Silencing the Sounded Self: John Cage and the Intentionality of Nonintention Christopher Shultis The Musical Quarterly

, Vol. 79, No. 2. (Summer, 1995), pp. 312-350.
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Silencing the Sounded Self: John Cage
and the Intentionality of Nonintention
Christopher Shultis
"What we require is silence; but what silence requires is that I go on talking."

-John Cage, "Lecture on Nothing"

This essay will address John Cage's inclusive desire to allow room for silence in both his musical compositions and his written texts. Cage himself noted that "silence" had been a lifelong concern: I've lately been thinking again about Silence, which is the title of my first book of my own writings. When I was twelve years old I wrote that oration that won a high school oratorical contest in Southern California. It was called "Other People Think," and it was about our relation to the Latin American countries. What I proposed was silence on the part of the United States, in order that we could hear what other people think, and that they don't think the way we do, particularly about us. But could you say then that, as a twelve year old, that I was prepared to devote my life to silence, and to chance operations?It's hard to say. Proving a lifelong devotion to chance operations, Cage's method of achieving silence, would be difficult to accomplish. However, Cage's entire body of work has, from the very beginning, been devoted to the inclusion of silence in an otherwise sound-filled world. One of the first ways in which Cage allowed silence into music was by emphasizing duration instead of harmony. In the 1930s Cage studied with Arnold Schoenberg, who immigrated to Los Angeles just prior to World War 11. Regarding his studies, Cage wrote: "After I had been studying with him for two years, Schoenberg said: 'In order to write music, you must have a feeling for harmony.' I explained to him that I had no feeling for harmony. He then said that I would always encounter an obstacle, that it would be as though I came to a wall through which I could not pass. I said: 'In that case I will devote my life to beating my head against that wall.' "2 Cage found two allies in his battle with harmony: the French composer Erik Satie and Anton Webem, a former student of Schoen-

Siknring the Sounded Self 3 13

berg. In a lecture given at Black Mountain College in 1948, Cage wrote: In the field of structure, the field of the definition of parts and their relation to a whole, there has been only one new idea since Beethoven. And that new idea can be perceived in the work of Anton Webern and Erik Satie. With Beethoven, the parts of a composition were defined by means of harmony. With Satie and Webern they are defined by means of time lengths. The question of structure is so basic, and it is so important to be in agreement about it, that one must now ask: Was Beethoven right or are Webern and Satie right? I answer immediately and unequivocally, Beethoven was in error, and his influence, which has been as extensive as it is lamentable, has been deadening to the art of music.3 For Cage, duration became a means of getting around the difficulty of "having n o feeling for harmony." A n d by citing Webern, Cage was able to use Schoenberg's most famous pupil as a n example of how harmony was a n erroneous method of structuring music. It was silence that pointed Cage away from a harmony and toward duration. According to Cage, harmony as a structuring method does not include silence: If you consider that sound is characterized by its pitch, its loudness, its timbre, and its duration, and that silence, which is the opposite and, therefore, the necessary partner of sound, is characterized only by its duration, you will be drawn to the conclusion that of the four characteristics of the material of music, duration, that is, time length, is the most fundamental. Silence cannot be heard in terms of pitch or harmony: It is heard in terms of time length.4

At this point, one could very well question Cage's logic. Does it follow that since duration, by nature, includes silence, while harmony, in and of itself, does not, duration is the only possible approach to structuring music? Obviously not. However, it does shed light o n Cage's motivation behind believing that such was the case. Harmony requires the imposition of unity upon musical material. It is a humanly contrived method of writing music which cannot be directly found in nature. C-major chords may be naturally derived, but their structural relationships, as found in so-called tonal music, obey a carefully and humanly constructed system of rules. Cage, o n the other hand, was looking for justification outside of any musical tradition. H e was attempting to uncover a structural connection between the making of music and the natural world. It had little to do with how music

3 14 The Musical Quarterly

is conceived; it was instead an attempt to uncover how music is perceived. In other words, Cage was paying more attention to how we actually hear music than he was to how we think about music. When we consider how music is heard, unrelated to how it is made (if that is possible), then, indeed, duration is more fundamental than harmony. We hear sound and silence, and we can do so directly with neither thought nor preconception. To hear harmony, as a preconceived structure of relationships between tones, requires a process that includes a knowledge of certain musical procedures and traditions that have as much to do with thinking as they do with hearing. In 1948, when he wrote his "Defense of Satie," Cage still saw composition as a unifier of experience, "an activity integrating the And, in another text, opposites, the rational and the irrati~nal."~ Cage extends such abstractions into concrete musical terms: "The material of music is sound and silence. Integrating these is composing."6 However, by looking toward natural rather than human designs, he was already on a path away from such ordered procedures: "there is a tendency in my composition means away from ideas of In order toward no ideas of ~ r d e r . " ~ 1958 Cage delivered a lecture at Darmstadt entitled "Composition as Process," from which the previous two citations are drawn. The first part of this lecture discusses changes in his approach to composition. These changes describe a process away from "ideas of order," not away from order itself. The question continually raised in Cage's work is the question of whose order will determine the course of the art experience. And the issue of duration is a first step away from human derivation and human control. From the 1930s onward, Cage used what is known as square root form, one of his first attempts at structuring music by duration rather than by pitch. Macrostructure and microstructure coincide, so that if there are four measures per unit there will be four units; and if the internal phrasing of the bars is 1-2-1, the external division of parts (within the large structure of four units) will also be 1-2-1. For example, in his First Construction in Metal, there are sixteen measures in each structural unit. To make the square root, there are, consequently, sixteen units. The large structure is divided symmetrically as follows: four, three, two, three, four, thus totaling sixteen, and each individual unit is similarly divided. This method, used in most of Cage's music during the 1930s and 1940s, eventually produces a formal structure independent of its content. Content, in this period, was still primarily a matter of taste, as can be seen, for example, in Cage's selection of piano preparations for his Sonatas and Interludes: "The materials, the piano preparations, were chosen as one chooses shells

while Cage's innovations regarding compositional form move from music to text. of something and nothing: "I have nothing to say and I am saying it and that is poetry as I need it. The whole is divided into five large parts."1° We are thus informed of exactly how Cage made the structure. also cited above. 7. The most important of those ideas is the coexistent nature of sound and silence. in fact.Silencing the Sounded Self 3 15 while walking along a beach."13 This remark. it was conceived. Cage's "Lecture on Nothing" contains certain important ideas not previously discernible in his musical work. 6. This lecture is the first published instance in which Cage took structural ideas from music and used them in the creation of texts." Its . written soon after he wrote Sonatas and Interludes (1946-48). The forty-eight measures of each unit are likewise so divided. or what Cage at that time regarded as the integration of mind and heart. First and foremost is the distinction between "having nothing to say and saying it"12 and the "integration of opposites. an integrating of rational and irrational would see structure (form) as rational and content as irrational. "8 Interchangeability of content in a fixed structure is equally apparent in his "Lecture on Nothing" (1950). The form was as natural as my taste permitted. Cage's writing is nonintentional. certain innovative ideas move from text to music. in keeping with my thesis that music and text interact one with another. In this case. " ~ The "Lecture on Nothing" uses square root form and is described as such by Cage. I essentially make use of the same composing means as in my m u ~ i c . There are forty-eight such units. l1 As a formal invention. 14." O n the other hand. Cage wrote: "[Nlothing about the structure was determined by the materials which were to occur in it. And it is this approach that characterizes a continuing relationship between Cage's music and his texts through the mid-1970s (at which point this study ends): "In writing my 'literary' texts. so that it could be as well expressed by the absence of these materials as by their presence. still present in the relation between form and content. text second. However. through an introduction to the published lecture: "There are four measures in each line and twelve lines in each unit of the rhythmic structure. 14. demands a very specific intention." What still applies as a formal idea no longer holds as content. whereas integration. regarding the form of the sonatas. each having forty-eight measures. Thus. is from the beginning of Cage's "Lecture on Nothing. Cage's use of square root form does suggest the direction of music first. in a way characteristic of many of his later texts. in the proportion 7.

Consequently. The music tells the story of the dangers of the erotic life. according to him. It was through Gita Sarabhai. A sober and quiet mind is one in which the ego does not obstruct the fluency of the things which come in through our senses and up through our dreams. "having nothing to say" was the reason that allowed Cage to continue composing. then all artists must be speaking a different language. I thought. that he would no longer compose music until he found a reason other than communication for writing it. This Absolute is the God-without-form of Hindu and Christian mystical phraseology. He was especially influenced in this regard by reading Aldous Huxley's anthology The Perennial Philosophy. an Indian musician who was studying Western music with Cage.316 The Musical Quarterly origin in Cage's aesthetic is twofold. and thus speaking only for themselves. the environment in which we are. in fact. The last end of man. it was of great . more often than not. A prepared piano piece entitled The Perilous Night (1943-44) is a famous example. First."14 After a critic wrote that the last movement sounded like "a woodpecker in a church belfry. and obviously I wasn't communicating this at all. Or else. this led music away from self-expression and toward selfalteration through the influence of our natural environment: "We learned from Oriental thought that those divine influences are."16 "Having nothing to say" allows that environment the opportunity to speak." Cage responded: "I had poured a great deal of emotion into the piece. l 7 This book describes a shared religious mysticism found in both East and West: The divine Ground of all existence is a spiritual Absolute. from that point on. miserable failures. ineffable in terms of discursive thought. it is a process of diminishing the role of the self in the creative act. In Cage's work.' " According to Cage. Based on "an Irish folktale he remembered from a volume of myths collected by Joseph Campbell. partially as a result of his studies of Eastern religion and philosophy beginning in the 1940s." The Perilous Night concerns "a perilous bed which rested on a floor of polished jasper. is unitive knowledge of the divine Ground-the knowledge that can come only to those who are prepared to "die to self" and so make room as it were. for God. l8 Cage. but (in certain circumstances) susceptible of being directly experienced and realized by the human being. that he learned "the traditional reason for making a piece of music in India: 'to quiet the mind thus making it susceptible to divine influences. tried to emphasize the removal of separations between West and East. if I were communicating. Cage's attempts at art as communication were. the ultimate reason for human existence."15 Cage decided. Second.

