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Disciplina

Literatura Inglesa I
Coordenador da Disciplina

Prof. Michel François Felix
Edição 2013.1

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Créditos desta disciplina
Coordenação
Coordenador UAB
Prof. Mauro Pequeno
Coordenador Adjunto UAB
Prof. Henrique Pequeno
Coordenador do Curso
Profª. Vládia Maria Cabral Borges
Coordenador de Tutoria
Prof. João Tobias Lima Sales
Coordenador da Disciplina
Prof. Michel François Felix.
Conteúdo
Autor da Disciplina
Prof. Carlos Augusto Viana da Silva
Setor TecnologiasDigitais - STD
Coordenador do Setor
Prof. Henrique Sergio Lima Pequeno
Centro de Produção I - (Material Didático)
Gerente: Nídia Maria Barone
Subgerente: Paulo André Lima / José André Loureiro
Transição Didática
Elen Cristina S. Bezerra
Elicélia Lima Gomes
Fátima Silva e Souza
José Adriano de Oliveira
Karla Colares
Kamille de Oliveira
Thiago Alencar

Formatação
Camilo Cavalcante
Damis Iuri Garcia
Elilia Rocha
Emerson Oliveira
Francisco Ribeiro
Givanildo Pereira
Sued de Deus
Stephan Capistrano
Publicação
João Ciro Saraiva

Gerentes
Audiovisual: Andrea Pinheiro
Desenvolvimento: Wellington Wagner Sarmento
Suporte: Paulo de Tarso Cavalcante

Design, Impressão e 3D
Andrei Bosco
Eduardo Ferreira
Fred Lima
Iranilson Pereira
Luiz Fernando Soares
Marllon Lima
Onofre Paiva

Sumário
Class 01: An Introduction to the Elements of Fiction ........................................................................... 01
Topic 01: Presentation............................................................................................................................ 01
Topic 02: What do we mean by fiction? ................................................................................................ 05
Topic 03: Technical terms used to describe formal elements of a short story ....................................... 07
Class 02: The Elements of Fiction ........................................................................................................... 14
Topic 01: Poe’s Critical Theories........................................................................................................... 14
Class 03: English Language Writers: D. H. Lawrence .......................................................................... 18
Topic 01: D.H. Lawrence ....................................................................................................................... 18
Class 04: English Language Writers: James Joyce ............................................................................... 21
Topic 01: James Joyce............................................................................................................................ 21
Class 05: English Language Writers: Katherine Mansfield ................................................................. 24
Topic 01: Katherine Mansfield .............................................................................................................. 24
Class 06: The English Novel and the Victorian Context ....................................................................... 27
Topic 01: Some Historical and Social Aspects ...................................................................................... 27

LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA I
CLASS 01: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE ELEMENTS OF FICTION
TOPIC 01: PRESENTATION

MULTIMÍDIA
Ligue o som do seu computador!
OBS.: Alguns recursos de multimídia utilizados em nossas aulas, como
vídeos legendados e animações, requerem a instalação da versão mais
atualizada do programa Adobe Flash Player©. Para baixar a versão mais
recente do programa Adobe Flash Player, clique aqui! [1]
PALAVRA DO COORDENADOR DA DISCIPLINA DE LITERATURA DA LÍNGUA INGLESA
VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

Caros alunos,
A literatura em língua inglesa se estende por um longo período
que vai desde as primeiras manifestações literárias
nos dialetos Anglo-Saxões até o inglês contemporâneo.
É um acervo inestimável que nos traz uma visão rica
em contrastes sociais em vários países onde o inglês é a principal
língua de expressão.
A disciplina de literatura em língua inglesa
não pretende dar conta desse vasto universo cultural.
Daremos ênfase na prosa, mais precisamente, no conto em língua
inglesa,
do século XVIII ao século XX.
Nosso objetivo é abordar o texto literário com uma visão crítica e
analítica.
Alguns contos serão lidos, discutidos e analisados.
Quanto à avaliação, levaremos em conta a participação em fóruns,
atividades de portfólio e a produção escrita em geral.
No final da disciplina, o aluno terá que escrever
um paper sobre a obra de Emily Bronte, Wutherings Heights.
É importante que todos os alunos leiam os textos
do início até o fim da disciplina.
Sabemos que a prática da leitura é imprescindível em literatura.

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Aparentemente, o aluno que não tem costume de ler em língua
estrangeira
pode encontrar algumas dificuldades.
Contudo o exercício contínuo da leitura
nos permite cultivar nossa capacidade de assimilação crítica
e ao mesmo tempo, nos traz os benefícios de amplos horizontes
culturais.
Desejamos a todos um ótimo semestre.

Prezado aluno, ...
Nossa disciplina tem como proposta estudar elementos teóricos para
análise de ficção (contos e romance), bem como introduzir alguns escritores
de língua inglesa.
Coordenador da disciplina Prof. Carlos Augusto
Veja a seguir mais informações sobre nossa disciplina:
EMENTA

A prosa nas Literaturas de Língua Inglesa: conto, romance e não
ficção dos séculos XVIII ao século XX.

OBJETIVOS

1)Introduzir elementos teóricos para análise de narrativa;
2)Apresentar algumas narrativas (contos e um romance) em língua
inglesa para análise.

CONTEÚDO

1)Introdução aos elementos teóricos de análise de ficção;
2)Teorias críticas do conto moderno (Edgar Allan Poe e a “Filosofia da
Composição”);
3)Escritores em Língua Inglesa: D. H. Lawrence
4)Escritores em Língua inglesa: James Joyce
5)Escritores em Língua Inglesa: Katherine Mansfield
6)Escritores em Língua Inglesa: leitura e análise do romance
Wuthering Heights, de Emily Brontë

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AVALIAÇÃO

Participação sistemática em fóruns, trabalhos escritos resultado de
análise de textos literários, escrita de ensaio.

