Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

INTRODUCTION
Now a days, India is the country which having world’s largest railway network. Over hundreds of railways running on track every day. As railway has straightway running as well as it has somewhat r i s k y a n d dangerous as per as general public and traffic concern. As we know that it is surely impossible to stop the running train at instant is some critical situation or emergency arises. Therefore at the places of traffic density, suburban areas a n d c r o s s i n g s t h e r e i s s e v e r e n e e d t o i n s t a l l a r a i l w a y g a t e i n v i e w o f p r o t e c t i o n p u r p o s e . Ob v i o u s l y a t e a c h a n d e v e r y g a t e t h e r e mu s t b e a n attendant to operate and maintain it. In view of that, if we calculate the places of railway crossings and such places where it would to be install and overall expenditure, the graph arises and arises at the extent. But, India, our country is a progressive country. It has already enough economical problems which are ever been unsolved. So, to avoid all these things some sort of automatic and independent system comes in picture. Now a day’s automatic system occupies each and every sector of applications as it is reliable, accurate and no need to pay high attention. So, keeping all these things and aspects and need of such system our project batch tries to make such type of system with the help of various electrical, electronic and mechanical

components. The thorough and detail information as per as construction and working is concerned, it is discussed fatherly.

Dept. Of Electronics

3

CAS, Thodupuzha

Seminar report 2013

Automatic railway gate control

HOW IT WORKS
GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day in a very precise orbit and transmit signal information to earth. GPS receivers take this information and use triangulation to calculate the train’s exact location. Essentially, the GPS receiver compares the time a signal was transmitted by a satellite with the time it was received. The time difference tells the GPS receiver how far away the train. Now, with distance measurements from a few more GPS, the receiver can determine the train’s position and display it on the gates. GPS receiver must be locked on to the signal of at least three satellites to calculate a 2D position (latitude and longitude) and track movement. With four or more satellites in view, the receiver can determine the train’s 3D position (latitude, longitude and altitude). Once the train’s position has been determined, the GPS unit can calculate other information, such as speed, bearing, track, trip distance, distance to destination, time and more.

Dept. Of Electronics

3

CAS, Thodupuzha

Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM). Of Electronics 3 CAS.Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control COMPONENTS OF THE SYSTEM We strongly believe that the correct combination of latest information and communication technologies can provide an effective and feasible solution for the requirement of a reliable and accurate train tracking system to improve the efficiency and productivity of Railways. All these technologies are seamlessly integrated to build a robust. The fundamental process in our system is obtaining train location using GPS Dept. Global Positioning System (GPS). scalable architecture as illustrated in Fig. The solution we propose encompasses a powerful combination of mobile computing. Geographical Information System (GIS) technologies and software to provide an intelligent train tracking and management system to improve the existing railway transport service. Thodupuzha .

anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.time positioning information received by the server is made meaningful and extremely useful for the end user through integration of GIS technology where the end user can better organize and Utilize information from a graphical view point.Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control technology and transmitting the data via GSM network to the central control unit for data processing and to the gate information analysis and then to control the gate. The system provides critical capabilities to military. Real. It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver. Of Electronics 3 CAS. Dept. Thodupuzha . Our system consists of 3 main modules. • The portable hardware unit (GPS/GSM train locator unit) • Central server which handles receiving information from train locators and concurrent user requests • Graphical User Interface (GUI) to provide services to our stakeholders GPS(Global Positioning System) The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions. civil and commercial users around the world.

and Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System. Chinese Compass navigation system. Thodupuzha . U. Of Electronics 3 CAS. In 2000. Department of Defense (DOD) and was originally run with 24 satellites. Announcements from the Vice President and the White House in 1998 initiated these changes. The Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) was developed contemporaneously with GPS. In addition to GPS.S. Easton is generally credited as its inventor. Dept. Congress authorized the modernization effort. There are also the planned European Union Galileo positioning system. Advances in technology and new demands on the existing system have now led to efforts to modernize the GPS system and implement the next generation of GPS III satellites and Next Generation Operational Control System (OCX).Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control The GPS project was developed in 1973 to overcome the limitations of previous navigation systems. but suffered from incomplete coverage of the globe until the mid-2000s. referred to as GPS. other systems are in use or under development. including a number of classified engineering design studies from the 1960s. GPS was created and realized by the U.[1] integrating ideas from several predecessors. Roger L. It became fully operational in 1994.S.