O n one page we are told that everything is indivisibly one Mind.' "I9 This approach to composition was no longer cultural. such quietude was a reaching out into the world around us. One need not fear about the future of music." Having nothing to say and saying it goes an important step further than just having nothing to say." "What silence requires is that I go on talking." Such statements are obviously paradoxical and thus obviously influenced by Cage's study of Zen. He used the example of his visit to an anechoic chamber which was supposed to produce a silent environment: "I entered one at Harvard University several years ago and heard two sounds. Lou Harrison discovered while "reading in an old English text. for Cage. there "was no silence. In his introduction to The Zen Teaching of Huang Po. Cage's first recorded instance of unintended sound was textual: "I have nothing to say and am saying it. in the dualistic sense of sound versus silence."21 And while silence as a phenomenon outside the self had entered into several of Cage's musical compositions. Until I die there will be sounds. .Silencing the Sounded Self 3 17 significance when. It implies what Cage makes specific in his "Lecture on Something" (1950): "This is a talk about something and naturally also a talk about nothing. it was universal in the original sense of the Found in all cultures. About how something and nothing are not . the written content is nondual in nature: "I have nothing to say and 1 am saying it. his "Lecture on Nothing" is the first ins~ancein which silence is produced through such paradox: within the self via what Cage considered his most important legacy. "having shown the practicality of making works of art n ~ n i n t e n t i o n a l l"22. one high and one low. nondualistic realization of what silence really was. ~ Nonintention had become."23 His visit had proved to him that. the translator. I think as old as the sixteenth century ." There were only intended and unintended sounds. writes: "At first sight Zen works must seem so paradoxical as to bewilder the reader. a new. And they will continue following my death. . after learning the Indian reason for making music. John Blofeld. on another that the moon is very much a moon and a tree indubitably a tree. he informed me that the high one was my nervous system in operation. a removal of the separation between self and world-a nondual view of reality. in that form and content still combine rational and irrational. When I described them to the engineer in charge. he found this reason given for writing a piece of music: 'to quiet the mind thus making it susceptible to divine influences. the low one my blood in circulation. although Cage's "Lecture on Nothing" is compositionally dual. Thus. both in the 1930s and 1940s.

namely. seems to be exclusively preoccupied with the chance aspect of things. Cage saw it as a way of getting outside the mind altogether. If we leave things to nature. As Cage frequently mentioned.26 In his foreword to the Richard Wilhelm translation. it did serve as a very effective method of composing. we see a very different picture: every process is partially or totally interfered with by chance. Cage used the 1 Ching (Book of Changes) as a source of response to his compositional questions. when 4'33" received its premiere. We have not sufficiently taken into account as yet that we need the laboratory with its incisive restrictions in order to demonstrate the invariable validity of natural law. It was first publicly mentioned in an address entitled "A Composer's . The Chinese mind.25 While those conversant with Zen might not view Cage's practice as Buddhism. namely. namely. to respond to his compositional questions. And that I would do it with a means that was as strict as sitting cross-legged. C. as I see it at work in the 1 Ching. and the shifting of my responsibility from the making of choices to that of asking questions. a way of allowing nature. It is through chance operations that Cage begins making unintentional music.3 18 The Mwical Quarterly opposed to each other but need each other to keep on goingn2" And while formally Cage does not make nonintentional texts until long after having accomplished this in musical compositions. it was an extremely unorthodox way of Zen practice: Blather than taking the path that is prescribed in the formal practice of Zen Buddhism itself. Beginning around 1950. the idea of a "silent piece" was conceived earlier than 1952. G. he does manage to address the idea of nonintentional content in a text before he is able to do so in music. sitting cross-legged and breathing and such things. For Cage. the making of music. I decided that my proper discipline was the one to which I was already committed. the environment. or what Zen would call Mind with a capital M. the use of chance operations. so much so that under natural circumstances a course of events absolutely conforming to specific laws is almost an exception.27 And while Jung used the I Ching as a means of discovering the unconscious mind within. Jung writes: The axioms of causality are being shaken to their foundations: we know now that what we term natural laws are merely statistical truths and thus must necessarily allow for exceptions.

it changes! It doesn't wait for us to change. Cage was still making a fixed object. the world as it is. several new desires (two may seem absurd but I am serious about them): first. It is more mobile than you can imagine. . that the function of art is to imitate Nature in Cage her manner of ~ p e r a t i o n . following nature in her manner of operation proved to be problematic for Cage. Even if. It is a process. 4'33" allows the unintentional into music. to compose a piece of uninterrupted silence and sell it to the Muzak Co. this piece exemplifies a movement toward the silence of "nothing" and the acceptance of nonintentional sounds. As such. " ~ ~ used the I Ching as a way of "imitating nature in her manner of operation. or the composer. where "something and nothing" are unopposed." given on 28 February 1948 before the National Intercollegiate Arts Conference at Vassar College: I have. . occidental and oriental. that means that it is not there. he did indeed find a method of making a process parallel to the seductiveness of "the color and shape and fragrance of a flower." It was Cage's use of chance operations that made possible a formal design to place the silence in. the length of that frame was chosen nonintentionally through chance operations. The world. It will be 3 or 3f minutes long. and I still do." and by constructing his 4'33" through chance operations. Coomeraswamy in his book The Transformation of Nature in Art."30 4'33" also insufficiently addresses Cage's professed nondualism. set forth by Ananda K. one hears nature. The ending 28 will approach imper~eptibilit~. This eventually ran counter to Cage's notion that things "become" in processes rather than as fixed objects: "You say: the real. And when one listens to the silence of 4'33". the real is not an object. . the doctrine about Art. But what about intentional sounds? Are these accepted? A t what point in 4'33" does Cage allow the performer. But it is not. He realized that even though 4'33" was made solely of nonintended sounds. for . for instance. existing as an object. This "single idea" became a process of making music that Cage learned from Ananda Coomeraswamy: "I have for many years accepted. The performer simply sits and listens as the audience listens. However. as in the case of 4/33". it becomes! It moves. he was still providing the frame.Sikncing the Sounded Self 3 19 Confessions. It will open with a single idea which I will attempt to make as seductive as the color and shape and fragrance of a flower. You are getting closer to this reality when you say as it 'presents itself'. these being the standard lengths of "canned" music and its title will be Siknt Prayer.

he subsequently concluded that not only were any and all sounds "music. "Variations I I I for one or any number of people performing any actions. Then. Something and nothing can be only unopposed if both intention and nonintention equally coexist. (Variations I11 [1964]. remove it. if we decided to do so" . The instruction page then reads: Two transparent sheets of plastic.). from December 1962 to January 1963. I just drew them quickly. while I was at Wesleyan University.32 . is so open. except for the fact that it is to be "performed. in this first piece I had had five lines on a single transparent sheet. one of which. and each performer making measurements that would locate sounds in space. . ~ ~ Next followed a piece without measurement entitled Variations 111." There are no prescribed genres. is the measurement of time: Since Cage invariably takes the intellectual leaps his radical ideas imply. If a circle does not overlap at least one other circle. Richard Kostelanetz implies that Variations 111 solves some inherent problems with the published version of 4'33". each having a complete circle. Cut the sheet having circles in such a way that there are forty-two sheets." The actions themselves are also undetermined except for the possibility that there will be actions. of course. to produce the "something" of intentional sounds? How can something and nothing be unopposed if only "nothing" is allowed? These are. one having forty-two undifferentiated circles. At Wesleyan while talking to some students it suddenly occurred to me that there would be much more freedom if I put only a single line or a single notation on a single sheet. written in the short period of two months. So I did that with Variations I1 but it still involved m e a ~ u r e r n e n t . for unintentional music is indeed with us-available to the ear that wishes to perceive it-in all spaces and at all times. Let these fall .320 The Mwical Quarterly that matter. Remove also any smaller groups of circles that . and as such their answers are obvious. This sent Cage in the direction of indeterminacy. The published score includes a title page with the statement. the other blank. either in music or any other medium. he once told me over dinner. the transparencies overlaid. and in 1958 he began his famous series of Variations: The first one was involved with the parameters of sound. on a sheet of paper 8 x 11." but the time-space frame of 4'33" was needlessly arbitrary. though I had had no intention of putting them the way I did. of course. rhetorical questions. "We could be performing it right now.

or questions of continuity) or the specific interpenetration of circles. such measurement and determination means are not necessarily excluded from the "interpenetrating variables. Once printed. "[A111 the cutting. + Some or all of one's obligation may be performed through ambient circumstances (environmental changes) by simply noticing or responding to them." Some factors though not all of a given interpenetration or succession of several may be planned in advance. ending. the notation by nature is unchanged. performing a suitable action or actions. Make an action or actions having the corresponding number of interpenetrating variables (1 n). all the splicing of the Williams Mix is carefully controlled by chance operations. Starting with any circle. This was characteristic of an old period. where the notations are merely his observations of imperfections in the score paper. and Cage fully realized that. there are . This done. you see. the score need not be initially fixed. n o one of them isolated from at least one other. For example. so that a single maze of circles remains. before indeterminacy in performance. Though no means are given for the measurement of time or space (beginning. Cage's use of transparencies is one of the best methods he ever devised to insure an indeterminate composition. Although my choices 'were controlled by chance operations. This produces an object. The usual score. Any other activities are going o n at the same time. and so on. which results in a collection of interpenetrating circles. I was still making an Through transparencies.33 The following brief analysis will show that in this piece Cage produced a truly nondual composition that allows both something and nothing to equally coexist. move on to any one of the overlapping circles again observing the number of interpenetrations. however. in Variations I11 one drops circles on a page. Even in his Music for Piano series for example. for all I was doing then by chance operations was renouncing my intention. However. or in the elaborately constructed series of chance operations used to make Williams Mix. is fixed. even one where chance procedures determine it. Place the blank transparent sheet over this complex. But leave room for the use of unforeseen eventualities. observe the number of circles which overlap it.Silencing the Sounded Self 32 1 are separated from the largest group.