BIBLIOGRAFIA

ALLEN, Walter. The English Novel. Harmondsworth: Pelican
Books,1975.
BURGESS, Anthony. English Literature. Ediburg: Longman, 1996.
BRONTË, E. Wuthering Heights. London: Peguin Books, 1994.
FORD, B. The Pelican guide to English Literature. London: Vols 1&7,
Pelican, 1980.
GOTLIB, N. B. Teoria do Conto. 10ª ed., São Paulo: Editora Ática,
2002.
GONÇALVES, L. B. D. H. Lawrence, um classicista. Revista de Letrasv.19-nº1/2: Fortaleza, 1997.
JOYCE, J. Dublinners. London: Wordsworth Classics, 2001.
MAY, C. E. (ed.). The New Short Story Theories.
Athens: Ohio University Press, 1994.
MARCUS, S. A world of fiction twenty timeless short stories. New
York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1995.
MANSFIELD, K. The Collected Stories of Katherine Mansfield.
London: Wordsworth Editions Limited, 2006.
PERRINE, L. & THOMAS, R. Arp. Literature Structure, Sound and
Sense. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983.
ROBERT, J. L. Cliffs notes on Poe’s short stories. Lincoln, Nebraska,
1994.
ROBERT, J. L. Cliffs notes on Brontë’s Wuthering Heights. Lincoln,
Nebraska, 1961.
THORNLEY, G. C. and ROBERTS, Gwyneth. An Outline of English
Literature. Essex: Longman, Thirteenth impression, 1994.

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FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.adobe.com/products/flashplayer/
Responsável: Prof. Michel Francois Felix
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

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LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA I
CLASS 01: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE ELEMENTS OF FICTION
TOPIC 02: WHAT DO WE MEAN BY FICTION?
WHAT DO WE MEAN BY FICTION?

In the novelist Toni Morrison’s view, fiction is distinct from fact.
Presumably it is the product of imagination – invention- and claims the
freedom to dispense with “what really happened” or “where it really
happened”, or “when it really happened”, and nothing in it needs to be
publicly verifiable, although much of it can be verifiable. Fiction, then, is
concerned with enjoyment and understanding.
According to Laurence Perrinne (1983, p.3-4), fiction can be classified into
two broad categories: literature of escape and literature of interpretation.
LITERATURE OF ESCAPE

Literature of escape is that written purely for entertainment. Escape
literature has as its only object pleasure.
LITERATURE OF INTERPRETATION

Literature of interpretation in a different perspective is written to
broaden and deepen and sharpen our awareness of life. It takes us, through
imagination, deeper into the real world: it enables us to understand our
troubles. Interpretative literature has as its object pleasure plus
understanding
Fiction can also be classified in other two types: Commercial and Literary.
COMMERCIAL FICTION

Written and published with the idea of making money, and it is
successful because it helps people escape the tedium and stress of their
lives. Examples - legal thrillers, romance novels, fantasy, horror, easy-toread short stories and best sellers.
LITERARY FICTION

Written by someone with serious artistic intentions. It plunges the
reader more deeply into the real world, enabling us to understand life’s
difficulties and to empathize with others.
Tales, fables, parables, epic poems, novels, and even fairy tales, rank
among the most ancient modes of fiction, kept alive by the power of human
voice to narrate and transmit the excitement and authenticity of imaginary
actions and events.
Short stories, however, belong to a more contemporary mode of narrative
fiction and gained in recognition through the works of nineteen-century
American and European writers, including Edgar Allan Poe, Mary E. Wilkins
Freeman, Anton Chekov, Guy de Maupassant.
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Since the focus of this course is on fiction, let us introduce several
technical terms, such as character, plot, setting, theme, narrator, and style
and tone, which are used to describe the formal elements of a short story.
Getting acquainted with these terms will help you to understand how short
stories are constructed and make it easier for you to read them and to write
about them.

TIPS
Look up the glossary [1]of literary terms to be in contact with formal
terminology for literary analysis.

READING AND ANALYSIS
1. Read Faulkner’s speech [2] and reflect about the role of fiction he
presents.

MULTIMEDIA
LISTENING ACTIVITY

1. Listen to the speech in order to be in contact with a formal reading
section of the text.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OKM209FrIYk&feature=related [3]
William Faulkner's Nobel Prize Speech by student, Amilcar YbarraRojas at the annual Literary Gala 2009 in Franklin College Switzerland.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
BURGESS, Anthony. English Literature. Ediburg: Longman, 1996.
GOTLIB, N. B. Teoria do Conto. 10ª ed., São Paulo: Editora Ática,
2002.
MAY, C. E. (ed.). The New Short Story Theories. Athens: Ohio
University Press, 1994.
PERRINE, L. & THOMAS, R. Arp. Literature Structure, Sound and
Sense. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/literature/bedlit/glossary_a.htm
2. http://www.rjgeib.com/thoughts/faulkner/faulkner.html
3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OKM209FrIYk&feature=related
Responsável: Prof. Michel Francois Felix
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

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LITERATURA EM LÍNGUA INGLESA I
CLASS 01: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE ELEMENTS OF FICTION
TOPIC 03: TECHNICAL TERMS USED TO DESCRIBE FORMAL ELEMENTS OF A SHORT STORY

3. 1. CHARACTER
A character is a fictional person in a story, and readers’ first reaction to
him or her are usually based on their subjective capacity to empathize with
the character’s experiences. A character is often revealed through his or her
actions, which provide readers with clues about the character’s personality,
motives, and expectations. Many stories present a conflict between the
protagonist (the story’s central character) and the antagonist (the opposing
character or force); the conflict is revealed through the author’s use of
dialogue and narrative. In Alifa Rifaat’s story “Another Evening at the Club”,
for example, the main character or protagonist, Samia, is in conflict with her
husband, the antagonist, because of her inability to liberate herself from his
dominating behavior.
Fictional characters are sometimes referred to as round or flat, static or
dynamic.
ROUND

A round character is usually more fully developed, challenging readers
to analyze the character’s motives and evaluate his or her actions. Round
characters change, grow, and possess a credible personality, like the
mother in Mary E. Wilkins Freeman’s short story “The Revolt of Mother”.
FLAT

Flat characters, in contrast, usually play a minor role in a story, act
predictably, and are often presented as stereotypes. The minister in
Freeman’s short, for example, is presented as an unimaginative and
inflexible individual. In fact, he is in many ways a foil to Mrs. Penn,
because he has a totally opposite personality.

