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**The Analysis on Angle Noise Produced by Blinking Jamming
**

LI Ping

School of Aerospace Science and Engineering Beijing Institute of Technology Beijing, China liping85@bit.edu.cn

**GENG Xiao-ming
**

School of Aerospace Science and Engineering Beijing Institute of Technology Beijing, China zhangqinghui@bit.edu.cn ZHAI Zhen-gang Air Defense Forces Command College ZhengZhou, China Zz_gang@bit.edu.cn

Zhang Yan

Military Transportation Academy Tianjin, China Carriezhang2006@gmail.com

Abstract—Blinking jamming is an effective countermeasure against monopulse radar seeker. It causes line-of-sight angle to step continuously between the two angular positions through jamming resources emitting by turns. The expression of angle noise in synchronous blinking jamming and the relationship between the parameter of jamming resource and Angle Noise are analyzed on the basis of the situation of line-of-sight angle position between missile and target. The relationship between the parameter of jamming resources and Angle Noise is important in application of blinking jamming. Keywords- Blinking jamming; Angle Noise ; line-of-sight angle;

II.

ANGLE NOISE ABOUT COMPLICATED-TARGET

A. Line-of-sight angle between missile and target The advantages of monopulse radar are as follows: acquiring angular divergence information quickly and disregarding influence of echo-amplitude fluctuation, so monopulse radar system is used widely in many kinds of missile seekers. The radar seeker of missile under consideration uses monopulse techniques to measure the target angular displacements. However, when multiple unresolved targets are present, the angular information cannot be extracted correctly. Many guidance laws have been developed for decades.The classical approach is to apply missile maneuver acceleration proportionally to the measured line-of-sight(LOS) rate.The resulting guidance law is the well-known proportional navigation(PN). The pure proportional navigation guidance (PPNG) law has been widely recognized as one of the most efficient and practical guidance laws. Optimal guidance laws for accelerating targets depend on adequate estimates of key states such as line-of-sight rate and target normal accelerations

I.

INTRODUCTION

In modern war, missile has great threat toward plane. It is very important to jam missile efficiently and reduce or destroy its attack ability. The essential difference between missile and general weapon is that missile has Guidance System. Blinking jamming is a form of multiple-source incoherent jamming .This method attempts to attack the tracking dynamics of the angle-tracking radar. It is effective against some types of monopulse radar as well as other tracking radars . As for synchronous blinking jamming , many analyses had been done and some relationship had been concluded in the documents[1-6]. Because of confidentiality ,the documents only make qualitative analysis about the theory of blinking jamming. The relationship between the parameter of jamming resource and angle noise is of great importance in the application of blinking jamming. The expression of angle noise in synchronous blinking jamming and the relationship between the parameter of jamming resource and angle noise are analyzed on the basis of the situation of line-of-sight angle position between missile and target.

D2 q b= (1) Vrel In the formula (1) , b is instantaneous Miss Distance, D is distance between missile and target, q is line-of-sight angle and Vrel is relative velocity between missile and target. The formula (1) means that line-of-sight angle q is very important to analyse instantaneous Miss Distance b of

⋅

978-0-7695-3519-7/09 $25.00 © 2009 IEEE DOI 10.1109/CAR.2009.104

441

while Dunn and Howard built another glint model based on Poynting vector . known as “target glint. Angle Noise in blinking jamming Blinking jamming produces angle noise through combining with two jamming resources that can’t be distinguished in angle. as shown in figure 1. Lindsay built the glint model based on phase gradient method . So. A. If jamming resources emit periodic jamming signal. which make seeker produce great angle–measuring error or make Angle Tracking System loop unlocked. b will be very measured by radar seeker continuously change with jamming signal. line-of-sight angle in blinking jamming Blinking jamming includes synchronous blinking jamming and asynchronous blinking jamming. We analyzes the angle noise that be produced by synchronous blinking jamming. B. On the assumption that when only jamming resource 1 emits jamming signal. When only jamming resource 2 emits jamming signal. Years later. Complex targets can cause irregular electromagnetic wave reflection. III. line-of-sight angle in synchronous blinking jamming can be considered as a series of step signal ， as shown in figure 3. Angle noise about Complicated-target Some targets. Hongcheng and Huang Peikang compared the two models and considered that they were equivalent in terms of geometrical optics. Howard's study in1959 analyzing the phase front. Glint noise may arise in a target tracking system. When Jamming Suppression Coefficient is very large and the other factors that influence the line-of-sight angle can be omitted. The angle noise comes from the thermal noise of external and the internal noise of radar receptor.of the echo signal from a complicated-target explained that angular glint is a distortion of the echo signal phase front. the line-of-sight angle that is 442 . T U V t U V t figure 1 synchronous blinking jamming When two planes emit discontinuous jamming signal in different angular position. B. it is important to consider the influence of angle noise on system.missile . such as aircraft and vessels. A probability density for the glint described by generalized hypergeometric functions has been proposed based on the Rice target model. the line-of-sight angle also periodically changes . Jamming resources change rapidly between the two LOS angle positions . the line-of-sight angle is 1 .Measurement preprocessing at the front-end of the tracker is an effective method to reduce glint noise.are so complex that angular glint shows intensive random characteristics. In the environment model of radar seeker. An empirical approach showed that the glint is non-Gaussian with heavy-tailed behavior. ANGLE NOISE PRODUCED BY BLINKING JAMMING q figure 2 line-of-sight angle between missile and target in synchronous blinking jamming The line-of-sight angle will continuously step change between the two angular positions in synchronous blinking jamming.If large . This phenomenon varies the target center in a radar and gives rise to outliers in angle tracking. Jamming resources emit jamming signal by turn and only one jamming resource emit at any time in synchronous blinking jamming. Glint noise can severely degrade the tracking performance. the line-ofsight angle is q2 ，as shown in figure 2.” The glint noise has a long-tailed distribution and can severely degrade the angle -tracking ability . q has wide Amplitude fluctuation. Angular glint is a well-known phenomenon that can give rise to radar pointing errors that may lie beyond the physical extent of the target body.

