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# Differential and Integral Calculus Success Magnet (Solutions

)
Aakash IIT-JEE

-

Regd. Office : Aakash Tower, Plot No. 4, Sector-11, Dwarka, New Delhi-75 Ph.: 011-47623456 Fax : 47623472
(361)
Section B : Multiple Choice Questions
y = f(x) = ¬
÷ x
x
1
y – xy = x
¬ x (1 + y) = y
¬
y
y
x
+
=
1
) ( ) (
1
x g x f =
÷
x xy y
x
x
x g y = + ¬
+
= =
1
) (
¬ x (1 – y) = y
¬
y
y
x
÷
=
1
) ( ) (
1
x f x g =
÷
) ( ( ) ( ) (
1 1 1
x f g x fog
÷ ÷ ÷
=
x x g g = =
÷
)) ( (
1
x x f f x g f x gof = = =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
)) ( ( )) ( ( ) ( ) (
1 1 1 1
g(x) =
log( ) 2
3 3 log( ) 4
5 5 log( )
1
x x a
x x a
x x a
a e x
a e x
a e
÷
÷
÷
g(x) =
2
3 3 4
5 5
1
x x
x x
x x
a a x
a a x
a a
÷
÷
÷
Now, g(– x) =
2
3 3 4
5 5
1
x x
x x
x x
a a x
a a x
a a
÷
÷
÷
= – g(x)
∴ g(x) is odd function
⇒ g(x) is symmetric about origin.
∴ Derivative of odd function is even function and even function is odd and derivative of odd function, if exist,
is zero at x = 0.

( )
4
4
0
( ) 0
x
d
g x
dx
=
| |
= |
|
\ .
Success Magnet (Solutions) Differential and Integral Calculus
Aakash IIT-JEE

-

Regd. Office : Aakash Tower, Plot No. 4, Sector-11, Dwarka, New Delhi-75 Ph.: 011-47623456 Fax : 47623472
(362)
 ( )
4
4
( )
d
g x
dx
is odd function
log
a x
a x
÷ | |
|
÷
\ .
, g(x) both odd function
⇒ f(x) =
log
a x
a x
÷ | |
|
+
\ .
⋅ g(x) is even function.
f x ( )
2
2
t
t
3t
2t
g x ( )
2
2
t t 3t 2t
Clearly, |
.
|

\
| t
= |
.
|

\
| t
'
4
'
4
g f
and |
.
|

\
| t
= |
.
|

\
| t
'
4
3
'
4
3
g f
Also, 1 ) ( ' ÷ = t f , ) ( ' t g is not defined
|
.
|

\
| t
2
' f
and
|
.
|

\
| t
2
' g
also not defined
f(x) = (
¸
(

¸
t
2
sin
x
x
When x = 4p, f(x) = ] 2 sin . 4 [ t p p = 0
x = 4p + 1, f(x) = (
¸
(

¸
t
+ t + )
2
2 sin( ) 1 4 ( p p
=
] [ ] 1 4 [
2
sin ) 1 4 ( x p p = + =
(
¸
(

¸
t
+
x = 4p + 2, f(x) = )] 2 sin( ) 2 4 [( t + t + p p
= 0 ] sin ) 2 4 [( = t + p
x = 4p + 3, f(x) = (
¸
(

¸
t
+ t + )
2
3
2 sin( ) 3 4 ( p p
= ] [ )] 3 4 ( [ x p ÷ = + ÷
Clearly, f(x) will be discontinuous, when x equals 4p + 1 and 4p + 3
Differential and Integral Calculus Success Magnet (Solutions)
Aakash IIT-JEE

-

Regd. Office : Aakash Tower, Plot No. 4, Sector-11, Dwarka, New Delhi-75 Ph.: 011-47623456 Fax : 47623472
(363)
f(x) =
1
( )
x
x
, x > 0, g(x) = 1 + x log
( )
2
1 x x + +
,
x ≥ 0
h(x) =
2
1 x +
, x ≥ 0
Let φ(x) = g(x) – h(x), φ(0) = 0,
g′(x) = log
( )
2
2
1
1
x
x x
x
+ + +
+
φ′(x) = g′(x) – h′(x) h′(x) =
2
1
x
x +
φ′(x) =
( )
2
log 1 x x + +
φ′(x) = (+ ve) for x > 0
⇒ φ(x) is continuous increasing function [0, ∞)
∴ x ≥ 0
⇒ φ(x) ≥ φ(0)
⇒ φ(x) ≥ 0
⇒ ( ) ( ) g x h x > ¬ x ≥ 0
(2) is incorrect
f(x) =
1
( )
x
x , x > 0
f′(x) =
1
2
1 log( )
( )
x
x
x
x
÷ | |
|
\ .
∴ f(x) is decreasing in (e, ∞)
(π)
e
< e
π
f(x) is continuous at x = e and
0 < x < e f′(x) > 0
e < x < ∞ f′(x) < 0
(3) is incorrect.
f(1