3.2. PLOT
Plot is the arrangement of the events in a story according to a pattern
devised by the writer and inferred by the reader. Often the plot develops
when characters and situations oppose each other, creating conflicts that
grow and eventually reach a climax, the point of highest intensity of the
narrative. After this climatic turning point, the action of the story declines.
Then, it moves toward a resolution of the conflict.
Although the time frame in a story may vary from recapturing an intense,
momentary experience to narrating an event that covers a much longer
period, the story teller must focus on what Edgar Allan Poe calls “single
effect” (more details on this theoretical concept will be presented in class II)
as the action of the story moves toward a resolution of the conflict.

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EXAMPLE
Taking the short story “Another Evening at the Club” as an example, it
can be observed the following: since the plot is centered on a conflict
between Samia and her husband, the action starts to rise in dramatic
intensity (THE RISING ACTION) when Samia’s loss of the emerald ring
destabilizes her relationship. After this initial exposition (narrative
introduction of characters and situation), the action reaches its crisis (THE
CLIMAX OF THE ACTION) when Samia decides to exonerate the maid,
even though she is conscious of her innocence. Observe that this external
conflict also parallels the internal conflict of the protagonist when she
recognizes the degree of the husband’s control over her and her inability to
oppose him. The action of the story moves toward the resolution of its
conflict (THE FALLING ACTION) when Samia yields to her husband’s
authority.
The traditional plot has a beginning, middle, and an end. However, some
authors may also vary their patterns of narration in which sometimes the
story ends without a resolution of the conflict. Sometimes the story does not
follow a chronological sequence in its development and instead it uses
flashbacks, selecting a few episodes to build a plot that moves backward and
forward (foreshadowing), providing details and hints about what will
happen next.

3. 3. SETTING
The setting of the story is the context where, when and in what
circumstances the action occurs. By observing in a story, elements such as
time, place and social context that constitute setting, we see that they reveal
the motivation of the characters and establish the story credibility.
It is important to pay particular attention to the writer’s use of visual
imagery aimed at helping the reader to create mental pictures of the setting
and assessing its effects on the characters’ actions.

3.4. THEME
Theme may be defined as the central or dominant idea of the story
reinforced by the interaction of the fictional devices such as character, plot,
setting, and point of view. The theme is the overall generalization we can
make about the story’s meaning and significance. Sometimes the theme can
be stated in a short phrase. For instance, racism and sexism are themes that
emerge in the novel The Color Purple by Alice Walker.
To define the theme of a story, look for clues provided by the author, such
as the title, imagery, symbolism, and dialogue between the characters. A
story may evoke a range of meanings. And readers – because of their
diversity of interests, cultural backgrounds, and expectations – will react
individually and produce varied meanings. However, meanings should be
supported by evidence from the story.

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3. 5. POINT OF VIEW
Point of view refers to who tells us the story and how it is told. What we
know and how we feel about the events in a story are shaped by the author’s
choice of a point of view. The teller of a story, the narrator, inevitably
affects our understanding of the characters’ actions by filtering what is told
through his or her own perspective. The narrator should not be confused
with the author who has created the narrative voice, because the two are
usually distinct.
If the narrative voice is changed, the story will change.
The possible ways of telling a story are many, and more than one point of
view can be worked into a single story. However, the various points of view
that storytellers draw upon can be conveniently grouped into two broad
categories: the third-person narrator; and the first-person narrator.
The third-person narrator uses he, she, or they to tell the story and does
not participate in the action.
The first-person narrator uses I and is a major or minor participant in the
action. A second-person narrator, you, is possible but rarely used because of
the awkwardness in thrusting the reader into the story, as in the following
passage: “you are minding your own business on a park bench when a drunk
steps out of the bushes and demands your bag.”
The most important and most often used variations within first-and thirdperson narrations:
THIRD-PERSON NARRATION (NONPARTICIPANT)

1) Omniscient (the narrator takes us inside the character[s]);
2) Limited omniscient (the narrator takes us inside one or two characters);
3) Objective (the narrator is outside the character).
FIRST-PERSON NARRATOR (PARTICIPANT)

1) Major character
2) Minor character
No type of third-person narrator appears as a character in a story. The
omniscient narrator is all-knowing. Into this perspective, the narrator can
move from place to place and pass back and forth through time, slipping into
and out of characters as no human being possibly could in real life. The
narrator can report the character’s thoughts and feelings as well as what they
say and do.
The limited omniscient narrator is much more confined than the
omniscient narrator. With limited omniscience the author very often
restricts the narrator to the single perspective of either a major or a minor
character. Sometimes a narrator can see into more than one character,

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particularly in a longer work that focuses, for example, on two characters
alternately from one chapter to the next.

3. 6. STYLLE
Style refers to the way writers express themselves. Style depends on
diction (the writer’s choice of vocabulary), syntax (grammar and sentence
structure), and as well as voice and rhythm. Style reveals the writer’s
linguistic choices or preferences and therefore is a private and unique as
their personalities and identities. In order to make their language unique and
particular, writers can use devices such as the following:
IRONY

Is the discrepancy between what is expected and what actually
happens, sometimes between what the words convey and what they
actually mean. For example: “Oh! How nice of you to do it!” (more
theoretical point concerning this device will be seen at the moment of
the analysis of Katherine Mansfield’s short stories);

SYMBOL

Is something – a word or object- that stands for an idea beyond a
literal meaning; For example:
THE SICK ROSE
O rose, thou art sick!
The invisible worm
That flies in the night,
In the howling storm,
Has found out thy bed
Of crimson joy
And his dark secret love
Does thy life destroy.
(William Blake 1757-1827)
s we can see, the poem uses the traditional symbol of the rose, but
uses it in a nontraditional way.

METAPHOR

Is a figure of speech that compares two dissimilar elements without
using like or as. For example:
“Katharina at twelve was a wild flash”. Simile is a comparison using
like or as. For example: “Her skin is like dusk on the eastern horizon”.

OBSERVATION
Note: It is important to remark that we are using here the very
traditional concept of metaphor, but there are some theories in which the
concept is developed, presenting new perspectives of studies (see Lakoff,
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G. and Johnson, M. Metaphors we live by. Chicago: The University of
Chicago Press, 1980, for example).

