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to accompany

**Investment Analysis and Portfolio Management
**

Eighth Edition by

**Chapter 8 - An Introduction to Asset Pricing Models
**

Questions to be answered: • What are the assumptions of the capital asset pricing model? • What is a risk-free asset and what are its risk-return characteristics? • What is the covariance and correlation between the risk-free asset and a risky asset or portfolio of risky assets?

Frank K. Reilly & Keith C. Brown

Chapter 8

**Chapter 8 - An Introduction to Asset Pricing Models
**

• What is the expected return when you combine the risk-free asset and a portfolio of risky assets? • What is the standard deviation when you combine the risk-free asset and a portfolio of risky assets? • When you combine the risk-free asset and a portfolio of risky assets on the Markowitz efficient frontier, what does the set of possible portfolios look like?

**Chapter 8 - An Introduction to Asset Pricing Models
**

• Given the initial set of portfolio possibilities with a risk-free asset, what happens when you add financial leverage (that is, borrow)? • What is the market portfolio, what assets are included in this portfolio, and what are the relative weights for the alternative assets included? • What is the capital market line (CML)? • What do we mean by complete diversification?

1

**Chapter 8 - An Introduction to Asset Pricing Models
**

• How do we measure diversification for an individual portfolio? • What are systematic and unsystematic risk? • Given the capital market line (CML), what is the separation theorem? • Given the CML, what is the relevant risk measure for an individual risky asset? • What is the security market line (SML) and how does it differ from the CML?

**Chapter 8 - An Introduction to Asset Pricing Models
**

• What is beta and why is it referred to as a standardized measure of systematic risk? • How can you use the SML to determine the expected (required) rate of return for a risky asset? • Using the SML, what do we mean by an undervalued and overvalued security, and how do we determine whether an asset is undervalued or overvalued?

**Chapter 8 - An Introduction to Asset Pricing Models
**

• What is an asset’s characteristic line and how do you compute the characteristic line for an asset? • What is the impact on the characteristic line when you compute it using different return intervals (e.g., weekly versus monthly) and when you employ different proxies (i.e., benchmarks) for the market portfolio (e.g., the S&P 500 versus a global stock index)?

**Chapter 8 - An Introduction to Asset Pricing Models
**

• What happens to the capital market line (CML) when you assume there are differences in the risk-free borrowing and lending rates? • What is a zero-beta asset and how does its use impact the CML? • What happens to the security line (SML) when you assume transaction costs, heterogeneous expectations, different planning periods, and taxes?

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therefore.An Introduction to Asset Pricing Models • What are the major questions considered when empirically testing the CAPM? • What are the empirical results from tests that examine the stability of beta? • How do alternative published estimates of beta compare? • What are the results of studies that examine the relationship between systematic risk and return? Chapter 8 . All investors are Markowitz efficient investors who want to target points on the efficient frontier. 3 . what variables are affected by it? Capital Market Theory: An Overview • Capital market theory extends portfolio theory and develops a model for pricing all risky assets • Capital asset pricing model (CAPM) will allow you to determine the required rate of return for any risky asset Assumptions of Capital Market Theory 1.An Introduction to Asset Pricing Models • What other variables besides beta have had a significant impact on returns? • What is the theory regarding the “market portfolio” and how does this differ from the market proxy used for the market portfolio? • Assuming there is a benchmark problem.Chapter 8 . – The exact location on the efficient frontier and. the specific portfolio selected. will depend on the individual investor’s risk-return utility function.