There are also several implementations of the concept of an extended cell. where the cell radius could be double or even more. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation environment.Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) GSM is a cellular network. depending on the antenna system. Micro cells are cells whose antenna height is under average roof top level. The longest distance the GSM specification supports in practical use is 35 kilometers (22 mi). Cell horizontal radius varies depending on antenna height. Femto cells are cells designed for use in residential or small business environments and connect to the service provider’s network via a broadband internet connection. antenna gain and propagation conditions from a couple of hundred meters to several tens of kilometers. femto and umbrella cells. Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the station antenna is installed on a mast or a building above average roof top level. micro. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells. they are typically used in urban areas. Thodupuzha . Dept. Pico cells are small cells whose coverage diameter is a few dozen meters. they are mainly used indoors. There are five different cell sizes in a GSM network—macro. which means that cell phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. the type of terrain and the timing advance. Pico. Of Electronics 3 CAS.

[1] In the simplest terms. Thodupuzha . purpose. Hence. and present all types of geographical data. or application-oriented. this is not a prerequisite. enterprise. or an indoor repeater with distributed indoor antennas fed through power splitters. to deliver the radio signals from an antenna outdoors to the separate indoor distributed antenna system.Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM and may be achieved by using an indoor Pico cell base station. a GIS developed for an application. analyze. store. a GIS is custom-designed for an organization. A GIS can be thought of as a system—it digitally creates and "manipulates" spatial areas that may be jurisdictional. for example. manage. GIS is the merging of cartography. However. in shopping centers or airports. Dept. (GIS)Geographic information system Geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture. jurisdiction. or purpose may not be necessarily interoperable or compatible with a GIS that has been developed for some other application. since indoor coverage is also provided by in-building penetration of the radio signals from any nearby cell. and database technology. The acronym GIS is sometimes used for geographical information science or geospatial information studies to refer to the academic discipline or career of working with geographic information systems. statistical analysis. These are typically deployed when a lot of call capacity is needed indoors. Of Electronics 3 CAS. manipulate. Generally.

the term describes any information system that integrates stores. analyzes. considering the cost factor. or purpose. a concept that has no such restrictive boundaries. The position data is periodically sent to the central server through the GSM transmitter of the module. and systems. We have chosen GSM as the Dept. The device is capable of storing data in a buffer at a time of GSM connectivity failure. Thodupuzha . and can synchronize with the remote server when GSM is back online. edits. as it should sustain a seamless supply of electricity at a low voltage for the locator module to function properly. analyze spatial information. durability and low power consumption. What goes beyond a GIS is a spatial data infrastructure. shares. The train locator unit planted in the train is designed and implemented.Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control jurisdiction. In a general sense. and present the results of all these operations. GIS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries (user-created searches). size of the module. applications. enterprise. The device can also respond to commands and data calls from the remote server as per administrative requirements of the train controllers. The power supply unit of the module is a main factor which decides the feasibility of the unit. The GPS receiver of the unit is capable of identifying the latitudinal and longitudinal position and ground speed of the specific train by receiving information from the GPS satellites. Geographic information science is the science underlying geographic concepts. Of Electronics 3 CAS. and displays geographic information for informing decision making. edit data in maps.