3. 7. TONE
Tone is the manner, mood, pervading attitude, or tone of voice that
writers establish in relation to the characters, situations, and readers. It can
be understood as the various tones of voice that fiction writers establish
through style. Authors use a variety of different tones, including intimate or
distant, ironic or direct, hostile or sympathetic, formal or casual, humorous
or serious, and emotional or objective.
Fonte [1]

In the short story “First confession”, for example, Frank O’Connor uses
humor to communicate his young protagonist’s terror, reinforced by his
sister’s threats of punishment, as he faces his first religious confession.
That successful creators of fiction must be involved with the intricacies of
their craft is clear, but remember also that their primary purpose is to use
language to communicate to you. As the novelist William Faulkner reminds
us, in his 1950 Nobel Prize acceptance speech, writers like to tell and retell
stories about “love and honor and pity and pride and compassion and
sacrifice” – in other words, stories about the lives and experiences of all
human beings.

3.8 SOME WRITERS:
VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

ALIFA RIFAAT
(June 5, 1930 - 1996) was a controversial Egyptian author, whose
short stories reflect on the life of traditional Muslim women in rural
Egypt. She was an anomaly in the Egyptian literary scene, speaking
only Arabic but having left Egypt many times. Her books were
translated to English, German, Dutch, and Swedish, among many
other languages.
MARY ELEANOR WILKINS FREEMAN
(October 31, 1852 – March 13, 1930) was a prominent 19th century
American author. Freeman began writing stories and verse for
children while still a teenager to help support her family and was
quickly successful. Her best known work was written in the 1880s and
1890s while she lived in Randolph. She produced more than two dozen
volumes of published short stories and novels.
EDGAR ALLAN POE
(January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American writer, poet,
editor and literary critic, considered part of the American Romantic
Movement. Best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre, Poe
was one of the earliest American practitioners of the short story and is
considered the inventor of the detective-fiction genre.
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ALICE MALSENIOR E WILLIAM BLAK
Alice (born February 9, 1944) is an American author. She has written
at length on issues of race and gender, and is most famous for the
critically acclaimed novel The Color Purple for which she won the
Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. She was born and raised in Georgia.
And William Blak (28 November 1757–12 August 1827) was an
English poet, painter, and printmaker. Largely unrecognized during
his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of
both the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age. Considered mad
by contemporaries for his idiosyncratic views, Blake is held in high
regard by later critics for his expressiveness and creativity, and for the
philosophical and mystical undercurrents within his work.

FORUM
1) Discuss the following questions, considering important elements of
fiction that reveal your responses to a story’s effects and meanings.
a) What was your last experience as a reader of fiction (novel or short
story)? Present the main elements of this story you associate with the ones
described above.
b) How much biographical information about the author helps to
determine the central concerns of the story? Justify your position.
c) How much historical information about the story provides a useful
context for interpretation?
d) What kinds of evidence from the story are you focusing on to support
your interpretation? Does your interpretation leave out any important
elements that might undercut or qualify your interpretation?
e) To what extent do your own experiences, values, beliefs, and
assumptions inform your interpretation?

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
Based on the reading of the story we have previously discussed, choose
at least two formal elements of fiction and analyze them, observing their
roles and functions to the development of the narrative.
ATTENTION

If you have not been previously in contact with literary texts of
English literature, you can analyze a story from Brazilian literature.
But the analysis must be written in English.

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FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://ecx.imagesamazon.com/images/I/310JsROcUNL._SL500_AA300_.jpg
2. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
Responsável: Prof. Michel Francois Felix
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

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LITERATURA INGLESA I
CLASS 02: THE ELEMENTS OF FICTION
TOPIC 01: POE’S CRITICAL THEORIES
VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

A Dream within a Dream

http://opioids.com/opium/poe.jpg
"All that we see or seem
Is but a dream within a dream"
Edgar Allan Poe
(1809-1849)
According to James L. Roberts (1994, p.11), Edgar Allan Poe is
considered to be America’s first significant critic or, at least, the first
writer in America to write seriously about criticism, about the theory
of composition, and about the principles of creative art. He was also
the first one to set down a consistent set of principles about what he
thought was acceptable in art and what should be essentially rejected
in art.
Poe’s views on literary criticism were influenced by the nature of the
short works of art that would appeal to the magazine-reading public.
But irrespective of his journalistic position, his critical views on the
nature of what was and was not acceptable in a work of art have
become famous and have a great influence on subsequent writers.

Roberts (1994, p11-12) emphasizes that major theories by Poe can be
found in:
1) In the many reviews he wrote analyzing the writings of other authors;
in this genre, his most famous review is entitled “Twice-Told Tales,” a
review of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s short stories;
2) In the many letters epistles, and applications he sent for jobs, or as
answers he gave as an editor, among the more famous being the one
entitled “Letter to B___”;
3) In the various editorials he wrote for the magazines he was associated
with, “Exordium” is one of the best examples of this type;
4) In the official critical articles he wrote, in which he attempted to
present in a logical, coherent manner his critical views; as examples, “The
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poetic Principles” and “The philosophy of Composition” both contain the
unified core and basis of Poe’s critical theories, and these two essays
alone suffice to give one a full understanding of Poe’s critical views;

5)And, finally, in the critical principles that can be drawn from Poe’s
writings themselves, principles which he did not include in his critical
dicta (dictums).

In the essay “The Philosophy of Composition”, we have access to Poe’s
critical statements- stated, restated, emphasized, and applied to his own
works. It deals in details with his methodology of composing his most
famous poem, “The Raven”. He applies them to the works of other writers for
critical evaluations.
Poe presented some principles he believed and used:

VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1) the unity of effect;
2) his rejection of allegory and didacticism;
3) the epic poem’s being a non-poem;
4) the brevity of a work of art;
5) the ideal subject matter for art;
6) the appeal to the emotions;
7) the importance of emotional responses.

Poe’s emphasis is on the unity of effect that one should strive for in any
work of art. Into this perspective, the artist should decide what effect he
wants to create in the reader’s emotional response and then proceed to use
all of his creative powers to achieve that effect, whether by incidents or plot,
by narration, or by a peculiar tone, or by a peculiarity both of incident and
tone, looking for such combinations of events, or tone in the construction of
the effect.
In much of his poetry, the effect he most aimed for was one of beauty and
melancholy. For him, the most elevating and the purest pleasure is found in
the contemplation of the beautiful.
As a result of these views, Poe felt the most effective subject for a work of
art was the death a beautiful young lady; this is perhaps Poe’s most famous
and most often repeated dictum, and, furthermore, to achieve the greatest
amount of emotional melancholy, the death of the beautiful young lady
should be expressed by the lips of the bereaved lover.
In conjunction with the unity of effect, we have Poe’s dictum on the
appropriate length of a work of art. For him, a work of art should be able to
achieve its effect in one sitting, that is, to be read in one sitting.