All investments are infinitely divisible. and its results could be affected by a different assumption.Assumptions of Capital Market Theory 2. 4 . All investors have the same one-period time horizon such as one-month. money at the risk-free rate of return (RFR). All investors have homogeneous expectations. that is. they estimate identical probability distributions for future rates of return. As long as the differences in expectations are not vast. this assumption can be relaxed. Assumptions of Capital Market Theory 4. – Clearly it is always possible to lend money at the nominal risk-free rate by buying risk-free securities such as government T-bills. six months. Changing it would have little impact on the theory. or one year. Investors can borrow or lend any amount of Assumptions of Capital Market Theory 3. but we will see that assuming a higher borrowing rate does not change the general results. their effects are minor. Assumptions of Capital Market Theory 5. A difference in the time horizon would require investors to derive risk measures and risk-free assets that are consistent with their time horizons. which means that it is possible to buy or sell fractional shares of any asset or portfolio. – Again. – The model will be developed for a single hypothetical period. It is not always possible to borrow at this risk-free rate. – This assumption allows us to discuss investment alternatives as continuous curves.

There is no inflation or any change in interest rates. • A theory should be judged on how well it explains and helps predict behavior. 5 . Again. or inflation is fully anticipated.Assumptions of Capital Market Theory 6. Neither pension funds nor religious groups have to pay taxes. Assumptions of Capital Market Theory 8. and the transaction costs for most financial institutions are less than 1 percent on most financial instruments. not on its assumptions. – This is a reasonable initial assumption. – This means that we begin with all investments properly priced in line with their risk levels. There are no taxes or transaction costs involved in buying or selling assets. but does not change the basic thrust. Assumptions of Capital Market Theory • Some of these assumptions are unrealistic • Relaxing many of these assumptions would have only minor influence on the model and would not change its main implications or conclusions. and it can be modified. – This is a reasonable assumption in many instances. relaxing this assumption modifies the results. Assumptions of Capital Market Theory 7. Capital markets are in equilibrium.

E(R i )][R j . this formula would become 2 2 E(σ port ) = w 2 σ RF + (1 − w RF ) 2 σ i2 + 2w RF (1 . the covariance of the risk-free asset with any risky asset or portfolio will always equal zero.w RF )rRF. Similarly the correlation between any risky asset and the risk-free asset would be zero.E(Ri) = 0 Consequently.Risk-Free Asset • • • • An asset with zero standard deviation Zero correlation with all other risky assets Provides the risk-free rate of return (RFR) Will lie on the vertical axis of a portfolio graph Covariance with a Risk-Free Asset Covariance between two sets of returns is n Cov ij = ∑ [R i . and the risky asset for Security 2.2σ 1σ 2 2 E(R port ) = WRF (RFR) + (1 . σ RF = 0 Thus Ri = E(Ri).WRF )E(R i ) This is a linear relationship Substituting the risk-free asset for Security 1. and Ri .iσ RF σ i RF Since we know that the variance of the risk-free asset is zero and the correlation between the risk-free asset and any risky asset i is zero we can adjust the formula 2 E(σ port ) = (1 − w RF ) 2 σ i2 6 .E(R j )]/n i =1 Because the returns for the risk free asset are certain. Combining a Risk-Free Asset with a Risky Portfolio Expected return the weighted average of the two returns Combining a Risk-Free Asset with a Risky Portfolio Standard deviation The expected variance for a two-asset portfolio is 2 2 2 E(σ port ) = w 1 σ 12 + w 2σ 2 + 2w 1 w 2 r1.

such as point D • Or. a graph of possible portfolio returns and risks looks like a straight line between the two assets. E(σ port ) = (1 − w RF ) 2 σ i2 = (1 − w RF ) σ i Therefore.1 D M C RFR A B E(σ port ) 7 . Portfolio Possibilities Combining the Risk-Free Asset and Risky Portfolios on the Efficient Frontier Risk-Return Possibilities with Leverage To attain a higher expected return than is available at point M (in exchange for accepting higher risk) • Either invest along the efficient frontier beyond point M. the standard deviation of a portfolio that combines the risk-free asset with risky assets is the linear proportion of the standard deviation of the risky asset portfolio. add leverage to the portfolio by borrowing money at the risk-free rate and investing in the risky portfolio at point M E(R port ) Exhibit 8.Combining a Risk-Free Asset with a Risky Portfolio Given the variance formula the standard deviation is 2 E(σ port ) = (1 − w RF ) 2 σ i2 Combining a Risk-Free Asset with a Risky Portfolio Since both the expected return and the standard deviation of return for such a portfolio are linear combinations.