) = f(1
+
) ¬a + b + c = 2a + b
¬ c = a ----- (i)
a b a f f 2 2 ) 1 ( ' ) 1 ( ' = + ¬ =
+ ÷
¬ b = 0 ----- (ii)
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
>
< +
=
1 , 2
1 ), 1 (
) (
2
x ax
x x a
x f
Success Magnet (Solutions) Differential and Integral Calculus
Aakash IIT-JEE

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Regd. Office : Aakash Tower, Plot No. 4, Sector-11, Dwarka, New Delhi-75 Ph.: 011-47623456 Fax : 47623472
(364)
When a > 0, the graph of f is
(0, ) a
(1,2 ) a
When a < 0, the graph of f is
(0, ) a
(1,2 ) a
Clearly (1), (2) and (3) are correct.
f(x) = min{1, cos(x), 1 – sin(x)}
c
o
s
(
)
x
1–sin( ) x
c
o
s
(
)
x
t
2
t t
2

0
x x'
y
y'
–1
1
f(x) =
cos( ) , 0
2
1 sin( ) , 0
2
cos( ) ,
2
x x
x x
x x
t ¦ ¹
÷ s s
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
t ¦ ¦
÷ < s
´ `
¦ ¦
t ¦ ¦
< st
¦ ¦
¹ )
f′(x) =
sin( ) , 0
2
cos( ) , 0
2
sin( ) ,
2
x x
x x
x x
t ¦ ¹
÷ ÷ s s
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
t ¦ ¦
÷ < s
´ `
¦ ¦
t ¦ ¦
÷ < st
¦ ¦
¹ )
At x = 0:
LHD = 0, RHD = – 1, ⇒ f(x) is not differentiable at x = 0.
At x =
2
t
LHD = 0, RHD = – 1 ⇒ f(x) is not differentiable at x =
2
t
Also x < 0 slightly ⇒ f′(x) = (+ve) and x > 0 slightly ⇒ f′(x) = (– ve) ⇒ f(x) has local maxima at x = 0 and
f(x) is increasing in
,0
2
t (
÷
(
¸ ¸
.
Differential and Integral Calculus Success Magnet (Solutions)
Aakash IIT-JEE

-

Regd. Office : Aakash Tower, Plot No. 4, Sector-11, Dwarka, New Delhi-75 Ph.: 011-47623456 Fax : 47623472
(365)
8. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)
f is differentiable at x = 1, we have
1 + p + q = 0
and
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
> +
s t t + t
= '
1 ; 2 3
1 ; cos 2 sin 4
) (
2
2
x px x
x x x x x
x f
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
> +
< t t + t t ÷
= ' '
1 ; 2 6
1 ; cos 8 sin ) 2 4 (
) (
2 2
x p x
x x x x x
x f
f ′(1+) = 3 + 2p and f ′(1–) = –2π
In order that f(x) is differentiable at x = 1,
f ′(1+) = f ′(1–)
⇒ 3 + 2p = –2π ⇒
2
2 3 t +
÷ = p

2
2 1
2
2 3
1 1
t +
=
t +
+ ÷ = ÷ ÷ = p q
f ′′(1–) = – 8π, f ′′(1+) = t ÷ = |
.
|

\
| t +
÷ + 2 3
2
2 3
2 6
⇒ f ′′(x) is discontinuous at x = 1
⇒ f ′′(x) is not differentiable at x = 1
9. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)
We have
x qx
dt
t p
t
x
x sin –
lim
0
2
0
}
+
÷
= 1

x q
x p
x
x cos –
lim
2
0
+
÷
= 1
⇒ q – cos x → 0 as x → 0, for the existence of limit, q = 1
and hence 1
1
lim .
cos – 1
lim
0
2
0
=
+
÷ ÷
x p
x
x
x x

p
2
= 1
⇒ p = 4
Success Magnet (Solutions) Differential and Integral Calculus
Aakash IIT-JEE