" a performance of Variations 111. the performer's interaction with the score is even more variable. if one chooses to remain in it. there can also be more than one determined score.322 The Musical Quarterly multiple possibilities regarding how many circles remain. to count. In other words the sand in which the stones in a Japanese garden lie is also something . once begun. that these actions can be of any kind and all I ask the performer to do is to be aware as much as he can of how many actions he is performing. And Cage himself understood the difficulties: "But what. But I thought that performance was simply getting up and then doing it. . and continue reacting to those circumstances indefinitely. While fixity still exists in Cage's transparency scores. One could follow the score for a time.35 . nor does the performer. one need not count past an environmental experience. such as noticing that there is a noise in the environment. And so I made Variations 111 which leaves no space between one thing and the next and posits that we are constantly active. one simply observes how many interpenetrations there are between it and any other connecting circle and then performs an action for each observed interpenetration. how and why are we counting? Since there are no gaps between one action and another (and many of them . The composer certainly does not determine that. and how many must be removed if they do not. need never end. and so wrote the silent piece. I was now coming to the realization that there was no such thing as nonactivity. the variables are so multiple (hence the title "variations") it would be next to impossible to determine what exactly will be fixed and what will remain open. Such actions can be either planned or unplanned. I ask him. By looking at one circle. if they intersect. Furthermore. and with many overlapping actions. it can be fixed differently for each performance. We move through our activity without any space between one action and the next. Because there is no indicated time measurement and because "other activities are going on at the same time. That's all I ask him to do. although Cage does insist that room be left to do both. I ask him even to count passive actions. The thing I don't like about Variations 111 is that it requires counting and I'm now trying to get rid of that. in other words. O n the other hand. enter into the experience of an ambient circumstance. Observation of "ambient circumstances" can either produce an action or can actually be the action. If the score itself seems variably determined. Even though the score is eventually fixed. if there is more than one performer. Or as Cage noted: Just as I came to see that there was no such thing as silence.

in fact. while. . that allows the performer to enter into or go out of the piece at will. If. due to the several layers of experiences going on at the same time.Silencing the Sounded Self 323 overlap) do we know when something is finished and the next begins? It ~ The situation is i r r a t i ~ n a l . the frame. a multiplicity of intentions collectively produce an unintentional and indeterminate piece. The gestation period was long. nondual experience is complete: the final impediment. As Cage wrote in his introduction to Silence. in some cases at least. However. I said."^^ This. Thus intention and nonintention equally coexist. "When M. where rational and irrational coexist without reconciliation. " ~ is. but out of a need for poetry.' And what I'm saying is that it is. poetry is not prose simply because . Cage once spoke of a conversation with the visual artist Willem de Kooning: "I was with de Kooning once in a restaurant and he said."37 In 4'33" Cage placed a frame around the "bread crumbs. Frequentlyand this is as true of Cage as of many others-the writings are an explanation of what is happening in the music. it is equally true that those two compositions point toward Cage's future developments in literature. Cage implies from the very first that.' " He went on to write: "As I see it. is removed. they coexist in a fabric of art and life completely interwoven one with another. in and of itself. Thus it is not a common expectation that a composer's writings must somehow qualify as literature.He was saying it wasn't because he connects art with his activity-he connects with himself as an artist whereas I would want art to slip out of us into the world in which we live. need not matter. 'I don't give these lectures to surprise people. 'if I put a frame around these bread crumbs. In Variations III something and nothing really do need each other. the lectures on both "nothing" and "something" inform the musical directions Cage pursues in 4'33" and Variations III. the openness of Variations III. Richard Kostelanetz wrote in 1968: "What is conspicuously lacking in A Year from Monday [Cage's second book] is an analogous path-breaking gesture that could command as much suggestive influence for literature as his earlier 'musical' demonstration^. as has been suggested here. his writings go beyond musical explanation." thus beginning the process of dismantling dualistic separations such as the one mentioned between art and life. Richards asked me why I didn't one day give a conventional informative lecture. while paradoxically staying within its notated structure. and there is usually no consequent claim asserted that somehow the writing must be up to the same level as the music. Many composers have also been writers. that isn't art. In Variations III. C. adding that that would be the most shocking thing I could do.

Since I was busy with a number of projects. I also received permission from Cage to use photocopies of pages from the stenographic notepad Cage used to compose this piece. On the other hand. is short and uses the same formal structure as his other diaries. that one might expect a literary critic (which is the hat Kostelanetz most frequently wears) familiar with Cage's musical inventions to express disappointment in the less revolutionary nature of Cage's texts. when I noticed that I would be at the workshop for fifteen days and that if I wrote one hundred words a day it wouldn't be . then.324 The Musical Quarterly poetry is in one way or another formalized. sound) to be introduced into the world of words. Following the writing plan I had used for Diary: Emma Lake. wrote it down. and then drove on. through which I will try to reconstruct the compositional process. two textual inventions are worthy of note: his mesostics and his diaries. only one of which (the diaries) concerns this analy~is. the text was finished. I formulated in my mind while driving a statement having a given number of words. While Cage did not leave detailed information about how those materials were used. where Cage frequently provided information about how his pieces were written: This text was written on the highways while driving from an audience in Rochester. I drew up somewhere along the road. When it had jelled and I could repeat it. Wesleyan University Library.4' The full title of the source Cage mentions is Diary: Emma Lake Music Workshop 1965. The first place to check for clues is the introduction to the text. His Diary: Audience 1966. to one in Philadelphia. New York. I was on the point of replying that I had no time. When I arrived in Philadelphia.4~ The diary form was used by Cage for many years. beginning in 1965 and ending with his eighth diary in 1982. and serve as the raw material for this analysis. This introduction reads: Just before setting out for Saskatchewan to conduct a music workshop at Emma Lake in July 1965. I received a request from the editor of Camdun Art for an article having fifteen hundred words. while not a part of this series. It is not poetry by reason of its content or ambiguity but by reason of its allowing musical elements (time."39 It is in this context. Cage's textual work in the 1960s had more to do with his developing sensibilities as a poet than it did with trying to equal his achievements in music. These were obtained from the John Cage Literary Archive. he did leave a trail. in various sources.

It is also a diary. to exceed one hundred words. For each day. 1 965.44 Thus. broken with a circle. straight. First. or. I set the text in a single block like a paragraph of prose. ken. Cage claims to have followed the same procedure in writing "Audience" that he used for Emma Lake. Otherwise I used the mosaic-discipline of writing described in the note preceding Diary: How to Improve etc. kan. everything but the six is explainable according to the procedures previously described. two tails and a head. straight with a circle. straight. broken. chen. two heads and a tail. words and stories. And (not coincidentally. Three coins tossed once yields four lines: three heads. straight. The first page of Cage's notebook (Figure 1) includes the working title "On Audience" and shows a series of numbers to the left of the roman numerals I-VI. . That diary had fifteen parts. Three coins tossed thrice yields eight trigrams (written from the base up): chien. that of tossing three coins six times. broken. As will be seen. The number of words per day was to equal. even if the decision was not to decide. three tails.Silencing the Sounded Self 325 too much for me and the magazine would get what it wanted. in Cage's introduction to "Audience" he writes that it was composed while driving from Rochester to Philadelphia. sun. three broken. with some (but not all) of the corresponding numbers written out below. broken. Second. by the last statement written. broken. These roman numerals correspond to the six large sections of the text. straight. I determined by chance operations how many parts of the mosaic I would write and how many words there would be in each. "43 With the information provided by these introductions.42 The above-mentioned Diary introduction reads: "It is a mosaic of ideas. broken. Why six? Two clues offer a plausible answer. broken. analysis can begin. However. Instead of different type faces. 4": What brings about this ~ n ~ r e d i c t a b i l i is the use of the method estabty lished in the I Ching (Book of Changes) for the obtaining of oracles. I believe) in 1965 the approximate driving time from Rochester to Philadelphia was six hours. I used parentheses and italics to distinguish one statement from another. broken. statements. the large structure may have been conceived by writing a hundred words per hour! The first page also has thirteen I Ching derived hexagrams. one thing that characterizes all of Cage's work is that every compositional decision had a reason behind it. kun. three straight. Cage described how he used the I Ching in "To Describe the Process of Composition Used in Music of Changes and Imaginary Landscape No. one for each day of the workshop.