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STOP AND CHECK
Because of Poe’s theory of writing, he is considered one of the most
representative of the modern short story and the father of modern
detective story.

READING
READING ACTIVITY

1. Read Poe’s poem “The Raven” and then, the essay “The philosophy of
composition”, observing the main elements of his theory on narrative.
http://www.heise.de/ix/raven/Literature/Lore/TheRaven.html

[1]

(The poem “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe).
http://www.bartleby.com/109/11.html [2] (the essay “The philosophy
of composition” by Edgar Allan Poe).

FORUM

What is the relevance of this theory to the formal studies of narratives?

How can you explain the idea of the length of the narrative and the
reaction it may cause in the readers?

Poe argues that the unity of effect is the most important point in
composition. What is it necessary, according to him, to get that?

As it can be observed, the action in the poem “The Raven” takes place in
closed room or possibly, as some people say, within the narrator’s mind.
How can you associate that to the way environment is developed in Poe’s
perspective in order to achieve unity of effect?

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
1) Read the short story “The Tell-Tale Heart” by Allan Poe [3] and
answer the following questions:
QUESTIONS

a) In which perspective is the story told?
b) How can you characterize the narrator? Is he a minor or major
character? Why?
c) Concerning the organization of events in the story, are they
presented in a linear or a non-linear sequence? What’s the effect of
such organization on the reader’s reaction?

16

d) It can be observed that the main character rationalizes facts.
What’s the impact of that on the report of the situation? Provide
quotations from the short story to illustrate your argument.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
GOTLIB, N. B. Teoria do Conto. 10ª ed., São Paulo: Editora Ática,
2002.
MAY, C. E. (ed.). The New Short Story Theories. Athens: Ohio
University Press, 1994.
ROBERT, J. L. Cliffs notes on Poe’s short stories. Lincoln, Nebraska,
1994.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.heise.de/ix/raven/Literature/Lore/TheRaven.html
2. http://www.bartleby.com/109/11.html
3. http://www.classicshorts.com/stories/telltale.html
Responsável: Prof. Michel Francois Felix
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

17

LITERATURA INGLESA I
CLASS 03: ENGLISH LANGUAGE WRITERS: D. H. LAWRENCE
TOPIC 01: D.H. LAWRENCE
VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

D.H. Lawrence

http://www.cswnet.com/~erin/dh3.jpg
D.H. Lawrence was born David Herbert Lawrence in Eastwood,
Nottinghamshire on September 11, 1885. Eastwood was a coal mining
town filled with hardworking Englishmen and women. Lawrence was
considered eccentric for his lack of work enthusiasm and his love of
literature.
After finishing grammar school, Lawrence received a scholarship to
attend Nottingham High School. Ironically, He did not excel in school
and after dropping out of school he gained a clerkship in a surgical
appliance factory. It was during this time that D.H. Lawrence met
Jessie Chambers and the two became fast friends. Jessie tutored
Lawrence and encouraged him to begin writing in 1905. D.H.
Lawrence went on to gain a teaching certificate from University
College, Nottingham.
In 1911, D.H. Lawrence quit teaching because of a reoccurring battle
with pneumonia. He eloped with Frieda Weekley (née von
Richthofen), a German wife of a professor at Nottingham. The couple
traveled across Europe and was finally married in 1914 after Frieda's
divorce. During WWI, Lawrence and Frieda lived in virtual poverty in
England. After the war was over he went to Italy and never returned to
his home again. On March 2, 1930 Lawrence died in Vence, France
from complications of tuberculosis.

To Lawrence, the novelist’s job was to show how an individual’s view of
his own personality was often affected by conventions of language, family
and religion, and to show how people and their relationship with each other
were always changing and moving.
Some elements are important to understand his style:
He took the form of traditional novel and made it wider and deeper;
18

He is concerned to express the inner qualities of human nature. In his
conception, man should go back to the “natural world of instinct”;
His works were concerned with the relationship between man and
women as the great source of vitality and integration. One example of this
discussion is the novel Lady Chatterley’s Lover (1928);
He criticizes the conflict between rational and natural in modern society
(an attempt to keep harmony between mind and body);
Lawrence usually has a frank discussion on sex, psychology and religion.

READING
READING ACTIVITY

1. Read D. H. Lawrence’s short stories “The Rocking-Horse Winner”
and “The Horse Dealer’s Daughter”, observing the main elements of the
story, characters and situations.
http://www.readbookonline.net/readOnLine/11037 [1]

FORUM
1. Concerning the short story “The Rocking-Horse Winner” [2], discuss
the following:
1.1. Why is there always a shortage of money in Paul’s household? Is the
family poor?
1.2 Whom does the mother blame for their financial difficulties? Is she
correct?
1.3 Why does the mother think that luck is more important than
wealth?
1.4 How important is social class to the story?
1.5 What’s the role of the father in the story?

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
D. H. Lawrence uses THE ROCKING HORSE in the story as a powerful
and complex symbol with several layers of meaning. The deeper you delve
into the symbolism, the more it reveals about the wider personal and
social issues Lawrence is concerned with.
Choose one of the questions above and answer:
1) What does the rocking horse symbolize? Give as many details as you
can to support your answer.
2) What descriptions of the rocking horse scenes help reinforce the
symbolism?

19

3) Money is used both literally and symbolically in the text. What is its
symbolic importance?
2. Concerning the short story “The Horse Dealer’s Daughter”, discuss
the following:
2.1 What are the decisions taken by the characters after their father’s
death?
2.2. What are the implications of Joe’s decision in social terms?
2.3. How can you justify Mabel’s position?
2.4. How can you contrast Joe’s to Mabel’s decision and what is the
relevance of that to the understanding of Lawrence’s concept of love?
2.5. What’s the idea of Classicism discussed in Lawrence? Use the
characters’ positions to justify it?

