamia. a moaumen- ium cere perennius." in excavating several weeks without all Haynes has of the for spent almost three years continuously. situated in the neighborhood of extensive malarial marshes and "amongst the most wild ^ and ignorant Arabs that can be found nearly sacrificed his life in this part of Asia." where Layaid himself success. and who themselves had exhibited unusual courit age and energy. But I cannot in refer to the work and success of the Babylonian Exploration Fund life Philadelphia without saying in sorrow a word of hira who laid down his in the cause of this expedition. " On the whole. indeed. ia these publications. isolated fi-om civilized men and most no easy task time without the comfort of a single companion. while choleia is lurking at the threshold of the camp and treacherous Arabs fulfill are planning rob- bery and murder ordinary men. The work of the first. 556-562. On the very same ruins of Nippur. 562). in the full significance of the woid. Mr. a graduate student of the DeMassachusetts Institute of Technology. while the ever-present insects bite and sting and buzz through day and night. to establish a sure foundation for palaiographic research. Each of the three expeditions which its make up this gigantic scientific undertaking has contributed own peculiar share to the total results obtained. the ideal Baby- lonian explorer. . It was. was principally tentative and gave us a clear conception of the grandeur of the work to be done. The second continued in by the fii'st.10 results so far obtained OLD BAIJYIiONIAK INSCIUPTIONS have already proved their great importance all in connection with ancient chronology. where the stifling sand-storms from the shadow and parch the human skin with the heat of a furnace. I am much inclined to question whether extensive excavations car- ried on at Niffer would produce any very important or interesting results " (p. partment of Architecture ' in the p. while yielding many inscribed documents. Joseph A. the line of research majjped out richer harvest in tablets deepened the trenches and gathered a and other inscribed monuments. any \)es- European or American tiferous Affej to dwell thirty-four months near these insect-breeding and in perfect swamps. Layard. I. Before he accomplished his memorable task. 565. where the temperature c. Nineveh and Babylon. even such men as were an independent opinion. shade rises to the enormous height of 120° Fahrenheit (= desert rob the tent of its 39° Reaumur). in Boston. pp. and the fact that nearly the periods of Babylonian history are represented by inscriptions from the same ruins will enable us. — and yet during all these wearisome hours to the duties of three Truly a splendid victory. But the crowning success was reserved entitled to for the unselfish devotion and untiring efforts of Haynes. ' c.

Even if the sand-storms of the Babylonian plains should eiface his solitary it? grave. 1894. finally. and to the Transacmembers of its Pubmy lication ' Committee. for his un- ceasing interest in the preparation of this volume. who facilitated the printpupil. By his excellent drawings of trenches. To this venerable body as a whole. part of the first I take this opportunity to express my great regret that this second volume could not appear at the falls early date expected. manifested by the great amount of time and care he devoted to the restoration of my eyesight. Ilaynes Bagdad and was soon full of enthusiasm and i-eady to accompany him to the ruins of Nuffar. The Old Babylonian cuneiform texts submitted in the following pages have again been copied and prepared by my own hand. will. A.* CHIEFLY FROM NIPPUR. some degree explain the reasons statement I regard Friebis. it for this unavoidable delay. The favorable reception which was accorded to the latter by all specialists of Europe and America has convinced me that the method adopted is the correct one. of which one is in print now ^ .«. Vol. that a large portion of the time interest of the by ray duties as professor . completing the reor- ganization of the Babylonian Section of the Impei'ial Museum left entrusted to me . prepared in connection willi in Rev. what matters His bones rest in classic soil. But in December of the same year weakened frame fell a victim to the autumnal fevers on the border of the marshes. George H. buildings and objects he has rendered most his valuable service to this expedition. for in nearly four months I was deprived of my overtaxed eye. IX. M. now instructor of Old Testament Theology Chicago.. Turkey and other Eastern countries of architecture to the best advantage. where the cradle of the race its once stood. The fact that two consecutive summers and were spent in Constantinople. that during the same period three more volumes were in the course of preparation. c. 11 to study the histoi-y in had traveled through India. Tablets Dated in the Reigns of Darius Hand Artaxerxes Mnemon. for their restoration from 125 e. Horn. . T. he met Mr. and to Secretary Dr. In the European cemetery of Bagdad. having fallen a staunch fighter in the cause of science. and curator was to be devoted to the work in the field that the first two inscriptions published on Pis.D. Dr. 36-42 required more than ordinary time and labor . first. like that of the was made possible by the liberality and support of the American Philosophical Society. on the banks of the Tigris. and the history of Assyriology will not omit his name from pages. where even before this the Syrian physician of the second campaign and the present writer had absorbed the germs of malignant typhus.Kceedingly small fragments the use of and that. I trust. In May. in whose appears. Clay. The tions it publication cf this second part. he rests. In connection witht'ii^ my pleasant duty to express my sincere gratitude to George my valued confrere in the American Philosophical Society. in accordance with the principle set forth in the Preface to Part I.

a their inscriptions and trustworthy edition of given in the " Table of had become a real necessity. p." will prove of exceptional value to metrologists. 1894. 124 and 126. The which the proprietor kindly much from its long exposure to the rain and sun of Babylopermitted me to publish. has my warmest thanks. return my heartiest thanks and my warm appreciation. For permitting I its reproduction and for provid- ing me with an excellent cast of the original. Kossaer. Pinclies's hasty transliteration Prof. Talcott Williams of Philadelphia and to Rev. note. Dr. military physician of a garrison stationed in the neighon Mr. 1. 13 of the Metropolitan Museum was of Art in New York). in the present series. If the text of the latter had his otherwise very natural been published before. 131. No. Ward's attention to this apparent mistake and gave the correct reading in ' my Assyriaca. Erraan. The stone is so import- ant that this text should be purchased by an American or European museum. acknowledge likewise my obligations to Dr. is in Constantinople. Director of the Royal Museums.. the fragment of a large boundary stone now in Ber- has found a place in these pages. p. Sayce would not have di-awn inference (The Academy. the translation of which Contents. 391. cf. . A boundary stone. Sept. is still too scanty to allow In oi-der to present the monumental texts from Nippur lin as completely as possible. Delilzsch. wliere the Cassite god Shugab (= Nergal. No endeavor has been made to arrange Nos. p.a (No. W. 151 and 153 appear in one of the next numbers of Zcitschrifljur Assyriolagie. The Inscription original. was among the contents of as many different boxes of Nos. the only cuneiform tablet found in Palestine ahe-irba. Sayce'a view rests made in connection witli a brief visit to America in 1893 and published in Dr. 93. is The Httle legend. Hayes Ward of New York for placing the fragment of a barrel cylinder of Marduk-shabik-zerim and the impression of a Babylonian seal cylinder respectively at my disposal. 12) transliterated incorrectly by Shu-tah. 7. No. which were copied during the time of the great earthquakes in Constantinople. Prof. At the same time I call the attention of Assyriologists to the interesting text published on PI. will My complete transliteration and translation of and of Nos. 25. 1895. belong to the collection designated by me as Coll. I called Dr. 189) that the I Hyksos god Sutekh belongs to offer to the language and people of the Cassites. critical importance which attaches to these monuments. 63. it has suffered nia.12 OLD BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS I ing of this work in the most cordial mannei'. which restored from six fragments Ibund tablets. Ward's Seal Cylinders and Other Oriental Seals (Handbook No. Prof A. Although on palaographic evidence certain periods will be readily recognized in these texts. 147) and the first document of the time of MardukIn view of the great member of the Pashe dynasty. 86-117 chronologically. Together with several bundled other tablets they were presented to the Imperial Otto- man Museum by ' Rifat Bey.' do not need an apology for in- cluding the large fragment of Naram-Sin's inscription (No. 120). the cuneiform material of the oldest phase of Babylonian history of a safe and definite discrimination. Rifat Bey.

CHIEFLY FROM IS^IPPUK. when the years world will wonder following —just as we wonder now when we glance back upon the great achievement sterile G rot efend's interest —that at the close of the nineteenth century years could elapse before Jensen's discovery and well-founded structure created beautiful any deep and received that general attention which it deserves. neither a prophet nor the son of a prophet. and were catalogued by the undersigned writer. will furnish the validity of his theory. Profs. and his accomplished brother. Ho- XVII. Recent Research in Bible Lands. necessary funds ? May the noble example given by a few liberal gentlemen of Phila- delphia find a loud echo in other parts of the world. 1894. and finally the brilliant reasoning and stupendous of Jensen in Marburg have forced the '' Hittite " sphinx to surrender her long-guarded secret. also 23. and for many other courtesies and personal services rendered during my repeated visits to the East. Ililprccht. For determining indebted to the mineralogical character of the several stones. Hanidy. The systematic excavations of the last decenniums have revolutionized the study of ancient history and philology. Excavations in the mounds of Malatia would doubtless yield it. Brown. Drs. Ilalil. Dr. 25 f. 13 borhood of Tello. and they have opened to us long-forgotten centuries and millenniums of an eventful past. seum. He who has taken the pains to read and read again and et studio. The marble slab recently found near Malatia' has ofieied a welcome opportunity to test the But the great desideratum seems to be more material than is at present at our disposal. P. garth With Hamdy Bey's permission published in Itecueil. and may the work which they themselves have begun and carried on successfully and systematically for several years in Nippur. the Archaeological His Excellency. Director General. scientific the Bosphorus.C. deserve Museum on my heartiest thanks for permitting the publication of these texts. But what European government. p. what private citizens. Smith and A. . of the University of Pennsylvania. Tlie inscription cannot be older than 750-700 B. deciphered by assiduity Hieroglyphics and cuneiform inscriptions were human ingenuity. and in is worthy of all the time and labor Ottoman MuCf. together now safely deposited in the Imperial p. but I see the am day not very far. never lack that hearty support and enthusiasm which characterized its past history. I am greatly my colleagues. 160. Director of who in many ways have efficiently promoted the work of the American Expedition. analyze the results of Jensen's extraordinary work critically and sine ira must I necessarily arrive at the conclusion as to the general correctness of his system.energetic and intelligent efforts have placed the rapidly growing Ottoman Museum on a new. Dr. E. A critical analysis of the well-preserved text will be given by Jen- next number of Rixucil. basis. and who by theii. The artist took as his motive a hunting scene from the royal sen in the i)aliicts of Nineveh. 'May The high-towering temple of BlI with two other smaller fragments.



and money spent

Though now in rnins, the vast vpalls of this most sanctuary of Shumer and Akkad still testify to the lofty aspirations of a byin its excavation.



and even

in their

dreary desolation they seem to reecho the ancient


once chanted in their shadow

raVu UuBel Jmharsag



mountain of

Bel, Imkharsag,

sha reshathu shamami shanna
apiii ellim

whose summit

rivals the heavens, laid in the briglit

nhurshudu ushsJiwhu

whose foundations are



tna matati kima rimi ekdu


resting in the lands as a mighty steer,

karn&ihu kima tharttr il"S/Mmaah shittananbitu

wliose liorns are gleaming


the radiant sun,

kima kakkab shame nabu malu
(IV n.

as the stars of heaven are filled with lustre.



15, 1896.


Tlie vast ruins of the temple of Bel are situated on the E. side of the

now empty
differed in

bed of the Shatt-en-Nil, which divided the ancient city of Nipjxir into two


various times the space occupied

by each of


two quarters

size considerably

from the other.

Only during the

last centuries before the Christian

when the temple for the last time had been restored and enlarged on a truly grand scale by a king whose name is still shrouded in mystery,- both sides had nearly the

This became evident from an examination of the


trenches cut in

different parts of the present ruins

and from a study of the


documents and

other antiquities obtained from their various strata.


long, however, as the temple

of Bel existed, the E. quarter of the city played the more important role in the history of Nippur.

Out of the midst

of collapsed walls and buried houses, which originally encompassed

the sanctuary of Bel on

four sides and formed an integral part of the large temple en-

dosuie, there rises a conical

mound to

the height of 29 m.' above the plain and 15 m. above
It is called

the mass of the surrounding
the prince ")*

to-day Bint-el-Am\r ("daughter of

ziggurratu or stage tower of Nippur,
'Layard {Nineneh and Babylon,
p. 551)

by the Arabs of the neighborhood and covers the ruins of the ancient named Imgarsag^ or SagasW^ in the cuneiform
and Loftus {Travels and Researches,

p. 101) stated this fact clearly.


witbstandiDg their accurate description, on most of our modern maps the
being confined to the E. side of the canal.

of the city


given inaccurately by

He cannot have

lived earlier than



B C,

and probably


'Loftus's estimate of seventy feet


c, p. 101)

too low.


c, p. 557.

Cf. Loftus,

c, pp. 102f.
\nler Imursag.

'"Mountain of heaven," pronounced



in SchTa,ieT' a Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek III,

and Horamel, Svmerisehe Lesetiucke, p. 26, No. 306. " High towering " (on the ending sfi cf. Hommel, I. c, p. 141, 3a). Cf.
p. 22,




E. 50, 5-6

a, b.

A third





broken away on

this tablet (4 a).

For Iinyarsag








inscriptions (ef. Pis.




XXX). A number

of Babylonian kings ^ applied
shrines, restoring old walls

themselves to (he care of this temple by building


repairing the numerous drains and pavements of the large complex,

nameofjEXv<r ("mountain house"].last three


the three great

known under monarchs who within

millenniums before Christ, above

others,' devoted their time

and energy

to a systematic restoration and enlargement of the ziggurrat and

surroundings, and


accordingly have


considerable traces of their activity in Nutfar,^ are Ashur(c.

banapal (G68-626 B.C.),' Kadashman-Turgu

1250 B.C.)" and Ur-Gur




structures of each of these builders have been, one after the other,

cleared, measured,

photographed and examined
director of the

in all their details

by Mr. Haynes, the
last four years.


and successful

American expedition during the
in Series



soon expected to communicate the complete results of his work, iUustrated by

numerous drawings and engravings,


of the present publication.


fore, referring all Assyriologists to this

proposed exhaustive treatise on the history of

the excavations, I confine myself to a brief examination of the lowest strata of ancient

Ekur, which


enable us to gain a clearer conception of the earliest phase of Babyit

lonian history.
his excellent




Haynes's own words
in Philadelphia.


be quoted from

weekly reports to the Committee


the time of

King Ur-Gur

the ziggurrat of Xippur stood on the

X.-W. edge

of an immense platform, which formed the pavement of the entire temple enclosure.



about 2.5 m. above the present level of the plain and had an average thick-

ness of 2.40 m.




and texture the sun-dried and uninscribed bricks of

Among them Dungri

(PI- 53, 65),


his brick legend in Part III of the present work),

his brick

(PI. 18,





I (PI.



(PI. 20,

(PI. 9,


17, cf.

(PI. 28, to the

in Part III),

Bur-Sill II


13f Nos. 30-33),


No. 38),

pp. 390f.).







of the present

work and Hilprecht
PI. 28,

in Z. A., VIII,


earliest builders







PI. 2,




Pi. 20,





81, 8


PI. 39,





PI. 51,

121, 8


also Jensen, Koamologie, pp. 185fF.

With the exception of



builder above referred



enlarged the base of the early ziggurrat con-

siderably and changed

form entirely by adding a peculiar cruciform structure (each arm being 16.48 m. long by

6.16 m. wide) to the centre of
'Cf. Part

four sides.


side appeared to liave a gigantic wing.

p. 5, note,

and Noldeke

in Hilprecht, Assyriaca, p. 86, note 1.


PI. 29,

No. No.


and Hilprecht

in Z. A.,

VIII, pp. 389ff.

Cf. PI. 24,
I li. 1,

8. 8.

His brick legend will be published in Part


No. 8f and

51f of the present work.


15 4


7.7 cm., practically the


size as


bricks found in the Buwariyya of Warka.




p. 168.

13 e. of N. I read the bird mentioned in II 37. Preussisch.ibyl)nian ontract literature. 'In size practically identical with Ur-Gur's structure in Muqayyar (ratio of 3 ' : '2). however. who faced E. 123. X. while the over 4 m. not a-\i?t.u. to and the accumulation oi In debris on the tDp of Biat-el-Aniii' is not enough warrant the assumption of more than three stages. No. 43. XXX). c. I.m(^v)urru. basis of Taylor's. p. this fact. it As these two English excavators however did not examine the below Ur-Gur's will be wiser to suspend our judgment for the present.' second (leceding a little 6J m.. note 3. c. orientation corner is 123 e. )ws that the Babylonians luoked towards N. Loftus's even at Sargon's time. Haynes inclines to the view Ur-Gur was the strata builder of ter- ziggurrats in Babylonia.. and that this king only repaired and restored an older building. respectively. long and 39 m. The Babylonian means "No. in determining the four cardinal points. . Ur Loftus discovered but two distinct stages c. it Ahidemie der WCssenschaften. (sic !) view of ^i^tAviu ri and <UuA-mnur-ra in tlie Tell el-Aniarna tablets (cf. p. I. 1894. is grammatically scarcely correct to derive ^'^1K. while in size and general appearance they burned bricks which bear the name of Ur-Gur. high. The longest sides of the ziggurrat in Ur faced N. trace of a fourth story could be discovered. From connection with the observation tlut in the B. Hommel in Zeittchrift der Beatschen ilorgenl'andischen OeselUehaft XLIX." (Peters in The American Journal of Archaeology. and accordingly could not very well designate " West" by a word which means in originally "back side " (Delitzscli. c. wide. as the p. Halevy in Reoue SimUiq'ie III. although the absence of a ziggurrat in Tello favors Haynes's view. there remains a slight possibility that the body of the ziggurrat and the pavement existed before Ur-Gur. very reason (cf. from a supposed Babylonian ah'i(u)rra instead of li. On the basis of the present almost convincing evidence." Uh{litan. Loftus. *No large {I. f. scarcely possible that formerly other stages existed above. 18).-E. Ur-Gur himYet so long as the inside of the massive ruins has not been thoroughly explored. note). story It is c.. most cases was influenced by the course of the Euphrates and p. Besides. Beitrage l)y zun Altbabylonischen Prhatrecht. 45) but a-niur»Au nu^Wa'llS Babylonian 21). in The Assyrian word "North. in the upper smaller side (or front) of a field faces N. Assyrischei Ilindoiirterbuch. and S. 246. " West. 1301) like the and Schrader SUzuagsberichte der Kiinijl. Consequently the only possible reading a. E. p. a Babylonian this loanword in the Talmud. doubt very much whether before Ur-Gur's time a ziggurrat existed iu ancient N'ippur.- two longest sides faced l^'. I. respectively. from the edge of the former) and the third are so in use The lowest was 'The ancient name of the temple. The natural inference would be that self erected this large terrace to serve as a solid foundation for his lofty temple.^ The base of Ur-Gur's ziggun-at formed a riglit-angled parallelogram nearly 59 Its m. proves nothing agaiast tliat this theory. and Indipendently a similar result was reached p. p. also a 1 village or town A-mu-ur-rii^i in Meissnet. this 17 pavement are identical with the mass of crude bricks forming the body of the closely resemble the ziggiirrat. 129. 524. I favor the former view and. Egyptian by the trend of the Nile valley for (Hagen I. first On the and his own excavations. races. 4tf . *"The N. Ekar. W.CHIEFLY FROM NIPPUR. Tigris. 128). using in the manufacture of his bricks the mould of his predecessor. is p.'^ and the four corners ])ointed approximately to the four cardinal points. and S.-W. p. in p.r-sh'i-nu (Delitzscli. Cf." as proposed by Delattre. with Haynes. it foil etc.* Three of the stages have been traced and exposed (cf PI." in Beitrage zur Assyfiologiell. avurru [for Hebrews. Cf Loftus. 91)].

5 failed to recognize.7 cm. we learn that the ziggui-rat of Nippur in the centre of each of the three unprotected had water conduits of baked brick^ sides. note 9. crude with the exception of the S. where 'This plaster rested upon "a level pavement of two courses of bricks also laid " (Ilaynes. 8. high.'62 m. p. c. p.75 On all four sides around the base of the walls was a plaster of bitu- cm. Cf. greater than at Iheir . and was 28 cm. which had its entrance on the N. facing of kiln-baked brickwork " (Loftus. c. c. mixed with cut straw. (cf. The surface of these stages " was covered with a very tenacious rain. 1 other Babylonian structures" the lower stage of the Buwaiiyya "is without any external I.). They were found in the lower stage and possibly existed also in the upper' ruined portions. Loftus. I. Report of Feb. Two walls of burned bricks.' By this very simple arrangement the was conducted in to a safe distance and the unbaked brick the foundations were thoroughly protected. 1 '"Where they joined the wall of the ziggurrat the distance between them m. c. « Loft us. the true meaning of which Loftus Nippur. men.* parallel. "Traces of decayed straw were discovered in these bricks " (Haynes.25 deep. falling rain XXIX. p.) was 65 m. 74). 1894). 169. p. No.-E. Thanks to the untiring efforts of Ilayncs. 1. As bricks. 129f. (7 9. 16. it flunked the walls. p. which carried the water away (cf PI. 1894). side of the lowest stage. 1 "Many outer end.^ The whole ziggur- utterly ruined that the original dimensions can rat appears like an immense altar. side. above. lowest stage of the Buwariyya had the same height as that of the ziggurrat of Cf. distant ' fi om each other. 1895). pp. wide by 3.38 tliree m. and 7. 16. long and 7 m. thick 10. 1. the body (and faces) of the zigguriat consist of small. Report of Sept. the I. Watka "unlike c. while in I. 107). p.** ascent to thediffeient stages in Nippur was at the S. plainly showing that from time to time the faces of the ziggurrat were replastercd" (Flaynes.-E. high) consists of sixteen courses of (stamped) bricks and was In the middle distance of the picture by Kadashman-Turgu around the unprotected sides of the ziggurrat. Unlike the ziggurrat of Sin Ur. in shape and construction resemhling a smaller one discovered in a building to the S. 'In Ur the exterior of the whole lower story was faced by Ur-Gur with baked bricks (Loftus. No. 129. Each m.'- stated above.40 m.-W. I. wide and gradually sloping outward from the ziggurrat towards a gutter.^ it To preserve snch a stiucture for any length of time it was necessary to provide with ample and substantial drainage. 'Cf. 'The projecting casing wall built is at the base (1. which had an exter- nal facing of burned bricks of the same size. ran nearly plaster of clay perfect. To judge from the height of the " buttresses " in Waika.18 OLD BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS no more be given. at its outer edge in bitumen. 129. of the temple. seen a section of the latest crude brick superstructure above. canalis^ation Babylonian system of who for the first time examined the ancient ci-itically.-E.'" at in order 3." to protect them against storm and "In places this plaster is still while in other places several coatings are visible.'' 2. Loftus. 16 and note 3) with a tunnel tracing the face of the lowest stage of Ur-Qur's and Kadashman-Turgu's ziggurrat. of which were stamped with Ur-Gur's well-known legend R. Report of Feb. * c.

und Assyriera. 1895. thick. 1894. c). rest on an older foundation. c.CIIIEPLY FEOM NIPPUR. like the pavement' of Ur-Gur's ziggurrat. of Ekur "30 courses of these bricks are still plainly visible "They compose the ridge of the outer wall and. among the more than twenty-five different forms of bricks used in ancient Nippur. exactly half the hatter of the latter (1 :4). into the larg^ open court. which were never employed again in the buildings of Nip- and as they are found near together and intermingled in both courses of the same This pavement. from which apparently steps. Keport of Sept. As both kings used the same peculiar bricks. *0ppert'8 proposed reading of this was declined I'arbieen in Assyrinca. in other words a plantation.-W. according to Ilaynes's Report of Feb. SARGON AND N ARAM-SIN. name as Binganisar-iris {Revue d' Assyriologie III. ancient brick pavement becomes therefore a new and important ' link in the chain of I. Cf. p. The complete excavation of the inner wall will be undertaken in connection with the systematic examination and removal of the ruins around the zio:srurrat. while the rest bears the briefer legend of I. corner of the ziggurrat. which extended up with crude and down to the great fortification of the temple. This fact significant. but an enclosed piece of land covered with plants. I 'Niebuhr's very recent remarks on the historicity of Sargon ^ijyptens.les" (Oppert. p. His iusinuations against the priests of Nippur read like a carnival joke. p. . was another pavement consisting of two courses of burned bricks of uniform size and mould. Pis. my arguments ' in favor of the identity of Shargani-shar-ali with Sai-gon father of BoUj tlie walls of the causeway and Uiose of the ziggurrat were battered. Immediately below "the crude brick platform of Ur-Gur. This enormous size is quite unique." under the E. 8. Origin Cuneiform Syllabary. 30. up to thj top of the ziggui-rat open court in fi-ont of The whole temple enclosure was surrounded by a large inner and outer wall built of sun-dried bricks. Leipzig. in the light of the facts presented in the following sketch. garden. Bertin.N". in square and is 8 cm. the two men must necessarily be closely associated with each other. 25f. 50 cm. To the . note 1. 3 A number of them contain the wellis known inscription Naram-Sin (Part pur. Fortunately most bricks of this pavement are stamped. 1896. This causeway ^ was filled bricks of the same size and mould and formed a kind of elevated platform. led it. Loftus. and enables us to determine the approximate date of other structures built of similar material in other parts of the city. pp. 138. • 19 right angles from the face of the ziggurrat. and II).) is impossible and The original picture of the sign Shar in our name is not " I'hifiroglyphe de and Development of the feui'. the hatter of the former (1 :8) heiag 9. no longer into the in existence. 7.' Each brick measures c. I. Cf. 'Ilaynes. I. of Shargani-shar-ali. Bahyloniens inscriptions in the first and Naram-Sin iChronologie der Oeschiehte Israels. 75) should never have been tlie made after the publication of their part of present work. p. orchard (kirxi).

purpose can therefore only be surmised. lower part of this rampart. Vio lag das Paradiesf p. made of sun-dried Sargon as histori- 'More recently torical basis of {Altorientaliiche 238) Winckler refers to Shargani sharali as the possible his- "the mythical Sargon of Agade. Of. mentioned below.-W. Its real (III). 221. 29.. placed on a raised base of clay. which "appear to be the half bricks of filled to NaramSin. 1894). a bubbling spring was discovered. to possible. W. below the plain of the desert. summer of 1895 Mr. Upon the top of this large which is c. 16-19). c. was built before the spring to divert the course of drifiing sand and debris from the court. received by the it temple administration as regular income and for special purposes. OLD BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS pp. this court was never occupied by any brick 3. a ridge of low insignificant- looking mounds to the N. six courses high. until suddenly II. •Inscribed burned bricksof Naram-Sin were also found in mound X. " After the court had become a depth of about 1 m . 5 m. b. b. b).^ ' it. as having been unearthed underneath the wall of Ur-Gur's archive. Ilaynes excavated and soon wall He selected a piece of 10 m. On either side of the still seen the brick platforms and curbs where the water pots resteJ. nor in fact any other inscribed objects that can be the neighborhood of Ekur.^ Its upper part. * Originally these mounds continued a little farther N. Delilzsch. It was apparently laid by Sargon and it relaid by his Naram-Sin. a wall of the same enormous width. than they can be traced on the map. sife refuge Perhaps behind its served both Besides in the time of war the inhabitants of Nippur readily found a walls. but etc. sloping or battered sides " to a total height of base. were kept and sheltered. PI. 29 a. was the constmcted by Ur-Gur. "show evident traces of red coloring on their under or inscribed face" (Haynes. to be of comparatively late date and cannot be applied to for the outer wall {shaVsu)." was enclosed by this wall. sheep. fortification (duru) was called Imgur-Marduk {ibidem.. long by 276 m. On the N. Both names seem .75 m. even more powerful witness of Naram-Sin's activity in Nippur has arisen from some ruins in On the plan of Nuffar published in Part I. on the W. side of spring are this court. 13. The foundation of the was placed f m. Forschungen 111. indicates that this underground archive or cellar existed at Sargoa's time at that very spot and was rebuilt by Ur-Gur. It was " built of worked clay mixed with cut straw and laid up en masse with roughly on solid clay c. en-Nil at a very low level.ittle. p. 5. bank of the Shatt. All the stamped bricks of Naram-Sin 24. Naiam Sin's According to 30f. is 189)) it served as it a caravanserai for the accommodation and safety of pilgrims and their animals. According to Haynes (Report of August Such a view c. who utilized part of his father's bricks. As far as the present evidence goes. the outer wall of the city. tliey turned to the W. 5 J m. p. seems me more probable to regard this enclosed place as a court where the numerous sacrifices." 'Cf. two other names existed . 50. XV. below the water level or c. They represent a portion of li^imit-MarduTc. I. 'The brick stamp of Sargon.5 m.20 l^arara-Sin^ (Part &on. "at the foot of the enclosing wall. wide. as stated above." From the siza of the bricks." the spring existed at the time of this great builder. and must therefore be rec- ognized as the true level of the Sargon dynasty in the lower strata of the temple at Nuffar. But another. The inner II R. Report of Nov. wide and covering more than acres of ground. reaching the Shatt en-Nil apparently not far from 2(5 A large open space. fortifications." I trust the day is not very far when he will regard cal and identical with Shargani-sbar-ali. a.50. E. of the temple' During the is marked YII. as I do. loag. by the mounds called Vlli and build- by tho temple complex ings. " 414 m. 23 a. II J{. K"© bricks of either of the two kings have been found below referred to them. in length after- wai'ds rejjorted the following surprising results. a diagonal wall of burned bricks.




raised to an





well ask in amazement,

Who was

the builder of this gigantic wall, constructed, as

seems, ana


sate ?


than the great liTaram-Sin,
cal person

whom Niebuhr

of Berlin finds hard to regard as a historirelease

Perhaps this scholar


me from

presenting " wirkliche

Inschriften politischer


als soleher glaubhafter-

Natur, damit


ihrer [namely,

Sargon's and Naram-Sin's] einstmaligen Existenz vollkommen traue."



had exactly the same abnormal
tion of three lines.

size as the

burned biicks of the pavement below the

ziggui-rat and, in addition, although

unbaked, bore N'aram-Sin's usual stamped inscrip-



are dark gray in color, firm in texture and of regular form.
later king, constituting

In quality they are unsurpassed by the work of any


far the



and tenacious mass of unbaked brick that we have ever attempted to cut





number of "


and hollow terra-cotta cones

in great

variety of form and color,"

and many fragments of water spouts were found

in the

debris at the bottom of the decaying wall.


former, as in Erech,'' were used for

decoration, the latter apparently for the drainage of the rampart.^

Possibly there

were buildings of some kind on the spacious and airy summit of the
nothing points definitely to their previous existence.