Three coins tossed six times yield sixty-four hexagrams (two trigrams. straight. straight. broken.326 The Musical Quarterly Figure 1 . broken. tui. straight. straight. straight. the second written above the first) read in reference to a chart of the numbers 1 to 64 in a traditional arrangement having eight divisions horizontally corresponding to the eight lower trigrams and . straight. broken. li.

then as kun-kun. part 11.4~ to the roman numeral I. the statements are distinguished in two possible ways. following Cage's previous use of at least one hundred words per structural unit.Silencing the Sounded Self 327 eight divisions vertically corresponding to the eight upper trigrams. the second statement is in parentheses. three texts.45 In Diary: Audience 1966. straight. whereas chien-chien. First. according to the . three texts. Cage constructed them in his mind while driving. Second. straight) it changes that trigram to chien (straight. these are not necessarily traits of chanceoperated results. the second is underlined (italicized in the published text). In like fashion. an analysis of the content placed within this structure shows the composer to be even more actively involved in making choices. Each of the six groups has either three or four statements. The next hexagram is t h i ~ . chien-chien. The method described above was probably chosen arbitrarily within what has been shown to be a chance-derived formal structure. the first hexagram (see Figure 1) corresponds to number sixty-three on the chart and is then placed first next . the initial statement is printed normally. however. part V1) seems likely to have been planned. the third is printed normally. broken. Choosing the texts themselves is obvious enough. the initial statement is printed normally. part IV. granting that. little else is. 47 Consequently. straight lines without circles is read only as 1. then as changed. However. and the fourth is in parentheses. part 111. The method of distinguishing between statements (see Figure 2) is the same as with the Diary: Emma Lake. If there are three statements. part V. If there are four. "48 While such symmetry as well as the number of words in each written statement is chance derived. Thus. A hexagram having lines with circles is read twice. three texts. straight) to form the chien-kan hexagram of five. one discovers that such a relationship is literally produced "by chance. the third statement is printed normally. and the fourth is underlined (italicized in the published text).t ~However. thirty becomes twenty-one to form the first large part of the Diary. four texts. since the first hexagram has a changing line in the li trigram (straight. Symmetrical alteration (four texts. it is a reading of the changing lines that enables thirteen hexagrams to produce twenty-one numbers. they are distinguished by putting the second statement in parentheses. he reverses the pattern of underlining and parentheses). straight lines with circles. 2. first as written. is read first as 1. This procedure obviously demonstrates both consistency and fairness (in the four statements. part 1. four texts. However.

thin^ and IV. f o r i n s t a n c e . the guilt. l i f e ' s a dance.p you. people. 11 1. something n e v e r s e e n before.i d e q ) as r a n an J o y c e r e v e a l i n g b r i d g e s ( t h i s i s Brown's i d e a ) where we t h o u g h t t h a r e w e r e n ' t any. g e t s t o and through us. (You s e e ? We're unemployed. U s t e n i n g t o your music I f h d i t p r o r o k e s me. What r e need in a cornpatter t h a t i s n ' t labor-savFng but. d a i l y e v e n t s . Orthodox s e a t i n n a r r a n ~ e m e n t Now m u s i c ' s i n s y n a m ~ u e e . I n d i a n s have k n o m i t f o r a g e s .) Theatre? J u a t n o t i c e w h a t ' s around. b o t t h e last t h i n g I ' d do would be t o t e l l you how t o u s e your own a e s t h e t i c f a c u l t i e s . "soon again ' t w i l l be. i n New Pork.328 The Mwical Quarterl) #Y. i n t e n t on t h i n g s i n v i c i b l e ." e x p e c t p e o p l e t o pay f o r it. action. AUDIENCE 1966 Are we an a u d i e n c e f o r computer a r t ? The a n e r e r ' a n o t No. p h y s i c a l l a b o r . Twentieth-century art's opened o u r e. e e x t r a o r d i n a r y t h a n we a r e . i f you want a d e f i n i t i o n o f i t . N o t i c e a u t i e n c e s a t h i g h a l t i t u d e s and a u d i e n c e s in n o r t h e r n c o u n t r i e s t e n d t o be a t t e n t i v e d u r i n g p e r f o r m a n c e s r h i l e audiences a t sea-level o r i n w a r m countries voice t h e i r f e e l i n g s whenever t h e y have them. Dbcovery. e q u i p p e d f o r t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t f o r t h o s e who p r e f e r s t a y i n g a Figure 2 . a p l a y . o u r b i g g e s t problelc i s f i n d i n g s c r a p s o f t h e i n which t o ~ e t it done. L i l a * WyP. it1s Yes. we do i t You'll s e e Audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? Awarenese. which i n c r e m e s t h e work f o r ua t o do. It i s n o t a q u e s t i o n of s h a r i n e They a s k e d me a b o u t t h e a t r e s They s h o u l d be small f o r t h e t r f e in a u d i e n c e s . "Leave t h e b e a t e n t r a . vie have o t h e r Dreems. 1 He s a i d ." A f t e r t h e f i r s t performance o f m p i e c e f o r y t w e l v e r a d i o s . ) I s a i d we c o u l d use them. I. Be c r e a t i v e ? ) So what s h a l l we do? W i t e criticism? Now h e ' s no n o r e W used t o have t h e artist up on a p e d e s t a l . What s h o u l d I do t o e n j o y i t ? I ' d give y you a l i f t . i s c r i m i n a l Hot even i t s own. t h e performing a r e a s l a r g e and s p a c i o u s . s p i n e l e s s v i r t u e s : f l e x i b i l i t y . Q i t a S v a b h a i t o l d me. Each one of u s g e t s a l l o f i t . illusion." S i t i n an audience? W have e n o t h i n g t o do.k . When our t i r e was z i v e n t o Eiow t h a t we're c h a n g i n g our m h d s . I f n o t y e t . e v e r y t h i n g Anyone who e x p e r i e n c e s ( A r t . r e needed a s t i f f upper l i p and backbone. s o t o s p e a k .reS* t opened o u r e a r s . Answer r T h e r e ' r e many ways t o he1. (If what you w a n t i s one o r two i n I n d i a i s an a u d i e n c e . "You c a n ' t do t h a t s o r t o f Geparstion. that puns ( t h i s is McLuhan8a. turns Us (my i d e a ) n o t "ontg b u t i n t o artists. It conforms t o no r u l e s . i f you were g o h g i n m d i r e c t i o n . V i r g i l Thomson s a i d . a l l you n e a 1. experience a r t ? Are we.) n o n e t h e l e s s . i n a u d i b l e . fluency. going s o u t h in t h e way r e ( B a r i n g n o t h i n g t o do. a work o f art i s as g u i l t y as t h e artist.

50 It is unlikely that Cage really finished the Diary by the time he reached Philadelphia and even less likely that he wrote it in the way Revill describes. The only other possibility is that Cage worked out of another notebook first and then rewrote everything into the notebook found in his archive. Cage probably began thinking of things either that he wanted to say or that independently came into his head. 43. 46. 50. one would assume that the first text in the notebook would correspond to the first I Ching-derived hexagram number sixty-three. How do we know that they were approximations and that Cage did not have an exact number of words in his mind? First. However. and 5 (see Figure 3). paying attention to whether these statements were long or short approximately according to the I Ching numbers he. 17. since when one looks up the author's reference it is. 33. the text was finished by the time he arrived in Philadelphia. and so on-and at the very end there are four numbers left-24. If Cage were writing according to the number of words required in each statement. when one compares the stenographic notebook to both Cage's introduction and Revill's biographical elaboration of it. Cage formulated certain statements. 10. There is. Thus. According to his written introduction. checked the length of the next statement and drove on. pulled over and wrote it down. the piece was This may seem somewhat redundant. in fact. in all likelihood. 50). he ascertained at the start of each leg of the journey how many words were needed for the next statement of the text. formulated it and revised it in his head as he drove. When looking at the initial numbers most of them are large-5 1. The following is a more likely scenario. no correlation between the order of hexagrams drawn on the first notebook page and the order of texts found in the notebook. the text itself as published in A Year from Monday. some of which were directly related to the topic of the conference where the speech was to be delivered ("The Changing Audience for the Changing Arts"). generated prior to the trip. After he had worked them into a form he could remember. Anyone who visits either of Cage's archives is immediately impressed by the fact that he appears to have saved . This is extremely doubtful. Instead we find that the first written text in the notebook is fifty-one. By the time he reached Philadelphia. he pulled over and wrote them down. in fact. certain things do not add up. This story seemed so remarkable that David Revill actually comments specifically about it in his biography of Cage: "With characteristic self-discipline. there is a disparity between generated numbers and written texts. And Cage does indeed do these last four in order from large to small (see n.Sikncing the Sounded Self 329 number of words required.

330 The Musicul Quurterlv .

Figure 4 shows what reads as number sixty-one but is actually sixty-three and is thus the very first statement in the published text. And although it is questionable whether or not Cage could both write and edit each of these texts while at the same time driving to Philadelphia. This is particularly true with the materials found in the literary archive at Wesleyan. turns us my idea not "on" but into artists. most of which were eventually published. If accepted. such issues. In all probability. (What) W(w)e need (is) a computer that isn't labor saving but which increases the work for us to do. it's (inevitably) Yes. circling was therefore unnecessary. unlike the previous speculations. 17. any. Second. do not directly affect this analysis. and 5) on the last four pages of the notebook and the fact that neither 10 nor 5 is circled: since these were probably the last-completed texts. this reasoning also helps explain both the four numbers (24. Looking again at Figure 1. one notices as further confirmation that the numbers listed to the left of the roman numerals are circled. I would suggest that these were circled as Cage completed that particular text. but) I don't mean make computer art Are we an audience for computer art? but Can ( ~ d .Silencing the Sounded Self 33 1 everything. that (as McLuhan says) this is McLuhan's idea (can) puns as well as Joyce (this is) this is Brown's idea revealing bridges where we thought there weren't (none). What matters is the editing itself. this notebook is what Cage used to initially write down these texts. For comparison (and for reasons of legibility) it is reproduced below (parentheses correspond to text Cage crossed out): (Stet) 61 (Could we do it with a computer? (Not art. 10. and saved it in an orderly fashion. the notebooks show that Cage very carefully edited each of the statements until they did match exactly. ) we sit in an audience ~l computer art and enjoy (it) once it (was)/is made?) not (Don't think) (T)the answer's No. .