CHAT
Read the article “D. H. Lawrence, um classicista” by Gonçalves (1997)
(Visite a aula online para realizar download deste arquivo.) in which the
author discusses the attempt of classical unity in Lawrence’s concept of
man.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
BURGESS, Anthony. English Literature. Ediburg: Longman, 1996.
GONÇALVES, L. B. D. H. Lawrence, um classicista. Revista de
Letras-v.19-nº1/2: Fortaleza, 1997.
MARCUS, S. A world of fiction twenty timeless short stories. New
York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1995.
THORNLEY, G. C. and ROBERTS, Gwyneth. An Outline of English
Literature. Essex: Longman, Thirteenth impression, 1994.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.readbookonline.net/readOnLine/11037
2. http://www.dowse.com/fiction/Lawrence.html
Responsável: Prof. Michel Francois Felix
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

20

LITERATURA INGLESA I
CLASS 04: ENGLISH LANGUAGE WRITERS: JAMES JOYCE
TOPIC 01: JAMES JOYCE
VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

James Joyce

www.tqnyc.org/2005/NYC051339

http://www.themodernword.com/joyce/bookcovers/caedmon_dubliners.gif

According to Keith Carabine (1993, p. v), James Joyce’s Dubliners is
a work intensely local and broadly cosmopolitan. It lies open to
reading as a collection of stories challenging every theme and every
convention of earlier Irish literature as a book rooted in the
continental fiction of Joyce’s day but branching and blossoming into
the world of colonial and post- colonial literature.
Dublin, the country’s largest and most cosmopolitan city in Ireland,
had been for centuries the legal, financial and administrative capital,
the brain, if that is the proper word, of the colonial system, the place
where the vortices of power and change converged. For Joyce, as for
many compatriots, altogether too much power remained in the hands
and all too little change was visible.
What Joyce would do for the city, however, would be done at a
remove. His evocations of its life in the novels A portrait of the Artist
(1916), Ulysses (1922) and Finnegans Wake (1939) were nearly all the
stories in Dubliners (1914). The reason for this self-imposed but
intensely observant detachment might be described as impatience
with the status quo in Ireland and a patient dedication to the artistic
possibilities of exile.
Although given to describing his art, in religious terms, and
although driven by a vocation as demanding as a priest’s, Joyce had
21

developed a fierce dislike of the moral, cultural and political influence
of the Roman Catholic Church.
During the second half of the nineteenth century, in the aftermath
of the terrible period of famine and disease known as the Great
Hunger (1845-1847), the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland
underwent a devotional revolution. Its leaders swept away supposedly
pagan practices such as keening at funerals, built splendid new
churches even in the remotest areas, insisted on regular attendance at
prayers as well as mass itself and imposed a strict interpretation of the
church’s moral teachings, especially, as it seemed to Joyce, those
concerned with sexual behavior, ‘the impulse of my nature’.

Into this context of criticism, his short stories published as Dubliners, are
considered realistic on the surface but also carry a deeper meaning.
Joyce’s style may be observed in his short stories through elements such
as:
Joyce uses simplicity and close details to create a realistic setting, what
enables the reader to understand the people as a function of their
environments;
He does not tell the reader what to think, rather they are left to come to
their own conclusions;
He often uses descriptions from the characters' point of view, although he
very rarely writes in the first person;
He gives great emphasis upon the specific geographic details of Dublin,
details to which a reader with knowledge of the area would be able to
directly relate;
Joyce’s carefully detailed descriptions of the characters and setting bring
the story to life and contribute to both plot and themes.
The author presents the idea of an epiphany: a moment where a character
has a special moment of self-understanding or illumination.

READING
READING ACTIVITY

1. Read James Joyce’s short stories “The Boarding House” and “A
Painful Case”, in order to understand some elements of Joyce’s literary
universe.
http://www.readbookonline.net/readOnLine/11037 [1]

FORUM
1. What do we learn about the values of the Dublin society in which the
characters live?
22

2. Who do you consider to be victim in this story? Why?
3. How does Joyce bring out humor in the dilemma in which Mr. Doran
finds himself?
4. What is meant by describing Jack Mooney as having “the reputation
of being a hard case”. What details are given to support that description?
5. How the simile “she deals with moral problems as a cleaver deals
with meat” sums up Mrs. Mooney?
6. Why do Polly and her mother not talk openly about what is
happening in the house? When does the situation change? Does Polly
understand what her mother is doing?

CHAT
1. Can you say that “A powerful case” is a story that deals with the
theme of isolation? Why?
2. The central character of the story, Mr. Duffy, is presented as cold,
intellectual, and emotionless. What’s the relevance of that to the
development of the narrative?
3. How can you interpret the following passage taking into account one
important element of Joyce’s writing? (…), he realised that she was dead,
that she had ceased to exist, that she had become a memory” (p.83).
4. “The deceased had been in the habit of crossing the lines late at
night from platform to platform and, in view of certain other
circumstances of the case, he did not think the railway officials were to
blame” (p,82). Can this situation be considered ironic? Why?

BIBLIOGRAPHY
BURGESS, Anthony. English Literature. Ediburg: Longman, 1996.
JOYCE, J. Dublinners. London: Wordsworth Classics, 2001.
MARCUS, S. A world of fiction twenty timeless short stories. New
York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1995.
THORNLEY, G. C. and ROBERTS, Gwyneth. An Outline of English
Literature. Essex: Longman, Thirteenth impression, 1994.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.online-literature.com/james_joyce/
Responsável: Prof. Michel Francois Felix
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

23

LITERATURA INGLESA I
CLASS 05: ENGLISH LANGUAGE WRITERS: KATHERINE MANSFIELD
TOPIC 01: KATHERINE MANSFIELD
VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

Literature in Modernism acquires innovative characteristics in the
use of emotion, in the description of mental states, in the emphasis on
characters' life, in the redefinition of the narrator, in the change of
perspective from universal to particular, and in the report of daily life.