Portfolio Possibilities Combining the Risk-Free Asset and Risky Portfolios on the Efficient Frontier The Market Portfolio • Because portfolio M lies at the point of tangency. it has the highest portfolio possibility line • Everybody will want to invest in Portfolio M and borrow or lend to be somewhere on the CML • Therefore this portfolio must include ALL RISKY ASSETS E(R port ) M Exhibit 8. it is a completely diversified portfolio. all assets are included in this portfolio in proportion to their market value The Market Portfolio Because it contains all risky assets.2 RFR E(σ port ) The Market Portfolio Because the market is in equilibrium. which means that all the unique risk of individual assets (unsystematic risk) is diversified away 8 .

you expect the average covariance for the portfolio to decline • How many securities must you add to obtain a completely diversified portfolio? 9 .00 Diversification and the Elimination of Unsystematic Risk • The purpose of diversification is to reduce the standard deviation of the total portfolio • This assumes that imperfect correlations exist among securities • As you add securities.Systematic Risk • Only systematic risk remains in the market portfolio • Systematic risk is the variability in all risky assets caused by macroeconomic variables • Systematic risk can be measured by the standard deviation of returns of the market portfolio and can change over time Examples of Macroeconomic Factors Affecting Systematic Risk • Variability in growth of money supply • Interest rate volatility • Variability in – industrial production – corporate earnings – cash flow How to Measure Diversification • All portfolios on the CML are perfectly positively correlated with each other and with the completely diversified market Portfolio M • A completely diversified portfolio would have a correlation with the market portfolio of +1.

3 Number of Stocks in the Portfolio The CML and the Separation Theorem • The CML leads all investors to invest in the M portfolio • Individual investors should differ in position on the CML depending on risk preferences • How an investor gets to a point on the CML is based on financing decisions • Risk averse investors will lend part of the portfolio at the risk-free rate and invest the remainder in the market portfolio The CML and the Separation Theorem Investors preferring more risk might borrow funds at the RFR and invest everything in the market portfolio 10 .Diversification and the Elimination of Unsystematic Risk Observe what happens as you increase the sample size of the portfolio by adding securities that have some positive correlation Number of Stocks in a Portfolio and the Standard Deviation of Portfolio Return Standard Deviation of Return Unsystematic (diversifiable) Risk Total Risk Standard Deviation of the Market Portfolio (systematic risk) Systematic Risk Exhibit 8.

The CML and the Separation Theorem The decision of both investors is to invest in portfolio M along the CML (the investment decision) E ( R port ) B CML The CML and the Separation Theorem The decision to borrow or lend to obtain a point on the CML is a separate decision based on risk preferences (financing decision) M A PFR σ port The CML and the Separation Theorem Tobin refers to this separation of the investment decision from the financing decision. the separation theorem A Risk Measure for the CML • Covariance with the M portfolio is the systematic risk of an asset • The Markowitz portfolio model considers the average covariance with all other assets in the portfolio • The only relevant portfolio is the M portfolio 11 .

an asset’s rate of return in relation to the return for the M portfolio may be described using the following linear model: where: R it = a i + b i R Mi + ε Rit = return for asset i during period t ai = constant term for asset i bi = slope coefficient for asset i RMt = return for the M portfolio during period t ε = random error term Variance of Returns for a Risky Asset The Capital Asset Pricing Model: Expected Return and Risk • The existence of a risk-free asset resulted in deriving a capital market line (CML) that became the relevant frontier • An asset’s covariance with the market portfolio is the relevant risk measure • This can be used to determine an appropriate expected rate of return on a risky asset .the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) Var(R it ) = Var (a i + b i R Mi + ε ) = Var (a i ) + Var (b i R Mi ) + Var (ε ) = 0 + Var (b i R Mi ) + Var (ε ) Note that Var (b i R Mi ) is variance related to market return or systematic risk Var (ε ) is the residual return not related to the market portfolio or unsystemat ic risk 12 .A Risk Measure for the CML Together. this means the only important consideration is the asset’s covariance with the market portfolio A Risk Measure for the CML Because all individual risky assets are part of the M portfolio.