Figure 4 . .

" These numbers are first 9. that puns (this is McLuhan's idea) as well as Joyce revealing bridges (this is Brown's idea) where we thought there weren't any. Cage crosses out all of "Could we do it with a computer? I don't mean make computer art but cd. that as McLuhan says can puns as well as Joyce revealing bridges where we thought there weren't none. or did he also edit for reasons of personal taste? By comparing script and differing ways of crossing out words we can reproduce what Cage originally wrote: Could we do it with a computer? I don't mean make computer art but cd. as is. so instead we will follow them as they occur in the text. Consequently. It means that Cage would have had . totals seventy-two words. and the final result (even if the original somehow seems more poetic) does closely resemble Cage's view of poetry as "formalized" prose.Sikncing the Sounded Self 333 Compare this to the published text: I. What we need is a computer that isn't labor-saving but which increases the work for us to do.52 The difference is remarkable. This is not exactly a time-saving method of removing nine words. we sit in an audience and enjoy it once it was made?" and changes it to "Are we an audience for computer art?" The original has twenty-seven words while the change has seven. It would be very difficult to determine the order in which Cage made these changes. Are we an audience for computer art? The answer's not No.53 This leads to the following question: Did Cage edit the text simply to meet the prescribed sixty-three words. This excerpt. it's Yes. turns us (my idea) not "on" but into artists. it's inevitably Yes. The text reproduced above minus nine words would have equaled the required sixtythree. then 4. we sit in an audience and enjoy it once it was made? Don't think the answer's No. leaving a difference of twenty words. What we need is a computer that isn't labor saving but which increases the work for us to do. If one looks at the top of the page (Figure 4) one can distinguish two crossed-out numbers followed by "-1. Cage needed to remove nine words.

for both numbers forty-three and forty-six." Cage would have made a statement with sixty-three words: Could we do it with a computer? I don't mean make computer art but cd. The reasons could be several. What if Cage instead began by crossing out unnecessary words as follows." "can. he may simply have not liked the results of his initial editing and one could say that the final product does read "better." Looking at the manuscript as a whole. without an alteration of the text: "inevitably. The five-word page "Orthodox seating arrangement" (see Figure 5) was originally "Ordinary 20th Century human beings. which seems unlikely. Removing "inevitably. We need a computer that isn't labor saving but which increases the work for us to do." "what." In addition. omitted for the same reason "Ordinary 20th century human beings" was changed: because they are not directly related to "audience. one sees that there are alterations made on every page." "can." "what. And. The texts respectively have to do with Cage's mother and with television and were. although I am by no means a handwriting expert. but two are probable and important to this analysis. ." and "none" leaves four. he may have wished to alter the original meaning: "any." "as McLuhan says. of which only one is selected. we sit in an audience and enjoy it once it was made? The answer's not No. It was purposely altered at great additional expense of time. removing "as McLuhan says" leaves one. especially considering the fact that he reportedly was in a hurry." the subject of the speech. If such were the case. turns us (my idea) not 'on' but into artists" is clearly a text added to suit the addition of "this is McLuhan's idea" and "this is Brown's idea. it's Yes." "is. it also appears to be consistent with Cage's various noticeable styles of crossing out words. it's Yes. in all likelihood." Two.334 The Musical Quarterly to come up with eleven more words if he accepted the change. " "none. that puns as well as Joyce revealing bridges where we thought there weren't. " This shows a remarkable similarity to the crossed-out numbers. I believe the evidence indicates that Cage initially made this text and then changed it. by crossing out "Don't think" and adding "not" to make "The answer's not No. there are two versions. One." "is.

. unemployed. b u t tk. He s a i d : What s h o u l d L i s t e n i n g t o y o u r music I f i n d i t p r o v o k e s me. G i t a S a r a b h a i t o l d me. Notice audiences a t high a l t i t u d e s and a u d i e n c e s i n n o r t h e r n c o u n t r i e s t e n d t o be a t t e n t i v e Figure 5 .e l a s t t h i n g I ' d do would be t o t e l l you how t o u s e y o u r own a e s t h e t i c f a c u l t i e s . f o r d i r e c t i o n . 111. illusion. known i t f o r a g e s : l i f e ' s a Fee. t h a t puns ( t h i s i s McLuhanVs i d e a ) as w e l l as J o y c e r e v e a l i n g b r i d g e s ( t h i s i s l3.ownqs i d e a ) where we t h o u g h t t h e r e wer_enq . a l l you need i s one o r two p e o p l e . Maya. N O W m u s i c ' s I I opened o u r e a r s .a n y . T w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y a r t ' s opened o u r e y e s . t h a n vre a r e . What we need 4s a computer t h a t i s n ' t l a b o r s a v i n g b u t which i n c r e s e s t h e work f o r u s t o d o . ) 11.'' So what s h a l l we do? W have e n o t h i n g t o do. i f you were g o i n g i n m y I ' d g i v e you a l i f t . "soon a g a i n ' t w i l l be. ( Y O Us e e ? We're I f n o t y e t . ( I f y what you want i n I n d i a i s a n ' a u d i e n c e . Lila. I a play. i n s t p n c e . I do t o e n j o y i t ? Answer: T h e r e ' r e many ways t o h e l p you. T h e a t e r ? J st n o t i c e w h a t ' s a r o u n d . Are we a n a u d i e n c e f o r c mputer a r t ? The a n s w e r ' s n o t No. i t ' s Yes. Write c r i t i c i s m ? S i t i n an a u d i e n c e ? Be c r e a t i v e ? ) W used t o have t h e e Now h e ' s no more e x t r a o r d i n a r y a r t i s t u p on a p e d e s t a l . t u r n s u s (my i d e a ) n o t "on" b u t i n t o t I artists. .Silencing the Sounded Self 335 I I.

Something more was necessary. 56 The failure of Cage's earlier text pieces was their acceptance of the symbolism that relies upon memory through the syntactical connections and relationships inherent in language. one must move away from language. Some aspects of form are the result of chance operations and some aren't. That's what I'd like to find with sounds-to play them and hear them as if you've never heard them before. an immensely taxing exercise of the composer's will that does not compare favorably if one is trying to produce the kind of nonintention in text that he had already produced in music. on the other hand.336 The Musical Quarterly Thus what initially appears to be an improvised and haphazard text is actually extremely well-organized. you want language to be heard as music. if not completely determined. from his visual point of view. to look at a Coca-Cola bottle without the feeling that you've ever seen one before. Cage was looking for a way to "musicate language. "It has been my habit for some years to write texts in a way analogous to the way I write music." as can be seen in the following exchange between Cage and the French philosopher and musicologist Daniel Charles sometime between 1968 and 1970: You CHARLES: propose to musicate language. as though you were looking at it for the very first time. in this case chance operations." And he expressed that as a goal. That means. analogous means. In 1965 he said. It is. CAGE: hope to let words exist. the composer's role is so pervasive that the resultant collage of text is. "54 Yet.55 I A n essential aspect of Cage's approach to sound is away from memory: There is a beautiful statement. are clearly the result of trying to meet the extraordinary demands of numerical form. do not necessarily produce similar results. at least predictable. as I have tried to let sounds exist. are chance-derived. by Marcel Duchamp: "To reach the impossibility of transferring from one like object to another the memory imprint. Even though the juxtapositions. something more than simply formalized prose. subject matter and personal taste. as the previous analysis has shown. as Cage points out. Was Cage trying to produce nonintention in text? His statements lean in that direction. The contents. in my opinion. In the mid-1960s he found a connection between Duchamp's approach and that of his nineteenth-century predecessor T h ~ r e a u : ~ ~ . To move away from memory. I would suggest.

he hoped to find a way of writing which would allow others not to see and hear how he had done it. Subjectivity no longer comes into it. . in a way strikingly similar to a common phrase quite familiar to Americanists." Matthiessen writes. You're going to tell me that Thoreau had a definite style. in this case. "The Word O n e with the Thing. They are words from common language. They are no longer his experiences. Thoreau's own experiences become more and more transparent. who. And it is the example of Thoreau that showed Cage a way of "musicating language": CHARLES: may now transpose everything you just said to the area of If 1 language. Isn't he concerned with opening up words? And haven't you taken up this concern in turn? Aren't your lectures. he no longer writes."59 and toward Thoreau. But not in the shortest words. I hope to make something other than language from it. everyday words. was moving away from thought and toward the experience of the object in and of itself. when he frees words. When he found himself interested in writing. I would be tempted to say. It is experience. Consequently. contain something of Thoreau in them. you find a complete absence of interest in self expression. he lets things speak and write as they are. as his Journal continues. But I must say that 1 have not yet carried language to the point to which I have taken musical sounds. Cage believed. He no longer speaks. Thoreau wanted only one thing: to see and hear the world around him. for example. "where the object is lost in thought. in which symbolism plays a n essential role. but to see what he had seen and to hear what he had heard. So as the words become shorter. "The epitome of Emerson's belief is that 'in good writing. as different as they may be. I have not yet made noise with it. leads one away from Matthiessen's Emerson. In both of them. And his work improves to the extent that he disappears. Matthiessen's American Renaissance. I have tried to do nothing else in music. But in a rather significant way. It i n fact serves as a chapter heading in F. words become one with things. it seems to me that Thoreau is no less fascinating when he writes. He was not the one who chose his words. They came to him from what there is to see and hear.' " This then leads to a discussion of organic unity. He has his very own way of writing. The longest words. it is the direction of language that differs and. 0.58 Cage considered this a movement away from memory. musical works in the manner of the different chapters of Walden? CAGE: They are when sounds are words. his words become simplified or shorter. from symbolism.Sikncing the Sounded Self 337 And that's what links me the most closely with Duchamp and Thoreau.