The server carries out information processing and analyzing in order to cater for different requirements of the users of our system. The use of GSM over GPRS significantly improves the feasibility and availability of our system. locomotive drivers and the train commuters. The server automatically updates the database with latest position. Dept. selection of GSM over GPRS data communication is feasible and enables island wide service provisioning.Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control communication medium between the train locator and the central server to improve availability of our system by utilizing the existing GSM network which covers the whole country. The central control system includes a server for handling and processing all the position information received from train locators via the GSM network. Thodupuzha . Our main objective is to be instrumental in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of Sri Lanka Railway services by fulfilling the fundamental requirement of reliable and real time information of train positioning for monitoring and administration purposes by the Railway Department. Despite the high mobile penetration and number of mobile telecom service providers (GSM) covering the island. Thus. The main stakeholders of our system are the railway administrators (Railway Department). The competition between the GSM service providers has also lead to high quality GSM services at fair rates. speed and direction information of each train. Of Electronics 3 CAS. GPRS usage and the coverage is poor in many rural parts of Sri Lanka.

We have incorporated GIS techniques to provide location specific data organized in layers so the end user can better apprehend the information provided by the system. direction can also be given along with real time train positioning data.Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control WORKING PROCEDURE The end user of our system is offered with an easy to use graphical user interface for information analysis and administration tasks. Satellite images providing visual positioning can serve as a very good background when used in conjunction with map data specifying the location. current location or nearest station etc. Of Electronics 3 CAS. railway track conditions. and passenger information is a tedious task for the train controllers and Dept. arrival/departure at railway stations. The train control and management process includes management of heavy traffic of passenger and freight trains. Our system essentially provides functionality for the railway administrator to monitor the progress of a particular train or a group of trains operating in a geographical area. The user can search and locate trains by the train ID. Recording the train movements. fuel status. Thodupuzha . The web based access and extensible mobile access to our software is designed to be intuitive for the end user to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of our system. train name. Information such as train speed. which operates in complex running patterns on the railway network. The train controller needs to ensure that passenger trains are adhering to the schedules as well to find efficient routes for unscheduled freight trains.

The accuracy of this information is very important to ensure smooth functioning of the railway service as well as to optimize resource planning. Thodupuzha . Of Electronics 3 CAS. Dept. Thus our train tracking system can be enhanced to automate the train control and management process of the Railway Department in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the railway services provided. • Facility to playback the progress of each train and events for review purposes • Automated schedule regulation • Forecasting functionality on train arrival-departure at different stations • Automatic detection of over speeding. non-adherence to traffic regulations.Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control would be time consuming if done manually. schedule adherence etc. • Automatic record keeping of train operations and events • Functionality to generate time-distance graph for trains which can be used to control and plan the train movements • Facility to generate user defined reports and graphs on train movements. Following is a list of facilities that can be offered by our system to automate the train control and management process. For example at a point of a railway-track failure or an accident. train controller should be able to decide on how to utilize existing resources and efficient alternative routes to ensure system availability of the railway service in that region. train delays etc. railtrack failures. arrivaldeparture at each station.

Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control • Facility to send alerts/warnings to particular train drivers on possible collisions. Of Electronics 3 CAS. Thodupuzha . derailment through the system • Automatic rail crossing control Dept.

freight details. A single entry point of data ensures there’s no ambiguity of the data recorded in the system. signaling and fuel status at different stations. This would also ensure accuracy and integrity of the data eliminating human error when documentation is done manually. Graphical representation of these data with ability to compare with historical data will be instrumental for the administration to take effective decisions. The logged data on arrival-departure time at different stations. the load of paper work on the train controller is dramatically reduced. are instrumental for railway administration when evaluating performance of trains and locomotive drivers.Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control FUNCTIONLFAETURES By automating the process of record keeping of train traveling. number of passengers onboard. driver performance. Of Electronics 3 CAS. Time-distance graph is vital for the train traffic regulation process. The graph gives the user a wholesome view of the train circulation. railway infrastructure state in different regions and enables the user to detect abnormal conditions and conflicts. Data mining is a method of extracting patterns from data [3]. Thodupuzha . Various user defined reports on train activities. and passenger and freight information also support timely and accurate decision making by the administration. genetic algorithms and rule induction can be instrumental Dept. The use of advance data mining techniques combined with complex algorithms such as neural networks. The graph is useful for the train operator to identify traffic problems in advance and take precautions to resolve the problems.