M = RFR + (R M .RFR E(R i ) = RFR + M 2 (Cov i.The Capital Asset Pricing Model: Expected Return and Risk • CAPM indicates what should be the expected or required rates of return on risky assets • This helps to value an asset by providing an appropriate discount rate to use in dividend valuation models • You can compare an estimated rate of return to the required rate of return implied by CAPM .M as beta ( β ) We then define i 2 σM E(R i ) = RFR + β i (R M . which is the covariance of the market with itself .over/under valued ? The Security Market Line (SML) • The relevant risk measure for an individual risky asset is its covariance with the market portfolio (Covi.RFR) 2 σM Cov i.m) • This is shown as the risk measure • The return for the market portfolio should be consistent with its own risk.or its variance: 2 σm Exhibit Graph of Security Market Line 8.5 (SML) The Security Market Line (SML) The equation for the risk-return line is R .M ) E(R i ) SML Rm RFR 2 σm σM Cov i.RFR) Cov im 13 .

00 (0.15 1.04) Assume: E(R i ) = RFR + β i (R M .05 + -0.40 -0.05 + 1.05) = 0.09-0.40 (0.05) = 0.05) = 0.70 (0. all assets and all portfolios of assets should plot on the SML • Any security with an estimated return that plots above the SML is underpriced • Any security with an estimated return that plots below the SML is overpriced • A superior investor must derive value estimates for assets that are consistently superior to the consensus market evaluation to earn better riskadjusted rates of return than the average investor RFR = 5% (0.078 = 7.15 (0.05 + 1.090 = 09.09-0.30 Determining the Expected Rate of Return for a Risky Asset • In equilibrium.70 1.038 = 03.0% E(RC) = 0.09) Implied market risk premium = 4% (0.RFR) • The expected rate of return of a risk asset is determined by the RFR plus a risk premium for the individual asset • The risk premium is determined by the systematic risk of the asset (beta) and the prevailing market risk premium (RM-RFR) Rm Negative Beta RFR 0 1.05 + 0.00 1.09-0.6 Normalized Systematic Risk E(R i ) SML Determining the Expected Rate of Return for a Risky Asset E(R i ) = RFR + β i (R M .05) = 0.0 Beta(Cov im/ σ 2 ) M Determining the Expected Rate of Return for a Risky Asset Stock A B C D E Beta 0.30 (0.Graph of SML with Exhibit 8.8% E(RB) = 0.RFR) E(RA) = 0.09-0.6% E(RD) = 0.6% E(RE) = 0.05) = 0.05 + 1.8% 14 .106 = 10.09-0.05) RM = 9% (0.096 = 09.

referred to as the asset’s characteristic line with the model portfolio: i.βiR m βi = Cov i.S.t = the rate of return for asset i during period t RM.M 2 σM ε = the random error term The Impact of the Time Interval • Number of observations and time interval used in regression vary • Value Line Investment Services (VL) uses weekly rates of return over five years • Merrill Lynch. stocks – Value weighted series 15 .Identifying Undervalued and Overvalued Assets • Compare the required rate of return to the expected rate of return for a specific risky asset using the SML over a specific investment horizon to determine if it is an appropriate investment • Independent estimates of return for the securities provide price and dividend outlooks Calculating Systematic Risk: The Characteristic Line The systematic risk input of an individual asset is derived from a regression model. and its impact increases as the firm’s size declines The Effect of the Market Proxy • The market portfolio of all risky assets must be represented in computing an asset’s characteristic line • Standard & Poor’s 500 Composite Index is most often used – Large proportion of the total market value of U. Pierce. Fenner & Smith (ML) uses monthly return over five years • There is no “correct” interval for analysis • Weak relationship between VL & ML betas due to difference in intervals used • The return time interval makes a difference.t = the rate of return for the market portfolio M during t R =α + β R +ε αi = Ri . t where: Ri.t i i M.