. have n o effect. "62 Removing syntax would allow words to do what Cage thought Thoreau was trying to have them do: "Since words. I wrote it by subjecting all the remarks of Henry David Thoreau about music. syllables. as mentioned in the previous endnote." His initial task in that direction was the removal of syntax: "As we move away from it. "64 However. mixing them in such a way that you could call it a Thoreau Mix. silence. that interests me It at present. words become nonsense as they do between lovers. But Mureau still makes sense. the chance-operated mixture of letters. It is a mix of letters. as he suggests in his conversation with Charles. there was still too much language in it and not enough silence: sparrowsitA gROsbeak betrays itself by that peculiar squeakariEFFECT OF SLIGHTEST tinkling measures soundness ingplease We hear! Does it not rather hear us? sWhen he hears the telegraph. and sentences goes far beyond the chance operations used to make Cage's Diaries. syllables. etc. when they communicate. he thinksthose bugs have issued forthThe owl touches the stops. words. Cage tried to make a language that does not communicate: "The demilitarization of language: a serious musical concern. syllables. and sounds h e heard that are indexed in the Dover publication of the Journal to a series of 1 Ching chance ~ p e r a t i o n s . looking to find a way to take the Journal of Thoreau and somehow "musicate it. Cage realized that Mureau had not yet made music out of language. Individual words tend to be read as sentences even when those sen- . "63 Language would move in the direction of the observation of things. was eventually called Mureau. in which words become what they originally were: trees and stars and the rest of the primeval environment. and sentences. 1 am now working on that problem in a text taken straight from the Song Books. phrases. we demilitarize language. " ~ ~ T h e title indicates that Cage was. wakes reverberations d qwalky In verse there is no inherent music65 In these first few lines of Mureau. Thus. the impossibility of language. the title being a combination of "music" (the first two letters) and "Thoreau" (the last four letters). which deals directly with letters. 60 This piece.338 The Musical Quarterly CHARLES: do you expect to accomplish that? How CAGE: is that aspect. words. Cage discusses this work in the foreword to M: "Mureau departs from conventional syntax. parallel to Cage's view that music does not communicate.

it. particles. Empty Words was written between 1973 and 1974. He then said: "Now another solution please. so to speak. According to Revill. but I had always worshipped the man. simply attach themselves to other words. I reflected a moment and then said with some certainty: "There aren't any more solutions. it does not accomplish what Cage had in mind: "I think we H need to have more nonsense in the field of l a n g ~ a g e . as in all of Cage's compositions that use . and the use of chance operations in M u r e a ~ Chance. because they certainly didn't come from any other point. adverbs. turn around and let me see it. While Mureau is still interesting poetry."67 In his introduction to the first part. What is the principle underlying all of the solutions?" I couldn't answer his question." This led to the creation of what I regard as one of Cage's finest poetic works. I spent the rest of my life. and at that point I did even more. the importance of Thoreau in Cage's composition Songbooks (1970).~~ it. Cage describes the direction of his work leading to the creation of Empty Words: hearing Wendell Berry read aloud from the Journal in 1967." 1 did that. though which of these forms the word takes cannot always be determined. the title was inspired by a conversation with the Oriental scholar William McNaughton. having made seven or eight." I gave another and another until finally. The answers have the question in common. I am reminded of a story early on about a class with Schoenberg. Empty Words.K. Therefore the question underlies the answers. until recently. He would have accepted that answer." He said: "O. hearing him ask that question over and over. that the principle underlying all of the solutions that 1 had given him was the question that he had asked. as with individual letters. adjectives. pronouns. or. Empty words are conjunctions. Syllables tend to sound as interruptions of thought rather than as capable of thought. He ascended. which refer only to other terms: a. He had us go to the blackboard to solve a particular problem in counterpoint (though it was a class in harmony). at. or letters. 1 think. " ~e~therefore continued to search for a verse that had what h e could regard as "inherent music. are full words.Sikncing the Sounded Self 339 tences are devised by the reader rather than by Thoreau. in a loose sense referential meaning. syllables.69 . And then it occurred to me through the direction that my work has taken.' A full word has a specific. nouns. which is renunciation of choices and the substitution of asking questions. who in 1973 "told Cage that the classical Chinese language can be classified into 'full words' and 'empty words. He said: "When you have a solution. alters the composer's role from that of making choices to one of asking questions: My composition arises out of asking questions. verbs.

Can be just syllables. sentences. Mureau uses all twentyfive possibilities. they appear as phrases. chance operations produced an almost flowing sentence structure. syllable.' Illustrations out of context. due to the elimination of sentences. " ~ ~ . each phrase. A text for a song can be a vocalise: just letters. whereas in Empty Words. letters and words. if words as words. eliminated the possibility of sentences by choice. It means the thing or the action or the ~ i t u a t i o n . or of a combination of things." Another clue to Cage's intentions was his inclusion of drawings by Thoreau. . just words. which he describes in the introduction to part one: "Amazed (1) by their beauty. without using chance operations. O r combinations of letters and syllables (for example). language begins to move in the direction of In ~ those illustrations. word. Material of five kinds: letters. . Chinese ideogram does not try to be the picture of a sound. (3) by running across Thoreau's remark: 'No page in my Journal is more suggestive than one which includes a sketch. the text becomes much more disjunct. that is to say.340 The Musical Quarterly Both Mureau and Empty Words begin with the same question: What can be done with the English language? Use it as material. Through a museum on roller skates. Cage. phrases. but it is still the picture of a thing. Modern Art. just a string of phrases. Suggestivity. Relate 64 (I Ching) to 25 . If phrases. There are 25 possible combinations. Cloud of unknowing. (2) by fact I had not (67-73) been seeing 'em as beautiful. thus illustrating in text what Cage once Due to said about music: "I try to approach each sound as itselLYq3 Cage's purposeful subtraction of sentences. those ideograms where in China. et cetera. syllables. or to be a written sign recalling a sound. " ~Empty Words. words. and letter begins to be read "as itself. they "still use pictures AS pictures. according to Ezra Pound. of a thing in a given position or relation. 7 l The difference is striking: notAt evening right can see suited to the morning hour trucksrsq Measured tSee t A ys sK)i w dee e str oais stkva o dcommoncurious 20 theeberries flowers r clover72 In Mureau. 7O O n the other hand-and this is of key significance-Empty Words does not use all twenty-five: in the first part. Ideograms. sentences. Thor e a ~ .

what can it do? In the introduction to part three. And yet. the reader searches "outloud for a way to read. In which volume of the Journal's fourteen is the syllable to be found? In which group of pages? O n which page of this group? O n which line of this page?"77The questions help inform both the immensity of the task and why it took so long to complete. or "suited to the morning hour. Part two removes the possibility of phrases. clearly the intended meanings of Joyce's experiment differ greatly even if. while intention is removed through chance operations." For language to exist as sounds exist. Cage is directing the reader to the same Tower of Babel situation he had found in music more than twenty years before: "the impossibility of language. 11) stanza's time. The introduction to this part continues to describe what questions were asked: "First questions." If it can't communicate. it must be something other than just nonintentional: it must cease to intentionally "mean. and while one could make a comparison between Mureau and Joyce's language experiment Finnegans Wake. Cage continues to describe the direction of this process: "Searching (outloud) for a way to read."76 As such. it is a transition in process. the emphasis remains on "begins. What is being done? for how many times? ." for example. but the reader's role begins to change. In part one." For Cage correctly envisioned this text as a "transition from literature to music. there are textual similarities. long become fast). Going up and then going down. . Changing frequency. Cage instructs the reader to "move toward a center" in parts three and four: "To bring about quiet of IV (silence) establish no stanza time in 111 or IV. words still connect in specifically meaningful ways: "notAt evening."81 . Establish (I. which was not a chance operation at all: s or past another thise and on ghth wouldhad andibullfrogswasina-perhapss blackbus each f nsqlike globe? oi for osurprisingy ter spect y-s of wildclouds deooa Di from the ocolorsadby h allb eblei ingselfi foot7* Eventually the process is moving away from any intentional meaning. the most significant change in this part is the elimination of phrases. That brings about a variety of tempi (short stanzas become slow. on the surface. going to extremes."80 After having "gone to extremes" in parts one and two." This is the process that Cage has set in motion.Silencing the S o u d d Self 341 However. where the symbolic nature of language is being subverted. "79 Measurement continues through the selection of tempi. .

is a word." and so on." "perch. WALLACE: Meaningful? But you said it has no meaning. For Cage." "hind. Wid n pstw ety bou-a the dherlyth gth db tgn-plh ng sthrce ght rc t e Tmsttht thsno sngly o ophys thepfbbe ndnd tsh m ie ghl ldsbdfrrtlybflyf Ir i q oss bns83 I think Cage realized that making the "word one with the thing" was not enough. CAGE: I mean no meaning h meaning. Cage addressed this very issue: CAGE: Those artists for whom I have regard have always put their work at the service of religion or of metaphysical truth." "great. as in language) intentional meaning.g. Nor was the increased semantic openness of language through the use of ideograms a satisfactory solution. is a syllable. like mine. And art without meaning. Empty Words are not yet fully empty: "The. 'a' is a letter. For Cage. is also at the service of metaphysical truth. as the opening to part three demonstrates. Are these ideograms? Or are they still symbols of things rather than the "things themselves?" Is this the nondualism Cage produced in his Variations III? Even when removing all but syllables and letters. "no meaning" still had meaning. However.342 Tk Musical Quarterly In part three. Cage omits the possibility of words. empty words are empty not of meaning but of intentional meaning: . And this new language required the same silence 4'33" had provided in music.. In a 1958 interview with Mike Wallace. the structures overlap: "E. the text still linguistically "means": theAf perchgreathind and ten have andthewitha nae thatIas be theirofsparrermayyour hsglanruas theeshelf not er n housthe ing e -shaped wk. As we see in his conversation with Richard Kostelanetz. the only possibility in the midst of this impossibility called language was a new language. the absence of any (even inherently. But it also puts it in terms which are urgent and meaningful to a person of this century."82 Thus." "ten. But a WALLACE: h ? O CAGE: This idea of no idea is a very important Yes.