-

Regd. Office : Aakash Tower, Plot No. 4, Sector-11, Dwarka, New Delhi-75 Ph.: 011-47623456 Fax : 47623472
(366)
We have
4
0
3 4 3
0 0
0
(1 )
4
1 (1 )
lim lim
4
x
x
x x
t n t
dt
t
t n t
dt
x t x
÷ ÷
+
+
+
=
+
}
}

=
4 2
0
(1 ) 1
Lt
4 3
x
x n x
x x
÷
+
×
+

=
2
0
(1 ) 1 1
Lt
12
3( 4)
x
n x
x
x
÷
+
· =
+

The graph of the given function is shown in the adjacent figure. Clearly
D
f
= [– 1, 2)
– 1
0
t/2
3 /4 t
1 2
t/4
R
f
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t t t
4
3
,
2
,
4
and f is many-one
For x = 0 and y = x, we have
f(x) f(– x) = f
2
(0)
and f′(x) =
( ) ( )
h
x f h x f
h

lim
0
+
÷
=
( )
( )
( )
h
x f
f
h x f
h

0

lim
2
0
+
÷
=
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
h
f x f h x f
x f h
0 – –
lim

1
2
0
+
÷
=
( )
( )
h
f x
h h
f x
h h
f
x f h
0 –
2

2 2 2
lim

1
2
0
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
÷
=
( )
( )
h
f
h
f
x f h
0 –
2
limit

1
2 2
0
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
( )
( ) ( )
2
0 –
2
0
2
limit
– 2
1
0 h
f
h
f f
h
f
x f h
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
÷
Differential and Integral Calculus Success Magnet (Solutions)
Aakash IIT-JEE

-

Regd. Office : Aakash Tower, Plot No. 4, Sector-11, Dwarka, New Delhi-75 Ph.: 011-47623456 Fax : 47623472
(367)
=
( )
( )
( ) ( ) 0 0 2 .
2
2
' f f
x f
x f
=
( )
( )
( ) x f
f
f
0
0 '

( )
( ) x f
x f '
=
( )
( ) 0
0
f
f '
= a
⇒ ln f(x) = x
( )
( ) 0
0
f
f '
+ k
⇒ f(x) =
( )
( )
k
f
xf
e
+
'
0
0
x = 0, f(0) = e
k
12. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)
Differentiating x
2
+ y
2
= 2a
2
,
y
x
dx
dy ÷
=
Differentiating x
2
= 2y
2
,
y
x
dx
dy
2
=
If the curves intersect orthogonally,
1
2
2
2
÷ =
÷
y
x
⇒ x
2
= 2y
2
Clearly, all four given points satisfy the condition.
f(x) =
3
(1 ) , 0
log( ) 3 , 0
x x x
x x x x
¦ ¹
÷ s ¦ ¦
´ `
+ > ¦ ¦
¹ )
3
0 0
lim ( ) lim (1 ) 0
x x
f x x x
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= ÷ =
0 0
lim ( ) lim ( log( ) 3 ) 0
x x
f x x x x
+ +
÷ ÷
= + = , f(0) = 0
⇒ f(x) is continuous at x = 0
f′(x) =
2
(3 4 ) , 0
4 log( ) , 0
x x x
x x
¦ ¹
÷ s ¦ ¦
´ `
+ > ¦ ¦
¹ )
f′(x) is not continuous at x = 0
Also f′(x) = 0, ⇒ 4 + log(x) = 0
4
x e
÷
=
∴ x = e
–4
is the critical point.
For x < e
– 4
slightly ⇒ f′(x) < 0 and x > e
– 4
slightly ⇒ f′(x) > 0
∴ x = e
– 4
is a point of minima.
Success Magnet (Solutions) Differential and Integral Calculus
Aakash IIT-JEE