the use of spatial data mining techniques would drastically improve the productivity and effectiveness of the train control and management process carried out through our system. Spatial data mining technique combines data mining with GIS to find patterns in spatial data. traffic conditions. speed. railway administrators can take necessary precautions and trigger alerting mechanisms to avoid such unfortunate accidents in future. rail-track conditions and adherence to Dept. making the railway transportation much safer. Facility to playback past activities on the railway. Thodupuzha . For example. Hence. With the huge amount of data pertaining to train operations collected daily. process of information analysis using conventional methods would be a difficult task. Of Electronics 3 CAS.Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control in identifying hidden patterns from enormous amount of data. train controllers can use the playback feature combined with the data mining techniques to analyze and identify the sequence of activities which resulted in that accident. Constant monitoring of train location. Data mining operations can be used effectively in combination with the playback function to identify sequential patterns of particular activities and their impact on the railway traffic. enables the user to review and analyze operational situations in the past. With that knowledge. Improving safety and availability of railway transport service requires detection and triggering of alerting mechanisms to avoid possible train collisions and other forms of adverse incidents. which could be a powerful tool for applications using geographical information such as our system. at an unfortunate incident of a train collision.

The hardware unit planted in the train can be enhanced to prompt the alerts to the driver in graphical and audible forms. Our system facilitates a comprehensive alerting mechanism by enabling the train controllers to send alerts/ notifications to locomotive drivers via GSM connection. This would also enable locomotive drivers to contact the control unit at a state of emergency. The unit can be further enhanced to support voice communication between train controllers and locomotive drivers in order to provide guidance and important messages to the particular driver. Over the years. Thus our system can be extended to improve the reliability of such safety mechanisms by synchronizing the railway crossing control process with the incoming train’s position. many road accidents have occurred at railway crossings imposing a critical safety threat to both train commuters and passengers in vehicles. Of Electronics 3 CAS. A proper alerting framework is vital in order to avoid such adverse incidents by alerting the locomotive drivers in advance. Furthermore the system can be incorporated to significantly improve safety at railway and road intersection points. Thodupuzha . We can provide accurate real time information Dept. A LED display unit and an alarm bell to signal adverse conditions can be integrated with the hardware unit to provide a complete alerting framework.Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control traffic regulations helps the train controllers to detect potential collisions and derailments. Such accidents are caused mainly by the unreliability of the safety mechanisms such as blocking arms and signal lights used at the crossing point.

adverse weather conditions etc. rail track failures. can also be incorporated to improve the effectiveness of our solution. speed and length of the train to synchronize the functions of rail crossing with the train movements. Train schedule is inevitably subject to train delays which can occur due to various reasons such as excessive train load. One of the main purposes of our system is to facilitate accurate public information Dept. efficient routes. train traffic. The productivity of the service can be significantly improved by providing accurate predictions on approaching train at the rail-road crossing and displaying amount of remaining time to clear the crossing from train traffic. Thus the system is instrumental in improving safety of both railway passengers and people crossing rail-road cross points. train priority. Thodupuzha . Here also data mining with other complex algorithms can be instrumental to provide accurate forecasting on train arrival-departure at stations. Alarm triggers to alert road vehicles approaching too close to the rail-road crossing at a point of train approaching. and railway infrastructure conditions have to be taken into consideration to accurately forecast train arrival time at various stations. Integrating an intelligent forecasting mechanism on arrival-departure time at different railway stations can further enhance the efficiency and productivity of our system.Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control on train position. A number of operational parameters such as railway traffic. Of Electronics 3 CAS. The train schedule regulations are automatically updated and stakeholders can be notified.