10.75 m. wide.

have summarized the details of Haynes's report, according to which the original base was c. 5 m. high and " Directly upon this foundation Naram-Sin began to build his wall, 10.75 m. wide and six courses
to us, the builder


For some reason unknown


his plan at this point

and widened the wall by an addition




in thickness to the inner face of the wall,

making the

entire thickness or width of the wall

13.75 m.

This addition, like the original foundation, was built of worked clay mixed with cut straw, and from the clay bed was


to the top of the

moulded brick




new and wider




m. high by

c. 13.7.)

m. wide.
attest his


new and widened

base a


wall of equal width was built

by Naram-Sin, whose stamped bricks
10.75 m. wide, there

to its

In the construction of the original base,

5 m. high

nothing to furnish a clue

authorship " (Report of August


In the same letter

Ilaynes argues very plausibly, as follows


the superstructure been built upon the original base, as
ture from

was begun,

would naturally appear that the entire structhe proportions of the wall,

foundation was


work of NaramSin


yet because

NaiamSin changed
to build


with some show of reason be assumed that NaramSin himself began

upon the foundation of a prede-

cessor, perhaps of his father Sargon,

with the intention of completing the original design, and that his


ideas then

' I

to fix

upon a

different or at least


a larger plan requiring a wider base to build upon."


afraid Niebuhr's use of " politisch

" und " glaubhaft " as two corresponding terms


very " unhistorisch."
as a historical doc-

Apparently he has a very curious conception of the significance of an inscribed Babylonian brick

ument over
tion, p. 626,
' *

against the "political inscriptions " too often subjectively colored.


Maspero, The


of Vimliza-



I agree.

Carl Niebuhr,

c. p. 75.

Haynes, Report of Sept.


'"Red and
27, 1895).

black color are abundant.

The hollow cones

are of larger size than the solid

cones" (Repoit of July

«Cf. Loftus,


c. p. 187ff.

doubtful whether the cones and spouts belonged to


Sin's or Ur-Gui's structure


the water spouts

point to the time of the former, however.

'Ilaynes inclines strongly to the view that there



of rooms flush with the outer face of the wall,
3, 189.j).

and a broad terrace before them overlooking the great enclosure" (Report of Aug.

This view






construction of so gigantic a fortification

by Naram-Sin proves



importance of Nippiir at an early time, and reveals, in
ious influence which


peculiar way, the relig-


exercised in the ancient history of the country.

A number

of scattered references in the oldest cuneiform inscriptions extant
that the supreme god of Lagash
Tello,^ that



the fact




by several kings and governors of
that Urukagina' as well as

Edingiranagin' bears the

mupadx Inlila-ge,



built a shrine to Inlil, that the rulers of Kish,^ Erech"


of other early

Babylonian centres,' who lived about the period of the kings of Shirpurla, paid their
respect to B31, repeatedly

making valuable


and numerous endowments, and

claimed as im'esi gal Inlila

the right of chief officer in his sanctuary and domain

and the interesting passage

in the bilingual text

of the creation story,' where Nippur
find a

seems to be regarded as the oldest city of Babylonia,
the results obtained by our systematic excavations.

welcome confirmation



comparatively small portion of the enormous temple area has so far been thor-

ouo'hly examined, although for

more than


years the constant hard lab:)r of fifty to
to its exploration.

four hundred Arabic

workmen has been devoted




already been extra oidi nary



become more so when our work

shall be


That no independent buildings of Sargon have as yet been discovered will be The huge number of Sarpartly explained in the light of the statement just made.
gon's brick stamps^" excavated at different times chiefly within the temple enclosure,
connected wilh his theory as to the use of the court, aboye referred


" In a hot country, infested with robbers and


willi insects, the

rooms on


wall and the terrace in front of them would have offered admirable sleeping

quarters for the hosts of pilgrims at Bel's most famous shriue (ibidem)."

E. g


by Urulcagina [De Sarzec, Decouvertes
Amiaud, on






(cf. p. 109f.), col. I,




PI. 5,


2f. (also

XXX)], Euaiiatiiina I

[inscription published

by Heuzey


Revue d'Assyriologie
p. 148,

III, p.




Eutcmeiia [De

c, PI. 31, No.

3, col. I,


and Revue

d' Assi/riologie II,

col. I,


Enanatiiiua II [De
" 8 *

c, PI.



4, 2].

De De De





PI. 31,


2, col. I, 5f. (cf.


d' Assyriologie II, p. 81).



PI. 5, No.



PI. 33, col. Ill,






col. Ill, 7-9.

Sarzec in


d' Assyriologie II, p. 149, col.

IV, 4-7 (to be supplemented by


Saizec, Decouvertes, pas-

sages quoted in the preceding note).

Hilprecht, Old Babylonian TuscripHons, Part II, PI. 43, No.


Cf. PI. 40,

No. 108.



Pis. 38-42,



B. g.. Ur, cf.



c. Pis.

No. 85


PI. 42,

No. 88 and No.


Cf. also PI. 42,

No. 90


PI. 43,

Nos. 9 If.


Cf. Hilprecht,


c, PI. 38, No. 87, col.




in Records of the Pasf, Vol. Vf, p. 109, 6.

than eighteen (either whole or fragmentary) terracotta stamps have been unearthed, seven of them

within one fortnight

December, 1895.

Most of them are without handles.

Apparently several broke while



Sargon's lime and were then thrown away.

Otheis were doubtless broken intentionally

connection with the

disastrous event meotioncd below, p. 30.




stamped bricks found under the platform of Ur-Gur, and the regular



Btl in Nifjmv occurring

in all his inscriptions


IS'ufFar' indicate

important structures, similar to those of his son, must have existed
these high and extended accumulations.
ular spot have


some part

the bricks of

we to search for them ? And Ur-Gur lie directly upon the

The perplexing question is, at which particshall we ever really find them? Just as splendid structure of Naram-Sin in the
"the great crude brick platform of Ur-Gur's
This fact

large enclosing wall {Nimit-Marduli), so

ziggurrat practically rests upon Naram-Sin's pavement."^

of importance,

we draw the

natural conclusion from




the buildings that once stood upon

this latter

pavement were razed by Ur-Gur,

in order to obtain a level


for his

own extended

brick pavement, which served as the

new foundation


The average accumulations of

debris above the

pavement of Naram-Sin measure

over 11 m. in height and cover about 4000 years of Babylonian history.


any traces of an
found in Nuffar?

temple beneath the pavement of the Sargon dynasty been

Several sections on the S.-E. side of the ziggurrat have been exca-

vated by Mr. Ilaynes


to the water




therefore fully prepared to


the following statement, which will sound almost like a faiiy tale in the ears of Assyriologists

and historians who have been accustomed to regard the kingdom of Sargon

as legendaiy and the person of


as the


limit of our

knowledge of

ancient Babylonian history.

preserved drains,

The accumulations oi debris from ruined buildings, partly broken pottery and many other remnants of human civilization

between Naram-Sin's platform and the virgin

below, are not less than 9.25 m.

age of these niins and what they contain can only be conjectured at the present

'The fragment of the

Sargon hrick excavated



at the

beginning of 1894


published on PI. XXI,

proves that Sargon did not only stamp his legend upon the bricks but sometimes wrote

For a stamped





Written ha

QIM^ (bo)bani or
example of

(ba-)ban, in other

words expressed by an ideogram and preceding phonetic comCf. Ililprecht, Assyriaca, p. 70, note (end).

plement (the



kind in Semitic cuneiform texts).


for this peculiar use of a phonetic

complement are extremely



will be

found in Assyriaea, Part


Pis. 1-3, Nop. 1-3.


Haynes, Report of Aug.



In advance





who seem


know Babylonian chronology
in their

better (?!) than

KingNabonidos of Babylon, not

to use this fact against the king's

3200 years, and to keep in mind

that also Ur-Gur,

Kadashman-Turgu and.Ashurbanapal follow each other immediately


at the ziggurrat.


illustrate the

amount of

time, patience

and labor needed
m. and

for the systematic exploration of these lowest strata,


be mentioned that one of the sections excavated contained

"more than

60,000 cubic feet " of earth, which had

to be carried


in basketfuls a distance of 120

at the

same time

to be raised to a height of 1.5-24

m. Ilaynes,

Report of Oct.


5 cm. 1895). below the top was a low wall of bricks. stood an altar of sun-dried brick." being placed upward in the wall. 'Report of August • Wliich was 0. • Undisturbed by the hands of later in TJie builders. corner of the ziggur- The bricks of which this curb was built are j^lano- convex in form. Peters. below its bottom stood a large open vase It will serve as with rope pattern'" (cf. pp.02 m. 18C4 (alto Aug. wide. • "Being placed lengthwise and crosswise in alternate courses" (llaynes. thick). the pavement of Karam-Sin.' and reappeared under the W. Haynes. for " it extended far under the pavement of Naram-Sin rat. ' " 3. a distance of 4. . Cf. No. outside of this low enclosure and in terra-cotta c. 31 and 44. 1894. OLD BABYLONIAN INSCUIPTIOXS But as no evidence of an ancient ziggurrat previous to Ur-Gur and Naramfinal destruction Sin has been discovered. and was covered with a layer of white ashes (G. 2 Report of August 30. 21. doubtless the remnant of burned sacrifices. Hayncs's cbcmical analysis of the while ashes showed evident traces of bones."^ Somewhat below by 2. the accumulations must have necessarily been slower and presuppose a longer period than elapsed between Naram-Sin and the of Ekur in the first post-Christian millennium. 30 cm. high). 'Tlie facts concerning this curb have been gathered from Haynes's Reports of Feb. of it Haynes discovered a kind of bin built of crude brick and likewise filled with (black and white) ashes to the it) depth of c. At T2). it had remained A similar conclusion was reached by Peters 1895. 189'1). pp. below the level of NaramSin's pavement.24 time.C."^ " golden age of Babylonian history seems to include the reign of Sargon and of The Ur- Gur. and 4 m. to date the founding of the temple of B31 and the settlements in I cannot Nippur somewhere between 6000 and 7000 B. 24. 1895.-"W. American Journal of Archaology X. c. 1895. ' Hajnes.-E. Wilh an average length and breadth of 24. PI. corner.5 X 18 cm. from the altar (in front of and 1. 3. 36 cm.^ At it a distance of nearly 2 m. facing S.23 m. 17 and March 17.) high. 17. whose limits have not yet been found. XXVIT.4G m.* is They are laid in mud seven coui-scs (= 45 cm. between the entrance to the zig- gurrat and the E. written out of the depth of this most ancient sanctuary of the : world so far known " We must cease to apply the adjective earliest to the time of his Sargon or to any age or epoch within 1000 years of advanced civilization. The American Journal of Archaology X.92 m. 1895. in the fifth an excellent specimen of early Babylonian pottery millennium before Christ. Report »» of March 17. Aug. which " curiously creased lengthwise./ possibly even llaynes' earlier. Report of Aug. therefoi-e. do better than repeat own words." the convex surface. Rcpoit of Feb. long The upper surface of this altar ^ was sun-ounded by a rim of bitumen (18 cm. Apparently mai'ked a sacred enclosure around the altar. first I do not hesitate. To the S. 45f.

its ' la the form of a large jar. below the l!^'aram-Sin." II. in There its is little my mind that both vases. high. p. 'The following facts have been g. "Thoroughly mixed with finely cut straw and well kneaded. 7 m. stood another interesting structure.CHIEFLY FROM in its original upright position for JSTIPPUR. 13. below the pavement of and 1.. XXVIII.HI side and on a level with its foundation.57 m. its Naram-Sin's rampart. which exhibit no trace of a door or opaning of any kind. Report of Aug. 4. . To the S.05 m. ^ A Hittory of Art in. 20.33 m. below the foundations of the aforesaid building.^ 7 m." has been definitely decided by the American expedition in favor of ancient Chaldsea. and it was buried under a fortified the mass of earth and dehris long before Sargon I was born and ISTaram-Sin temple of Nippur. and a rise of 38 cm. corner of Ur-Gur's ziggnrrat and immediately below the pavement of Naram-Sin. ' The arch is 71 cm. Another section of earth adjoining the excavation which had yielded these remarkable results was removed by Haynes. 1895. . are made of large unbaked bricks of tenacious clay ' somewhat smaller in size than those of this building. 24.-E. of the altar described above. below the former and neai-ly double the distance from the ancient brick curb. While examining the surroundings of His curiosity was aroused Haynes found ten basketfuls of archaic water vents and fragments thereof on S. on it. " with a symmatrical and double reentrant angle at northern corner and built up solidly like a tower. The bottom of level of this valuable witness of pre-Sargonic civilization" was c.-B. 1895). one behind the other as one approached served some common purpose in con- nection with the temple service at the pre-Sargonic time. 12.^ A second vase of similar size but different doubt side. ' below the level of NaramSin's pavement. Nov. Chaldcea and Assyria. Nov. 'Haynes. Cf PI. at once.' It is its 3 38 m.25 m. It stood 3. and after a terra-cotta vents brief search underneath the spot where the greatest number of these and cocks had been gathered. square. March 3. 234. 1894 Jan.-S. diameter in the centre being larger than that at the top (Elaynes. Vol. pattern^ was discovered 77 cm. The question once asked by Perrot and Chipiez" and answered by them with a "probably not. which stood in front of the altar. Reports of Oct. 24. and has a span of 51 cm. 1894. almost exactly under the E. Ur-Gur's crude brick platform.ithered from Elaynes's Reports of Oct. 25 more than GOOO years. high. At known its outer or discharging orifics hs found the most ancient keystone ai-ch yet in the history of architecture. below the pavement of Naram-Sin. S. elliptical in form. *Its foundations are tlierefore 3. he came upon a drain which extended obliquely under the entire breadth of this edifice. 24." Its splendid walls. 13.

Another was below NaiamSiu's pavement (Report of Sept. 189j). Fig. p. of excavation. For the wall this arcli is placed was built of the same sun-dried bricks which compose this the body of the ziggurrat (Haynes. the two large vases and the massive building. In all probability it dates back to Ur-Gur's period. the buildings and objects described above were carried down to the virgin removed in their where water stopped our progress. am therefore disposed to assign to the tower-like building. 21. side of the canal bed. bearing at another place ' human figures in relief upon their surface. is was found. " probably from the unequal pressure it. From the depUi in which was discovered. 229.- An abundance of fragments of red and black lacquered liigli A kind of pointetl arch of unlinked brick (60 cm. and 48 cm. from them has not j'ct been excavated. side of The lowest strata did not furnish any ti-easures similar to those found in the upper layers they showed a large proportion of black ashes and fine charcoal mingled with earth. above the and as the section S. be correct or not. stood 77 cm. . The it is diffei'ence between them othei-. however. bronze and terra-cotta vessels. highly probable that a third vase stood at some this distance below the second. W.). Tor the general form of pointed arch Perrot and Chipiiz. A third neighborhood yielded similar But it is impossible to enumerate in detail all the antiquities which were nncovei-cd below the S. Reports of April 27. plano-convex in shape.26 OLD BABYLONIAN INSCRirTIONS 73. results. the character of which still shrouded in mys- The keystone arch and drain. I." Whether ancient arch the altar. is As the highest vase.^ No.5 m. of the settling mass above which had been drenched with rain water. and in it is all probability a good deal older. the bottom of the lower vase and the foundation of the massive build- ing were not on the same level. A few months after discovery the arch was forced out of shape. 14. reasoned correctly that was older than 2000 B.C.. wide at tlie bottom) was found by llaynes in it mound X (cf. on the other hand. Accoiding to my calculations and our latest news from the nearly 0. 189. c. I determined that it must have existed at the time of the dynasty of Isin in 2500 B. . PI. 92. especially fragments of copper. but they also produced many smaller objects of great interest and the ziggurrat. laid in clay mortar. Sai-gon I. at a 'One of Ibem was found discovered 7.5).44 m. are doubtless of a higher antiquity. the convex side being turned upward. 1895). of the lowest trace of civilization (Haynes. Dec. Whether the 3200 ^-ears given by Nabonidos as the period which elapsed between his own government and that of altar.C. under which the original connection with each other. had any at present field impossible to prove. value. XV). facts obtained However may be. cf. all The two section sections which contained soil. so much we can I is infer from the even now. of the arch. below the pavement of Naiiim-Sin and 2. and its The bricks of which it is constructed are well baked. lower than the bottom 7. which Prom the inscribed objects excavated in connection with (c. Report of Sept. ra. Several pieces of baked clay steles. the to the elevated enclosure around the solitary altar. the arch cannot be placed lower than 4000 B. within about 2 m. same age as the curb and vases. that an inclined passage from the plain led alongside the two vases tery. Haynes it. will be treated and time.C.-E. on the it S.70 depth of 7 m.-E.

23 cm. " was color " (Report of Sept. literally filled with potsherds of small size and generally brick red in . below the pavement of ISTararaSin. will clear our views on the devel- opment of pottery in Babylonia. high.G m." The stratum whicli produced this vase. to 8 m. them to the influence of Greek art.CHIEFLY FROM NIPPUR." are at the best and that these two powei-ful before Christ. and near to a perpendicular let from the E. they again have brought vividly and impressively before our eyes the one fact that Babylonian civilization did not spring into existence as a deus ex lies machina^ that behind Sargon I and Naram-Sin there ering thousands of years .^ "Had these pieces been found in the higher strata.40 m. and will throw some welcome rays on one of the darkest periods of history in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates. was found 7. But first of all. below this pavement "directly beneath the line fall of the very ancient curb." For they of great excellence and in quality far superior to those found in the strata subsequent to the period of Ur-Gur. as a rule. according to Haynes. 27 pottery was discovered at a depth of 4. corner of the altar. one would unhesitatingly origin. ' A vase of ordinary gray pottery. or at least ascribe declare them of Greek are. 1895). 14. far from leading us back to " the dawn of but two prominent figures from a middle chapter of the early history of Babylonia. The results of our excavations in the deepest strata of Ekur will change the cur- rent theory on the origin and antiquity of the arch. a long and uninterrupted chain of development covrulers of the fourth millennium civilization.

of the zig- Haynes discovered recently a room 11 m. Report of Dec. com- bined with lished much sacrifice of the eyesight. . all it antiquities of Sargon and his may at first seem strange that nearly of them were discovered out of place. 'Stamped bricks being excluded. between the facing of the latter and the great fortified wall which surrounded the temple. 1 pavement of Ur-Gur. side of the ziggurrat. high. while platform.54 m." and yet it was made of the same bricks which coinpose the gurrat. 14. this The apparent relation in will which stratum stands to a peculiar building in its immediate neighborhood furnish the key to the problem. above the platfoi-m of Ur-Gur. must be ascribed to this early phase of Babylo- nian history.-E. the mass of them was broken and evidently broken and scattered around on purpose. wide and 2. small that during the last three years it Most of the fragments are so needed my whole energy and patience. stairway or other perishable passage from above. 36-42). Directly below the great fortification wall of the temple to the S.28 OLD BABYLONIAN INSCKIPTIONS II. more Almost these we will easily find the explanation of this remarkable monuments that. AN ANCIENT TEMPLE ARCHIVE. to restore the important inscriptions pub- on the following pages (particularly Pis. It showed nowhere a door or entrance in its unbroken walls. and there can be no doubt "that the room was a vault entered by means of a ladder. dence and for various other reasons. long.^ were found in a stratum on the S. THE INSCRIBED MONUMENTS OF SARGON'S PREDECESSORS." This structure " was erected on the level of Naram-Sin's j)avement. above this Few of the objects found were whole. 1895.-E. •Cf. » Haynes. 3.60 m. on the basis of strong pala^ographic eviclosely." ' reaches a height of m. " In some places in other places it it lies directly upon the crude brick c. details all But if we examine the fact. Although more than 500' mostly fragmentary predecessors have been excavated in Nuffar. This stratum varies in thickness. proof below. Mr.

'Ilaynes. high in their present ruined condition. note 2. however. 1893). lieight of its walls agrees was discovered by de Sarzec. antedate Sai-gon. 14." the original use of which is still unknown (Report of Dec 14. In the midst of this lower chamber was "a hemispheri- cal basin of pottery set in a rim of stone. it lies wholly below the level of Naram-Sin's platform. at the same time widening the space between its two longer walls. 1895). the principal enemies of Babylonian sun-dried brick structures. In the lower vault (Haynes. p. is only 2. consisted of crude bricks capped ' This ledge existed in both chambers. It can be easily proved that " underground building was the ancient storeroom 0. wide. this cellar.75 m. he also raised the walls of the old chamber to the height of his (3) new platform. And finally a similar room etc. 21. ' * Haynes. together with the yearly rains. Report of Dec.000 clay tabin a lying within lets. or archive of the temple.15 m. had ruined the vault'* dation afterwards and laid it —he changed its foun- on a higher level. size. this theory it *0n can be easily explained why a few tablets were found on the ledge of the lower room and brick stamps without handles were discovered on the floor of the same room. 'The '•'It with the distance between the tops of Ur-Gur's and Naram-Sin's platforms. 18D5). 1894. In its present form this lower cellar cannot. Fiom the fact that the bricks of both rooms are identical "in ' form and sreneral appearance. 14. 189o. deep. body of Ur-Gur's ziggiirrat 29 By the be explained? simple assertion.CHIEFLY FKOM NIPPUR. cylinders."' and five fragments were found on its walls. above tlie floor extended around the room. 31."' A ledge wide and 0. It was built up with the walls and by a layer of burned bricks (Report of Dec. smaller- room of exactly the same construction and material below later vault Separated from the by a layer of earth and dchris 60 cm. serving as a shelf *' for the storage of objects in due form and A ciicular clay tablet together with two small tablets of the ordinary form it. entirely order. as indicated by the piesence of his stamp below the level of his dynasty. suggested already by the absence of a door in the walls of the is and platform. 1895. Cf. it is clear that The was built by king himself Our interest in the unearthed building is still increased by the discovery of another it. Report of Dec. statues.. 20. Report of Dec. filled inscribed pebbles.* (2) Ur-Gur found and used bricks. this c. nor was it built by this king himself or by his immediate successor.5 m. a cellar reaching from the top of Ur-Gur's access from above being this platform on the down Ur-Gur to the level of Naram-Sin's pavement." and that a brick stamp of Sargon was discovered beneath the founda- tions of the lower walls. we draw the following conclusions : (1) At the time of Sargon but rebuilt it a cellar existed at this very spot. For some unknown reason —probably because the jjressure of the neighboring temple fortifications from above. How this discrepancy to building. entirely with his own And as he raised the foundation of his ziggurrat far above the old level. and the walls are 92 cm. .^ the vault level. above. that the room was underground. and five brick stamps without handles were with about 30.