They are also empty syntactically."86 Sounds thus refer to themselves rather than to a humanly constructed relationship between sounds and what they can mean. are humanly constructed symbolic relationships. and I would like with my title to suggest the emptiness of meaning that is characteristic of musical sounds.Silencing the Sounded Self 343 CAGE:I'm not being at all scholarly about my use of the term "empty words. "88 . KOSTELANETZ: hey are empty semantically? T CAGE:How do you mean? KOSTELANETZ: "Semantic" refers to meaning.85 I T o remove intention requires the omission of even the ideogrammic U nature of language. namely. the transition from language to music. It requires a complete removal of a symbolic reference: "I'm always amazed when people say. in a way that has long typified his successful experiments. "In Cage's art of 'exemplary presentation. Languages. by choice rather than by chance. too. they exist by themselves. was to remove any trace of that symbolic relationship: "IV: equation between letters and silence. exemplifies that intent: "Making language saying nothing at all. "Languages becoming musics": ie thA i o s n er spwlae t s prt oos sb97 h c r no i bath t t 1 m rdt d et shgg an Whereas Cage's "Lecture on Nothing" announced Cage's intent-"I have nothing to say and I am saying it"-Empty Words. once again.' the meaning inferred is that we can only know how things happen ('nature in her manner of operation') but never quite what happens. 'Do you mean it's just sounds?' How they can imagine that it's anything but sounds is what's so alarming. accomplished. view. KOSTELANETZ: hat is to say. Making language saying nothing at all. and Cage's intention in part four. they are all empty." and finally. T CAGE: That when words are seen from a musical point of Yes. CAGE: would rather say they're empty of intention." I'm suggesting something more in line with what I've already told you." And as Perloff has written. much less why.

at dawn: "I thought of it as something that could be read throughout the whole night . in and of themselves. " ~ ~ is. In other words. from their human construction. not which surprisingly."89 Cage's work is therefore not an abdication but rather a redirection of the role of the artist: "I believe that by eliminating purpose. Therefore my purpose is to remove purpose. and where. then. Chance operations were used by Cage as a means of opening up the creative process. As has been shown. In allowing them the freedom to mean apart from symbolic intent. necessarily produce "silence. one may then be open to an experience that includes the outside: "quieting the mind. they do not. timing the last part. something (intention) and nothing (nonintention) are not really opposed. the lecture ends as Walden ends. replaced communication as the purpose of writing music. phrases. so that it would end at dawn along with the opening of the windows and doors of the world outside . . Cage takes the reader from where he or she is. syllables and words. its greatest significance is the exemplification of the act of becoming: "how things happen. In fact."92 In Empty Words."90 That "purposeful purposelessness" attempts to remove human constructions of meaning. as Charles Olson writes in Causal Mythology. "We do not make things meaningful. music and text become one. I have become through Empty Words aware of the dawnMg3 Empty Words. need not mean in itself." In fact. while chance operations let the "outside" in. it may instead open a clearing where. "There is more day to dawn. "that which exists through itself is what is called meaning. . what I call awareness increases. and by emptying these words of all linguistic intention. . Making. thus allowing awareness of the world around us the opportunity to increase.344 The Musical Quarterly Empty Words also exemplifies the essential role of the creator even when the goal is a "silenced" creative self. what in Cage's view. . of allowing the "outside" into the work of art. as Robert Duncan has written.'j94 In other words. and very gradually (the piece takes eleven hours to perform) moves to a place where language disappears and words do indeed become "just sounds. ." It requires an intentional choice. which is nothing but silences and letters. the successive removal of sentences. a world in which language communicates. As Thoreau wrote. thus making it susceptible to divine i n f l ~ e n c e s . to produce textual silence. Cage "opens words" as Thoreau did." As in Thoreau's Walden. they do "need each other to keep on going. there is more than our present experience of it. but in our making work toward an awareness of meaningng1The result is the creation of a place where distinctions between text and music disappear.

"Composition as Process. In the introduction to Empty Words.toward nonintention. 218. and the critic Kostelanetz Uohn Cage [New York: Da Capo Press. Cage produced that text. and thus silenced. David Revill (The Roaring Silence [New York: Arcade Publishing. Conn. A t issue here is not whether Cage's assessment of Webem and Satie is accurate. John Cage.: Wesleyan University Press. Cage devoted himself to an aesthetic of coexistent inclusion. Conn. Cage wrote that "a text for a song can be a vocalise: just letters. debatable. where you are All I know about method is that when I am not working I sometimes think I know something. 20. 19921. Conversing with Cage (New York: Limelight Editions. 19911. Instead it is a question of whom Cage considered to be his predecessors. 5. when Cage was fifteen. 3. where language. 1987). Cage accomplished this first in music with 4'33" (1952) and Variations 111 (1962-63). John Cage. Silence." in Silence. Kostelanetz."96 In Empty Words. By attempting to "musicate" language. like music. I: Changes. 18. 30). in fact.Sikncing the Sounded Self 345 In both his writings and his compositions. Silence (Middletown. but when I am working. 2. 45) claim that this text was written in 1927. it is quite clear that I know nothing. Cage. and language became. 261. John Cage. 81. . 5 ) ." in Silence. where "something" and "nothing" are unopposed. Kostelanetz. 1961). John Cage. 19791. 7 . John Cage. 6. 19. 62. By comparing his texts and music.97 Notes 1. becomes unintentional. "Forerunners of Modem Music. 4. Although Cage elsewhere asserts that he wrote this speech at age twelve (Empty Words [Middletown. Cage eventually moved away from syntactically controlled meaning altogether. song: Everybody which is it is a process and when you sing you are has a song no song at all: of singing . intentionally stripped of the dualities of its symbolism. just sounds. 81. his biographer. . Richard Kostelanetz. one discovers a shared direction away from compositional control and . His opinion is. He then proceeded to accomplish the same result in his texts.: Wesleyan University Press.

"Composition as Process. 1945). The Bride and the Bachelors (New York: Penguin. 1968). The Zen Teaching of Huang Po. See Cage. 231: "[Aln important book for me was The Perennial Philosophy by Aldous Huxley. G." in Siknce. According to Cage: "I didn't make him pay for his lessons." 18. Richard Wilhelm (New York: Princeton University Press. 10. But you can become open-minded. Jung. John Cage with Daniel Charles." in Silence. 26. his father was a publisher. Aldous Huxley." 109. 11. Cage. the I Ching was among them. 77. and disliking others. "A Composer's Confessions. 13." In Cage and Charles. To thank me. 1958). which is an anthology of remarks of people in different periods of history and from different cultures-that they are all saying the same thing. Kostelanetz. 1981)." in Kostelanetz." 109. I felt that if he did this. Richard Kostelanetz (New York: Limelight Editions. which in 1948 Cage considered to be an important compositional concern: "I felt that an artist had an ethical responsibility to society to keep alive to the contemporary spiritual needs. Calvin Tomkins. I should mention that Cage uses "structure" to describe what might be traditionally called form while using "form" to describe what would usually (especially in a literary sense) be called content. 55. trans. "Memoir. Cage. 22. 16. For the Birds (London: Marion Boyars. Cage. xxii. John Blofeld (New York: Grove Press. 20. his work would automatically carry with it a usefulness to others. 27. 17. 129. by giving up your likes and dislikes and becoming interested in things. "Memoir. comp. Siknce.346 The Musical Quarterly 8. Cage. 85. It also connected musical and spiritual purposes. literally. Conuersing with Cage. Kostelanetz. 109. 14.' " 18. foreword to The I Ching or Book of Changes. trans. 21. Kostelanetz. admittedly vague as it is a thing to do." 77. Cage. "Lecture on Nothing. Christian brought me books published by his father. 23. who was studying with Cage at the time. I think the Buddhists would say. 1950). 9. "Lecture on Nothing. John Cage. 12. 1993). . 34. "Lecture on Something. 24." John Cage. "Lecture on Nothing. He received it from Christian Wolff. 8. Cage. 25. The Perennial Philosophy (New York: Harper & Row. 19. Conversing with Cage. 42. 'As they are in and of themselves. Conversing with Cage. namely a quiet mind is a mind that is free of its likes and dislikes. Huang Po. 97. Revill. by only liking certain things. Well. 20. Cage. "Composition as Process. 43. John Cage." in John Cage: Writer. One day." 19-20. 25. 15. literally. You can become narrow-minded. C . 14.