the distribution angle Φ 0 and RΦζ (τ ) = Φ (1 + ζ 2 ) exp(−2ν τ ) 4 2 0 (5) proportional coefficient ζ are decisive parameters to analyze Angle Noise. the Correlation Functions RΦ (τ ) and Spectral Density S Φ ( f ) of signal are: figure 6 the relationship between blinking jamming parameters and angle noise spectrum density From the figures above. S Φ ( f ) is Stationary angle noise Spectral Density that θ 2 8Φ 0ν rad 2 /HZ 2 2 4ν + ω θ0 Φ 0 = 0.θ θ0 SΦζ (ω ) = 2 2(1 + ξ ) 2 Φ 0ν rad 2 /HZ 4ν 2 + ω 2 (6) − θ0 figure 3 angle noise in symmetrical distribution Let us suppose that the two jamming resources are symmetrical distribution Relative to equisignal bearing . Pn (t ) = ν is average blinking frequency.angle space is ϕ 0 and blinking frequency is random distribution.1rad ξ = 1 V = 1HZ Φ 0 = 0. 443 . we can conclude that blinking frequency ν .05rad − ξθ 0 figure 4 angle noise in asymmetrical distribution When jamming resources are asymmetrical distribution Relative to equisignal bearing . the effect of blinking jamming is obvious. The Correlation Functions RΦ (τ ) and Spectral Density S Φ ( f ) of signal are: 2 RΦ (τ ) = Φ 0 exp(−2ν τ )rad 2 (νt ) n exp(−νt ) n! (2) Φ 0 = 0. When the blinking frequency conform to poisson distribution.1rad ξ =1 (3) (4) SΦ ( f ) = is produce by jamming resources. probability of blinking frequency is Pn (t ) after a period of t . If the parameters selected is reasonable .15rad Φ 0 = 0.

which make seeker produce great angle–measuring error or make Angle Tracking System loop unlocked. [7] Mu Hong.the distribution angle Φ 0 and proportional coefficient Angle Noise.et al. MA : Artech House.1979-1980.N. the relationship between the parameter of jamming resource and Angle Noise are analyzed on the basis of the simulation.1965 [4] [5] D.et al. Electronic Countermeasures. [2] [3] D. c1986.” International Countermeasures Handbook .. P.C.“Monopulse .Vakin.IV.shustov ， Principles of jamming and electornic reconnaissance Beijing: Science Press.Los Altos.A.Artech House.Maksimov.Hoisington.Doppler and Fuse Jamming Primer.MA .Hoisington.“Monopulse .Doppler and Fuse Jamming Primer.L. [8] D. “introduction to electronic warfare” Dedham. Electronic Countermeasures. The expression of line-of-sight angle between missile and target in synchronous blinking jamming. [11] M. [5] [6] M. 1996.CA.1979-1980.Boyd. P. Bean.“introduction to electronic warfare” Dedham. Bean. Research on sync Blink Jamming against monopulse Seeker[D] . MA : Artech House. Peninsula Publishing. ζ are decisive parameters to analyze REFERENCES Sun yufu. 1977.Radar Anti-Jamming Techniques.MA . 444 . “Design of radar seeker for Anti-Aircraft missile” Beijing: Astronautics Press.CA.Boyd.A.A. [9] J. [3] [4] J.1980. 1986.1965 [10] D. Peninsula Publishing.1980.Curtis Schleher. CONCLUSIONS [1] Blinking jamming is a countermeasure technique that jams radar seeker efficiently. BeiJing Institute of Technology .” International Countermeasures Handbook .Maksimov. [6] S. Artech House. Blinking frequency ν . It produces changing jamming signal through combining with two jamming resources that can’t be distinguished in angle.Curtis Schleher.Dedham.C.Dedham.Los Altos.Radar Anti-Jamming Techniques.

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