-

Regd. Office : Aakash Tower, Plot No. 4, Sector-11, Dwarka, New Delhi-75 Ph.: 011-47623456 Fax : 47623472
(368)
f(x) = (4α – 3) (x + log2) + 2(α – 7) cot
2
x | |
|
\ .
sin
2
2
x | |
|
\ .
f′(x) = (4α – 3) + 2(α – 7)
cot sin cos
2 2 2
x x x
| | | | | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ . ¸
2 2
1
sin cosec
2 2 2
x x (
| | | |
÷
( | |
\ . \ .¸
= (4α – 3) + 2(α – 7)
2
1
cos
2 2
x (
| |
÷
( |
\ . ¸ ¸
= (4α – 3) + (α – 7)cos(x)
f′(x) = 0 ⇒ cos(x) =
4 3
7
o ÷
÷ o

4 3
1
7
o ÷
s
÷ o

4
, 2
3
÷ (
o e
(
¸ ¸
∴ f(x) has no critical points in
4
,
3
| |
÷·
|
\ .
or (2,∞)
y = sin(x + y) ....(i)
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
dx
dy
y x
dx
dy
1 ) cos(
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + =
2
1
1 ) cos(
2
1
y x
2
1
) cos(
2
1
y x + =
cos(x + y) = 1 ....(ii)
From (i) & (ii) squaring and adding
y
2
+ 1 = sin
2
(x +y) + cos
2
(x + y)
y
2
+ 1 = 1
y
2
= 0
y = 0
sin(x + 0) = 0 or sinx = 0 ⇒ x = nπ, n ∈ Z.
Values of x such that –2π ≤ x ≤ 2π are 0, ± π, ± 2π of which 0, + 2π, –2π satisfy equation (ii).
Hence points are (0, 0) (2π, 0) (–2π, 0)
Now equation of tangent at (0, 0) is
) 0 (
2
1
0 ÷ ÷ = ÷ x y
⇒ x + 2y = 0
Differential and Integral Calculus Success Magnet (Solutions)
Aakash IIT-JEE

-

Regd. Office : Aakash Tower, Plot No. 4, Sector-11, Dwarka, New Delhi-75 Ph.: 011-47623456 Fax : 47623472
(369)
Equation of tangent at (2π, 0) is
) 2 (
2
1
0 t ÷ ÷ = ÷ x y
⇒ x + 2y – 2π = 0
Equation of tangent at (–2π, 0) is
) 2 (
2
1
0 t + ÷ = ÷ x y
⇒ x + 2y + 2π = 0
f(x) =
2
2
[ ]
x
x
+
, x ∈ [1, 4.9]
f(x) =
2
2
2
2
2 , 1 2
2
, 2 3
2
2
, 3 4
3
2
, 4 4.9
4
x x
x
x
x
x
x
x
¦ ¹
+ s <
¦ ¦
+ ¦ ¦
s <
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
+
s < ¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
+
s s ¦ ¦
¹ )
f′(x) =
2 , 1 2
, 2 3
2
, 3 4
3
, 4 4.9
2
x x
x x
x
x
x
x
s < ¦ ¹
¦ ¦
s <
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ ` s <
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
s s ¦ ¦
¹ )
f′(x) > 0 in each of the intervals
⇒ f(x) is increasing in [1, 2), [2, 3), [3, 4) and [4, 4.9].
But f(x) is not increasing in [1, 4.9]
∴ f(3) =
11
3
,
3
11 11
lim ( ) (3)
2 3 x
f x f
÷
÷
= > =
Also, 3 ≤ f(x) < 6 in [1, 2)
3 ≤ f(x) <
11
2
in [2, 3)
11
3
≤ f(x) < 6 in [3, 4)
4.5 ≤ f(x) ≤ 6.5025 in [4, 4.9]
∴ Least value of f(x) = 3
Greatest value of f(x) = 6.5025
(1), (2) correct.
Success Magnet (Solutions) Differential and Integral Calculus
Aakash IIT-JEE