" 29." 43. John Cage. I regard the aforementioned lectures as Cage regarded them: as poetry. Cage. Cage's definition of what constitutes poetry is reductive at best. help to place several of Cage's writings (which would include those so far discussed. is o n it. 35. submit that poetry is usually written by writers who consider it to be poetry. for Cage. 33. 2 1. 1967). Cage." Richard Fleming and William Duckworth. 41. Wesleyan University Library. A Year from Monday. Silence. Cage's hexagram notation uses what look like v's for the broken lines and puts a circle through a changing straight line and around the v for a changing broken line. 195-96. "Some Random Remarks" in Kostelanetz. the distance between Rochester and Philadelphia is 336 miles. Variations I I I (New York: Henmar Press. 40. however. Conn. Cage. Variations Ill. 42. more and more. It is not the place of this analysis to define poetry. Kostelanetz. According to the Map and Geographic Information Center at the University of New Mexico. 19. However.Silencing the Sounded Self 347 28. as now. 22. when he begins his mesostic series o n Joyce's Finnegans Wake. "A Composer's Confessions. I realize that it's going o n continuously. Cage. Conversing with Cage. 50. 39. 57-58. 43. This study ends in 1975 with the completion of Empty Words for reasons that will become apparent as the analysis progresses. A Year from Monday (Middletown. 31. 1963). John Cage. John Cage. . Using the method recommended by the American Automobile Association. 197. 3. 110-1 1. "Lecture o n Nothing" and "Lecture o n Something") in the context of poetry.: Wesleyan University Press. 4 of list. It does. Cage. 4. Kostelanetz. As such. 32. Cage. Cage. 80. John Cage Literary Archive. Kostelanetz. It will be my Imaginary Landscape No. I would. 37. John Cage. 36. 110. 211-12. my attention. Cage. 38. my concern lies with the connection between music and text and the mesostic form becomes important in both after 1975. Kostelanetz. Conversing with Cage. p. And this has become. A Year from Monday. 34. John Cage at Seventy-Five (London: Associated University Presses. the purpose of 4'33" as well: "I don't sit down to do it. I turn my attention toward it. 30. however. Kostelanetz. So.. Cage's mesostics are brilliantly conceived poetry. Conversing with Cage. 1989). As for the second piece: "to compose and have performed a composition using as instruments nothing but twelve radios. x. John Cage. Silence. eds. 46. 45. Cage and Charles. 31. I simply divided this distance by 50 miles per hour. A Year from Monday. 44.

62. of course. 5. 29. John Cage. Sometimes the last number makes it go over: for example. Abbreviation for "could. Cage. 151. 5. Silence. 21. 10. 50. 51 changing to 36 (which is not used in part VI since 51 puts the total past one hundred). 29 changing to 18 (part 11). M (Middletown. 55. 43. 52. 63. Brown. 7. 56. 55. since it is one of the most clearly articulated remarks on the importance of Thoreau's Journal ever written. 11. 17." 54. 48. 50. Kostelanetz. 10. 1989). 1941). which I myself performed in concert. James Joyce. 61. 0 . 43. Empty Words. 21. 33. it's the work I entitled Mureau. V. 46 changing to 24 (incorrectly notated as 23 at the top but corrected when placed in the Roman-numeral structure). "As I see it. Conversing with Cage. 111. . VI. I would suggest. and Norman 0. 28 changing to 43 (which is placed in part IV since the twenty-eight puts the total of part 111 over one hundred). sixty-three. 43. 58. Cage includes a footnote: "I have since made Music of Thoreau from it. I am not as sure about Duchamp as Cage was. foreword.348 The Musical Qmrterb 47. 51. 24. which turns up as twenty-one totaling one hundred nineteen. 222. 17. 9. 29. Matthiessen." 61. 58. 55 (part IV). five. 10. 113. Cage. 52. The other hexagrams translate. 12. 40 changing to 33. 6. Order of published text: I. 46." Cage used this often. M. 63. 40. It also predates Sharon Cameron's research. which has similar things to say. 33. 30. Cage and Charles. 57. 18. as literary scholarship. like Thoreau. 46. Cage and Charles.: Wesleyan University Press. A Year from Monday. x. Cameron's research can be found in her book Writing Nature: Henry Thoreau's Journal (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 28. poetry is not prose simply because poetry is in one way or another formalized. 60. 11. [2]. [I]. 10. 59. I find that while Cage. 58. 50. American Renaissance (New York: Oxford University Press. 61. by at least fifteen years. Order of texts as written in notebook: 50. 46. 133. 43. 52 changing to 43. 43. 18. 51. 8. 233-34. 53. 40. 13. Conn. 17 changing to 61 (part V). 58. going left to right. and thirty equal ninety-eight. F. 184. to Marshall McLuhan. Cage. 24. 52. foreword. as follows: 3. g . Cage and Charles. Cage and Charles. 30. 4. This quote is essential to understanding what Cage saw as his relationship to Thoreau. 50. 5. 55. 1973). 61 (this is actually 63). Cage. It is also important. 44. Duchamp's work was far more concerned with the inward direction of human intellect. . 51. References are. 30. looks outward to the world. 28. thus requiring one more chance operation.

69. is. Kostelanetz.: Northwestern University Press. Ill. It is impossible to reproduce the exact lineation of the text here. was required in order to achieve nondualism in Empty Words. . (1970). Cage. Peters. 1971). 140. 76. 65. Empty Words. recently published. The Poetics of Indeterminacy (Evanston. his astonishing timbre. This. are. Empty Words. Language. 72. we have to attend the performance in order to respond to Cage's language construct. 35. 184. a limitation. 1982). 33. Jonathan Brent and Peter Gena (New York: C. Mureau. Kostelanetz. 82." in A John Cage Reader. . 74. since the text is essentially one big justified block. 215. 68. Cage's deduction need not be seen as a rationalization. 137. 11. Cage himself mentions 1973 as the year he spoke with McNaugh. Cage. Empty Words. 337-38. in M. writes convincingly of a corresponding inclusion of choice in Cage's music. 11. Cage. 51. in an analysis of Songbook. Conversing with Cage. Empty Words. Thought. 78. ton in his introduction to Empty Words Part One. Such dependence on opsis . for everything here depends on Cage's enormous register." Marjorie Perloff. Cage. Empty Words. 66. 71. 227. 77. Kostelanetz. Revill. I would argue. 249. 70. is. fairly uninteresting. John Cage. However. Fenallosa. F. However. Cage. 71. my analysis will show that intention. Kostelanetz. Empty Words. "Each answer remains in force as an answer only as long as it is rooted in questioning. Martin Heidegger wrote. 79. 12. as mentioned in the introduction to part two. 1934). Cage. 80. in his "The Origin of the Work of Art" (1935-36). are specifically placed in the text through chance operations). Empty Words. 11. William Brooks. nor am I able to get all the various typographical fonts. and the use of Chinese-language orthography. 67. Poetry. 34. whereas Brooks argues that "that which is arrived at by choice is in no sense preferable to that arrived at by chance" (97). his individual timing and articulation. For example. Empty Words. like the earlier one of Mureau. since such thinking was in the air among Germans of Schoenberg's generation. Empty Words. Albert Hofstadter (New York: Harper & Row. Conversing with Cage. 75. Cage. 11.Silencing the Sounded Self 349 64. Conversing with Cage. Cage. Conversing with Cage. Cage's elaborate instructions. this reproduction does faithfully communicate my intention of showing how much language remains in Mureau. The connection to ideograms is worth noting and points to Cage's familiarity with Pound. 2 1. See "Choice and Change in Cage's Recent Music. . ABC of Redng (New York: New Directions. in combination with the inclusion of Thoreau's drawings (which. of course. trans. refutes Marjorie Perloffs contention that "[tlhe 'score' of Empty Words. Ezra Pound. Cage. 73. 1981). while coexisting with nonintention." In Martin Heidegger. ed.

and the text a score for performance. Empty Words. Conversing with Cage. 83. 124. Cage. 95. 87. 47. Empty Words. 84. 216. 88. Brooks Atkinson (New York: Modem Library. 89. This concern can be found as early as the late 1950s: "At Darmstadt I was talking about the reason back of pulverization and fragmentation: for instance. 33. . 1982). Causal Mythology (San Francisco: Four Seasons Foundation. Empty Words. 5 1. 92. Kostelanetz. 94. letters instead of syllables. 1985). 97. 66. Granted. Robert Duncan. "Lecture on Nothing. 85. 81.350 The Musical Quarterly instructions for reading. 129. Kostelanetz. Walden and Other Writings. 1969). this does not imply that his presence is a necessary part of experiencing his poetry. Charles Olson. 51. ed. A Year from Monday. 136. Cage. using syllables instead of words in a vocal text. Kostelanetz. Cage's performances of his texts were extraordinary. I find the published versions of both Mureau and Empty Words immensely interesting. 141-42. Cage. Cole Gagne and Tracy Caras. 82. Conversing with Cage. however. Silence. as "How to Pass." 126. 96. "Toward an Open Universe. Cage. Perloff. 91. Cage. published. New Yurk Post. 11. Empty Words. 41. 297. Cage. Kostelanetz." From his lecture "Indeterminacy" (1958). Conversing with Cage. 65. in part. Conversing with Cage. 78-79. 2. Kick. 52." in Fictive Certainties (New York: New Directions. 93. Fall. Henry David Thoreau. and Run. 82. 90." in Cage. 10 June 1958. Cage. 1937). Soundpieces: Interviews with American Composers (London: Scarecrow Press. Empty Words. 86. 315-16.

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