Weaknesses of Using S&P 500 as the Market Proxy – Includes only U. antiques. Further. consider the return interval used and the firm’s relative size 16 . stocks – The theoretical market portfolio should include U.S. the larger the portfolio of stocks and longer the period. stocks and bonds. and any other marketable risky asset from around the world Relaxing the Assumptions • Differential Borrowing and Lending Rates – Heterogeneous Expectations and Planning Periods • Zero Beta Model – does not require a risk-free asset • Transaction Costs – with transactions costs. the SML will be a band of securities. rather than a straight line Relaxing the Assumptions • Heterogeneous Expectations and Planning Periods – will have an impact on the CML and SML Empirical Tests of the CAPM • Stability of Beta – betas for individual stocks are not stable. real estate. coins.S. art.S. but portfolio betas are reasonably stable. stamps. the more stable the beta of the portfolio • Taxes – could cause major differences in the CML and SML among investors • Comparability of Published Estimates of Beta – differences exist. Hence. and non-U.

Relationship Between Systematic Risk and Return • Effect of Skewness on Relationship – investors prefer stocks with high positive skewness that provide an opportunity for very large returns Relationship Between Systematic Risk and Return • Effect of Book-to-Market Value – Fama and French questioned the relationship between returns and beta in their seminal 1992 study. Hence. Financial Leverage also helps explain cross-section of returns • Summary of CAPM Risk-Return Empirical Results – the relationship between beta and rates of return is a moot point The Market Portfolio: Theory versus Practice • There is a controversy over the market portfolio. P/E. and Leverage – size. They found the BV/MV ratio to be a key determinant of returns • Effect of Size. proxies are used • There is no unanimity about which proxy to use • An incorrect market proxy will affect both the beta risk measures and the position and slope of the SML that is used to evaluate portfolio performance Summary • The assumption of capital market theory expand on those of the Markowitz portfolio model and include consideration of the riskfree rate of return 17 . and P/E have an inverse impact on returns after considering the CAPM.

you can identify undervalued and overvalued securities by comparing your estimate of the rate of return on an investment to its required rate of return 18 .Summary • The dominant line is tangent to the efficient frontier – Referred to as the capital market line (CML) – All investors should target points along this line depending on their risk preferences Summary • All investors want to invest in the risky portfolio. so this market portfolio must contain all risky assets – The investment decision and financing decision can be separated – Everyone wants to invest in the market portfolio – Investors finance based on risk preferences Summary • The relevant risk measure for an individual risky asset is its systematic risk or covariance with the market portfolio – Once you have determined this Beta measure and a security market line. you can determine the required return on a security based on its systematic risk Summary • Assuming security markets are not always completely efficient.

and expected returns Summary • It is not possible to empirically derive a true market portfolio. the required modifications are relatively minor and do not change the overall concept of the model. Summary • Betas of individual stocks are not stable while portfolio betas are stable • There is a controversy about the relationship between beta and rate of return on stocks • Changing the proxy for the market portfolio results in significant differences in betas.Summary • When we relax several of the major assumptions of the CAPM. SMLs. so it is not possible to test the CAPM model properly or to use model to evaluate portfolio performance What is Next? • Alternative asset pricing models 19 .

fama/ http://www.moneychimp.The Internet Investments Online http://www.com http://gsb.com http://www.uchicago.edu/fac/eugene.valueline.wsharpe.com Future topics Chapter 9 • Multifactor Models of Risk and Return 20 .

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