LED-Display panels put up at railway stations can display arrival departure time of each train enabling the public user to make informed decisions on their journeys. With the increasing interest on mobile applications. destination of the arriving vehicle and waiting time can be displayed with real time information. As a marketing strategy. Thus. The interactive kiosk can be used to obtain travel information such as alternate routes to specified destination. Route number. Thodupuzha . culture and commercial activities can also be provided to the user through the kiosk. Railway Department can improve the loyal customer base and also attract new passengers to railway transport service by winning their trust and reducing user uncertainty of using public transport facilities.Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control distribution with regard to railway services and operations. Another extension of the PIS system is delivering real time train information to handheld devices such as mobile phones and PDAs. information regarding the particular city. The user experience can be further enhanced by introducing information Kiosks which can provide information to travelers in an intuitive and interactive manner to make informed decisions on selecting train routes and departure time. With accurate forecasting of train arrival-departure at stations. Of Electronics 3 CAS. access to latest train schedule Dept. our system can be incorporated to design and implement innovative Passenger Information Systems (PIS) based on real time information of train positions. route details on the railway map and latest information on train schedules etc.

Thodupuzha . They are constantly moving.Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control information via mobile connection can be influential for improving customer base of the railway service. The GPS satellite system The 24 satellites that make up the GPS space segment are orbiting the earth about 12. These satellites are travelling at speeds of roughly 7. Easy to use mobile applications can be designed and implemented to enable train commuters to easily subscribe to our service and obtain latest train schedule information via mobile devices. Here are some other interesting facts about the GPS satellites (also called NAVSTAR. They have backup batteries onboard to keep them running in the event of a solar eclipse. Department of Defense name for GPS) The first GPS satellite was launched in 1978. Dept.GPS satellites are powered by solar energy. making two complete orbits in less than 24 hours.000 miles an hour. Reliability and customer loyalty of the railway services can be significantly improved by taking such action to improve accurate public information distribution of the current status of railway services. Small rocket boosters on each satellite keep them flying in the correct path. when there’s no solar power. the official U.000 miles above us.S. Of Electronics 3 CAS.

The solution to this problem is to have the satellite itself send enough information to calculate its current location relative to your receiver. The first & foremost criterion in choosing a GPS is that it must meet the task at hand efficiently & cost effectively.  Accuracy: The GPS receiver uses a slightly different approach. Thodupuzha . these sites are moving. CRITERIA FOR CHOOSING GPS 1. GPS can best handle the computing needs of the task most effectively. Well it really measures the length of time the signal takes to arrive at your location and then based on knowing that the signal moves at the speed of light it can compute the distance based on the travel time.Seminar report 2013 GPS interface (SR-86): Automatic railway gate control GPS module used is SR-86 which operate at 4800 baud rate. It continuously Receives the co-ordinates from three orbiting satellite. Now. armed with the Dept. It measures its distance from the satellites and uses this information to compute a fix. unlike the known sites of the olden days. Among other considerations in the category are:  Speed: measurement today is to consider a series of “trackpoints” that record position estimates (latitude and longitude) determined by theGPS at regular time intervals. Of Electronics 3 CAS. However.

Another important aspect that you should consider is how far away from home are you going to travel using your GPS. Modern day GPS devices are not only good for driving on the road but also for a lot of other very useful things.Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control satellite location and the distance from the satellite we can expect that we are somewhere on a sphere that is described by the radius (distance) and centered at the satellite location. Therefore you should consider the size and portability of the GPS if you will ever want to take it with you when you are not driving. The vehicle GPS systems may be cheaper while being portable than GPS systems that are permanently mounted on the car so this is something that you will also want to consider.Most GPS devices come with a rechargeable internal battery that lasts around 8 hours. For example if you are going to travel to the farthest Dept. Of Electronics 3 CAS. Thodupuzha .  Low cost: The first thing you need to consider is the device portability. This means that you will be taking the GPS along with you even if you aren’t driving in your car. Lots of people leave their GPS plugged into the car adaptor and never really utilize the battery.  Power consumption: It uses solar cell for its working. The GPS will also come with a car adapter for charging or a wall adaptor that you can use to charge the GPS from any standard electrical source. depending on the software installed on it.