As no document later than his time has been rescued from this stratum. It is therefore clear that the destruction of the vases." 'The thievish Arabs seem to have scattered their rich harvest everywhere." p. third millennium before and indications Nearly in the all the objects above referred to were excavated from a well-defined stratum neighborhood of this storeroom." That the archive could not have been defrom a study of the general his- stroyed in the brief interval between Ur-Ninib and Bur-Sin II. 13. 65-68. 47 (No. Three of the rulers of the dynasty of Isin temple of Nippur. niais voisins I'un de I'autre. p. PI. Cf. however scanty our sources. did not antedate Ur-Ninib's government. presented to Bel many by Lugal-kigub-nidudu. Heuzey. 127. note 1. Europe and p. pp. Part I. regulierement superposees sur cinq six rangs d'epaisseur. note 3). Les galeries formaient deux groupes distincts. f. Bur-Sin II and Gimil (Krit)-Sin" ' in particular. The description of Ihis archive may find a place here " Ces plaquettes de terre cuite. The archive existed however as late as the second dynasty of Ur. pp. 3.: 30 small OLD BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS mound at Tello. The mention of the devastation of Shashru on this Tello tablet is only of secondary importance in itself. They all come from l(i. p. 21. 'Cf. except door-sockets in diorite. "Table of Contents. I and Part Cf. and of the history of the city of Nip- pur at the time of Ine-Sin.^ and this an inscribed brick of Ur-Ninib was found among the fragments recovered from stratum. as the same event II follows "That Giniil-Sin was the diiect successor of Bur-Sin from . Ililprecht. and tliat Ine-Sin was the immediate predecessor of Bur-Sin was inferred by Scheil from a contract tablet {Recueil XVII. No. 87 and above. etc. were whole.. always remain a serious loss to science that the contents of the archive of Tello could not have been saved and kept together. 38.^ by which the but it true character of our building is determined bein finding yond question. remplissaient des galeries ^iroites. to So far. 10. The French explorer was more fortunate than Mr.000 me for sale by dealers of Asia. For Burcenturies it Sin II wrote his before name on an unhewn block of diorite. I have examined about 3000 of these tablets myself. Cf. se coupant a angle droit. Bur-Sin II repeated only what had been done by 1). and from the extraordinarily small size of most fragments." p. No. and below. 2. conslruites en briques cms et garnies des deux coles de banquettes. so that the latter might have rescued his block from the ruins. From the position in which they were found. "Table of Contents. as I infer from the following facts 1. long before. as previously stated. Recent Research in Bible Lands. 80.' The vault of Nippur had been robbed by barbaiians of the Christ. Part I. *For the proof Sargon of this statement cf. and turned into a door-socket for his own shrine in Nippur. PI. 58. from the fact that none. brick stamps. Haynes will his archive undisturbed. results tory of that period. Retue d'Auyriologie : III. But not less than c. 49. below. it is also manifest that the deplorable disaster occurred not too long after the overthrow of his dynasty. I. a pre-Sargonic' king of Ur and Erech. it becomes evident that the contents of built at the the archive were broken and scattered intentionally. sur lesquelles s'etendaient d'aulre couches de seuiblables monuments. have been offered Tello. chamber excavated ou All the in Tello Cf. America within the ' last year.

on 125. 21. resp. No. 4. 137. Assyrisches IJandicorterbucfi. Obv. kashid (cf. No. 58. 55. 127. ity under their government.'' LnluM'. 31 three kings mentioned devoted their attention to the interests of InHl and Ninlil and other gods won-hiped in l^ippiir." The king may have conquered two countries far distant from each other in the _ same year. 6). 38) draws the conclusion that "Sinuiru setrouvait done dans Tiiis assertion is by no means proven. PI." Notwithstanding that Homniel (Aus der babylonitchen Altertumskunde. 9). 18-20. Obv. In connection with Anslian may be mentioned that Sclieil in liecueil XVII. No. "to take a wife. Anshan married a daughter of the king {lug = alhzu. °P1. PI. 55. 37 (beginning). Rev. 4." this If the king accomplished something worth mentioning in the year of his accession. 127. 127. From the fact that Simurru and LuluhuaTe here mentioned les together. and in all probability not more than is sixteen to eighteen That the events mentioned on the two tablets are arranged chronologically. p. MwH^ffirQijnU. No. 4. 3.^ and from the large number of dated conti-acts discovered in Tello.dingirSin lugal Drumki-mage mada Zaap-shalV'i mugul-a "In the year when (Gimil-Sin became king and ' =) King Gimil-Sin brought evil upon the land of Zapshali. resp. Rev. I on the ground that there no evidence that ancient Babylonia : women were permitted to occupy the highpatesi of est political or religious positions independently. Geschichte identification of and especially WinckUr. 'Cf. 58. 16 f. 15 (between the two similar events event prominent enough to give it its lie twenty-eight years!). Nuffar and other Babylonian mounds. 58. but often separated from each other by other events which occurred between them.. «.' from two chionological (PI. No. Rev. Cf. which grammatically in is p. 127). and PI. opens with "the year which Bur-Sin became king. 58. p. Scheil. Hay. p. 125. (3) As we expect Cf. . resp. 6. p. Rev. in is evident from the many business contracts executed everywhere Babylonia and from certain statements contained in them. I." p. c. p 38 (especially note G). chronological list PI. to marry. it at least forty-one years. in a arranged chronologically. PI. 55. 9: mu dumuaal 7. Rev. 125. 58. such a year Cf.^ Karhar^'. is name. shalilu Kaahuhl) and led to curious conceptions about the land de» Allerthums. 3 and 10 . 5 and Rev. PI. 5 and 11. col. 2. 37. 125. Rev. As. however. For (1) events which happened more than once are quoted in their consecutive order. 12 f ). 37 f. 9) and Sayce The Academy of Sept. Obv. Cf. 4 : deed was added. years. 55. p. 11-12. it IneSin ruled wanting. Anslian''' by Bur-Sin II (e. as we learn from excavated bricks and door-sockets No. No. The concountries of stant references to successful expeditions carried on by Ine-Sin against the and Shashru^'. mdiuAmurri. Amunx 2). No. g. Harshi'''. No. 329. 125. occurred at other times Simurrum'". resp. la fille translated PI. No. PI. lugal pate-si An-sha-anl<l-ge ba-tug by "annee ou du roi devint reject it patesi dans le pays (in d'Anslmn.. But the fact that this conquest is phiccd between BurSin's accession to the tlirone and a very characteristic event at the close of Ine-Sin's govern- ment him. 127). 18-21) settles the question. Scheil (Recueil XVII. Untenuchnngen. 5. 10. 55. I. Eduard Meyer. in BurSin's sixth year. according to the c. (cf. PI. 3 rcsp. 43). 13 Rev. 55." Deliizsch. Rev. in (2) In case a year was not which a list certain event took place (ushsa). 55. memes parages que la oil la stele deZohab fixe lepaysdeLulubi. Rev. No. is 1805. I call attention to Scheil's theory in order to prevent conclusions similar to those titles which for several years were draw n fiom the of Nebuchadrezzar I (col. ' 18 (Ine Sin). 17. far more probable {Au» der hahyUniichen Altertumskunde. Cf. Rev. possible. 9-11 : >//a dauna '«<!'" Lvluli unhamkitu ina kakki. * On a tablet in Constantinople written at the time of Ine Sin. for the present Schcil in Recueil XVII. Rev. note Hommel's Simurru with Simyra in Pheiiicia by . g. a part of is will be safe to assign a reign of 50 years to Bur-Sin II ruled at least twelve years (PI. 13-14. 16-17. p.' That the country as a whole was quiet and enjoyed peace and prosperlists (PI. cliaracterized by an quoted as "joined to" or " following" the previous year in 7-8. and especially Obv. 10 it . also Peters in The American Journal of Arcliaology X. we read the following date : mu Simu-ur-ru-um>^i Lu- lu hu^iba yul. beyond question. and translate "In the year when the cf. CHIEFLY FEOM NIPPUR. 3 (Bur-Sin II). 11 . b) reproduce this translation. is p.

No. 8. that. also Peters in The American Journal of Arclueology X.^ and by Gimil (Krit)-Sin against ZapshaW'''. Syria.. 'Cf. Whatsoever our position may be as meaning of and other impossible dis- titles. but because they owned more than its the old indicated. p.testify to the same effect. 94). room. a number of other tablets which belong to members of the same dynasty. 368). own store- the votive objects published on Pis. XII. and to his previous papers on tlie same subject siue aud aji^ain. lost I of Babylonia (the case of Gudta Thekingsof the second dynasty of Ur changed the tiUe of their title predecessors." <8 (PI. for their own former losses and When the Cassite kings conquered Babylonia. 127. as they did not possess is Sumer and in also lost (I. Babylonia and conquered parts of Arabia. III.. understand meaning— is practically contained in that of " king of the four of quarters of the world " (Part pp. pp.32 OLD BABYLOKIAN INSCRIPTIONS against Urhillum}'. .^ The destruction of the archive under discussion must therefore have taken place between the overthrow of the second ' PI. No. also the statements of the acrei)led two chronological If Winckler's theory as to the seat of the it). 58. wall of the temple of Bel. Akkad 3.enemies they simply retaliated and took revenge 4. and to believe that tricts kings tlie who were the lords of S. mention KimasTi''''. but possessed the whole south proven by their buildings lists). Ur dropped it therefore for As to the meanings of p. 7. Syria. 01)V. entirely. when he assumed the different titles. I. A. 35. The cily of Marhathi (in N. Eridu B. Humurti' and Huhu{nu)ru'''' '^ as devastated or invaded by Babylo- nian armies. Hommel (J. Babylonia. VII. Hommel will doubtless change his view (tliat the kings of the second dynasty of Ur "were apparently confined to this cily. 38. 2) and in Nippur (cf. ira et stiulio again Tiele (Z. I have been unable pp. Cf. why the Elamites soon afterwards of the temples when they defeats. 2 Rev." should not have been entirely diflferenl). GO Nos. 6 . 133- 142. p. 55. I. 15. 15). No. such a terrible havoc and cities of theii. 4. Elam and other between four natural boundaries defined in Part title is p.). Moreover. ' Cf. as a n)atter of fact. 201-243. ff. "). p. note 4. resp. were discovered. 127. the site of the ancient archive chamber was long forgotten and buried under a thick layer of debris. ShasTiru''' and Bite-tar (J)Jvii''. Part I. according to Homrael. was situated at the edge of a branch of the Shatt-cn-Nil outside of the great S. in which all Their f. Obv. p. c. No. Obv. resp. 125. e. No. ••'PI. the kings of the second dynasty of Ur possessed the south of Babylonia. 58. or rather read and studied \m Altorientaliiche Forschungenlll. and who doubtless in consequence of their in the possession conquests assumed the proud all " king of the four quarters of the world. " Table of Contents. Notwithstanding all 8) and I agree differing from Winckler csrecially in interpretation of 8?iar kibrat arba'im and shar riuUuShumeri u because I Akkadi in tlie oldest Babylonian insciiplions down to Hammurabi. s/tarrtiJ kibrat irbitli title was generally (Hommel apparently does not accept the second dynasty of to the Ur by this it is this very would also have claimed N. 14. p.. .. I.-E. A . p.* Several of these cities and districts w^ere situated on the east side of its the Tigi'is and must be sought in Elara and to understand neighboring countries.. c. Obv. 18-27 and Pis. and the kinps of the second dynasty title is same reason as Dungi. 24 f ). not because they had Sumer and Akkad. shar kibrat atba'im (Z. *In view of all these facts above mentioned. now invaded Babylonia made "VVe begin . C8 convince myself of the correctness of his views. Scheil. the the Hommel (whose latest opinion briefly stated in liis Aus der bahylonischen AUertumskunde. they were not confined to Ur. Lchmann {Shamathshumuhin. but cannot yet be referred to definite kings. The title of Sumer and Akkad—as I. 9) is mentioned in con- nection with a daughter of IneSin on PI. That 1.) and I apparently reached similar conclusions on this important question.



dynasty of

Ur and

the beginning of the Cassite rule in Babylonia.


history of the

temple of Bel during this period

enveloped in absolute darkness.



ment of the members of the
been excavated in NufFar.

so-called first

and second Babylonian dynasties has yet

Apparently our temple did not occupy a very prominent

place during their government.

And how


be otherwise


Their rule marks

the period of transition from the ancient central cult of BSl in
rising cult of


to the





Bel had to die that Mardnk might

and take

his place in the religious life of the united country.


the brief renaissance of the

venerable cult of " the father of the gods " under the Cassite sway did not last very
It ceased again as soon as the national uprising

under the dynasty of Pashe

led to the overthrow of the foreign invaders,

who had

extolled the cult of Bel at the

expense of Mai-duk in Babylon,' and to the restoration of Semitic power and influence

Babylonia, until under the Assyrian kings Esarhaddon and xVshurbanapal a last
in the

attempt was made to revive the much neglected temple service

sanctuary of

The breaking and

scattering of the vases point to a foreign invasion and to a

period of great political disturbance in the country.


Babylonian despot, however
in the

toward an ancient


and however unscrupulous

means taken




would have dared to commit such an outrage against the sacred property

of the temple of Bel.

probability therefore the ancient archive

chamber of the

temple was ransacked and destroyed at the time of the Elamitic invasion

2285 B.C.),

when Kudur-Nankhundi and
That which
in the

his hordes laid

hands on the temples of Shumer and Akkad.

eyes of these national enemies of Babylonia appeared most valu;


contents was carried to Susa' and other places

what did not

find favor

with them was smashed and scattered on the temple court adjoining the storehouse.


the remotest time until then apparently most gifts had been scrupulously pre-

served and handed

down from

generation to generation.

Only those movable objects

which broke accidentally
nection with religious

in the regular service, or

which purposely were buried


may be

looked for in the lowest strata of Ekur.

Having explained why
the most ancient documents so far excavated in Nuffar were

found in pieces above the platform of Ur-Gur's ziggurrat, I now proceed to determine
the general age of these antiquities and their relation to the inscriptions of Sargon





pp. 30


'Cf. Parti, p. 31.





Xos. 86-112 have many palaeographic features


common and


belong to the same general period, the precise extent of which cannot be given.
groups, however,



be clearly distinguished within



from each other

principally in the forms used for


(Briinnow, List 1222) and



Instead of the two familiar Old Babylonian characters, in



pairs of parallel

found at or near the middle of the horizontal


sometimes cross each other

(Nos, 92, 5


3 ; 99, 4


101, 3, etc.), while


occasionally has a curved or straight

between the two elements of which

and 5



94, 3).^

composed (No. Ill, 3 and 6 Ko. 98, 2 This peculiar form of dam has so far not been met with outside
it is

of a very limited

number of

inscriptions from JS'ippur; that o£


occurs also on the

barrel cylinder of Urukagina," although in a

more developed


Whenever one

of these characters has

peculiar form in an inscription of Nippur, the other, if

accidentally occurring in the


inscription, also has its peculiar

form as described




94, 3






2 (5) and 3


No. Ill, 3 and


The two


acters represent therefore the

same peiiod

in the history of cuneiform writing, to the

end of which the cylinder of Urukagina also belongs.
definitely fixed.

This period has not yet been

As various historical considerations seemed unfavorable to placing this
Jensen provisionally placed him before them;*

luler after the other kings of Shirpurla,

Heuzey was less




and Winckler" regarded him as



but without giving any reasons, made him " the first in date of the kings of Lagash." ' Aside from the reasons given by Jensen, and a few simipero, without hesitation,

arguments which could be brought forth

in favor

of his theory, the following pala1

ographic evidence proves the chronological arrangement of Jensen and Maspero to



peculiar foi-m of


occurs in inscriptions from Nippur which,
I rt-fer to

if deterKeilschrift,
OG, 4
; ;

Tliis short line,

about the i-ignifJcancc of which


greater woik, Genehichte

und Syttem der
93, 6


oiigiiially curved,

berame then

straight and


later jilaced at the


of the character


12), finally

developing into a

full sized

wedge (De

Sarzeo, iJecouvertes en ChaUee, PI. 26,
is in


1, col. II, 1


in litvue d' Atfyriologie II, p. 79,



13 [a duplicate of this inscription
this line

1 13,




Constantinople], and the

present work. No. 123, Obverse,



entirely omitted (No.





c, PI. 32, col.

col. II, 1, 4, 12

col. Ill, 3, 7.

The foim



more developed



gina's inscription, indicating that the latter

somewhat later than the corresponding Kippiir texts.


the other

^ *

of Urukagina the regular Old ISabylonian form

used exclusively.
1, p. 8.

In Schradcr's KtilinsclirifllicJie Bibliothk, Vol. Ill, Part

Formerly he regarded

hiin as decidedly later than the other kings of




Saizec. Lecouvertes en Challe roi

dee, pp. 110, 112).


recently he expressed himself as doubtful

"II en resulte

Ourou kaghina


etre tenu, soit

pour appartenir a une dynastie anleiieurc a
le titre


II, p.



avoir, apies I'lipparilion

des premiers palesi, relcA^

royal a Sirpourla" {Revue d' Asiyriologie


Getchichte Babylouiens


Jstyriens, pp. 290f.
p. 41.

" OescfiieJite

Dabyloniens und Ani-yrieno,
cf Cimlization,
p. 004.




mined by the character of dam
seiiptions of Tello.

than the royal in-

must be

classified as older

The form of mu employed in Urukagina's cylinder does not occur in any other inscription of Tello. The cylinders are therefore to be regarded as older than the

other monuments,

if it

can be shown that this peculiar form of


represents a


ancient stage of writing
certain lines in

and did not originate from an accidental prolongation of

mu by

a careless

The very pronounced forms cut

iu stone vases (as,

e. g.,

found in Xo. 98, 3

101, 4; 92, 5, and





94, 4) force us to eliminate the element of acci-

But, besides,

can be proved by an analysis of the character


itself that


regular Old Babylonian sign

only a later historical development of a more ancient


corieet interpretation of the original picture will, at the


time, enable

us to catch an interesting glimpse of certain prehistoric conditions in ancient Shumar.


to Houghton,'^ a close relation exists

between the character





c, 2014)

and the


part of the character for




I trust

no Assyriologist of recent date has ever taken
problem very

attempt at solving a palasogi-aphic



The sign for nim has no connection with the other two charno compound ideogram, but, in its original form, represents a flying bird
Since in Babylonia, as iu other countries of the ancient world, the

with a long neck.*



by observing the


of birds, this picture became the regular

ideogram for " fate, destiny " {shhnhi) in Assyrian.
the other hand,


original picture for mu,



bird, but

an arrow whose head foi'merly pointed downward, and
or symbols of crossed lines as are
in the religious

whose cane

shaft bears the

same primitive marks

characteristic of the

most ancient form of arrow used

ceremonies of

the N^oi-th American Indians.'^


the shaft

was represented by a

single line in

Babyforms of

This argument


conclusive, as


theory, according to

later writers occ.isionally imitate older

cuneiform (or linear) characters,

in the sense generally

understood by Assyriologists,

without any foundation and




facts of IJahylonian







pp. 12f.

Jensen's hesitation, so far as founded upon the form of the character ka, can be abandoned, as the form of this


surely far older than Gudea.
the Society of Biblical Archceology Vf, pp. 4G4f.
in the inscriptions of Tello in existence,

"In the 7'ransaclions of

becomes evident from a study of the oldest forms
(or was) in

and Nippur.



is still

found on the most ancient Babylonian document
It is

unfortunately scarcely


possession of Dr. A. Blau and



by Dr.

known among W. Hayes Ward in the
no "swallow" (Ilom-

Proceedin.g» nf the American, Oriental Society, October, 1885.


bird represented


mel, Smnerische Lesestucke, p.




but a large bird with a long neck, such as a goose or a similar



found on the Babylonian swamps.
as the flying bird

Later our picture was also used as the idiiogram for "swallow," designating her


excellence, as the bird nearly



motion when seen at day time.



learned through the courtesy of Mr. Frank Hamilton Gushing of the Bureau of American Ethnology in

the Smithsonian Inst'.luiion at Washington.

After a correspondence on this subject


became evident


we had

become therefore conclusive the original form of the character mu. The crossed lines on the Indian arrows have a deep religious significance. Korean Oamen. therefore. destiny. The correctness of this explanation assured by the otherwise inexplicable absence of an impossible to conceive that a people Ideogram for ussu. Ciishing's own investigations and long resi- dence among in regard to tribes still practice many of the ancient primitive I rites and customs. we find. if they have to afB. growing abundantly along tlie marshes and canals of lower Babylonia. 90. pp. Brinlou and Mr. 92. " arrow. in order to express the abstract idea of " fate. it is From palaographic and other considerations therefore certain that Urukagina lived before the ancient kings of Shirpuria. . role in the daily life is it which played such a conspicuous ancient nations in general. with whom "the arrow " is the symbol of personality. They all show so many pahvographic features in bolh reached common that they must be classified as an inseparable group. ^Gf on this whole subject Gulin. the original " surface had to be drawn across it. 'Because made of bulrushes. 111 are still older than Urukagina. fiom which. ' is in press. corroborated by Mr. and religious ceremonies of But how to be explained that our ideogram does not in mean "arrow" writing proper at all. 98. Gushing. using the bow in their system of writing should have altogether excluded the arrow.^ their names documents. To Prof. while the inscriptions published in the present work as Nos. by short- ening the crossed lines. Instead of J=' j^ J^. My arguinents." so the arrow with the marks or symbols of ownership (originally two crossing lines ') carved on the shaft became the regular association of ideas led to exactly ideogram for " personality " or " name. according to Gushing./o{ / . 101." the The same same symbolism and usage among the North American Indians. 99. . in piclure To the tlie fame conclusions which as to the oldest form and significance of the arrow writing by pursuing entirely different lines of research." It becomes now very evident that the Babylonian seal-cylinder. Stuan Culiii I am indebted for recent information on this subject." in Assyrian. by Mr. but signifies "name?" Just as the picture of a flying bird its was used exclusively with reference to religious significance. Still used with the same significance to legal in Europe and America by persons who cannot write. has developed out of the hollow' figures. 94. however. quote from Mr.36 OLD BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS mark carved upon its Ionian writing. 91. The interval between him and the following rulers of Tello who style themselves " kings " cannot have been very great. with shaft of an arrow its peculiar shape and use. A treatise on the ceremonial use of the arrow among the Indians. of all the other arrows used in their religious ceremonies). marked with symbols and artistic and is but a continuation and elaboration in a more form of an ancient primitive idea. Cushing's letter the interesting fact that the above drawn arrow with two pairs of crossing lines on its shaft is called by the Zuni a'thlua "speeder (commander) of all " (namely. XXIf. Dr. the regular form is —^^^—^ For it is developed at a later time.

with the same sign used by Urukagina. Edingiranagin. col. Ui--Nina. it 'Except of course his barrel cylinder. col.' two as I or more characters who ancient inscriptions the limited In Uicse quotations. 29. col. II. 8 (Var. 115. No. Cf 110. 3. Characteristic signs are identical in these I^ippur and Tello inscriptions. They show certain peculiarities in the script. 7. e. 115. c. 10. IV. 9. col. ma. 87. IS'o. col. Enanatuma I. first three mentioned. I. II. especially with the rt. with the same sign in the Ur-Nina and Edingiranagin . 33. . col. 12. II. col. 3 and 4 . I. I. 80. 17 difi'erent 29 (/^).'' Ur-Nina and Edino.Kts of Edingiranagin a. PI. col. now appears attached to the separating ai"e Sometimes characters 87. as * was inscribed with a (De Sarzec. 3.. 130. No. col. 2.) with Entemena (No. 2. 2. Ill. shall abslain from giving the exact passages. passim. Sarzec. a (ID). col. also the present work. 87. 5. III. 'Also used by NaramSin. shu. expect that everybody examines my arguments my of Telle before. No. col. 5. cf. 5). II. 37 (cf No. 10. and to of pages here at made himself familiar with the paheography and contents of the most those who have not done so. col. with the same sign used by Urukagina. Rctue d'AsI syriologie II. 10. col. 87. which has cuneiform characters. col. No. 37 if not all.: . in fact for those I do not write. 2. 18. b. same time. Enanatuma II. col. col. lOG. 0. 102. col.). 3. 3. No.^ ban. 5. col. 36 (mv). Ill. . 8 f e. same age doubtless belong most. col. 20. Edingiranagin. Cf No. 2. col. 4) . 9. Entemena. with the sign used by Ur-Nina. Entemena. Edingiranagin. 1-3. No. ' 87. 4. p. etc. 3G-i7 (No. I. 1. No. No. col. etc ). I. col.. with the same sign used by Urukagina. 41 (Var. Urukagina I.. 37.. to the right or arating lines at the {lo). I. 84. 46. Endigiranagin . col.). 3. which so far have been observed only in the most ancient texts of Tello: (1) Lines of linear signs running parallel to a separating line (marking columns and other divisions) frequently fall together line with this latter so that the character above. No. gish. I shall prove my theory in detail by the following arguments Pateographically they exhibit most important points of contact with Uruka- gina. Frag. 40 ff. 147. 88. 31. 87. Edingiranagin (De Sarzec. col. Edingiranagin. 86. 4 f.Nina. col.Revue . If. (\ (/. A. thus attached to two sep(Jen). Xo. II. 4. 4. c . Enanatuma I. No. No. 1 f e. For this pahieographic peculiarity in the inscriptions of Tello. II. The script is almost entirely linear like that of Urukagina. PI. 2) with the same sign in the te. 6. 6. col. No. col. 112. I. 87.' ma. 3. I. col. 3. Edingiranagin. 112). Edingiranagin da. No. Deeouvertrs. left. 106. cf No. 2 (mti). . 87. I. 104. I do not intend to give introductory lessons in has number disposal. 96. 3. No. p. 1. II. as a rule. stylus. etc. Ur-Nina.lranao:in. and many other characters. 4 110. No. col. etc. Entemena. No. of the other inscriptions published on Pis. texts of . and many others written on (2) In accordance with this principle I fragments of No. I. c . II.. 87. 10. II. 5 {ma). col. 1-4. CHIEFLY PROM NIPPUR.. Entemena (cf. II. 87. Enanatuma I (. 7. 7. 12 9 (shu). I. JI. Ill. below. 4. V.. col. 19. PI. PI. Ur-Nina (De IV. 2. 34 (and Yar ) with Uruwith kagina. Ill. 5) ta. 5. I. the sign used by Ur. 2.

c. Babylonia proper. Ill. 9 (ma-shu). 1-5. 1. 87. "the shepherd having the head of an ox" = "the ox- hcaded shepherd. 6 and 7. forming so-called ligatures. Ill. 29-31 -. (M-gub) . KI-GAL (= 'Col. Ilommel. 3000 years later. Ill It. . go. II. 87. I. e. which remained unidentified Schrader's 376) is such a long time note 4 . Babylonia and low(mi'itu) in lands are equivalent ideas. I. p. col. No 3. IV. Assyriaca. K D. 2"'. Obel. B. 14 f. Kusmologie. 2. 15 .. IT. 1 1. 2 {dam-dumu). and in Schrader's E." an ideogram of Bau or Gula (Briinnow. XV. lietue d'Asnyriologie If. col 1-6.).Orientalistischen Vereina za Berlin. 38. II. cf. 1). I. 2-5. 'No. 217.' On the monuments of Tello this tendency to unite two characters into one is almost entirely confined to the inscriptions of UrNina. Jensen in p. 115-117.. 2 (da-da) cf.. Jensen. 1. 4. e. . 'In a limited measure the same peculiarity occurs in several Assyrian inscriptions. Appirjatly Dr. 176 (Elilprecht. which therefore was called by the oldest inhabitants Ei + e + gi — Eengi. II. Eengi could also be used in a wider sense for " low-lands " general. 1.. p. No. note 11 (_Umunpauddu).. 1887.^ Cf. inapa. 19 (AaZam-ma). 'Cf." a synonym of king. 19. cf. . II. 45 (da-gi.). but that the geographical designation of a well-deflned district.b'lr " the land of canals and reeds.Ulli. IU. col. Scheil in Recueil It XV. The land par with these two characteristic features was Babylonians their own country. II. sUg mu-da-gi-gi. 43. the earliest zec. col. No.. No. 99. read nb {I'A-LU sng-guda-gal. part 1. 7 f.. cf. p.5. 40. I.. and Eiigh<ig>agnna en Eengi. 87. 15-18. »Cf. Betve d'Assyrivlogie »Cf. 20 Var. 5. p. read NA-GA = isAAiu^ life. LM 5410. col. Samerische Leustucke. 63 . Var.' 21 (ha-dag). Ill. the god Shul pa-nd du. No. Amiaud et Mecliineau. No. ^.50. pp 136 f. 31. col. No. deity 55. (ma-na). col. 21. 39 (i7r!/m*-» ma) ). No. PI. 41.' col. 14. p. The same p. etc. Nos. part I. 87. 4 and 5 . of the character sib] '-gal) . «"The No. 123. 87. No. PI. PI. Oppert read Uun-pa-e. 4 f.) For oUier examples of Entemena's text io Uie present work. ina.) . col. 9. PI. 2." col. 3. col. is mentioned No. 115. The to the linear sign composed of (cf. note). 3t. ^Col. Lint 11034. Ilommel. 4. for 4t.5. Salm. The four signs which compose the name are contracted into one large sign. Ill. I. Sumeriaehe Lesesiueke.38 OLD BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS standing in close proximity to each other frequently enter into a combination. according to Jensen. {Nin-dia-dug ) No. 20. e (canal) + gi (reed) and originally denotes a excellence piece of land intersected by canals and covered with reeds No. col. ki nin Unugki ga. 6. p. p. The last character in 1. 5 Var. 3) it it* use in the earliest texts bar Eengi. 13. l<:iianatiiiiia II (De Sarzec. 5. p. G (nada). col. 43. Eilteiiicna (De Sarzec. No. 8(5. Part PI. 1. 147. From this correct etymology of Eengi and 90. c. p. No. 6. against Scheil iu Recueil On P1. has in the ancient inscriptions the two values and ma (for the latter cf . (cf. gi-c/i). Ill. 43. Cf. No. c. however. 9 1. On the value oi dug cf. A d' Assyriologie III. Nina- shu-banda. etc. namti-mu.5. 16. 67. VIII. Jastrow bad not seen a Tello insciiption when he wrote his remark in Z. ganam-yad-shakir-a dim. and the present work. col. which alone have to decide its nuaning (against Winckler is in Milteilungen des Akademisch. is V. example of a regular monogram in the history of writing (De Sarnumber of signs which occurred always" in the same c. 1. A. 12). 34 (ki-ag). Off). 5. 1-5). g. (. 180. II. 4. As. 148. 34 1 (PA (?) [first . (da- gd). and p No. cf also Variants). 33. goddess who destroys life. No.' half 98. IU. 95. Ill. kigalla) ishpu-uk. Nos. nam ti. II. 3 ff . Ill. No. 62 f. follows that the name it does not signify " low-lands " or " Tiefebene " in general in the ancient inscriptions. ^a-6a-(io£?-yj— "unto my life he may add 'PA 'On gal LU sag gud. identical with Biiinnow. I. No. etc. 93. 43. 21. in the inscription of Tiglathpileser I (I 11. I. 39).. col. Hi.* The best illustration is afforded by the writing of the name of his son." (and col. PI. 7 ( Shul-pa) No. 106. 6. 8 (lah-ba. Var. 37. Tableau Compare.