In order to contextualize short story, we can present four main branches
through representative writers:
EDGAR ALLAN POE

Whose main characteristic is the unity of effect, that is, a principle
related to the length of the short story and the reaction it may cause in its
readers (as we have discussed in class II).
GUY DE MAUPASSANT

Considered the father of the finished short story, with a resolution
carefully prepared.
ANTON TCHEKOV

Whose work is based on the effect as Poe, but he emphasizes the rupture
of the narrative with great happenings.
KATHERINE MANSFIELD

Who, although compared to the Russian writer in her literary style, gives
great importance to details in relation to the narrative, using simple facts
with great significance in the characters’ life.
Besides peculiarities concerning the structure of her short stories, one
particular aspect is very relevant to her style: the irony presented in
characters’ daily life.

24

Let us mention at least three great contributions to the development of the
short story by Mansfield:
1)The use of language in a way that it comes closer to the description of
the intensity of feelings (the use of a technique that permits the
reproduction of personalities and puts the readers into the emotional
center of the story);
2)The manipulation of sentences and words;
3)Impressionism (the development of the technique);
4)Realism through representation of daily life events.

Defining Irony
Irony is a term with a range of meanings, all of them involving some sort
of discrepancy or incongruity. It is a contrast in which one term of the
contrast in some way mocks the other term. It is not to be confused with
sarcasm, however, which is simply language designed to cause pain
(PERRINE, 1983, p.201).
Three kinds of irony may be distinguished:
VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH
VERBAL IRONY

The simplest, and, for the story writer, the least important kind, is a
figure of speech in which the opposite is said from what is intended.
The discrepancy is between what is said and what is meant.
DRAMATIC IRONY

The contrast is between what a character says and what the reader
knows to be true. The value of this kind of irony lies in the comment it
implies on the speaker or the speakers’ expectations.
IRONY OF SITUATION

Usually the most important kind for the story writer, the
discrepancy is between appearance and reality, or between expectation
and fulfillment, or between what is and what would seem appropriate.

READING ACTIVITY
1. Read Katherine Mansfield’s short stories “Mrs. Brill” and “Life of Ma
Parker”, observing the main elements of the story, characters and
situations.
http://www.readbookonline.net/readOnLine/1349 [2]

FORUM
1) What’s the center of the narratives? Are the focuses of the stories on
the happenings or on characters’ lives? Why?
25

2) How can you explain the level of interaction between the characters
Ma Parker and the literary gentleman in “Life of Ma Parker”? What’s the
effect of that to the story?
3) What’s the tone of the short story “Life of Ma Parker”? Is that any
similitude with the tone of “Mrs. Brill”? Why?
4) Discuss the presentation of irony (verbal, dramatic and/or
situational) in the two stories. Check situations in the narrative in order to
support ideas.
5) One important element in Katherine Mansfield’s short stories is
characters’ epiphany. It means that suddenly the characters have some
perceptions or a moment of illumination. Can you find in both short
stories some of these moments? Can you analyze the consequences of that
moment to the development of the story?

CHAT
Based on the short story “Bliss”, discuss the following:
1) Can you comment on at least one symbol in “Bliss”? Where are the
evidences of that in the text?
2) How are the upper middle-class intellectuals represented by Bertha’s
friends shown in the narrative?
3) What do you think Bertha and Miss Brill have in common that
suggests a characteristic of the author?
4) Can you say that the title Bliss is ironic? Justify your position.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
GOTLIB, N. B. Teoria do Conto. 10ª ed., São Paulo: Editora Ática,
2002.
PERRINE, L. & THOMAS, R. Arp. Literature Structure, Sound and
Sense. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983.
MANSFIELD, K. The Collected Stories of Katherine Mansfield.
London: Wordsworth Editions Limited, 2006.
MAY, C. E. (ed.). The New Short Story Theories. Athens: Ohio
University Press, 1994.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
2. http://www.readbookonline.net/readOnLine/1349
Responsável: Prof. Michel Francois Felix
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

26

LITERATURA INGLESA I
CLASS 06: THE ENGLISH NOVEL AND THE VICTORIAN CONTEXT
TOPIC 01: SOME HISTORICAL AND SOCIAL ASPECTS

Fonte [1]

Fonte [2]

Fonte [3]

SOME HISTORICAL AND SOCIAL ASPECTS

The Victorian Age: Some Historical and Social Aspects
Social

and

political
problems

Corruption and cynicism animated politics.

A progressive move was made in the direction of
Reform Bill of
democratizing parliamentary representation. More
1832
reforms in 1867 and in 1884.
Slavery
denounced

was

The greatest happiness of the greatest number

Utilitarianism

that is the measure of right and wrong.
Limiting of the birth rate as a solution for

Birth rate
Darwin’s
Theory
Evolution

And the British colonies were officially rid of it
in 1833.

poverty.

of

The origins of Species, 1859. Man had not been
created by God.
It denied the existence of everything, except
matter- man has no soul, and thought is secreted
by the brain.

Materialism

Marx ´s Das
Kapital

Written in London and published in 1867, a new
conception of society and of the distribution of
wealth, and it was based on a materialist
interpretation of history. The Victorian Age had a
large number of problems to face.
In many ways an age of progress: of railwaysbuilding, steam- ships, reforms of all kinds, but it
was also an age of doubt. It was a moment of too
much poverty, injustice, ugliness, and too little

27

certainty about faith or morals. It became also an
age of crusaders, reformers and theorists. With all
these ideals, a curiously puritanical age: it was
easily shocked and subjects like sex were taboo.
Conventional
morality

Conventional morality of large family with the
father as a godlike head, and the mother as a
submissive creature like Milton’s Eve.

As an example for that period > indirect
Queen Victoria influence over Literature. Social life was
considerable
Victorian
Literature

High moral purpose allied to a Romantic
technique: language is rich and highly ornamental.
German philosophy; transcendentalism > term
used by Kant that, “beyond outward appearances,

exist certain essences that cause these appearances
Thomas
but outside the limits of knowledge.” “The world
Carlyle
(1819- could not be made a better place through
1900)
democracy, however chaos could only be overcome
by obeying the born leaders, the heroes of his
Heroes and Hero-Worship anticipated the
German Fascists in his doctrine.