Dept. This way if you are in a location you are unfamiliar with it will be easier for you if you have a high level of functionality in your GPS device. Thodupuzha .Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control corners of the country or even outside of India then you may want to get a device that comes with a better collection of maps and which has a wide array of directional features. Of Electronics 3 CAS.

high-quality voice recording & play back solution No external IC s required Minimum external components Non-volatile Flash memory technology No battery backup required Dept.Seminar report 2013 FEATURES      Automatic railway gate control Single-chip. Of Electronics 3 CAS. Thodupuzha .

 The cost of gps in India is low so the entirewsystem can be costless. And low power is used for its working.  By using the solar cells it can work for long time.  With the use of this the Human safety can be made more secure. Dept.Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control COMPARISION WITH OTHER METHODES  It is More accurate when compared with other methodes. Because it continuosly monitors the trains changing location. Of Electronics 3 CAS. Thodupuzha .

Dept.  If the GSM system is out of coverage area that may result in failure of the system.  In heavy traffic this cannot perform properly.  E l i mi n a t i o n o f h u ma n e r r o r . DISADVANTAGES  If GPS slowdowns the total system slowdowns. Of Electronics 3 CAS. Thodupuzha .  Quick response time  Fully Automatic system  Robust system. low power requirement  Less time delays.  S a v i n g i n e n e r g y r e q u i r e me n t s .Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control ADVANTAGES OF ATOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM The need of automation is due to or advantages of automatic control system are:  It results in economy of operation.  If frees human beings from mental tasks.

Thodupuzha . Dept. Of Electronics 3 CAS. It’s only the time and financial constraints that impose a limit on the development. o Reduce transportation delay. o If track break is detected then SMS is sent to the base station using GSM module so that immediately taken. There always remains an infinite scope of improvement to a system design.Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control FUTURE SCOPE Each and every project is never complete as new things are learned further modifications can be done. o Using RFID automatic opening and closing of the gates can be possible. Following are the few enhancements that may add further value to the system.

As the system is completely automated. Thodupuzha . sensing. Of Electronics 3 CAS. gate closing and opening operation is done by software coding written for the controller. presence of a gatekeeper is not necessary and automatic operation of the gate through the motor action is achieved. GPS performs the complete operation i. The mechanism works on a simple principle and there is not much of complexity needed in the circuit.. By this mechanism.e. Dept. it avoids manual errors and thus provides ultimate safety to road users.Seminar report 2013 CONCLUSION Automatic railway gate control The idea of automating the process of railway gate operation in level crossings has been undertaken.

portlandtribune.guardian.co.pipstechnology.Seminar report 2013 REFERENCE  http://en.php?story_id=122350294579016400  http://www.uk/technology/2007/feb/15/epublic Dept.com/alpr/  http://www. Thodupuzha .org/wiki/Ring_of_steel Automatic railway gate control  http://www.com/news/story. Of Electronics 3 CAS.wikipedia.

The present project is designed to satisfy the security needs of the railways. signaling for the train driver. The position of the train can be estimated by using the GPS system is displayed on the control room to indicate the train position along the track.Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control ABSTRACT The railroad industry’s own desire to maintain their ability to provide safe and secure transport of their customers hazardous materials. and the track protection. Addressing these challenges is important. This system provides the security in four ways: automatic gate opening/closing system at track crossing. tracking the signals. These signals are controlled from the control room. Dept. as railroads. Of Electronics 3 CAS. The controller operates (open/close) the gate as per the received signal from the Reflection sensors. has introduced new challenges in rail security. The green light denotes that the track is free and red light denotes the track is busy or damaged. The automatic gate opening/closing system is provided with the Reflection sensors placed at a distance of few kilometers on the both sides from the crossing road. play a vital role in the economy of the country. The train driver always observes the signals placed beside the track. and the efficient delivery of their cargo. These signals are controlled based on the train position which is sensed by using the GPS system. Thodupuzha . These sensors give the train reaching and leaving status to the embedded controller at the gate to which they are connected.

Of Electronics 3 CAS.Seminar report 2013 Automatic railway gate control Dept. Thodupuzha .