8. ma gishdin. sur des autels ou sur dcs massifs de hriques. Lay (DU-DU dinr/ir = a&a/u "to bring. 27. which Jensen untranslated) answered by leferring him to the Gudea passage just translated. Lesest No." The inscription of the bas-relief published set by Heuzey 2. 7.. XVI. mu na yim—" Gift of the high priest of Ningirsu to it Ningirsu of the temple Euini. 147) and Heuzey Benue d' Assyriologie p. 2bis) which remained obscure to (cf. The 180) analysis of this ideogram by Pinches {Sign List. PI. Nigalnigin. col. (a/t) mamhru-a Z^. This picture illustrates the accompanying statement " Ur-Nina. 3. Sarzec." : 0\^xiexl\n Rtvue d' Assyr- iologie III. c. 11 : f. A. tree. p. (cf. ship of wine he brought from the country which possesses every kind of tree. offers a libation of wine. cf. Heuzey in his treatise mentioned below. . 13. 6. seated and surrounded by his children the chief"). enabled to understand the full significance of Ur-Nina's c. 2. p. note 1).e." nazaiu 5. 3. must therefore be abandoned. e. 1. col. built the his chief butler temple of Nina. The hole the middle of the tablets served to fasten (3) Tlie scenes. The gift of the priest of Ningirsu he brought from . 57 ft". kura-ta. = kaah + din). pait note 6). This picture illustrates tlie and {Sag antug ' he is words standing below the cup. 168-17M). B. Edingiranagin's inscription un- earthed in London (/Voc." perforated has relief (De Sarzec. in cf.. The passage mu-tum (?)— "a ship (laden) with wine he brought from the ccmnlry which posses. p. each of which possesses (in I. t<hirpur-la''-i-shu.) did not servo "a maintcnir dresses. No. 30. however (in (in Becord» of the Fasti III.) or decayed in time (buildings) or died (slaves). p. J c . GISH (not gisal. sanga 10. 39 combination and served to express but one idea or object. (cf.. 2Ws. 3 10. aud Decoueertea en Chaldee.. note ft). Nos. 147. it. (3) Lines of linear signs which run parallel to a separating line are is often omitted. mu m-iu/n— "Magan. and 10. characas well as Oppert (in p. Tcalama " country. 4. brought a ship (laden) with timber aud wine to Shirpurla. For they would have been too small of and weak for such a puipose. PI. pp.— CHIEPLT FROM KIPPUJl.).3) 'Ungi-r Nin gir-su-ka ye. accepted by Delitzsch (Ati>yriiic/if8 nnuluorUrbvch. Amiaud may have read is Meluha. De Sarzec. as to what left Jensen's qiieslicn Sclirader's III. gu gishmu na galla-aan. built the abzu banda Jensen in K. p. V. lag. Dilmun. E-ninhura. and No. 113 ." gisMin^ " wine. 8 9. I. snnga (Briinuow. 76 a p. No.. gishdin zu-zu-n. Sum. objects by the aid of a nail. wrongly read ginh din (notwithstanding the passage from Gudea characters are very diffcrenl from each other !) just quoted. pp. these tablets generally illustrate and describe person and work of the donor in relation to his is Ur Nina's more elaborate votive tablets (of which the smaller only an exceipt." In the lower secliim the same king. "a "to 7. These bas-reliefs and incised slabs the present work. 1893). Bibl Arch. B. But while such donations were consumed in the interest etc. upon his head (exactly as Nabopolatser describes himself his children work. List 5QS0) may.. <>n possibly on the altar itself tiie and inscriptions dcit}'. Nov. I.v et parlic ilieremeiit des masses d'armes volives " (Heuzey. c.. built the temple of Ningirsu. No." note 13). VIII. 4. 87. . reads rather : 1. 13. lines 6 where the two respective as gan (kan) finding the name of Magan gal. to their munificent in these tablets were preserved in the temple as lasting memorials (2) donors and served at the same time to induce other worshipers to similar acts of piety. p.). 9): 6. p. Aingir su-ka. 170) standing immediately before the king). Miiganki. 11.5i. *' ta.. 6 f. No. in wliich it is written in the oldest inscriptions of Tello. 6. No and others.ses every kind of tree. Btriie d' Asfyriologie II. mu-na-taud-dti. king of Shirpurla. PI. col. Cf. PI. 16. 16. 13. I. in the wall or floor of the temple. kur Ni-tagki. Ill." . col to IV. 37 f. IV. II. Ilommel. 3. every kind of B. 3-0. PI. 1. We are now I'l. the symbol of 33. and worked into a . "in his hand. in Let Armoirits Chalde. 'I'no-r : 1. 854. . were regularly contracted at this early time and became compound ideograms. nnesde Sirpouila readu 3. and ters Utnu d' As^riologie II. part 1. Amiaud. 7. leaves no doubt as to its composition -f dii. GAG . Sec. No.. Ililprecht. (^ dupshikhu). I. gu gith in the first line. !). divers engins consaciei aux dieu. 1-3. 9. masons. : cf. 191 f. son of Ill. even if the sign 'The peculiar way (fftV/j not directly connected with this latter.). Les Armovies Chnldeennes de Sirpourla. together with De Saizec. p. accordingly represent two sides of the king's In the upper section he has the dupshig in the present work undertaken surrounded by the service of his god. or Gudea D (De 11. i/elvy-ya'-i. 1 (lower section. col. Jensen (in Schrader's K. g. pp. part 1. Z. -[- 30.j) ura-sha. Gubi. col." not (cf. NingirSM. The true facts are rather these (1) They accompanied donations of the temple service any kind made to the temple. and is and \iagc {Un-nita " at his side "=" page.Q. For examples V." etc. 2Ws. in Ur-Nina's inscriplion (De Sarzec. Ilommel (^Sumerische Lesetivcke. I. up"). the present work. githdin (nie 13. Ouliln. PI.

etc." The sign for s7iesh. 8) an altar. 2 ''". 12. what (originally) was the right Iiand side became (later) the top" (Berlin. PI. its The triangle on the of our picture does not represent the lower end of the stem of a reed. also 1. ture. Berger. c. 1 (reproduced by Aluspero in The Dawn oj Uitilizalion. p. col. liis denotes him who is at somebody's side he who has the same marks of tattooing upon arm. which has been prepa- ration for the last nine years. Second PI. Ill. this peciiliaritj is I. 147. ( De Sarzec. 19 Var. "Rapport sur les tatouages Tunisiens. The way in written in the name of UiuIiagina*(Du Sarztc. those of Urukagina not excepted. II. in col. Y. 3 Yar. an anin al Tome II. Lelinjann {SliainaihishnmnKin. 98." bar coarse rug). (li). III. JI. Ct. custom prevailing the tents of Arabia and Mesopotamia to day. therefore has become his "brother. 1... othei's as characteiistic features of an earlier stage of writing. p. p. 41 Yar.- I confine myself here to a brief statement of the A number of signs have a form representing almost least a the original pic- have at more original form than the iuscriptions from Tello. g. Ur-Nina and Edingiranagin.. I. : first sign. but marks of tattooing (cf. while the loriner expresses tiibal relations represented by a common symbol. e. the corresponding pictures Series. a reed.40 OLD BABTLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS . therefore. 2)." ra {ne. col. Ill. to 'According Oppert {Ixpedition en Mhopotaruie. 34 Var.. show all the characteristic features of the inscriptions of Urukagina. col. 5 Var. {sic!). 501). ou the Assjiian monuments publislied in Layard. (kalama) col. The pala^ographic evidence brought forth is conclusive. I. g. II. 1). But besides they exhibit a number of palaeoda). fuinislies llie key to tlie origin of this peculiariiy. No. 6). 29 (ma).. col. c. 39 : ugawi ' (tic!). c. PI. 37 : la-i\\ {sic!). (da)." denotes a person as the second child of the same family. p. I. col. 87. cf. p. this sign must not be turned to the Hough- ton.. 45. sum (No. 86. . means 'side " {da) . ibid. 21. water poured out. {dingir). 4 Var. 1. 103. 473. p. I. 37 Yar. lievve d' Assyriologie II. cf. 31 Yar. "to wash"). exact harmony with p. Cf. is lound in a text of Entemena IV. For details on this subject I rtier to my GencMchte und Syalem der KeiUchrift. 33-41). Tlie cuneiform sign without for assistance . 17.. ]I. 87 and the other texts referred to above. Out- Nippur texts e. I. 31 in egi-a. reversed in the same way lelt . 45). For it is a law in cuneiform writing "that the characters are and always I. 4 (the skin of an animal or) a (ibid. 14 and 20 Var. yet wiiliout toucliing each other. a tattooed forearm with hand). left (as all In order to obtain a clear conception of the original picture. col. I. but rather top or Cob. No.^ lah (ibid. rnwiia (tic!) . and others did). p. graphic peculiarities whicli are altogether absent from the inscriptions of Tello. Nina. 04) and Bertin ((. Impossible I It repreeents the skin of or better a coarse iiig spread it upon the ground in for peisous of rank (and images tlie of deities) to ill til upon . col. ' In advance I warn Assyriologists not to regard a fourth palicographic peculiarity (so far confined to these Nippur : texts) as a mistake of the scribes (4) If two linear signs wliich are to be connected grammatically stand close together in writing. {gim) side of the col. Nos. p. the ear of a corn. 87. c. 23. In other words. 4. 'One example which Ur is (ibid. (na) No. col. No. Revus d'Assyriologie II. and must be regarded be treated following fact. c. No. (ra). 3. "brother. denotes the place of honor. . I. (wanO.." in lietue d'Assyriologie these maiks III. col. 149. No. 86. Cf. 21. *The crossed lines do not represent "an oinamented sleeve" it (Bertin. frequently one line ol the second running parallel to a line in the first is omitted entirely and has to be supplemented from the 40 Var. 32. with them. They will in full at another place. c. 40 Yar. 122) is therefore correct in giving . 2 (wm). 4 ( Unug). Cf. almost confined' to the inscriptions of Ur2. 'Jlte MoitumtnU of J\ineteh. even 87. gi (ibid.. pp. 3 : mana. col. 37 Var. upper section (da in the name of Ab- Ur in the name of Ur-Nina). (a). bulrash)\ a (ibid. 9).

a very curious form. 455). Arch. etc. (zw) is apparently contained in zu-ah. 7. col. Bibl. col. ' p. 11 and 14). Nobody can object that a few cliaracters in these Nippur inscriptions seem to show the beginning of wedgeall writing and that a few others seem to liave a later form. I. II. 83. fact corroborates —that most of these Nippur texts III. 8u. I. col in. Arch. (ihid. as in the corresponding Egyptian hiero- the latter rests. 'Only ' his barrel cylinder in clay exhibits traces of the older mu.. the other hand.. second Var. I. the sign shows the remnant of the original arm. p. "ocean. * Cf. p. But tlie exact analysis of the compound "ra. 37. Bibl. No. col. from Kuyunjik. ideogram zng 3 . XVI. which is but a mutilated 37. 105. dug-a 29 (second variant) da. 42 Var. XVII. IV." which Hommel translated half correctly "house of water add. but represents the cushion between the head and the vessel upon which Originally the further to the rim of the vessel.. .^ Cf. and others. PI. which repretrans. « g. 49. 'Successfully analyzed by Ball in Proc." or "to pour into. 7 line . Several of tliem understood but Cf. e.. (sic!). l^is b.. 4i gur. Cf..CHIEFLY FROM NIPPUR. . A word with meaning cf. received a more general meaning. . p.'' Kish :N'o 102.** In view of these facts I can only draw one conclusion are older than those of Urukagina. glyphics and as illustrated by PI... 475) we excavated in Nuffar. 41 " (si 37 Yar. Zu means. Ill. sents a vessel (cistern?) into which water flows. c. 40d. six had the same ideogram." instead of "cliamber.. VI. Lugalziggisi presented c.'' All the stone as the Urukagina have the regular Old Babylonian sign mu^ jnst Nippur texts here treated. " to irri- gate"). 15 Var. In order to understand the enormous bear tliis which I liad to over- come in restoring this text. col. which I discovered long before 8oc. 4)..). Bibl. Sayce {Transaclions of in col. 3. 38. produced. apparently bearing tlie same long inscription here publislied. to Inlil of Nippur. to "to increase one's linowledge. Originally zu and therefore. to "to flow into." then all (?). and consequently some very were (second variant). no continuation of the forearm. Soe. the Nippur texts have a large number of far more original forms of signs than the Urukagina and Ur-Nina inscrijjtions published." Za-ab denotes "the house (abode) into which later it the waters flow. 92. 64). p. 103 large inscribed vases.' and many for others for whose explanation I must refer to inscriptions of my On Geschichte und System der Keilschrift. figur. and others. as shown above." Siirnerische Lesestueke. " canal " + " to fill = horn). Assyriologisls will fact in mind. No. No. remained obscure to him. Sukkallu know. col. VI. 45 shig. 101. little Every stonecutter available was ridiculous forms employed. Houghton. Ill. * As have to dispose of more urgent matters at present. gur (ibid. XV. Arch.k{k)aUu denotes the servant {gal) similar who pours out (su) [namely water over his master's hands and feet]." Nuffar (in a Tliis sign much more developed form) and was identified with bar by Scheil independently of me. ^. 3 103. col. I. Recueil tobara^g) the original meaning. c. 2 Var. also the (]S"o." may be translated "chamberlain" (Kiimmerer). of the present work." ' ideogram. 83. I. difiiculties 44 (fourth variant) ganam. Another important my determination of the age of these occurs frequently in the contracts of Cf. 'Oppert already recognized the general significance of the picture (I. 8oc. to learn. some years may form for still pass before its publication.).. 39 (variants) aga. 6 (Trans. * It closely approaches the original picture explained by a Babylonian scribe on the famous fr. No. The which continues beyond the head however. is. "seat.^ lugal (ibid. lu The two elements + gal appear separated in arm reached No. col. I same sign on the very ancient monument preceding Urukagina's time (De Sarzec. 13 Var. 6..^ ag (l^o. 16 of writing. 1-3. also the 1).

I. col. was found in No. I. c. The two documents. 3. the Babylonian history. the other illustiating its must is therefore antedate the monument of Edingiranagin. I. In fact the annihilation of the power of this city in S. The most intei'esting object yet the so-called stele of vultures. apparently dedicated by a king of ff'^'iBAN'^' to Ningirsu.42 insci'lptions OLD BABYLONIAN INSCHIPTIONS very strongly.^ Is-ban'''. A. [a mag mu-um-yxir. A. details Ileuzey's explanation of the figurative representations in his work. Fragm. Shirpurla it not mentioned in Lugalzaggisi's inscription. 5. Is illustrated on monument belong * to the city (and country) of si'hQk'^kl (De Sarzec. 4. . We learn at the same time from this very important histoiical document that Lugalzaggisi. c. This was the original reading of 10. I. In the inscriptions of Edingiranagin. had succeeded in invading and conquering a lai'ge portion. so much certain that at some time previous to Edingiranagin. Sarzec. col. »Cf." in Tello. c. II. a city. 3. Apparently y'sABAN^' played a second important . and p. From the character used for " king" I draw the conclusion (with ible in Ileuzey) that the object belongs to a somcwliat later period. PI. col. Ill. This first " king of the world" (lugal Tcalama. as Brought into tlie 'In view of De Sarzec. moreover. Ill. col. 174-184. 2. Urukagiua and Ur-Nina. 3. Ur and some found other cities) the king refers again and again. col. pp. 119). 8. pp. col. 10) had conquered all Babylonia and established an empire extending from the Persian Gulf fore not inferior to that to the Mediterranean Sea. col. 87. belong closely together and supplement each other. I. 4. elapsed between the rise and downfall of this foreign power as. cf. 5. and finally as palajographically this inscription from Nippur shows more traces of oi-iginality than the texts of 31. god " (by his parents after his birth). founded much later by Sargon I. and in this De c. B. and by his great achievements raised '"'''BAN''. 5 (&'fZtnjft>a-«(i<um-ma= " house of his De Sarzi-c. 4. 18J). PI. of an inscribed object. 6. his native city. PI. of Babylonia. 49-84. . No. Fragm. col. the one giving a resume of the rise and height of the power and influence of ""'BAN*'. Ei-ech and also mentioned in the long [Nippur text Ur No. and the stele of vultures from Tello. and to which (in connection with Ereeh. The same it city of ""''BAN" and here again occurs in connection with Erech and Ur (and Larsam). "to great power" 87. No. 3. selected Erech as his capital. The former As doubtless some time downfall. included. III. V. 'For col. PI. was doubtless set his great victory ovei* "'"'BAI^*'. if is not the whole. or Edingiranatum."^ up by foreign this sovereign in commemoration of is How- ever this may be. PI. a power whose centre was "'''BAN*'. 3. the grandson of Ur-Isina. •The fragment Tello (De Sarzec. Nippur. 11 : Fragm. II. col. son of a certain Ukush "patesi of """BAN*"" (col. I. 4) of whom Babylonian documents give us information. apparently because did not as yet exercise any political influence ^ . 13. 5. pp. i<» Origines OrientaUs. in size thereI. Babylonia the one prominent feature which characterizes his government. generally transliterated as plays a very is important role. II. 1.). Ill. c. 2. 36-41. the traces preserved on two fragments establish my text restoration of this line beyond doubt. col.9. 4 No. I agrie with this scholar that the people whose defeat I. 31. 41f. I.

43 !) . therefore. 182 . 40f. 66f. p. 236 ff. it would be altogether unreasonable to regard the inscriptions of first Sargon and Narum-Sin as the zation. Contributions to the Uistory of Sargon land und His Predecessors. they are not later than these. Revue d' Assyriulogie III. pp. pp. to have existed in Babylonia by the monument by I. Oeschichte. presented an inscribed vase to the rising of Sbirpurla in the South and of the extending of its Perhaps it is the first indication of sphere of influence northward at the expense of ff'sABANW. also Recent Research in Bible Lands. ' * In lUcueil XV. Oeschichte Bahyloniens Assyriens. 605. note 3 (end). at the very outset. in Sargon's monuments should have been excavated in Nuffar In fact. note 4. 54. according to our present knowledge. written records of the ancient Babylonian civili- Everybody who has studied the earliest inscriptions of Babylonia from their paLcography. p. pp.. and has devoted that special pains to all the details of 'The liule fragment No. Leipzig. and reproduced in several other works. however closely approaching the such as " Blau " ^ and number of cases. which originals. t/ie p. 57. •Published by Houghton in Trans. Zeitschrift «. 43 . 454. Cf. 1S93. 43 we are justified in placing Lngalzaggisi before these ISTos.^ while Hommel. before the Oriental Club of Philadelphia]. pp.' with more or I will less emphasis placed Sargon I and his son after Ur-Kina and Edingiranagin now briefly give the definite proof of 1. 291. 19). two rulers of Shir- purla and in regarding most of the inscriptions published as 86-112 as older than the earliest rojal inscriptions from Tello/ At any rate. p. 65f. 35. lowest strata of us that Babylonian civilization had a history several thousand years. AUorientalische Fonchungen III. ^ Ontermchungen. The results of the exploration of the the validity of our theory." Heuzey " and myself (Part I. Soc. p. Recently adopted by Rogers. (but cf. CHIEFLY TKOM NirPUR. antedating the kingdom of Sargon I by original picture in is testified This pre-Sargonic period must have had a system of writing for the earliest texts at our disposal. 11. p. •Cf. ' Called so for the sake of brevity. p. pp. The Dawn of Civilization. A which question of fundamental importance for our correct conception of the earliest last ten years : phase of Babylonian history has been repeatedly discussed within the relation did In Sargon I (and Naram-Sin) stand to the early kings of Tello? ? ' Did he antedate or succeed them in favor of the Winckler and Maspero expressed themselves decidedly ' former view. the only other ruler of Tello who. impossible to believe that not one document antedating the highly devel- oped style of writing or Tello. Q. Inlil.. Arch..' Pieces of inscribed objects unearthed below the Sargon level prove posi- tively that writing existed in Nippur long before Sargon It seems. Outlines of after hearing Uistory of Early Babylonia. Ekur will have convinced. 107 cannot be referred to the lime of Entemena.. p. . 50. Cf above. the famous fragments from Kuyunjik. . Bibl. pp. note 1 [but given up again ' my address. on the other side p. 2. g. ' Les Origines OrientaUs. presuppose an earlier stage of writing. 84 . fur Keilschriflforschung IF. stated above.

from Nipjnir grouped together with them. . basis of other arguments. Heuzey. and Sargon and Naram-Sin.54 m. Urukagina. In conneclineaire tion with his discussion of the age of the stele of vultures he makes the emphatic statemenl. 1895.. Ileuzey's works in aildition to those given on note 6. It is surely remarkable that Monsieur Heuzey and myself. at the middle. The size of the above-mentioned vase is : h. that if Ileuzey's judgment of the age of these specimens of galzaggisi. 4. antedate art is correct. while the walls frequently recede a little at the middle. and must therefore considerably antedate the rule of the latter. etc. relief in clay lately however. also the monuments of Lu- Naram-Sin. I came to the conclusion above.C. etc. a&hes." Hence would follow. than between the latter ' and Ur-Ba'u Gudea.. to use it p. Ur-Gur. who have devoted years of constant study to the palaography of the earliest original inscriptions of Babylonia. on the other. "le type (cf. 1 hat my determination of the age of Lugalzaggisi is not too high is proved by the discovery of an uninscribed vase of precisely the same material and characteristic shape. d. August 10. at the bottom. a few fragments of a discovered in Nippur.. is enabled to judge for himself as to the value of Ileuzey's judgment. ^Haynes reported on lliis vase. Nartm-Sin's time was recently discovered XXH. are surely older than Edingiranagin. is that he can- not have lived later than 4500 B. 14. expressing the hope that I might be able it in support of my in theory as to the age of most of the other ancient vase fragments from Nippur. Ur-Nina and Edingiranagin. inscrijitions of Lugalzaggisi and of the other kings. 13.5 . the diameter at the top being larger than that at the bottom.C. however. 26. 64). In general this class of vases resembles a flower-pot. etc. 3. de r^criture est assurement plus ancien que celui des inscriptions de Naram-Sin. PI. that on paheographic evidence alone I assign to Lugalzaggisi the minimal date of 4000 B. artists at Since a specimen of the workmanship of the (cf.44 OLD BABYLONIAN INSCKIPTIONS I have a right to expect from those necessarily who criticise my statements on this subject. on the reliefs had inferred that the stele of vultures it and the of Ur- Nina are "surely older than Naram-Sin. It is needless to quote passages from Mr. While Heuzey declared LTr-Nina's and Edingiranagin's ' reliefs to be of greater antip. My own personal conviction. From pateographic and other reasons. It consists He found covered with earth and black of white calcite stalagmite and has a very characteristic shape never found at a later period Nippur again. It was found 1. quite Independently of each other. 43. showing There exactly the same high degree of execution as the script on his monuments. every Assyriologist are. at the top. on the one hand. must lies come to the conclusion that a much longer period of development be- tween Lugalzaggisi.8 cm. have reached exactly the same conclusions.as most of the vases which bear Lugalzaggisi's inscription. patesis. which must be regarded as the strongest evidence in favor of the French scholar's determination. 18 . It is out of regard for the view of those who do not accept Nabonidos' 3200 years as correct. 50). below the pavement of Naram-Sin." L(» Origines Orientales. IS^o.8 . I am now in the position to prove the correct- ness of Ileuzey's view beyond question. that the etc.

the founder of the Cassite dynasty. All that I I wrote those brought forward identity 1 herewith withdraw . c. No. piano convex cf. un monument des plus precieux. as " plus primitif. p." For a specimen of Ur-Nina's bricks 20 Dec. 26. PI. Haynes it refers to the discovery of a terra -cotta floor with a rim a little below the pavement of Naram- He regards as a combination of bath and closet. and Ihe bricks of the ancient arch. 1). marks on the convex side. forworship. In his report of Oct.e. he characterized the relief which opens the splendid series of De Sarzec's finds (PI. 1895. 14. 'The Sin. 45 quity than Narani-Sin's monuments. 24. 31. above. in Bagdad). and has several points of contact with the art exhibited in the stele of vultures. 1. and whom I regarded as identical with Gandash. bricks. note They will be published in Series B of the expedition work by myself. They were found 7-7. 1. 26.' Truly the genius and critical Heuzey could not have won a more 5. p. "proving that the present customs and methods of preparing is the body quity. I published three brief legends of a king whom.CHIEFLY TROM NIPPUR. Specimens of this class of Nippur bricks were given by Peters in The American Archmological Journal X. I. and as "une ceuvre le d'une antiquite prodigieuse. XXV III ." These words of a true master of reliefs have found a splendid confirmation in the clay in their of Nippur just referred which whole conception and execution show a striking resemblance to the oldest speart recovered cimen of from Tello. celui de la du roi Our-ISIina" [De Sarzec. comme le plus ancien example his subject to.70 m. I. 34 (two drawings from the hand of the late Mr. and that these biicks as a rule bear a simple thumb mark upon their convex side. of the lowest trace of Babylonian civilization. when edited 'Cf. of the present work. No. 23-25. ISTo. f The peculiar shape of these bricks in llie arch is scarcely distinguishable on PI. in favor of this 2. bear the legend of show Ur-Nina. De Sarzec. 1894. grossiere tablette meme que 2]. que nous devons placer avec respect tout a fait en tete des series orientales. which is 2 m. whom on other evidence I placed before Sargon and Naram-Sin. 26. tile of very great anti- The drainage from this floor was conducted into a large vertical drain. istic feature The form of these baked must therefore be regarded as a character- of all structures previous to the time of Sargon I and Naram-Sin. as practiced by Moslems [in the immediate neighborhood of their mosques]. In connection with my examination of the pre-Sargonic strata of Ekur. 28 ff". final and conclusive argument from a door-socket of Sargon himNos. G. Gande (pp. I twice called attention to the fact that baked bricks found below Naram-Sin's pavement are plano-convex in form. connu de la sculpture chaldeenne. PI. p. I. until the contrary has been proved.. in form. bricks of the ancient cuib around the allar. influenced by Pinches's reading (Garde)." finger This tile drain is "supported by a double course of bricks. and within about 1. I read self In Part PI. Mayer. p. brilliant victory.far I might have added that no other form of baked brick has so been discovered anywhere in the lowest strata of Nippur. below penetration of the level of Naram-Sin's pavement.50 m. long and has an with average diameter of 85 cm.). AVe draw a I. It is quite in accordance with this view that the only inscribed bricks of Tello which this peculiar form.