Ruskin,

The prose –writings of Matthew Arnold with
their clarity of style, are refreshing after Carlyle
and Ruskin, and his doctrines are, perhaps, more

Carlyle
and sympathetic to our own age. Ruskin wanted a
Matthew Arnold return to the Middle Ages, Carlyle adored
(1822-88)
Germany, but Arnold praised Greece and Rome
and wished to see something of the old ‘classical
harmony’ in English art and life.
Philosophy

Evolution and Utilitarianism

and religion

Much influenced by rational ideas, becoming
The Church of almost deistical, rejecting a great deal of the old
England
was ritual of traditional Christianity as well as its
splitting into a doctrine- and a High Church, which inclined
‘Broad Church’

towards Catholicism. It wanted a return to
Catholic ceremonial and doctrine.

Victorian novel is represented by writers such as Charles Dickens (18121870), Lewis Carrol (1832-1839), Edward Lear (1812-1888), William
Makepeace Thackeray (1811-1863) and the three Brontës sisters: Charlotte
Brontë (1816-1855), Anne Brontë (1820-1849) e Emily Brontë (1818-1848).
According to Thornley and Robert (1994, p.125), Emily Brontë wrote one
of the greatest English novels Wuthering Heights (1847), which represents
28

the very heart and soul of the romantic spirit, with its story of wild passion
set against the Yorkshire moors. The novel has been compared to
Shakespeare’s play King Lear, chiefly because of its immense and
uncontrollable passions.
VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. Themes
-The conflict between the principles of storm and calm (Heathcliff
becomes an agent of destructive power. The harmony at the end is
restored by the marriage of Cathy and Hareton).
-Romantic characteristics (isolation, supernatural elements, the
presence of nature, duality of characters)
-Hate and Love (passion x rational love) – revenge, selfishness etc.
-The new conception the traditional hero (Byronic Hero) – the break
of Manichaeism). It means that the hero does not have only “positive”
qualities. Heathcliff’s construction may be seen as an evidence of that.
2. Narrative method (point of view)
- The events narrated cover a period of thirty years – from the summer
of 1771 to the autumn of 1802. It presents the stories of three
generations of two families (the Earnshaws and the Lintons). Some
parts are presented in great details; at times several years are skimmed
over in the space of few pages.
- Brontë ignores the chronological sequence. She uses two narrators,
Mr. Lockwood, tenant at Thruscross Grange, and the housekeeper,
Nelly Dean (a new perspective in relation to her contemporary
novelist: the autobiographical method in which the story is narrated in
the first person by a character who was involved
in the action, and third- person narration in which the story is
presented by an omnipresent and omniscient spectator who is not
personally involved in the action).
4. Setting and atmosphere
The setting of the story is the wild and moorland country of Yorkshire
in the north of England. The time is the quarter of the eighteenth
century – from 1769 to 1802. In spite of the author’s limitations of two
houses (Wuthering Heights – the home of Earnshaws, and the
Thrushcross Grange – the home of the Lintons) and the moors which
lie between them, she has achieved the affect of vastness, confining the
universe in a small area. At the same time, she created a feeling of
isolation which makes the events of the story more probable.

29

5. Style
-a unique creation (a remarkable imagination)
-Understatement and simplicity at moments of great passion.
-The use of the Yorkshire dialect (at times dialogues are artificial)
-The presence of figures of speech is effective
6. Characters
Principal characters in the novel:
Occupants of Wuthering Heights
Occupants of Thursheross Grange
First Generation
Mr. Earnshaw, owner of the Heights
Mr. Linton, owner of the Grange
Mrs. Earnshaw, his wife
Mrs, Linton, his wife
Second Generation
Hindley, their son
Edgar, their son, husband of Catherine Earnshaw
Catherine, their daughter
Isabella, their daughter, wife of Heathcliff
Heathcliff, a waif, adopted by Mr. Earnshaw
Frances, wife of Hindley
Third Generation
Hareton, sono f Hindley and Frances
Cathy, daughter of Edgar and Catherine
Linton, son of Heathcliff and Isabella
Minor characters in the novel:
Ellen Dean, housekeeper at Thursheross Grange. Joseph, servant a
Wuthering Heights. Zillah, for a brief time housekeeper at Wuthering
Heights. Lockwood, tenant at Thursheross Grange
FIM

READING ACTIVITY
This is the novel we will study, considering some elements of its
structure.

30

http://www.pagebypagebooks.com/Emily_Bronte/Wuthering_Heights
[4]

FORUM
1) Outline the author’s narrative in the novel. Discuss the point (s) of
view.
2) What are the main characters of the narrative? How are they
constructed? What are the motivations for their reactions?
3) How can you analyze Heathcliff’s attitudes? Can he be considered a
traditional Hero? Why?
4) What can you say about the symbology of Wuthering Heights and
Thrushcross Grange in the novel?
5) As in the Romantic Novels, Nature receives a special treatment. Analyze
one case where action is reinforced by natural phenomena.
6) What are Gothic elements in a literary text? How are they manifested in
the novel? Comment on their importance.

CHAT
In order to systematize the main points observed in the novel
Wuthering Heights, discuss them with your mates, taking into account
aspects such as: elements of narrative construction, language, literary
period, themes and so on. At this moment, you have got to narrow down
your topic of discussion for the final paper if you have not done it yet.

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
The production of the final paper
1) Choose one of the topics presented throughout the study of
Wuthering Heights and write an essay discussing it. Use quotations from
the novel to support your ideas.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
BURGESS, Anthony. English Literature. Ediburg: Longman, 1996.
NOTE: academic writing must be observed!
BRONTË, E. Wuthering Heights. London: Peguin Books, 1994.
ROBERT, J. L. Cliffs notes on Brontë’s Wuthering Heights. Lincoln,
Nebraska, 1961.
THORNLEY, G. C. and ROBERTS, Gwyneth. An Outline of English
Literature. Essex: Longman, Thirteenth impression, 1994.

FONTES DAS IMAGENS
1. http://www.harpweek.com/Images/SourceImages/CartoonOfTheDay/M
ay/051167m.jpg
31

2. http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_Dt8ed4vn7YI/SZFu65pAJ_I/AAAAAAAAAJ
A/t1b5yw7IqIc/s400/geneticDM1012_468x477.jpg
3. http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_FrBBqtvRIhE/SBznwcPyjWI/AAAAAAAACyo
/dal-cXz6dzo/s320/bralds_marx-s%2B(2).jpg
4. http://www.pagebypagebooks.com/Emily_Bronte/Wuthering_Heights
Responsável: Prof. Michel Francois Felix
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

32