Bur-Sin II selected a its side. XI. such as vases. that the chai-acters represent the peculiarities of Ur-Kina's inscriptions vated. on the lapis lazuli block of Kadashman-Turgu. 2. In the latter case the lapis lazuli was likewise pre- sented as raw material to be used the interest of the temple.46 pages.' They had been handed down from a hoary c. B in of Gudea. in Z. ' were still unused. pp. 86. . that Since then I have all kings occasionally imitated older patterns in their script. cf. 59 ff. 190 S. XVIir... and consequently that arities as his ' same palatograph ic peculi- own can only be classified as pre-Sargonic. VIII. however. 13 ff. Cf. Since then a large seogi-aphic peculiarities of this whole class of ancient texts completely.^ from among them. I was later still OLD BABYLOXIASr INSCRIPTIONS." p. dred years before. col. king of Ur. "Table of Contents.' this sovereign presented a number of unhewn diorite. on the whole question of presenting stones as raw material to the temple. on Ihe door-sockets of Sargon. wrote his in this sented new form own inscription on its polished surface and pretemple. presented (this" z=?ie)). The curses on the statue 'Cf. " lord of Erech. 14-20. PI. 24. 12 ff. A. Hilprecht As shown above. According to Part 29. No. Among other gifts. * Cf. of which one published on PI." who left us No.. calcite. 'These blocks received therefore only a kind of registering mark scratched merely upon lil(la) Lugal-ki-gub ni their surface [Dinglr En- dudu (n«) amuna-nhub. At XVII. But something similar happened many hunI. But the inscription— this was the intention of the off. PI. 2. on the calcite blocks however. 14 were wiitten by Lugalkigub-nidudu. p.'' the same rude inscription is scratched upon the back side of a door-socket of Sargon just treated it I. stalagmite etc. section 1.j) in remembrance of the gift. The observation. antiquity and scrupu- lously preserved for diorite block 1500-2000 years in the temple left archive. Part p. and other blocks- to the temple as raw material is for future use the time of Bur-Sin II several of these blocks. number of vase fragments have been excaby which I was enabled to confii-m and strengthen my previous judgment based upon the study of a few squeezes of badly effaced inscriptions and to analyze the palentirely correct. 47. PI. whose surface corroded and crumbled in the course of six millenniums. 40-48. to the the few words of its donor respectfully on tni-ned it it into a door-socket. dishes. 1. XVII. VII. PI. *Cf. Inlil L. »Cf. 39. I arrived at once at the result that the three legends published on PI. 29. Parti. From the analogous case follows that all Lugal kigub-nidudu must have other inscriptions which have the lived even befoi-e Sargon I. donor— was to be preserved (a thin piece of lapis lazuli being cut PI. 29. they have suffered considerably. The inscription on the block. PI. note 2. No. which I made on p. "To li. had originally 8 according to the traces On the diorite blocks these inscriptions are well preserved. pp. oflFthis old completely shaken theory as utterly untenable when contrasted with the known was facts of Babylonian palaeography. left.. somewhat influenced by the current view of Assyriologists. I.

which will be found in other places.^ At reeds. where expect to give a more complete sketch of the political and social conditions of ancient Babylonia. 90-93) have the oldest form of mu. to the On the other hand. however. tlie which is an ally of the domestic is has resemblance also to the Armenian wild sheep Oois gmelinii. Asuyrisclies Uandworterbuch. In the briefest possible way I will indicate the general results which I di'aw from a combined study of the most ancient Kippur and Tello inscriptions. sian. is known to be a Semiticism for daru. and such details as the headdress of the god. col. e. Cope. who produced a beautiful ensemble very realistic and knew how to breathe life into his but very graceful figures.'" city " Whether he its was of foreign origin or the shaykh of a smaller Babylonian " which extended influence or the regular descendant of the royal family of one of the larger cities."- the earliest period of history which inscriptions reveal to us. That the Semites were already in the country results. Cf. the great he exhibits ! in his drawing of the graceful outlines of a in gazel. HE. Ills inscriptions (Nos. scanty material at my disposal this sketch can only be tentative in With the very many points. 38) into a monogram. 33. which from the inscriptions of Nebuchadrezzir II and other latest Babylonian kings. No.'' from the fact that the human figures on the stele of Ur-Enlil. the near one a sheep. which I shall make. Professor of Zoology and Compaiative Anatomy. Its first ruler of whom we know En-shagsag-ana. Here we have DA. Cf. . 4 (also No. my determination of the age of this monument. Dr. above p. 38. lord of Kengi." 87. Cf Deliizsch. A. col. 90. The goat shows more characteristics of the wild species of Eastern Persia (i. can- not be decided. It is therefore impossible to say whether he belonged to the Sumei-ian or Semitic race. 87. For every statement. in show the characteristic tlie Z. * It has the most ancient forms for dam and mu and shows a very characteristic feature of the oldest period cf V riling by contracting the name of Jiin-din-dug(-ga). and Afghanistan than of the Per- and so may be a domestic hybrid between the two is Caprafalconerii a. corrobplate. same age. Edward D. 213. the nakedness of the fact that his figure and the other two have hair shaved off. garment of the two persons following the sheep tiieir and orate goat. who kindly examined the monument). have older forms for sag and llis'namo siguifles "lord is show other characteristic features of high antiquity. or traced his origin to both. The primitive the same writing style of art. but rugosity of the horns too great. this stele and No. part II.. "land of the canals and which includes South and Middle Babylonia and possibly a part of the North. * the king of heaven. ' 21) and above p. II. I have my decided reasons.OR. and in response to a repealed invitation from the President and Secretary of I Philosophical Society of Great Britian. ' The sheep is probably also derived front Eastern Persia and sheep. which belongs to about the same period. for the present only the important argument drawn from Lugalzaggisi's inscription No.CHIEFLY FROM NIPPUR. It perhaps the urial ' Oois vignei. aside from other considerations. 37 "represent very characteristically two species. p.ad Gapra mgagrus). or Ba'u (cf. show us a real Old Babylonian master. the short Ur-Eiilil. Babylonia has a is high civilization and known under is '' the name of Kengi. 38 of the same which doubtless belongs with a few simple skill lines. and his remarkable knowledge of animal locomoone a goat and the far tion The two animals No. note 9. and the lines are too vertical " (communication from my colleague.' •In Asiyriaca. 47 CONTENTS AN^D HISTORICAL RESULTS.. in the Transactions of the latter society. 'Cf.

i. I. patesi of ^Nippur. also the fact that 'Cf. col. 96.]. 86. col. S. amu shub. where a certain Aba-Inlil presents a vase to I^inlil {== KUhit-Bel) who has the title of damJcar. according to his religious position. above. many passages. 80 and 87. 55a. the reading of this line as Unugki.' It stood under the especial care Kengi was the sanctuai*y of of every ruler who claimed supreme authority over the country. Nos. 94: \. 'It The people evidently have no Mongolian tendencies. dam-kar gal. Babylonian kingdom.gage 274)]. Camhyset. to Bel. for the life of Ur-Inlil. "The shortness of the jaws however peculiar. is is an absolute palseographic impossibility. mentioned also by Edingiranagin. Dingir pateni Inlil. 87. The current 2. Cf. "To Ba'u Ur(e. I. and especially p. my analysis of the meaning of damhar and from the '• inscriptions of 94 and 95 in connection with Ko. to . nently mentioned in Edingiranagin's inscriptions. this character renders the physiognomy very trary are Semitic. representing him in his dealings with his subjects Cope wrote me on and this subject : in other words.din-dug ga Ur-Mu-ma dingir [djam-kar 4.^ In all probability was Erech/' The religious centre of Inlil at Nippur. 87. The fact that a patesi. and followed by dingir Uru'^i-ka. col. more kalama. *Cf. If anything. of a king of the second dynasty of Ur.^ The capital of this early kingdom is likewise unknown. and among other points.^ to define his posi- by divine authority. 55. . official He is first of . They had their its own sanctuaries. title The chief local administrator of the tem- ple in ^Nippur seems to have had the damJcar gaU This I infer from IS^os. No. interest [indeed it is of vital importance for the whole Sumerian question —H. QescMchte. in addition. especially 87. 300. preceded by Cf No. and in For in of Gula. also the important position which Erech holds in the titles Hommel. Mama. and the kings and governors were satisfied with the •Cf. col. g. 3) and the Ma-ma cf. p. 17).48 features of a OLD BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS mixed it race. 51." 1. often occupied a political position as king or governor. p. Cf. translation of damkar. his son Enanatuma). lugal which is only preserved in part. 3. to Jensen). Winckler's reading of Part I. No. This title characterizes bearer. of Inlil) devoted (it). 'Cf. 4-14 Erech is the capital of Lugal kigub-nidudu and Lugalzaggisi and is promiobserve \_N. ' sure beyond question (against Winckler. "merchant. Nos. patesi of Nippur.. The traces do not point to the ideo- gram of Unug. 'li7iffir Meme in later texts old Bnbylonian contracts (the last two owe 97. the ideogram goddess Mami II R. »Cf No. No. does not interfere with this view. as sovereign lord of a temple and chief servant of the god worshiped in it. No. as Sin-ga-mil. 33-37. II. Altorientalische Forachungen III. 23. 145. 30-33. From the fragment of an inscribed stone the titles Bagdad I copied the phrase " dam kar DUN-GI. Ur-dmgir En-lil. As a result I should say the figures represent is The hooked nose and large eyes on the conan Aryan race with some Semitic tendencies. 26. Nin-din-dug. p. patesi gal Ningirsu at (Entemena and Obv. 95: [^mgir ji-]in. 3. la-muna sJmb]. 90. and tion as being obtained who called himself patesi gal Inlil. is certainly not a Semitic character in human faces."' Ur'* and Larsam^ were and doubtless other places whose names are not yet known from prominent cities in this early inscriptions.\e patent gal Inlil (PI. 8. Apparently an early time the god Ninib received the title W\. II." may have stood in No." [««£])irW(] too narrow in Cf also No. this which seems to have been devoted by very [Ur]-Enlil. 306. which stood under the control of a patesi. 36-41. ' Prof. all the highest of his god. The ! identification of such a ruce of much 5. 5. A similar title occurs in the inscriptions of Tello. is "To Ba'u Ur-Enlil the chief agent {scil. of the kings of the dynasty of Isin en (shega) Unuga^i B. agent references I dingir ' of Enlil presented it." Strassmaier.

The very fact that one Winckler. refer H'lmmel {Oesehichle. 4.- who was eager extend his influence beyond the limits of his cit}'. 4 with 8 and No. because he cannot designate himself as his own subject. Oa 5. VIE. more than anything upon the strength and valor of the is first army. important in more than one way." stales in general. 233ff. 3. Fleuzey and myself for a long while. No. in the care of his temple and in the adrainistration of that territory over which Ningirsu ruled ia other word:'. pp." Apparenlly a sjn . limits of his and depend chiefly upon the popularity of his cult.^ A its troublesome enemy of Babylonia at this early period was the city of Kish. 1. S'l-gir mu-gin. 81! Lugal ! Sin. 93. dumu ad-dage (sct'J. expressly declaring that Ningirsu himcity. for the Ninlil life and son of the ada of the of his wife and child. "To abundance of life. 373). *No. The condition of affairs is here plain." or ' For Kish is styled yul shag ' ga yul ' " teeming with wickedness." III. composed of sa The whole phraseology seems to be Semitic rather than Sumerian is also «a?»ja artificial ideogram + ga). foreign conqueror of who is already a king. Tello. in The conqueror seeks to represent to the people and to the priesthood his violent act as having been committed the service of their god and carrying out his decision. 'Cf. 113.CHIEFLY FROM NIPPUR. sanga i^'iNin-su-gir (sic!) it"- But am now able to offer the following correct interpretation. Therefore he does not call himself king — which he already was — nor patesi in the tlie sense of our governor. An 29t interesting monument from Assyriologists. Di/ijjirjifinUl 2. 6f. Lugal-kurum-zigam "Ddcision Nmsugir has appointed the king of Kish is as priest of Ninsugir. serves as p. Ililprechl. and sought ereiy opportunity to encroach upon the territory of his southern neighbor.) presented for a-munashub. A. and other The inscription to which had defied the united efforts of Oppert.. ga tillashu Inlil. in addition styles himself patesi of Lagash. 2. 103. nam-ti No. 234). the perelse. 1. Altorientalise7ie Fonchungen origin gives a very good analysis of the relalioQ of a god to his city and of the and growth of Oriental Babylonien putesi. Lugil-kurum zigura is patesi of Sliirpurla. Briinnow.. 4." This valuable document (cf. pp. an excellent p. but patesi as highest official of the . the legitimate possessor of all the privileges connected with this These privileges vary according to the sphere of power which a god exercises beyond the temple or city. of all necessary to determine the political power of the god's city in each indi- vidual case. im ga(n). had apparently to own peculiar cult and stood under the administration of a far patesi. damdamunashu it temple of No. pa-ie-si S/u>-[pur]-i[o*']. In order to define them accurately. 6. it sonal devotion and energy of his human city's representative. Kish. "The king Shirpurla. as becomes clear from a comparison of DingirEnUl-la{l) Inlil the 3. up to the time of his conquest. pat{e si'i 4. As soon as we have a clear conception of the latter. 113. 1 13 reads as follows 7. 4. Recent Research in Bible Lands. called the highest god of the him to fill this office.. food of heaven " (" Der Koaig ist Himmelsspeise"). The beginning (No. illustration of tlie correctness of f. we have But the key to title itself its a correct understanding of the position and privileges of the does not express any reference either to the political dependence or independence of bearer.) my I definition. self. 108 and 109 (portions of the same vase). god Ningirsu. 108) is to be restored as follows: DinijirZa\ma-ma'\ ' U-diig- . is and of the Babylonian kingdom in particular. Nos. 71 ff. as the legitimate possessor of all the privileges which. 4. A The name means Sharrukurumat-shame. Cf. " wicked of heart. he is 49 title. its patesi. fiir but his view as to the meaning and use of the word patesi worfenen Konige Hc-uzey in Revue ist entirely incorrect ("diegebrauchliclie Bezeichnuog die unter- in p. and. recently published by d' AayHologie. 7i«[s/t«'i]- No. It which therefore did not form part (any longer ?) of Kengi proper. is written plionetically 112. : Z/J«i 4039. which I share I with Tiele {Z. had been connected with this title.

king of Kisli^ silver. " To Inlil E. Dhiairj^in. Sehrader's A'. ginJinig-ga-bi 2S.. which I identifitd as shu (I. lord of Shumer (king of Erech)]— when he had looked favorably upon him (=nas7i« ska in hii. 23.f ). 2. priest of Inlil. Biiinnow. and porarily he was even in possession of an important part of Kengi. or even captiu'ed its of Nippur. ga-iU-la-shu a-mu- 7ia[-«7. the property . . higal 113.'/'«''BAN*"*. —his city teeming with ma= the utensils and his statue. and that the old Babylonian sign I. for abundance of faithful life of presented it for the life of his (distributive := their !) good his (their) wife and child. p. 134) dingir/in-lil 4. No.ada e identical with the frequent title of life the later contract literature abu litH). Tableau. : and 2. gg 73. Mechineau. wives and children. No. mif-rcad the name of the donor. gan-til lanliu 1. No. 112. the utensils. 113 reads : 1. M.' who lived shoitly before or after. 4. that no Sumerian postposition ku exists.'- " His statue. II is i?. Lvgalen-nv. same sanctuary as Sehrader's K. being composed of nam-j-n-faff (V iJ. c. 1-5) EisltK mu-gvl 9. for cf No. 22.. 13 f.«J]. which contain portions of the same inscription and supplement part of the text.. II tlie home fiitlier victoriously. he l)rought l)ack. 4. 21) is purely Sumerian. J3. 9 e. 5) 3. lord o( lands. List 4039. En-sliag aagan-na 3. 103 110 and belonged doubtless to the same vase. and lor the scribe of the ada of the temple of Inlil (. 'Cf.«M anu. mu-ne-gi 20. also No. agrees in thickness. 102. 4. contains part of the same inscription. to be supplemented by No. Nop. Ivgal erim ffin'iBAWi-ka-ge 13. Ill. azag-tagina-U Inlil. B. 20. vru-na ga (written phonetically yul 15. 4. belongtolwoothervases. his shining .. part 1. part 1. i/d dingi-rlEn-liUi] mana-ni-yun-a (cf No.ru presented lor I abundance of life. including the sanchis northern tuary of Bel. 106: 1. Thefragment of afourth 1. Of the longer 104. [Ivgal lvi-hvr-ra 3. king of Kish the king of the hordes of lignity. to insciiption the bcginnirg 2. his shining silver. call attention to the fuct that the woid nnmrag "spoil. 48) Enne-Ugun. ." In connection with this text I scure (cf. material and characters of writing «ntiiely with Nos. (No. EUhi<i-ge 14. 132). (alter a break of sivcial lines) to be closed with No. 103 begins) . A. Ill.. I restore be continued by No. a synonym of shallatu " spoil. and p. damdvmuria-ihu 13. List 10545). Nos. for abundance of and Ur-Siuiuga ('servant of Ea'). however. "To Ninlil Uiunabadabi. 1. he inlestcd Kish.).- he burned. 25." Apparently two brothers who held two different Cf. shows us that temenemy. 4) 17-18 (or more) wanting 19. he cast dovin (or bound? cf Jensen . the name not Ur-Eidil hut rr-Enlil dalidvdv). ga-tila-shu nam-ti ama dvg(. positions in the temple of Eel presented together this beautiful vase for their mother. wicked of heart (refening to Kish). the in- scription as follows [lv'\gal 1. I. the first preserved portion. vase. 91 and 5. alana-bi (observe the peculiar sign for bi in 24.^!. but the whole iriscriptitn cannot jet be restored from them. 5.. Gram. pp. and deposited Cf. nig-ga EUli'^i yul shag a-mu-na-ihvb. 13. is As tlie sepaialing lines tlearly prove. 9297. Divgir^incl[in'\dvg-ga 2. of the king 7. B. which has remnants of -|- 1-4 of No. 57f. cf Jensen in Z. p. . di^ffirJSn-lil-la a mu-na-s7iub ["To N.'n Ninerinuihr en-nun ^ na>a. 13 . Hin-cnnu !) (cf. 103-1-110 belong to the same vase. sJm needs a word of explanation. .ui-ra I'm na-budabi ct 10." My constant transliteration of the postposition " ku" by PI. his property. corresponding to Assyrian shallatu shah'du (cf Delilzsch. [DingirEnlil-la 6. Auyr. ol this postposition transliterated by ku is rather identical with the cliarac- ter in Part PI. mv-dvr 12. He was apparently a Semite. Nos. [&']re W*-i-s/m 25. 2. 3. list 88C2." The reading of the name of the king of Kish of course only provisional. Name 11. = E&\) 6. 102. No. his property." the etymology of which was ob- Part I. his liappy presented a vase to the temple. [Dlnglr E'\n-Ul-la 2. wanting. p. Enne-Ugun. 104 and 105. No. presented the pioperty of Kish..) 10. I c. For C. which supplement each other: 1.')-zi-thu life. snrig (Amiaud et Mechineau. Biiinnow. 6. Enshagsagana himself waged war against Inlil presented the spoil of this expedition to other king of Kengi. The same was done by anHe infested Kish and defeated in the Jensen in king. he presented unto Inlil of Nippur. 105 had a briefer inscription than the is rest. 102. 92. . "To'Qa. [en Ki-engi'\ 8. Ivgal Ei>7J=i 86. En-ne-Vgun (Biiin- now. 1C3. 117) -ga (<'i'"mrSimvga 11. L'rSimvg (Amiaud 9. N. 13c).CO patesi of OLD BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS K^sh presented a large sandstone vase to Inlil of Nippur. nig-ga 10 bil =gan. (where Jensen and Amiaud. dubsar ada fUnmrlCn-lilka-ge 8. 105 and WQl). Nos.sic. is No. namti 12. 110. with 8 and No. a mu-na-i/ivb." 'Several vase fragments mention this event. it 114. e 5." he carried was born unto him. (t. No.. and molhtr. believe with Jensen.

but as commander of an army of "^''BAN^*-'. Cf.. 51 from the votive inscription with which the Babylonian ruler accompanied his gift (No. is for besides his usual title lugcil K\sh he assumed another. The son of " Ukush. 87. however. Erech opened its doors. in all probability himself a native of I In other words. 93). 8. 39 . And even if a temporary reaction occasionally should have set the weakened South could not withstand the youthful strength and valor of its northern enemies for any length of time. mistress of earth. col. The same name occurs occasionally in the early contracts of Nippur Scheil in Recr. however there may have been left. and was therefore in the possession of Nippur. No. we can trust his own long inscription and Telle. serving as a border fortification The success of Inlil. I broken away. ths great centre in the North which out its conti'olled the movements of warriors in the South. XVIf. ' A hero indeed. heaven and lie cannot have lasted very long. continued to send marauding expeditions against Babylonia. 13. how far his kingdom extended. 102). p. and was constantly pushing southward. we do not know. */. I infer from and other passages. scarcely.' it To judge from the analogy of other inscriptions of have no doubt ' contained the acquired land or province of which Kish had itself now become the capital. that the king of Kish apparently had connections with the city of "'"''BAN'. and to Ninlil. believe formed originally part of control of a foreign people. At last ""''BAN' little was prepared of it to deal the final blow to the ancient kingdom of Kengi. this country. It is therefore evident that the king of Kish was not only an was this ally of '""'BAT^T'. For he is styled " king of the hosts of "'"'BAX*'. Kengi to How long he ruled. Nimrod Ep.. in. tha ex- treme outpost of the advancing hordes of '""''BAIS'*'. which unfortunately this period. its Kish formed the basis of against Kengi. "The king is filled with unchangeahle power. and whether he was able So much its is hold his conquests. Oilgamesh gitmala emitka. the Babylonian monarch who defeated Enne-Ugun. king of Kish. and the rest of Babylonia down to the Persian gulf Lugalzaggisi was. . Kengi) was already under the which came from the appealed at the threshold of the ancient Sumerian kingdom of Kengi. C2rtain. must have dealt a fatal blow to the kingdom of Kengi." In other words. 5.uil ^Traces of lugal are clearly visible ' in 1. «.^ presented lord of lands." 41. consort of Inlil" (N^o.CHIEFLY FROM predecessor. several inscribed vases " to For another king of Kish." Cf. and at this tini3 was. we find the two mentioned famous cities in exactly the same close association as they appear on Edingiranagin's stele of vultures. if fell an easy prey to the conquer- ing hero. military opsrations. "Servant of SliulpauJdu. The name is possibly to be read Semitic. Ur-Shulpauddn. in fact. patesi of "'"'BAN'V was this time himself the chief commander of the approaching army. that Kish (which at this early time ISTorth. It is highly interesting to learn NrPPtTIl. I.

above. by Utu. 19. son of Ukush. galu mag da 20 28. 5. of Nin-harsag. combinations. it was a palocographical and c. [pa-<]e-si!7«Afij4iV*« 11. cf. No. No. 34. of Nidaba. XIX. . gishPl-SUU-svvi-ma u-a <''»girMnnn 36.'^ 30. 1 (and 2). Ne ("power") I. servant of Umu. can now be restored completely. king of Erech.daba ga a 39. a son begotten 27. 38-42. mistiess of Erech. shib An7. 'Literally "ate" is I. Col. had the complete translation prepared volume. which he presented to the old national sanctuary of the country in Nippur. 5. by Utu. 3 . By doing lines beginnings and ends of each column. faithful U. 4. 41. dicmu tu-da dmjirm. different vases The text published on Pis. patesi of "'^'BAN". DiiigirEnAil lugal kur kur-ra 10. variant 87.. 10. lugal kalam-ma G. 23 and variants. 7. mag 33. the great abarahku of the gods. was restored by myself from 88 fragments of 64 under the most trying circumstances. great patesi IG. dvmu U-kush pa te si gal 16. two columns had were and the third only forty Then followed the tedious work of arranging the liltle Iragments and deterleft to mining their exact position. Cf. Ill. which in every case confirmed the correctness of my arrangement. a slave brought up 32. Part No. *One expects apparently is its rather the ideogram for shakkanakku (Briinnow. that each of the lines.' 'Cf. p. Ill. a peculiar form of ga (not =iyi). I. 2G. by Enki - (== Ea). filled wiih " {shuznunu). of Enzu (=Sin). G. 21. A complete coherent transliteration and translation will be found text. is ^ He was llie one of the gi'eatest monarchs of the ancient the longest complete inscription of historical fourth and fifth pre Christian millenniums so far obtained from Babyit is and as a document of this ancient period of fundamental importance. hero 12. according to the passages needed. X^. the first I noticed that the lines of each of the first two columns must be identical. flwgirKn ne-guh 34. zu 23. fosteier of Xinna. gala mug \2. sag gith. priestess of Erech. together. he favoiably looked upon by the eye of Lugalkurkura 15. note 6. 1. 13-14. he (^. The philological problem. Inlil). 9. Since the restoration of my Haynes has found many duplicates. 3. which finally proved to be correct. who was 19. unto whom who was called (chosen) 20.^ 25. (akalv) or "was 2. he who was intelligence was given 18.<im'rNidnba-ka 18.a7. col. 31. 23. galu di-ngirUtuu sanga Unug^i-ga 31. hero 8. dlngirEN-Kl 27. priest Col. although often I enough not more than a few for this traces of the original cliaracters I guide me. dingirutu 35. 7.)). No. he who was invested with power 24. 34. 81. 33. sag eyi-a 32. 3. and making a number of first logical conclusion. bar-ra 14. 21. sublime minister^ 22.' OLD BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS carved over 100 times on as many large vases. the present work. 49. The of the titles themselves with which he opens his dedication are a reflex of the great : achievements he could boast of woi-ld. forty-six I arrived at the By calculating the original circumference. e. ^The 'No. + jrj»7t ("man") synonym. List 919. by Nin-a-gid-ga'-du. 17. Ill. Part The titles of Lugalzaggisi are not unsimilar to those of kings und ^Cf. of Inlil. dingirjifin-Tiar sag 30. d'ngirNina gid yadu nin Unvgkigaka Hi {?) mug 35. nourished with the milk of life 29. 1. space. B. was more difficult to find out the exact number of lines of which the first and second columns originally consisted.52 of 132 lines." 'It lonia. 25f. of Nidaba. lug zi ku. but am obliged to withdraw it from want of In the previous and following pages nearly two-thirds of the whole inscription have been treated. this I obtained the Then succeeded in placing the five fragments on PI. 15. I fi . patesis of Tello. d"i'JirNidiiba 9. work was just as much a mathematical task as c. Lugal-zag-gisi Ivgal Unugkiga 5. " Lugalzaggisi. 3. dingirri-ite-ra. 4. The difference of the It numbers of between the second and third lines I could easily determine by a simple calculation. 87. dinai^Lvgalkur kur ra ''ingirutu 21.igizi MngirEn-lil 17. col. On I the basis of palajographical evidence I selected 150 pieces out of aheap of COO fragments and particles. by Nidaba. 28. 8. in another place very soon. as the separating lines run from to the last column. mupad33. king of Ana. Jensen in Schraiier's K.

kalam-ma 41. the kings of '61 llie second dynasty of Ur. 4). p. but they have title little importance for the question as to localized at all its origin and earliest localization. 25). Ulu shu{n).bar Kien-gi 23. Baranunu{vi\\. Lugalzaggisi Idigna nam-lugal 40. Ud divgirEn-lil 37.anagar-ra-a wta-bii 4. Ki-mi-nadi sttl i'ta e(a)-la 13.'</ul la mu-da-ga (. ga-a 46. when he the lands with his renown (power) (and) subdued (the countiy) from the of the sun rise of the sun to the setting — It at that time he straightened his path from the lower sea of the Tigris and Euphrates to the upper sea and granted him the dominion of everything (?) from the rise of the sun to the setting of the sun and caused the countries to rest (dwell) in jieace. III. a- nhu 2. etc.a)-ahu H. Of p. 44. extending from the Persian I quote the king's Gulf to the shores of the Mediterranean. to city meant more than a mere possession of the whose god claimed the time of right of granting the sJtarrut Tiibrai arhaHm. kur kvrOO u la 18.= shaLanu) 21.!!. loo little lo call liiin an exception. own filled poetical language ""When lord of the lands. defined by the boundaries (Part I.ho\xi (leteriii. as a whole.. The later Babylonian and Assyrian inscriptions are of title value for the determination of the meaning of this at their own time. II. According to the manner of usurpers. the early kings of Babylonia this title But. etc.' Lugalzaggisi retained Erech. II. kur-kur{a)ne na 5. a ab ba sigta ta \2. Well stated by Wincklcr. a. [^U"'j'trE'\n-lilli 15 nin. He his lived long before Sargon I founded his famous empire. Ivgal hur-kur-ra 38. Of Dungi we know title. I is but the later Semitic rendering of the ancient Sumerian all have examined the passages in the fresh light of this text and find that Nippur fulfills bj' far better the required conditions than Kutha or any other city which has been proposed in Xorthern Babylonia. 4Z. be it remembered. gu n. 234.)-6i(=: "and"') ab-ba9." ^ becomes evident from this passage. Babylonian sense foiu* of the word. mu-da-na." that only IS^ippur can have been the ancient seat of the sharrut kihrat arhaHm. East. ma-ni-sig 7. which manifestly nam-lcgal lalama. I. 42. Col. the old metropolis of the counti-y. p. who. bar. 19. Col. mu-ni dug. if the must be hazards. igi kalam-ma-ge simanadi-a 3.: CHIEFLY FKOM NIPPUB. Inlil. . Ufa shu(. iginimma-sJiulO. had conquered a quasi worldwide dominion. and he called a in kingdom own which no way was inferior to that of his well-known successor. laid claim Down really to the Hammurabi only those to this significant title in the who owned natural territory far beyond the north and south of Babylonia. of which Kengi became now the chief province. ma nasum maa 1. Altorientalische Forschungen Cf. 8. and note 4) that thoy h:id made conquests and Elam. pn-te-si kur kur-ra. col. "lord of the lands.^ had no fault 39. 53 and 58 above. and yet his very 53 name had been forgotten by later generations. gira-bi 16 ^ 11. ' Babylonia. kithim ' ma 30. 36. invested Lugalzaggisi with the kingdom of the woild and gi-antcd him success before the world. in which Lugalzaggisi declares himInlil self to have been invested with the kingdom of the world by of A'ippur. who assumed as far the proud as Syiia ^ we know now from Pis. as his own new capital of this first great Oi'iental state. Uta eQi)ta. (cf. 0.

apparently but two centres of the same powerful people which was roaming over the doubtless was '""'BAN*'. 3). PI. The oldest written monuments of Babylonia do not designate these enemies by any single definite name: they are the hordes of the city of "'"'B AX*' Kish. and whose chief ancient city. in There is no doubt first in my mind that Lugalzaggisi's achievements Babylonia represent the signal success of the invading Semites from the Xorth. on the basis of strong this charac- arguments must be read as Semitic. points with necessity to the north for the this peculiar As form of the character for lugal so far has only been found in such cuneiform inscriptions as contain Semitic words written phonetically. p. 5. p. then. 33-37. we are forced to the conclusion that 'Col. 49. for the present al)Ove. F(irffi«*BAN'"' ibidim. civilization was directed Erech. first new channels and prevented from stagnation its tiic ancient cults between the lower Tigris and Euphrates began to revive and Ur. 183. or in other texts ' which are written ideograi^hically. 'As becomi's evident from ' and from the extraordinary number of vases presented Cf. 'Cf. The Sumerlan . with long but unknown history. "'"''BAX*' itself. 38-43. I c. to Inlil. 608. Lugalzaggisl full dawn of Babylonian history as a giant who deserves our admiration for the work he accomplished. But of all. "Ur like a steer he raised to cf. UrunJ'i ma guda-gim king liia titles »ng ana-shu mu-um gur. II. location of our city. 30-3'3. is stronghold What is this "'"'B AX*'? Is That we have not to place it "in Suslan territory. it and Kish combined. The ideogi-am for lugal on an inscribed object of Tello and presented I. More on this suliject and on "the Semitic influence in early cuneiform writing all in general in another place. . He did not appear unexpectedly on the scene of his activity. llie top of heaven. We had been its prepared for the collapse of the ancient monai'chy on the Persian Gulf. U. by a king of "'"'BAX*' (De Sarzec.' Larsa - temples to shine in their new splendor.54 to find with into tills OLD BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS new and powerful regime. we can scarcely conceive. but. was raised by his energy and glory to a position of unheard-of Influence and stands out from the political power. My in above statement the result of a complete and exliaustive examination of the published cuneiform material which the peculiar form of lugnl occurs. and Nippur^ received equal attention from devoted patesi. the native city of the great conqueror. On the we have seen how these hordes were pushing gradually southward. note 1. also Ileuzcy in The Paitniif CitHhaiion. beyond question. c. Xo. De is Saizuc." 'Col. whence it came and how it arose. p." as Maspero' tempted to do. And yet when suddenly this great empire of Lugalzaggisl stands before our eyes as a fait accompli. After for a number of years they had concentrated their attacks upon the border fortifications of Northern Babylonia and had established a military station and kingdom in previous pages was but a question of time when the whole country in the South had to succumb to their power. by the preceding invasions and victories of the Xorthern hordes to which he belonged. Larsam''i ur dingirUtu-ge a-ne-yiilla mu-da ga. fertile steppes of Mesopotamia.

228 ff. it who gave us the first accurate sketch of this city. . in ifesopotamien. " from the lower sea of the Tigris and Euphrates to the upper sea. They aie abbreviated at the beginning or end. the the singular). p. are foreign names. pp. but not in the middle. as everybody can easily convince himself by throwing a glance upon Sacliau's plan in his Heise in Syrien and Mesopotamien. 23 I was supported in this." " from the rising of the sun to the setting of the tun " and others. and that in view of the total absence of a single ' If he did not adopt a Sumerian name when ascending the throne of Kengi and of the " kingdom of the world. the crescent or half-moon). however. 55 while doubtless derived from the well-known Sumerian form. 223. Sachau. finds it very natural that " Arabic ^ writers could conceive the idea of comparing with the form of the half-moon. in But the name cannot be regarded as the prototype of Sargon (:^ S/tarru-ke iiu) because. and Sachau. e." very probable. 75ff in Z. also >[iz.- and especially in his use of the ideogram da-ur. " and of great historical importance. for This correct solution of a our whole conception of the vexed problem becomes of fundamental importance history of the ancient East. ter. especially I.g. the ancient Babylonian ideographic rendering as " city of the is. Excellent. with which '^'BAN*' is doubtless identical. is masc. p. 204).i I (emuia . the ground-plot of Ilarran resembled that of the moon (?". 9. da-ur yeme. pp. " he may pronounce (speak) forever !" * Cf. as this Arabic description and valuable as bow " was a more faithful description of the peculiar way in Avhich Ilarran was built than any other. aside from other reasons. I have furnished a better basis for Winckler's ingenious theoiy of the original seat of the sharrut Mslishati. namely Harran. doubtless of Semitic origin (= <Za?*«). VIII. who was surely a Semite. e. tern.' shows his nationality in various ways. Cassite names. such as the use of certain phrases. I.. Winckler brought together to formulate a view which never found much in favor with Assyiiologists and historians. etc. 201 ff.. which remind us forcibly of the phraseology of the latest Assyrian monarchs. ' Col. this kind of abbreviation of a fuller name is without parallel in the history of Assyrian proper names. First of all. g.'' For according to Arabic writers. the Arabic writer is therefore more than a "Treppenwilz. because Harran was never mentioned a text before the period just stated. 'Part pp. . by Jensen A. All that could be gath- ered from later historical sources. esipeclaW j Albiruni (ed. pp.-mali-emxl'ci-ken. that Lugalzaggisi.. is The remark of built.'' I opposed it myself^ on the ground that his reasons proved nothing for the ancient time. p. '^Cf. Winckler. Cf. beginning with the end of the second millennium before Christ." it proves for our final location of ""'BAX*'. I call attention to the important fact employed by a Semitic nation. which look very suspicious in an ancient Sumerian inscription.CHIEFLY FROM NIPPUR.."^ There is only one ancient place in Northern Meso- potamia which could have been rendered as "the city of the -the bow" ideograph ically by Sumcrians. for " eternal. which and is name of the king must be read something like Sharru. Geschichte dtr Stadt Harran. 36. e. I{eise in Syrien vnd ifesopotamien. was invented and Furthermoi-e. Ill.. showing us that not only the ancient Babylonians in but other peoples were struck by the remarkable form ' ' which Harriin was Sachau. III. Altorientalisehe Forschangen f.

Euphrates). The text biia but must be translated lagal Kish':' -bi-na-dib-bi. When after many under Sargon I and K^aram-Sin finally the northern half of ancient Kengi. ' In the inscriptions of Ur-Nina wriltcn wilUoul ki. I simply had no use for if it (1) lugal Kish an ki 'u someit thing entirely ditlerent from lugal an-uh da tab iab-ba or lugal KISil.56 OLD BABYLONIAN IN8CKIPT10N8 reference to this city in our whole ancient literature previous to 1500 B. in his stele of vultures. had been at his disposal for some time. as the Assyrian equivalent of the Sumerian nam-lugal Jcalarna.' (2) that many other ancient (cf Shirpurla). 144 f.5. (3) could only mean " king of the whole heaven and earth.' (4) that all the ancient empires arose from city kingdoms. 11. which spoko and wrote its own language. as I have shown above. Wiuckler." a "' com- bination which Winckler himself regarded " naheliegend. C. p. Ilommel was of the opinion babylonUchen und cigyptisehen Oottergenealogie. note 1. In view of the leadfirst ing part that Harran had taken in the establishment of the " kingdom of the world " under Lugalzaggisi.' I inferred that shai' KISH meant originally " king of Kish. . pp. for was possible to say so in Sumerian. Harran. was definitely occupied by a Semitic population. Arch. city of Having fifth therefore demonstrated the existence of the Harran at the threshold of the failed to do. ("and " the f. it as the seat of a From the fact that kingdom until we first proved that the city (1) Kish and Kisli (shatu) did not only sound in really ex- alike but were even used interchangeably Babylonian cities the inscriptions. we could not speak of isted. c. 7 copula =: "and.Die Identitat der alteslen London {Proe. Kish was not the principal controlled leader in this whole conquest. docs not offer this at all. including Tsippur. which necessarily formed the starting point of my operations. it : 242). Soe. II.. that tlie passage in the latter text escaped my attention.are frequently written without a determinative. "and the king of KiA. in the present work. which Winckler although Edingiranagin's inscriptions. col." connecting A'tsW' with what stood before. I am now prepared to accept Winckler's I regard the title theory of the original seat of the sJiarrut kishshati without reserve. (3) that the city of Kish played a very important role in the inscriptions of Edingiranagin.. AUorientaliiche Furschungen II. pp. and hav- ing furthermore indicated the powerful position which Harran must have occupied as the great Semitic centre of the ancient Orient. 23 '' Cf. Harran became the seat of the Semitic sJiarrtd kishshati just as ^Nippur vicissitudes was the centre of the Sumerian nam-lvgol kaloma." inotherwords 87. which carried the ' same meaning I. and fourth pre-Christian millenniums. the old Sumerian title nam-lugal kalama. to the But notwithstanding in the great importance which must be attached was kingdom of Kish a greater connection with the final overthrow of the ancient empire of Kengi. p. DM. but by power in the Xorth. for the inhabitants of Babylonia as sliarrCd kislishati did for Cf. and from several other considerations. but also in the inscription uncartlied in (. 'Not only 1890). Parti. •Cf." which the king of course did not want to say. Nov. PI.

as faithful patesis. 57 the Semites of itic sliarrid Xorthem Mesopotamia. Lugal-kigub-nidudu preInlil. ebrated their victoiy. 80 of my published texts belongs doubtless to the same general its period as No. a detailed examination of pal8eograi)hic peculiarities leads me it to place it somewhat later. an even larger one of c. The later Sumerian nam-lugal ""ub-da-tah-tab-ha is title nothing but a translation from the Semitic back into the sacred Sumerian lan- guage bj Semitic scribes of the third millennium B. (3) one ( I) X VII. following:' We learn life from the "When Inlil. The decisive battle The Sumeriaus won it. and to regaid it as about contemporary with the inscriptions of the kings of Shirpurla. . occasionally appearing in connection with two which are victoriously clutched in its powerful talons^ —ba- came the coat-of-arms of the city and characterizes best the spirit of independence in its which was fostered sanctuary. strong enough to shako off the obnoxious yoke of the Semitic oppressors of Kish and Harran. disappeared and was translated into the SemTcihrat arhaHm. the loid of the lands. town to the leading position in the must be regarded '• as the centre of a national new kingdom of ShirSumerian movement against the became the principal god. announced unto Lugal-kigub- nidudu.xcavated after the preparation of my PI. No. plates. especially' Ur-]N^ina. his sented this for the great and joyful lot (which he received) unto ' beloved Cf. PI. power and glory of their warlike deity upon their sub- The cult of Nin-Sugir cannot be separated from the national uprising which Edingiranagin at last felt started from his sanctuai'v. especially with those of Edingiranagin. imijressed the jects. ruler: (1) X brief legend of three lines (cf. The lions. CHIEFLY FBOM NIPrUB. The precise connection l)etwecn the upper and lower porlions on cannot be given at present. in. (3) one of nineteen lines. thirty lines. and his emblem -the lion-headed eagle with outspread wings. which restored a temporary power and influence over the greater part of Kengi to them. but Ur seems to have furnished the new dynasty. Of the lliird class a fragment was e. Although No. which was fought must have been very bloody. C." Nin-8ugir. in the famous stele of vultures set Erech and Ur played a prominent part in this national war. 39). 86. and they celup by Edingiranagin. as I infer from No. Urukagina's successors. l^ot long after Lugalzaggisi's death a reaction seems to have set erally transliterated as Girsu. tliis ^Five different legends liave been found of of seven or eight lines (cf PI.. Heuzey's treatise Le» Armoiries C/ialdeennes. The former retained its place as the capital of the nam-en (of Kengi).37 contained the closing lines 17-19. 14). when he added lordship to kingdom. (5) No 88. Semitic invaders. Sugir gen- which Urukagina or one of his predecessors raised from the obscurity of a provincial purla. lord of Sugir. establishing Erech as (the seat of) the lordship (the empire) and Ur as (the seat of) the kingdom. 87. devoted their time to building temples and fortifying the city of Shirpurla and. wliich .

namlugal(a)da 15.^ which was the centre of the national uprising of the South against the foreign invaders from Kish and Harran. life.' mystery. who lived about 1000 years later. 290.and his son (?) Lugal-ki?al-si' we have therefore the first representatives of the first dynasty of Ur. 2. i. l>mgirNindin-dug ga amanin 3. — 1. who f. Amiaud.dumu-na-da. Cf. he could not have made a blunder which would scarcely happen to a beginner in Assyriology. 7 and We f. and Jensen. 198) should be sufficient. I am inclined to regard them as father p. \>. The old name Kevgl continued to live as an ideogram in the titles of kings. part 1. Lvgal-ki-gvb-nidu-du ne nam galyullada 2. The relation of this dynasty to Edingiranagin shrouded in absolute It is not impossible that its members ruled before him and were Semites Apparently who overthrew the dynasty of Lugalzaggisi. 8. Cf. 11 * * e. I can prove from other examples. UrumJ''--ma nam- Ivgal muagge 19. 86. Lvgal-sfdrge e. 2. Shamaslmhumukin. but the name of Shumer. nam-en 17. cf. Lvgal-kigub-ni-du-dura 9. No. gu-zi manade 13. 120 ff. nam-en 14. c. «/(«. lanithu nam-ti ' aniv-nas!ivb'\. was derived the Semites were soon again in possession of the whole country. the clear statement of George Smith original mistake (cf. I derive the Akkad. Recent Research in Bible Lands. from the city of Sugir or Sungir. in The use of : rfa =. 3 f. e. Cf. ' p. pp. by which Southern Babylonia was known to the later Semitic populations. IZ). With George Smith. "The king is the builder of the terrace. mu-ag-ge 12. pp. I. e. name of Northern Babylonia." in this text interesting. 292. in its political totality 'That Akkad became onstrated by finally identical with "the Babylonian empire and unity.58 lord for his OLD BABYLOKIAN INSCKIPTIONS CHIEFLY FKOM KIPPUR. etc. dingi'rEn-lU is . Sem- and they were derived from the two which took the leading part in it. 7. stands with Lvgal-ii-kieal on PI." which became the capital of the Sargonic empire. 1. also Honimel. Oachichte. hignl ki-a[ga-ni 1. 71 ff. How long the restored Sumerian influence lasted we do not know. ThaX Agade can go over into Akkad philologically. amu-shnb. 4. In his person and work we see but a repetition of that which had happened under Lugalzaggisi centuries before. meet the same use 1 f. No.. 296. and son. 37. p. ud 11. pp. also No. 11 f. But even if this was not the case. Vniig^ go. already Amiaud in The Babylonian and Oriental Record j I. nam-ti16. Ivgal kur-kur{a)-ye. .. 18. 89." was dem- Lehmann. di'nairEn-Ul-H 5. must hereafter Ur-Gnr and Dungi. (note).'" In Lngal-kigiib-nidudu. Master in reading cuneiform tablets as he was. finished Ihe place" := Sliarru-mavzaiu-vs?iaklU. Hommel and others (against Lehmann. . B. I cannot admit the possibility of a on the part of George Smith. Paradies. etc. cf. From the close connec- tion in which Lvgal-kignb-nidvdu. Hilprecht. 3. ma-na-da-tubbaa \%. 10. From the city of Agade.. The names cities of Shumer and Akkad are therefore but the historical reflex of the final struggle between the Sumerian and itic races. . . for. restored Sargon I finally what had been lost against Edingiranagin. "The king Or ' Lvgal-si-kisal. "unio. ff. Delilzsch.'' ^ \ . left many fragitents of vases in Nippur.e." Sharru thapik-kisalU. dam 4. in Schrader's K. a 6. dam. be reckoned as members of the second is dynasty of Ur. Ill 1. 67. On the reading of Sugir instead of Oirsu Ill. Dinffir En-Ul.

Fragments originally belonging to the same vase are connected by -1. cf. fragmentary. 9657 -f 9607 4. Obv. 2-5. C. the fragments of the most ancient stone vases so far excavated in Nuffar (approximately therefore the 1. M. . left... edited by 0. length (height) X width x thickness.from (the) end. . following pages. Plates 36-70 ayid XVI-XXX. III.. to the corresponding original(ly) . 9581 + 9643. sq. f. ibidem. Rev. Reverse. The numbers printed on the I. 41-43). inscription. Portions of these 15 preserved on the follow. Mus6e Imperial Oltoman. Maspero.. page. Dyn. 20. M. orig. 86 Date... W. the latter that an unknown piece is wanting between them. ants.. volume.. the largest measurement is given.... Nos. fragment(s). of vases in calcite stalagmite (from which the text had been restored before 9825 was found and examined): C. following page. ff. Nippur I.. beginn. M. E.. cf. confer. ibid. same place No. etc. Numbers. Keciieil. 15 (orig... Photograph m..or 4.. f. Autograph Eeproductions. JVI. inscr. N. size. Temple of Bel. they are arranged according to their relative importance. Bezold. B. B.. PL. d. 1. p. and denote the vase fragments used in restoring the cuneiform texts here published.. ang'ill. Measurements are given in centimeters. fr. I. circa. edited by G. oriff. Nippur little III. perpend.4. PL 37 and PI. on the S.. ca. Number. University of Pennsylvania (prepired by the editor). pages. North(ern).. c.. orli. S. or fragin. Plate. line(s). d. c.8. X 9. Coll.. Pbo. II. beginning. h. XVIII. Obverse. height.9609 (cf. Fragra. 21 other fragm. E. pp.. Whenever the object varies ia restored.5 Plate. Dynasty. Zeltschrift fiir Assyriologie. Description. a above Ur-Ninib's pavement in the same stratum as has proall duced nearly as PI. If more than one fragment is quoted. omitted. squeeze. M. On fragments placed in parentheses. A. re. 9608 + 9679 + 9)91 (belonging to the same vase as 9000. respectively.. restor. South(ern).. B.. T. omit. vol. 36 Text.. side of Z... col. Lugal-klgub-nidudu.Table ok Contents And Part Description of Objects.. refers numbers on Plate XV.45 X 2. variWest(ern)... Catalogue of the Babylonian Museum. column(8).. PI. 1).. Nos. beneath the rooms of T. C. angular. 9825. the former indicating that the breaks of fragments thus joined fit closely together. var. Recueil de travaux relalifs a la philologie et a I'archeologie figyptiennes et assyrlennes. perpendicular. right and lower margins of Plates 36-43 refer to C. e. Ab bee viations.. horizont. or resp. II. following. at least 30) 11...X -|-. Z. of a large vase in serpentine. diameter.... horizontal. East(ern).. cast. No. B.. 11. meter... Q. Z. follow. Ziqqurratu. Inscr. Collection. as a rule less tlian one or two complete cuneiform characters are preserved.

87 Lugalzaggisi. 37 86 Lugal-kigub-nidudu. Text. 39 .60 Plate.

B. III. 9616 li. in white calcite stalagmite. 4. M. of a vase in white calcite stalagmite (glued together). 4d ne of Ur-Shulpauddu. Fragm. 61 Date. Nippur li. 1. of a vase in white calcite stalagmite. 5.6 X4. C. Nippur III. 9954 + 9924. III. 5) li. Nippur III. the latter 1890). Two fragm.6 x m. approximately same place aa PI. . 43 93 Ur-Shulpauddu. Inscr.5 x 0. B. B. x9X For the end 16. C. M. Plate. Fragm. approximately same place as PI. X 6. B. 2 li. 9963 + 9998. 9952 + 9699 (the former excavated 1893. 5. M. 1.9 X 1. M. of a vase in white calcite stalagmite. PI. B.5 Nippur III. 9621+9617. 1. Two fragm. 10 li. 8. 45. Inscr. B. upper group 4 separated by a beginning on the right. 44 97 [Ur ?]-Enlil. XVI. No. of a vase in while calcite stalagmite (glued together). No. 44 98 Same Period. M. 46. Sq. B. same place as M. 96)2. 7 li. 86. 968C. 4 (orig. 20. of the 91.8 of a vase in biownish limestone with veins of white calcite. No. fragm. 1-4 written also on C.3 and an inscription incised . B. B. 1. Aba-Enlil. Text supplemented by the follow. 110. 43 92 86. Nippur III. 36. No. Inscr. cf. To the same vase belongs PI.4 X 6. of the hole 3. two Nos. beginn. Cf. Nippur III. Votive tablet in on C. 110.8 x 5. probably 5) C. impure bluish gray limestone. 1. Nippur X. approximately same place as PI.5 X 6 XI.3 x Nippur li. of a vase in dark brown sandstone (glued together). PI. M. of a vase in white calcite stalagmite. ^ Fragm. approximately li. 8 U. Between the 37. III. approximately same place as PL 36. Inscr. No.CHIEFLY FROM NIPPUR.1. M. C. Nippur III. M. For the beginn. PI. No. 1. 1. PI. 4. 43.1. the loose earth along the S. 86. approximately same place as PI.. 7. side of the Shatt-en-Nil. 3 li. 7 C. III. 9622. B. approximately same place as PI. 12. Nippur li. No. 12. + 9931 (the former excavated 1890. M.5.3..5 x 2. Fragm. Fragm. 43 95 Ur-Mama. No. No. 44 101 Same Period. 92. below surface. Inscr. round hole in the Parts of 2-7 written also centre. 43 94 Ur-Enlil. No. B. No.7x6. 9636. Two fragm. 1. M. 103 and PI. Inscr. 4 U. i li. No. No. Fragm. 1. C. 44 96 1. 8. Description. 6 li. B.4. 1. approximately same place as PI.2 X 1 . B. 46. 9932. En-shagsag(?)anna. Inscr. Inscr. 45 103 Same Period. Fragm. No. approximately same place as PI. 3 (orig. M. Same Period.5 x 9. Inscr. 2 groups of figures 19.8 x 1. 44 100 Same Period. No.7. of each li. B. M. of X 2.3X 1.2 x 4.2.2 X 7. which apparently belongs to the same vase as PI. the latter 1893). 36. 5 li. of a vase in white calcite stalagmite. 1. d. W. No. of a vase li. No. No. Two 1. of place in c. of the inscr. 43. Parts of li. U. Inscr. approximately same place as PI. 1. 3. 5) inscr. found out figures of the li.6.9 X Nippur III. 3 (orig. the last 2 line. Inscr. 1. wanting. 9614. approximately same place as PI. inscr. Inscr. 44 99 86. 86. of a vase in white calcite stalagmite.1 x 3. 9953. 9. 9618. Nippur C. Text. C. M.6.3X1. 9297 (dark brown sandstone). of an alabaster bowl (badly decomposed). C. 1. cf. 36.

No. 45 105 Same Period. Fragm. Inscr. No. 110. 47 114 Same Period. Entemena. of the same vase. 86. 103. III.9 X 1. B. approximately same place as No. Fragm. Nippur li.8 X 6. 16. h. M. 46. Fragm. 13. To the same vase belongs PI. 1. of a vase in dark brown sandstone (glued together). inside black- ened. approximately same place as PI. 9302. d. 1. Inscr. Nippur 111. B. 14. 1. No. C.8. Same Period. 1. 104 Date Same Period.7 X 1. No. No.4 x 4. 13 li. 48 115 9655. 103. 2 col. Text supplemented by PI.3. 4 + 3 7 li.1. Nippur li. 9330.5 x 1. 6 li. C. 9329. 105 aud PI. In3or.M.4 x 7. Fragm. 47 111 Time of Ur-Enlil. 1. M. 9951. No. 1.8. 104. Text supplemented by PI. d.1 X Ux 1. Nippur 2 col.51i. + 9690 (both excavated 1890). 4 C. M. M. PI.1 x 9. approximately same place as PI. 36. C. 36. 1. same place as previous No. orig. B. 10 X 3. of a vase in brownish gray calcite stalagmite. X 0. of a large vase in white calcite stalagmite. M. X 1. 17. C.5.5 X 8. Fragm. Nippur li. Inscr. 4 C. 36. M. 2 C. d. M.5. Two fragm. orig. B. Nippur III. 45 OLD BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS Text. Inscr. 4 C. 9600 PI. B. 7. M. of the same vase. No. 7 li. 9574 + 9675 4-9579. 45. 45.1 X 0. To the same vase belong the follow. outside black- ened.. two Nos. B M. Inscr. 101 and PI. 86. at the centre 17. c. at the bottom 8. 6 45 107 A patesi ('?) of Shirpurla. 103. 9 C. of a vase in white calcite stalagmite. III. 1. of a vase in grayish calcite stalagmite. No.2 X 15. Inscr.5 X 1. M. 4. 9597. approximately same place as li.5 x 1. Inscr. = 9328 (excavated 1893). 9302 : 9.7.8 86.9 x 0.5. No. of a vase in white calcite stalagmite. Nippur 11.4 as PI. 110.: 62 Plate. x 6. 45. O. 5 III.4 X 1.3 x 1. Two fragm. Two. B. 86. approximately same place 9682 No. 47 112 Time of Ur-Shulpauddu. approximately x 14.9623. Nippur III. C. III.4 X 2. of a vase in dark brown tufa. of the same vase (glued together).9. Nippur 111. 16. PI. 45. Two fragm. 105.9. approxili. No. 86. + 2=7 C. 1. of a vase in dark approximately sameplaceas Pi. same place as PI. Three fragm. Two fragm. a vase in bluish banded calcite stalagmite (glued together). B. C.. orig. 13. Nos. M. 46 109 9572. Nos. approximately same place as PI. Inscr. Fragm. of a vase in bluish banded calcite stalagmite.1 X 5 Nippur III. 5.4 X 7. 48 116 Entemena. X Nippur III. approximately same place as 9163 No.4. . II 9571 + 9577. To the same vase belongs the follow. 17. 9919 + 9920 (both excavated 1893). M. of. (beginn. fragm. approximately same place as PI.7. Nos. 1.7. 9t00. Nippur III. B. 6. approximately 47 113 A little later. approximately same place as PI. 14. III.8 X 3..2 Fragm. c. Inscr. 9. B. Description. 46. 7 li. No. 2 col. Inscr. same place as PI. Inscr. 1. X 11.9 x 2. 3. Fragm.3. 36.B. Text supplemented by 45 106 PI. + 9629.35. 36. 1. B. B.8. No. 7. B. 13. 46 108 A patesi of Kisli. Fragm. No. and end) 3 + 3=6 Nippur C.M. Fragm. 8 + 6 = 14 li. 13 III. of a vase in dark brown sandstone. 49 117 Entemena.2 x 2. approxitaately 46 110 of Ur-Shulpauddu. Inscr. 8 X 4. A patesi of Time Kish. mately same place as previous No. Nippur III.6. Inscr. li. 7.3 X 1. brown tufa (decomposed igneous rock).

Fragm. Baked clay 19. Orig. col. 6 C. copied there 1893. Rev. Cf. li. Rev.8X6.7 W.5 I-IIt. Fragm. 601f.8.6 X 1.8. flat. 6 I. size. (21 157 Orig. (?) 50 120 Kaiam-Sin. 36. 52 123 1. Hilprecht. No. copied there 1894. Inscr.) =8 53 124 11. 20. 57 126 Bur-Sin II. light brown (glued together). rounded.CIIIEFLT Plate. I wanting. (identical with that on his bricks). Fragm. 19. of a baked clay phallus. 212). B. The same.. No. 49 119 Sargon I.. Rev.' buttress of Z. clay tablet. 58 128 Rim-Aku.3 x 5. corner of the S. Rev. Assyriaca. PI.. . Diarbehir. underneath the Inscr. O. and Tlie Dawn of Civilizatimi. 4. Constantinople. Ca.5. Nippur X. (part of col.. Nippur HI. approximately same place as PI.4. 51 121 Ur-Gur. 86. 3(f. Nippur X. pp. M. 2+ 6 -f8-f 8 = 24 XXII. 9918. in Recueil XVII. 12. 7 col. Inscr. above the surface of the plain. size. PI. No. M.. Obv. 9932. in M. I R. Orig. x 1. Cf. copied there 1894. light brown. rounded. Rev. Nippur X.1 X 18. Rev. largest circumference 14.. 65 125 Ine-Sin. 12i in a black dense trachytic rock. Nippur li. li. Inscr. VII wanting. in M. f of orig. C. 1 m. approximately same place as PI. 86. Inscr. rounded. 8.) + 22 56 126 (Rev.4 x 1. Fragm. Fragm. pp. Gray soapstone tablet. The same. M. O. O. 196 Orig. slightly baked.5 li. Rifat Bey. 32 I. Orig. of an inscribed bas-relief in basalt. Fragm. Obv. Nippur m. O. Two fragm. of a baked clay tablet. 41 x 25 X 18. 7X5x2. (parts of col. Copied in Constantinople 1894. Constantinople (Coll. Dungi Dark gray soap-stone tablet. Dyn. Recent Besearch in Bible Lands. I.5. Rev. spots. 118 Date... reddish Tello. 64 . Constantinople. No. f of 58 127 Gimil (Kat)-Sin. 12 2 X 7. + 15 -f 10 -f 27 -f 35 -f PI.9 tablet. No. flat. 62-64. of a baked flat. + 23 + 21 + 20 -f 23 1894. O. I of orig. ple (Coll. 54 124 Dungi.6. of Kish.7. Obv. Hilprecht. reddish 20. B. below surface. . li. also Scheil in Recueil XV". X 12. approximately same place as PI. 6 col. 30 142 li. in M. Inscr. in coarse-grained diorite. found out of place in the rubbish at the foot of a mound. 6 (Obv. pp. ihid. 19. x X 3. (23 + SO -t- + 22 -f 22 + 25 =) No.) + 2 (Rev. Inscr. VI. 36. I. Constantinople. Obv. 9. of a vase B. 65f. Sq. size. li. X 4.7 x 8. Bur-Sin II. Door socket III.1X2. 35 X 18. pp. of a clay tablet. 22f. 87-89.. 12 63 Text. 14 3. I.) +4 (Rev. flat. c. Sq.7 Nippur III. of a vase in white calcite stalagmite. Nippur X.. III. 4 (orig. Obv. flat. Dungi.3. Maspero. Scheil. rounded.)=41 pp. 10 li.5 X 39.1 brown with black Tello. Rev. + 15+10=) orig. 19 (Obv..7. M. 256). B. 9331. dark brown.) =^ 13 C. 49 FROM NIPPUR.8 X 8. in M.6. + 19 + 32 + 31 + 31 + 30 + 21 =) No. ConstantinoPI. size. brown Obv. Obv. Inscr. M. 5 li. copied there 1893. 52 122 Ur-Gur. X 7. Copied in Constantinople PL flat. X 1. DESCBIPTrON. rounded.. 17 li. 6)li. pp. 7 col. Cf. h. rounded. laser. 4 col. f of orig. C. E. 36. 18 =) 126 li. 52. . Rifat Bey.2 86. Obv. 9 (Obv.

O.. 36. of the sau. Constantinople. Nippur 2.5 X 21 X 6. gold standard of 1 merchants " according to mana= 513 gr. copied there 1893.4. [Ka-dasli-manl- Tur-gu 4. unknown. same place as PI. 8. in M. 2. 8.1. badly damaged. I. 3 col. Nippur III.6 X li.breast. 1895). Ammizaduga. No. 6. 600 B.. Oiig. Sumerian in Old Babylonian characters. O. ellipsoidal and symmetrical. Two fragm. li.. 2. . No.. (I. O. li. 3. copied there 61 139 Cassite Dyn. of a slab in white marble with reddish veins. length 7. d. copied there 1893. a-[na ha^-l la-(i-sh]u Grig. M.) = 12 Nippur X.5... Fragm. 8. Constantinople. I. length 3. Inscr. O. Inscr. Constantinople. in M. No. 0. Seal cylinder in white chalcedony.75 luser. Nippur X. NipOrig. found in the loose summit (1895).. 61 134 lKu]rigalzu. 2 col. I. of an axe in imitation Nippur III. No. Fragm. 11.C. Constantinople. 9794). x 1.65 x 0. same place as PI. 61 1S5 Kurigalzu. Fragm. Oi»gir£n-lil.e axe. same place as M. 129 Date. Constantinople. copied there 1893. of inscr. sent from the ruins.. [A-naY''^Nusku be-R-sIm 3. 3 li. M.. Inscr. first x 10. Agate cameo. G. Inscr. New Cylin- York. . of I. Orig. Grig. 4. same place as PI. The tablet was written c.8 x 3. Nippur III. (1. ders Cf. B.N'o. in 5. Fragm.June. 2. 8. copied there 1893. X 1. Fragm.3. Inscr. 60 132 Burnaburiash.C.) +6 (llev. Seal and (Handbook No. I. Pencil rubbing.75 15. brown. and near to its Inscr. x 0. Eev.4 x 1.7. To the same axe belongs the follow.1. I. Mus. middle col.. O. in M. M. No.9 complete. weight Inscr. 15. A bearded standing figure in a long robe. Hllprecht. of an agate cameo.95 x 1. 61 137 Nazi-Maruttash. Orig. in Nippur III. 15. No. in li. hole bored parallel with the pur III. one hand across the top.6 Obv.8. 3 li. lapis lazuli. of 5 li. of a clay tablet. Inscr. 15. Orig. 8. d. i-lkil-ish) erased in order to use the material. col.. Assyriaca. 93. in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. I. 3 li. 2. . 15. 6 (Obv. 61 138 [ Kadashman ] -Turgu Lapis lazuli disc. 24. 6 + 5=11 li. the other lifted. 1. copied there 1893. 7 li. 85.8 15.8. of a lapis lazuli disc.3. in M. and third Semitic Babylonian in Neo-Babylonidn script. 1893. I. 59 OLD BABTLONIAIf INSCRIPTIONS Text.2 x 3. Constantinople.). 2500 B. same place as PI. Constantinople. Descriptiok. X shiklu Sq. 86. other Oriental Seals Ward. X (. PI. (C. 2. 3. Constantinople.2.25 x 1-5. 61 136 [Nazi]-Maruttash. 4 Orig. Grig. 60 133 Kurigalzu. 1. Nippur III. 3 2 x 3. traces of second and third 60 130 Cassite col.64 Plate. p. No. place Babyhmia. 12 of the Metropol. Inscr. No..5 grams. slightly baked. X 4. 60 131 c. in M. Ca. Nip)pur III. of an agate cameo. Fragm. 8. A border line at the Impression on gulta percha (in possession of the editor). note. approximately same place as PI. Brown hematite weight. sent din hurdsi datn-kar= "10 this standard shekels. 9 from the ruins. same place as PI.).. 391. 1. Dyn. O. debris on the slope of a moiiud.

11 (Obv. rounded. Constantinople. 63 146 Nippur X. Cf.15. Nippur III. Constantinople. VIII. dark brown. O. Orig. Orig. 7. 61 143 CassiteDyn..15. at brown . 16 + 22 + 1 . Nippur X. M.. 15. Boundary stone section in grajish limestone.. also Jastrow. Knudtzon.. rounded. I. O.3. I. Inscr. pp. Inscr.) + 1 (upper edge) +1 (left edge) = 23 irregularly written.1 of a lapis lazuli tablet the material of which had been used. 15. orig. No. at the N. 2. Fragm. Obv. 140 Date.) +2 (lower edge) li. copied there 1893.5x10. as PI. Constantinople. J>ingirEn-lil. p.5 x 24. of a slightly baked clay tablet. Constantinople. VIII. Unbaked 6. Orig. X Nippur I. Inscr. 66. XXIV.. upper left corner wanting. note 4. No. 39 in + 40 + 43 + 15=137 X 5. 5135.35. pp. 1892. Rev. 116-120. (margin)= 39 A. Orig. solid. 1. 1). 2. in M. Rev.2. pp. Scheil in Recueil XVI.5 X 18. 61 142 Cassite Dyn. the top c. baked clay cylinder. The Aniarna of a Tablets. h. object V R. 301-325. 44. of fragm. 4. light 64 148 Marduk-shabikzerim. No. IV. flat. M. copied there 1893. O. in M. in 61 M. copied there 1893. 67 A Mound of Many Cities. 15..5. 7.. Pa. in M. d. Orig. . pp. Cf. 8.. Orig.. animal rampant. flat M 147 c. 137f. No.98.. Lapis lazuli disc. Venus (all in the first row below) 2 animal heads with long necks similar to (cf. 141 CassiteDyn. copied there 1893. Loftus.4 X 0. 16.Jr. li. 214-219. I. ^"sr'''Nin-lil. Scheil in Recueil Tell XV. meaning of characters unknown. PI. 8. I.15 x 2. quarter of City III. +11 (Rev.. Nippur III. Nippur X. in M. PI.2 X 0.8X6X2. 15. same place as PI. 57. 8. ibid. 4) col.. Rev. of an unbaked clay tablet. 4col. Talcott Williams. pp. Obv.2 x 0. 184-187.. at the centre c. Nos. Cf. Plan of an estate. with an animal resting alongside (sim- . barrel shaped. Probably used as a charm. 62 144 Cassite Dyn... ibid. l^apis lazuli disc. sect.. 1. of a light black stone tablet. O. J. on May 14. 163-165. 1. dark brown. O. copied there 1893. in X 4. Cf. 3 II. nearly flat. I. Fragm. Rev. p.75 X pp. Inscr. Six fragm. sect. Baked clay tablet.6. same place as PI. Cassite Dyn. III. E. Descbiptiow. bird on a post. Inser. Constantinople. pp..8. I. Babylonia..8. 2 (orig. place unknown.. 65 149 Marduk-alie-irba. XXIV.9 X 1. nearly Rev. copied there 1894. in Bliss's book. (?) Tragm. Remnant 2. irregular. Constantinople. Constantinople. Obv. and Part I of the present work. 130-134 (worthless!).5X3. fig. CassiteDyn. pp. B. C. in possession of Dr. 61 FROM STTPPUR. 2. O. . 5. 236f. dark brown. copied there 1893. 62 145 Cassite Dyn. disc . Place unknown. Bliss. uninscribed. Conder. 8. found by F. 48. 68 . 65 Text. Philadelphia. 52-60 Sayce. same place as PI. O. No.15 clay tablet. pp. crescent. V R.. Hil- precht. in Z. Plan of an estate..2 li. flat. rounded.C. VI. of the sun.. Orig.CIITEFLT Platb. Tell el-Hesy (Palestine). Nippur III. also Bliss. 1400 B. : Figures facing the right. Orig. same place. Obv. . 57. nearly on both sides. M. 3. 5. Inscr. Upper Turtle (on the top of the stone) scorpion. Travels and Besearches. 36f. brown (glued together) Obv.

69. (written on -tlie outer surface) 33. also Verzeichniss der (in den Kiiniglichen Musien zu Berlin Esarhaddon. d.5 (fragm. No. Lower section : A goat and a sheep followed by two men. II. XVII 89 Lugal-kigub-nidudu. M. but reversed. Photograph (half-tone) Eepkoductions. 6. (Ur-Enlil) standing before a seated god and cised) worshiper offering a libation. 14. Hilprecht. 10 m. 6.. f of orig.).2 (fragm. Text. PI. C. Nippur. 17. ilar to Description. Orig. size. Inscr. No. p. E. the other holding a stick in his right hand.6 x 3. figures and inscrip- naked (uncircumtion incised. offering a libation. Votive tablet in XVI 37 Ur-Enlil. Same group reverfed on the left. B. 2 col. size. Marduk-ahe-irba. Constantinople. taken from a ca. PI. in M. Constantinople. S. same object without animal (all in the second row below) . 69 151 Fragm. partly covered with bitumen. c. 8 + 8 + 8 = 24 li. Cf. 57.2 (orig. Fragm. pp. li. in the Koyal Museums. 8 V) li.) X 8 (orig. Babylon.). 11 li. V R. one carrying a vessel on his head. p. object similar to without animal (below the 2 animal heads). : reversed on the Lower A gazel to walking by a bush (or nibbling liis at it ?).. 3 col. last object. Alu Hahba. taken from a sq. X 7. but Lower section A : V R. 1). The same.. continued. heflndlichen) Vorderasiatischen Altertumer und Oipsabgusse.. 22.) X 9. Inscr. Between Upper section: A the figures 4 li. of inscr.6 I. B. 57.3 (fragm. 5. I. Nippur III. Sq. The same. found out of place. in M. li. PI. Berlin. 4 (orig. 33 X 38 X 20. size. sect. PI. 94.) brick. O.3 x 6. 1). Two fragm. Ca. 3 col. sect. 10. a hunter about bow at her. fig. (written 70 152 Nebuchadrezzar II. W. 213. round hole in the centre. + 6 = 12 XXV. Orig.2 X 18. Nippur. § of orig. C. to the S. impure bluish gray limestone. on the edge) 15 x 6. 29 X 21 X 19. Eecueil XVI. B. botli hands lifted (cf. 32f. M. 68 1100 B. 6 Cf. 10060. sect. Unhewn block of white calcite stalagmite. Sq. seated figure. 66. x 8. Orig. of the hole 1 . object V R. figures incised.. Upper part of a black boundary stone. O.5.66 Plate. Assyriaca. in the the rooms of T. No.. not : debris far fill- below Upper section and section A naked worshiper standing The god draw before a seated god left. PI. M. similar to V R. XVI 38 Same Period. Pho. 4934). side of Z. . Inscr.7. in private posses- Inscr. fig. Cf. ing one of surface. Orig. Inscr. continued. OLD BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS Date. Pho. of a baked 18. (C. 57. of a baked brick from the outer course of a column. of a votive tablet in impure bluish gray limestone.) X 35 (orig. Constantinople. 22 + 23 + 11= 56 sion. below surface under the rooms of T. 33. large snake. c. Nipon the pier III.C. of Z. Scheil in 66 67 149 149 150 Marduk-alic-irba. yellowish. | of orig. 3. 57. sect. 43.

Cf PI. No. Nippur. 13 li. Brown sandstone 2i pebble (weight?). Upper : section Disc of the sun. XXI 63 Sargon I. Tell eUHesy (Palestine).) X 18 S. and Eev. Cf. 5 and Nos. O. found out of place on the 36.M. 86. (C. Cf. flat on both ends. solid. X 8 (orig.7 X 6. 9087. Pho. No.2 x 14. wearing a conical head-dress. XXiV 68 Marduk-shabik-zerim. crescent. 86. White marble vase. Meaning of characters inscribed on convex surface not certain. 9900. c.4 Inscr. 9692. 6 li. Cf. No. 9925. PI. No. Pho.'if referring to tlie Babylonian heavy silver mine [royal norm = 1146. an inscribed portion (containing parts of 11.C. 9628. from a pavement constructed by Ur-Ninib.. in M. approximately at the same depth as PI. B. 36. Constantinople. E. M. 68. Plates 38-42. Pho. B. 9683. side of Z. 10 X 15 X 7. XIX 49-61 Lugalzaggisi. Fragm. approximately same place as PI. Plate. 9603. 9685. 67 c. Cf. below surface. short staff (V) in each hand. 18. Nippur. (written) X 10. 37.. M. E. No. according to . in white calcite stalagmite. tiiken from a ca.20. 23. 9312. Lugal-kigub-nidudu. + XX 63 Al-usbarshld. from which (together with others) the text on Plates 38-42 has been restored. Nippur m. XVIII Fragm. taken PI. 8. O. Obv. yellowish. 4. Constantinople.1-1150. 86. clad in a hairy garment. from a ca. 9613. No. 31 III. oblong. on S. Nippur III. Plates 36. of vases C. Lower section 2 col. I. 9700. No. 9914 + 9910 + 9915 + 9913 + 9320. Orig. broken. PI. PI. Cf. of Pho. : CHIEFLY FROM NIPPUB. Fragm. III. No. of an inscribed bas-relief in basalt. 07 Desckiption. Venus. possibly " f of a mine + 15 " = 55 m.C. 150. (C.. in corner of inscribed surface.. A god standing on the right. below surface underneath the beginning at the bottom. No. left on both wrists. M. Inscr. 9695. 13 li. 9553). 9793). 64. 1054 grams. XXII 64 Naratn-Sin.. Brick of baked clay. Orig. Inscr. from which (together Nip- M. of a baked clay cylinder. 40-18 Date. 9. barrel shaped. XXV 70 Unknown. 9607 + 9657 + 9609. in white calcite stalagmite. shekels (equal to c. side of Z. 87.). (in possession of the editor). (in possession of the editor). of a black boundary stone. No. taken from a ca.6.). Ill. (C. long pointed beard. 10001. Constantinople. taken from a ca. Shar repeated on the upper Orig. 147. S. Nippur li. 3. PI. XXIII 65 Ur-Ninib. Fragm. 9634. 1100 B.6 X 5. 9611 + X + 9610. 9696 Cf. has been restored. 9479). 8.. No. E. Pho. (written) 3 (orig. 64. 2 col.. Text. bracelets hair. 36. 148. weight 1067 grams. PI. Cf. 22. XXIV 66. 37. Diafbekir. 50.1 gr. B. 120. Fragm. O.5 (fragm. Nippur. 4-12. Upper part inscr. Tablet of baked clay. XXV 69 c. Cf. 37 with others) the text on Plates C. 10. I. PI. 1400 B. 11-13 and the whole of 11.) of baked clay. light brown. of a brick (fragm. 9637. 10) broken from its side. 9605. B. Hair arranged in a net. Part of upper arm and both legs wanting. of vases pur. in M.. light brown.. M. B. buttress of Z. I.. Place unknown. left The character 3. taken from a ca.

General and distant view of the excavations at T. Arch of baked brick. first XXIX 74 Ur-Gur.49 Arab on each side . XXX 75 1894 A. XXVIII 73 At least 4GO0 B. stands on bis hind legs. Bas-relief in baked brown. 9477). left side broken in M. tail Pait of man's and of lion's and left hind leg wanting.7. Nippur III. 14. 206]). Constantinople. deep) traces of five Aramaic letters. sleeveless. 71. is View taken from inside the drain. On right side of plinth (0. N. O. OLD BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS OHIKFLY FKOM Date. tight. foundation of UrGur's Z. of Z. on the other. his left bis neck.C. upper corner and part of lower corner wanting. Nippur III. at the same time in defense raising his left arm against the sides of his lion's bead.. below the E. Description. No. The lion. h. d. h. fa9ade Nippur of the A section of the drain which surrounded Z.D. rise 33. 63. XVI. Nippur m. at the top 53. corner of Ur-Gur's Z.5. 10049. M. orien- talists. Front of arch opened to let light pass through. Lehmaiin in Actes du Jmitieme congres international des p. B. (C. seen at the bottom of the trench. B. C. 7 m. flat Bricks convex on one side. span 51. in upright position as found in trench.3 same place as PI.. 38. NIPPCJE. Bearded man With a conical bead-dress and mass of locks falling over a short. 350 B. taken from a ca. III. X 17 X 3. 1889.C. Orig. Pho. stage of Ur-Gur's Z. clad in knee resting on the ground. clutching the enemy with bis fore paws and burying left foot the man's left shoulder. M.C. XXVII 72 At least 4000 B. .68 Plate Text.6 off. Nippur III. Semitic section B. an III. left XXVI 71 c. 5.'I. Terra-cotta vase with rope pattern. having received a wound his teeth in over his right foreleg. at the orifice of an open drain c. laid in clay mortar. Man figliling a approximately lion. W. clay. He is thrusting his sword into the flank of a lion. fringed coat. taken from an immense heap of excavated earth to the E. below the E.





I r^ 9680 9605 ^^_i^ 9: ibid.f. 9905). 9680. % 5: 9609-1^9607. •3 ^„„. XVIII. 3. of mu-aG.9608.9903.rihe fuiyut to : erttsv. (9902. '9633) Xoti:»L. // :0. L. 9599.9902. (9633. (9633. 9608.« — « Trans. 9608. Phil. 6: 9643 9609+9607. 15.9581. 9680). tiro lines druivii by iiii. '4' j( 9904)- ^fl 959.9902). 9605. 3 on a*r-.. 9679 (9633. (9605. ^ 9634.. S. 99OT. W^ 959' 9679 12 : ibid. »=—^ ^-_ 2: ibid. 9632)- ^< ^*J_^^ 4: 9609+9607. /^ " 11 : 959H 9679. (9905. (9903. F>1 i( (9905)- 9643 7 : 9609.9633. 9643. 9657 •" forms 9903 1. 9607).. loooi. 9657. 9591. 9605. 3: 9657 • 9607 9609. loooi. 9605. PL S6 86 ': 9657-9607. 990. .(9901. 9643 .itnkf IJf Eriuiu-e. 9679.9607. 8: 9643. 9903 9581 9581.9903. (9633^- 14. >)^l> » 9903 9632. 9634). 9591. 9904. (96S0. Soe. 9581. — i 1.r-. 9703).9581+9643. 9703). (9902. 9643. ) 9605 9599. 9608). '3 X 13: 9591. 9608.3 .9608 J. J : Tin: !«. <=0 ^ 958. TOOOI. 9599.. 9605. 9643. Am. N. 9680. 9632.


: 9635^ 9620. e.--x gi^i^ 9627 7(. 9627. (9604). 9620. 9630 '^ 'm 9630 '/'•W'V f"fe»'g^ «/ ? ^ "^^ 9630 J. f. 9606. /p^ ) ctq^ 8 f. Phil. S.--< =^^9635 9 . . : (9917.S f. e. e- . . e. 1. Am. : 9604. 10 9 f- j: r.9606. . : 9620-9627 9627 i^MPH 7 9635. 37 86 Cniifiniicd 9904 9900 1. 9644.^4^^J^ 5 f.Trans. (9630.. e. 9627. 9917)- 2 f. 1."^' 6 f. loooi. 9917 9639)- 4-1 f. e. (9635). beginii. 9630. e. : (9607). from 4 cf. 9639). e. for 1. 9606. I f. C. e. also 99C». 9639. Soe. e. : 9606. : 9604.. Seofritl llneti miiifiiiy. 9904. of 3-1 restor. XVIII.: 9635. (9604). for 16 cf. c. N. e. It. • e. 9634. i. i. (9631. 8. 1 1 f. 9631. 6 f. 16-17: 1. 10 f. PI.


L. . 9584 J 9315. 9659. 9317. (9689). L. in. 9651. 9317. 20: 9317. 965949319). 9628. 15 : 9642. 9689. L. (9662. 9906. 9915. 9584 f 9315. (9587). 9583. 5: 8614. L. 23 : 9317. 99124 965S. r'ot . (9300. 31 : 9301. 9587). 9911. 9660. 9906). 8615. 1 1 . (9912-9658. (9692. 9906). 9906. 9307. 9674. 9674. 96594 9660. 9906. 9692. 9317 9660. (9689. (9300). 9645. 17: 9318. 9654. 9610. 9300. above text has been restored from the following fragments. (9659). 9300. 9642. L.9913. 9300. 9654. L. 9689).} ' t 9642 ¥ ^B y>^ II )\ 3^. 9654. 9654. N. (9913. I 9660 7^ 9906 ^ 1. 24 L.1 : Trans. . COL. (9583. 9700). 9642. 10 : 3: 8614.17)- L. (9912-i 9658. L. 9906). 9659 T L. 17]. (9317. 91 15 J 9913.9662. L. <^<.'?r/ <f <^ •^"— . o-^n 9674 has 3. 9610. S. 9906. (9587).9660. Phil. 9659. 9642). 9315. 9656). 25 : 9317. 4: 8614. 9317.-9659). 8615. 6: 8615. L. 9654. 12 : 9674. L. 29:9584+9315. [written on £. 96. 9317.(9674. L. 9656. 9300. L. li. 9300 * Omit. 8614 has 4 aiigul. 36 : 9317. J< 8614 this Only 8615 has oblique li. 9913. 9583. 9307). 8-9 : Ibidem. 9696 - 9637. Am.8615. 9307. 9317. 14 9642. 9642. /v * <H^1Sl =f= ] L- 9642 ^ ^^i^^ <J>1] -y *^B# . 9645. I . 9646. 9587). (9642.. 18: 9318. 9702. 9660. 9300 '/L 9300 NOTE. 9659. L. L. L.is 87 Col. 9645. a: 8614. 9637. 19: 9318. L. 961 (9313). 9301. 11 : 9696. L. 9911+9651. (9689. 9301 )• 27: 9317. 16 : 9642. 9660. 8. 9583. — The 1. L. 9318. 9654. 28: 9584 r93i5.. L. I. 9628. (9628. 9913. 13 : L. 9642. 9923). 96604 9659. L. (9692. 9906. 9907).9923). 9689. 9584 f93i5. Soc. frr. 9319)- L. 9301. 23 : L. 9700). (9659. 9318. if^ W2S?j^ "f=K* 8614 9913 9610 /c* 9692 '3 ^1^ 4: 9692 /v 9660. (9313. (9692. L. L.9611. 30 : 9301. 9301. 9317.9642. L. L. (9300). (9584. 21 : : 9317. 9645. L.9646. 7: 8615. 9645. 9702. 9921 +9313. 9662. 32: 9301. 9318. 9583. 9642.966o.9674.8615. 9645. on 9317 9317. XVllI. 8614. '9307. 9651. 9654 has TWlf 9646 has 5 perpendicular li. I. 9660 ~~ /.


9907. 9667. 9658. (9921. 9301. 3: 9921. L. 9921. 992i)- L. II begins]. (9914. (9306). 3. 3: 9921 L. 9642. 9662 |! /'5. 46: ^ 9921. 9683. 011 follow. Col. 9306 [col. 8 L.ont. 9625 ->•• i^>»i> 9598. [col.// ffl 95 'o. 9610. 5: 9913. 9907 each <> II 4 . 9683. 37 : 8614. 'til 9625. 9611. 9903. L. L. r6: 9305. 15: 9305 [col.9683. P ^-4—^ 9313 I ' 9313. L. 9304. 9642.9306. 10: 9611. 6: 9913. 9667. 17: 9624. 9658. 9913. . 9646). 9300. 9903 9619 HH 9903 resp.(9695. (9695. 8615). (96S3. 9646 [col. 9305.8615. 9667.9914). (9908. 8615). (9318). re. 14: 9905. (9667). L. L. 9624). 7: 9313. L. I ends]. re. (9695. 9306.(9595. Am. L.10 m // <^^ 7r. 9304). 9306. L. 9662). Fl. li ^-H-VgD=q^ 1=1:3 ^ /> 11 ii n li. Soe. 9673. II begins]. 9921 <>^ II . 9665.9695.96741. (9907. (9683. I 8614. 9913. (9300).sp. 41 : L. 9921 ' (^ 9913 *P=»> 9903. 9921. 9915 9910. il.iV horii'. 9313. 43: 9619. ^^x Same Illllll varr. L. L. II begins]. 8614. L. L. 9673. 9913. 38: S614. 9903.9625 <irfniF^ 9301. ends]. 9318. 9915 9910. re. (9598.9304.(9642.13: 9687. 9313. 9306. (9611. 9625.1 : 1 Trans.(9611. 9921. 9301. 9701. t II begins]. (9671. If. 99!5. 9624. (9306). 12: 9611. 9667)- L. 9673. 9646 9625 9646 8614 <h^^A=iffl TLD-^ <i> II ^g^ ^ < P-^ ^ <^ re. (9905. 9313 [col. 9903. 86j4 L. L. 9662 - 9665. 9667.is li. XVIII. (9905. 39 87 donihiucd Col. L. 93'3. (9667.9646. 9914^ 991°. F<J>3|-^l!>Slll 35 . 9922. 9619. ^D 9301 <^*^ 9695 9304 •9304 has 3. 9658. 1.9687.8614. 33'. 42: 9304.9674. 11: 961 9642. plate L. 9674. (9318. 9903. 9642. resp.^(y «H ^ 9921. 9905. 9642.9646. 34: 9301. 9645). resp. 9304 Co/. 9658. resp. 9921. re. 9313. 9695). L.9907. 40: 8614. 35: 9301. L. J I. L.9598. 39: 8614. 9907. 9913. 9301.9625. I. 961 964 9683.9304. 1: 9913.9905). 40. II begins]. re.9625.9922). (9905. 9905)- L.9687. 9598. 9695). 9915' Ip--^ 9915. 4: 9913. . 9701. 9662). re. 9611. 9683). 36: 9301. 9671). 9306. 9625. (9903. N.9638. 9: 9611 [col. 8614.9638). L. 45: 9619. 9015 f=<l f>»»> /" « 9. 9313). 9673. 9642 <> < / u Varr. "on 91 13 the last 9625 sign omitted 93 J8 99i3> re. Col. 9304. 9667. L. 9638. 9310 [col. 9915. 8614 has 4 angul. 9903. (9922).8614. |/r^#^ii 9304. 9671. 9913. (9673. 9905. 93io)- 44: 9619. 9662. L. 9619. L. 9642. L. 9674.99it> ^T L ^1 9662. 9304. 9306. 9665. 1 Mti^^^^]te 3'^^^ '^hr4) ^ <>l=0 pz{> resp. Phil. 9642.9306. S. (9914. 96624 9665. 9598). (9318).


9300. L. 9309). 9665. L. 9654. 9659 9305 I 9300 96S5 »> ^5 «•— 9651 ^ t=ca 25 ^ # F^»» ^M^ ->H <^3 9319 9663 /^3 . 9315. 9319. L. 9907. 32: 9307. 9314. 44 : 9673. 9925). 8614. re. pi. 9309. Phil. 42 : 9914. 40 87 Co)din>te<( Col. 9317)- L. 9317). 9663). 9659. L. ^ II ^ 40 pjl #^^ fO ^V # 9654. 9654. (9317. 18: 9610. 9312. i-'-p. 9656.9320. 45: 9915-79910^9320. 9925). L. 9305. L. 22: L. 38 : 9307. 9314)- L. (9307.X - 9310.9922). 9928). i6.9316. 9314. 9667). I 96604 9319. 9319 9319 S5 II <> 9319 9319 16 ^^ between Ml and Ni on 9905 |j<^FB-»4 20 IZj '7 K. 9307. 9928. 9309. L. 9307. 9624. li.(9310). 93'5. 9314). 9307. (9914. S614. 9660. 29 : 9319. 9925).9320. (9663. 9317 ^^'^ 9319 has seven. (93:7. 9916 9316. 9671 15 ^r^d^ I Col. 21 : 9610. 2 : 9910+9914. L. (9654.9320. (9317. Col. 40 : 8614 [col. 9660^ 9319. 9665 9656 <H=ii'> 45 ^7. 28: 9319. 35 37: : 9307. 46: 9915 99104 9320. 33: 9307. (9922. 9667. 96594 9319. 9308). XVIII. 9654. L. 9651. L. (9922. (9928). 9667). Soe. 9305. 25: 9300. 9315. 9668). (9651. ^ p^ * ?3>='<^ ™i ji ^ |>^ 31 R^ 93. Ill begins]. 9665. L. 9315. 9685. L. 9308. L. 966019319. 9660. S. 9312. 3. (9625. as I. 9654)(9907. 9317. 27: 9319. L. 9314 t 9316. IT. L. 9307). 9319. L. 9314 eight perpend.9 I 9610 /H 9305 '9 s ^o. 9307. L. 9665. 9656. (9646. 9685.9316. 9300.?7. 9307. I.n^ 7^^ "^^^->^>?l ^ * ^ n<i> ^/=tJ ^-^93: 9314. 9316. L. 8614. Ill begins]. 20]. 9316. 9665. N. 8614. 8614. 34 : 9307. <^#. 9922). 34 and margin) 9665 iO =t>F\F=r<}=i *B 9312 < 'ol. 9319. 9314. (9310. 9907. 31 : 9659-9319. 9317. 9312. : 23 : 9300. (9309. 41 : 9914. 9651. 9305. 9663. 9913 - 9320. 9663). (9668).8614. 30 : 9319. 9300. 20: 96:0. (9309. (9b6o. 9659^9319. 9925)- L. HI. 9665.?3'4> re. • 9319 six angul. 9314. 9308). (9309> 9315. 8614. L. 9610. 9314 9316. 9665. 8614. 9317. 9309). . 86 1 4. 8614. 9319. 8614. cf. 43 99144 9320. (9903. 9314. 9660-. 9319 i&- 1^8614 3% Same 'text van-. 9300. 9650. 9300. 9668. I 9305 9305. 9903. PI. (9624). 9315. 9625). L. (9315. (9319.. 9300 [includes the first three characters pf L. 9659+9319. (9651. 39 : 9914. 9300. L. 14 X 9611. 9654. 9922 lIQfBi •//.' : Trans. 9659-+ 9319. II li. 1 : L. 9922. 3'. 9922. ^KnF^I^ll /g^i. 8614). 9914. 36: 9659- 9319. 9314. 26 9300. * L. L. L. >^>l Hj '>3i7. (9310 [col.^|I^ 9319 c ^ 9319 9300 has five. 11. 9625. 9659 r 9319. 24 : 9300. on follow. 9305. 19: 9610. 9307. ML : 9913. (9317. 9673).. Am. 9656. 9610). 9314. 9625 Varr. 9907. 9654. 9307. L. 9314. (9305.


L. 10 9304. 24: 9666. 9928). S. 9307). (9309+9924.: Trans. 9903. 9913. 19624. in. L. 9929. 9670. 9673 1^ p^/[j 26 ^7 V 9670 9924 . ^^h?aK ^ ^ •=! :-)H4]<fc=< ^W^rcsp. 9313). (9663. 9928). 9311. 9312. 9670. L. (9929. 9929). (9927. L. 9624). L. (9668. 9929. L. (9924. (9313. 31 : : 9601. : 9308. 29: 9319. 3i L. 9619). 9619. L. (9928. 9924). (9698). 9670. 13:9308. 9663). 9308. 9663. 8614 O-. 9309. 7 9903. 9319 follow. 9319. L. Soc. 9924). 9666. 9670 9670 93 '4 8614 43 9646 "^T^^^ ^gx^-^ mil \ Hill ^^^ ^3 I 9670 A 14 i Q022 jp^ £7 resp. 5: 9903. 14:9308. L. 3: 9916+9316. 9924). 9913. <3(>io).9 9903 3 6 < 9913 10 ^h^:* I . 9924). resp. L. 23 9666. 25: (9666. on L. 4: 9903. PL 41 87 Coidhmed Vol. 9312. 9926. 9 : L. 19 L. (9928. 16: 9308. 9304. 9663. 22: L. 9926. 93C9+9311. N. L. 26 : 9305. resp. 9305 [col. 30: L. 9907.i| J'' 9309. 9651. 9601. : L. /d w\ ^^K S6I4 ^^^^ 20 '^F<3-<^ J< 9922 9660 V^H F^^£3. 33 9305. (9913. 9319. (9671. 9668 9929 21 ^ resp. 9307). 9610). (9665. (9697. 9928. 9601. 9319. 20 : : 9666. 9663. . 9903. (9928. 8 : (9304. 9928 GP *^r-7^ |^Hir. 9668. 9926). Vol. 9697. 9924). 9309^ x- 9924. L. 9619). (9665. L. 9927. 11: 9308. 9309. 9665. 9319. 9903. 9309-rx-9924> 9624.9313). 99^4)- 9666. on 9651 "^W^ ff^K:-#aiiO >HhlHlli. Am. 9913. pi. 9671. 9310. f' X. 9927. 17: 9308. 6: L. (9671. 9671. 9924). L. 9304). {9926. 9319 ^ir 9651 P=fr}> 'Varr. 9927. . L. 9601. L.f</^^Qffi •iO #iiS>i^i> ^9 ji • < 9619 9619 %\\ ^^u> la io 3 'T —^ I 9601 9697 ^i « 3 perpend. XVIII.-o n^^pq^ / 9305 9316 9624 28 6t •^1^9316. III. L. 32 : 96014 9305. li. 9916). 18: 9308. 24 9670 9310. 15: 9308. (9309+ L. 9319. II ends]. 9670. (9665). L. 13: 9308. : L. 9670. L. (9671. L. 9304). (9668).9619. 27 : 9309-i 9924. (9665. 9624). (9666. 9638. 9651. resp.(9308. L. 9305. Phil. 28 9601. 9663. (9304. 9924).


9319 m 93 '9 ^^^^^ ^^ H^r^ ' ^|^96ox+9305 U la JS. Ill ends]. 9319. '\ J^ Ill. 9314+9316 93". 9320.) L. 9307). 93'4-t 9316^9311-9923. 93T0. 9305. 93i9. 931649923. 9319. Am.93i9 131^9602 —™ 9319 9311 :^93i9 ^9311 ^V 9305 ^3>(\ l^TK. 93i4^93>6. 9305. Phil. 37 : 9305. . 9319. L. omitted • ' 9310. re. 9319 ^^ i 9320 89 L. • 9663 fMlfr<|=^: « <j 3 3 9665. 9307. 3 I 9305 ^rH93o5 9602 \ ' LLJ9319 o3n5 'T^93".93". 9310.9602 'CJ ^9319 H'^^eoo l^^r 9602 11 9319. L. 9319. N. (9320). 39: 9305. (9602. (9665. 9601 . L. S. 8614 [col. .35. 9316+9311. A2 87 (Juntinited Col. 40: 9305. 9602.L. XVII PI. 9310. 38 9305.34: j : 9602. S614). 9319. r/f H 1^^9602 7^ 9314^931649311 9319 ">• on 9923 ^9316.: Trans. 9307. resp. 9316. 36 9305. 9305. 9602. 93". (93'°.3 V 9305 -^l—^ 9305 j^ 35.9311. 9602. (9307). '\rZjU// 9665. Soc. 93?9. in. L. 9316-9923. 9602.9305 a i/^H^ ^ VurianU confiit ued. Col.


Trans. 91. fl. Soc.m 91 '. S.<fiiji:<9> !"J#^--f> Nimiberiuij of liiu. N. Phil. 94 .t oil the b(uti» of No. Am. XVIII. S.


U t5 Q5 . Phil. N. Soc. Pl. Am. 8.Trans. S. XVUI.


Phil. Numberhnj of linrx on th^ CJ. XVIII. Wo. XoK J04 and 106. PL Vy 103 Mistake of iserib^ * Ob/lijKf Hi. Soc. nOfoUowK Cf. 10 Numbering of linen on the ba>tu< of No. S. 3. miMakt of . No lOH . KcrUm. Am. /!//«/• a break i>f nevera/ liiieft PL 46 No.1.Trans. N. haMx of No. Erasure of ncribf. Read ^•''Vl\ NA. Jos and 204.


. S. XVIIl. PI 46 . Soe. Am.Trans. Phil. 8. N.


47 . Soc. PI. 8. N. S. Phil.Trans. XVIII. Am.


Trans. yv. S. Phil. N. Am. XVIII. S. Soc. 4^ lO So .


S. 4.Trans. Am. Phil. 3. PI. Soc. XVIII. N.9 05 CO .


50 . Phil. PI.Trans. 8. XVllI. Soc. N. Am. S.


51. An-. XVIU. 121 ^^^!f fM^ M^ I El 4P=JF^^B> III >7 f JJL27 ^- 10 T^ *v . Phil. PI.. Soc. N. 8. S.Trans.


Trans. Phil. Reveme. ^^^HH^ N§ ^ >ffr. 8. 123 Ob»er«e. XVIII.yffzr^-g> . Am. S. PL 52. Soc N.


Soc. S. N.Trans. PL 5S . 8. XVIII. Am. Phil.


Trans. 3. XVIII. N.. Am. S. Phil. See. PI 54 .


S.VI PL 55 ^ IS . X. Am. Phil. Soc N.Trans.


Col V. Am. S. Col. 0. III. Col. I. VII JO 16 30 Ji5 SO .Trans. N. Col. IV. Soc. VI Col. PL 56 J> 126 Ohvene. Phil. CnL J I. Col. XVIII.


3. I. Phil.s. IV. VII. Col.. jn-. acnbe. Col. . S. PL 57 Col. Soe. Col. U. 10. U. 'Co/. V. G. XVIII. S. VI.Trar. Am. 20: Eiwiire of the. N.


Trans. Am. PL oS J27 Obve Reverse. N. XVIII. •^ c . S. 3. Phil. Soc.


N S. Am. 8.Trans.9 9^ as . XVIII. Phil.. Soe. n. r.


.Tr«ns. Am. 3. N. m . 60 130 133 132 133 Reverne. Fl. Phil. XVIII. S. Soe.


8. S. Phil Soc.Trans. Am. PL 61 134 135 138 136 139 140 141 142 ^ij^ 137 143 . N. XVIII.


145 Obverse. Soe. S XVIII. Reverse. Reverse.Trans. Am. a.. N. . Phil. PL ea 144 Obverse.


8. Am. Fl.* 146 '('oL III. ^ the tr"! the re-'it i^ eruMire of the ncribe. eiwiii-e tif S8: Rend -^t— ix the xerlbe. 17: Renil Vol. Soc. 63 . S.Trans. N. Ill. . Phil. XVIII.


PL 64 WS 2 =5 1^ £ !? ^ ^ . S. 3. Am. XVIII. K. Phil. Soc.Trans.


S. 10 15 20 . Phil. XVIII. Soc. PL 65 149 Col I. N.Trans. Am. 8.


Ain. Phil.. II. ri titi 149 C(f)dimied Col. 21 Col. 10 15 ASA.Trans. Soo. XVIII. 3. ^^^>JS««^' . J. N S.


Phil. S.Trans. II. 8. III. Soc. XVIII. Am. Col. 67 149 (hidimu'd Col. N. Pi. Uj ' < •'- ' ^^>'^ '^ .


68 . S. Phil. Soc. N.Trans. Am. PI. XVIII. 8.


XVIII. N. 8.TiHiirs. S. . So<- . Am Phil. 3: Erasure nf the scribe. Pi 611 151 V) "L.


8. PL 70 >Q .Trans. Phil. Ann. Soc. N. S. XVIII.



/' X .



N. S. 3.•> VASE FRAGMENTS OP LUGALKIGUBNIDUDU. Nippur. XVIII to f 3^ : yi-^ \- > -. Phil.Trans. Am. . XVIII. PL. Soc.




S.Trans.. XVIII. Soe. N. 3. Phil. XX 62 VASE or ALUSMARSMID (URU-MU-USH]. PL. Nippur. Am. .


. PL. S.Trans. Soc. XXI 68 BRICK OF SARGON Nippur. Am. N. XVIII. 3. I. Phil.


. PL. Phil. Soo. XVIII. Am. 8.rrans. N. XXII \ w 5f^:'^n 64 INSCRIBED BAS-RELIEP OF NARAM-SIN.. S. Diarbekir.


N.Trans. Soe.. . S. PL. 3. Am. XXIII BRICK OP UR-NINIB-Nippur. Phil. XVIII. Inscription begins at bottom.


— Place unknown. 67. Phil.Trans. 68. XXIV ^asaaiffSzsfrr-: 66 67 68 66. N. S. Pragm. XVIII. Mardukshabikzerim. Soe. CLAY TABLET (OBVERSE AND REVERSE). Am. . PL..-Tell of a barrel-cylinder of el-Mesy. 3.


XXV \ X \ 68 70 69.Trans. Am. of a Boundary Stone. 3. PL. 70. Inscribed Pebble. xvni. Phil. Nippur. N. .. Soe. S. Fragm.


3. N.. . XVllT. Am. Nippur. XXVI ^ BAS-KELIET IN **/ 71 CLAY WITH AN ARAMAIC INSCRIPTION. Pliil. S. Sop.Trans. PL.


J-onild in C. It stood 7 ni. below eastern fotnuiation of /iggnrrat.yi m. . wliich consists rntii tlv of liurntil bricks of Sargon and Narfini-Sin. . soTitli-cast from an the top of which was c.Trans. 2. Soc.s.. Heicjlit. N. I'r-tiur'. atui nl. S.. Am. Phil."^. b*low a pavement altar. S3 cm. 4000 B.s an tiprijjht position .49 ni. dinnieter at the top. C— Nippur. liij^lier than tliat of the vase. XVIIl.05 63. PL. XXVIl r ^i TERKA COTTA VASE WITH ROPE PATTERN. 3. tlie I .5 cm.


cm. XVIII. Phil. S. LAID IN CLAY 31 MORTAR. helow a pavement which consists entirely of burned bricks of Sargon I and Naruui-Siii. l-ruut uf arcli opened to let light pass through. 4000 B. XXVIII ARCH or BURNED BRICK 71 sante. rise. PL. Soc. hiyh. below the foundation of the m. 7 m. C. an open drain passing nndtr the eastern corner of L'r-Oiir's Xigjjnrrat. span.-Nippur. C. N. 33 em. 57 . Am. c. 8. At the and orifice oi 4. View taken from iusiUe the drain. cm.Trans.




2— Kxcavated rooms on the southeast side of the temple and separated from the latter hy a street. 7 (9)— Three stairs of the Ziggurrat. 5— Modern building erected by Mr.-SOUTIi-EAST 1. Phil. i— Kast corner of Ir-Ciiir's Ziggurrat. Haynes in 1S<J4. Am. PL. 4— Deep trench extending from the great wall of the temple enclosure to the facade of Ur-Our's Ziggurrat. leading to the entrance of the Ziggurrat. S. 3— Causeway built by Ur-Gur. XXX r GENERAL VIEW OF THE EXCAVATIONS AT THE TEMPLE OP BEL. N. after an unsuccessful attempt by the Arabs to take his life. d. .6 (8). SIDE.. XVUI.Trans. Soe.

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