-

Regd. Office : Aakash Tower, Plot No. 4, Sector-11, Dwarka, New Delhi-75 Ph.: 011-47623456 Fax : 47623472
(370)
Given curve
y = exlog(x) and y =
log( ) x
ex
Required area =
1 1
1 1
log( )
log( )
e e
x
ex x dx dx
ex
÷
} }
x
x'
y
y'
0
1
e
log( ) x
y
ex
=
y ex x = log( )
=
2 2
3 1 5
4 2 4
e e
e e e
÷ ÷ | |
÷ ÷ =
|
\ .
=
2
5
4
e
e
÷
dx x x x x e
x
)) cos 3 cos 4 ( 3 ) sin 4 sin 3 ((
3 3
÷ + ÷
}
= x e dx x x e
x x
3 sin ) 3 cos 3 3 (sin = ÷
}
f(x) = sin3x
Range of f(x) = [–1, 1]
[sin3x] = –1, 0, 1
dx x x e x xd e
x x x x x x
) cos ( ) (sin
) cos sin ( cos sin + +
} }
=
= e
x sinx + cosx
⇒ f(x) = sinx, g(x) = cosx, B = 1
} }
÷
+
=
+
dx
x x x x
dx
4
1
4
1
) 1 (
1
) 1 (
4 5 4 4
Let 1 + x
–4
= t
–4x
–5
dx = dt
dt
dx x
4
1 1
5
÷ =
}
÷
4
1
4
1
t
dt
c x
t
dt t + + ÷ = ÷ = ÷ =
÷
÷
}
4
3
4
4 / 3
4
1
) 1 (
3
1
4
3
.
4
1
4
1
Differential and Integral Calculus Success Magnet (Solutions)
Aakash IIT-JEE

-

Regd. Office : Aakash Tower, Plot No. 4, Sector-11, Dwarka, New Delhi-75 Ph.: 011-47623456 Fax : 47623472
(371)
]) [sin ( )) sgn( ]. [ ) (log x x d x x x ÷
}
for ) 2 , 1 ( e x
[x] = 1
sgn(x) = 1
) ( )) ( log( log log x g x f x x x x dx x I ÷ = ÷ = =
}
⇒ f(x) = g(x) = x
f(x) > 0
hence g(x) > 0
0
1
1
lim
1
log
lim ) log( lim )) ( log( lim
2
0 0 0 0
=
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
|
.
|

\
|
= = =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
x
x
x
x
x x x f x
x x x x
dx x} sin{
20
10
}
÷
= dx x
x
}) sin({ 30
0
}
) 1 1 (cos 30 sin 30 ]) [ sin( 30
1
0
1
0
÷ ÷ = = ÷ =
} }
dx x dx x x
= 3 (1 – cos1)
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
1
sin 2 3
2
) (
3
x x
e
+
is increasing function in (1, 2)
Minimum value = e
2
Maximum value = e
10
⇒ k
1
= e
2
(2 – 1) = e
2
k
2
= e
10
(2 – 1) = e
10
dx
x f
dx
x a f
dx
x f
I
a a a
) (
1
1
1
) ( 1
1
) ( 1
1
0 0 0
+
=
÷ +
=
+
=
} } }
Success Magnet (Solutions) Differential and Integral Calculus
Aakash IIT-JEE

-

Regd. Office : Aakash Tower, Plot No. 4, Sector-11, Dwarka, New Delhi-75 Ph.: 011-47623456 Fax : 47623472
(372)
=
dx
x f
x f
a
) ( 1
) (
0
+
}
2 1 ) (
1 ) (
0
a
I a dx
x f
x f
I I
a
= ¬ =
+
+
= +
}
5 cos 4 sin 3 ) (
2
+ + =
}
b b dx x f
b
⇒ f(b) = 3cosb – 4 sinb
⇒ f(x) = 3cosx – 4sinx
∴ (f(x))
max
= 5
(f(x))
min
= –5
Area =
dx x dx x ) 1 (sin ) 0 (sin
2
0
+ + ÷
} }
t
t
t
= ) (sin 2
2
dx x
}
t
t
+ t +
= 2 + |π – 2| = π
x e e C C y
x C
2 sin ) (
3
2 1
+ · + =
order = 1
degree = 1
2 2
1 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+
dy
dx
dx
dy

2 2
1 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+
dy
dx
dx
dy

1
4
= |
.
|

\
|
dx
dy
⇒ 1 ± =
dx
dy
⇒ y = ± x + c
at x = 0, y = 0
y = ± x
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y
2
= 4ax ....(i)
a
dx
dy
y 4 2 =
y
a
dx
dy 2
=
....(ii)
by (i) and (ii)
xy
a
y ax
dx
dy
y
2
2
4
2
=
·
=
dx
dy
x y 2 =
x
y
dx
dy
2
=
∴ Differential equation orthogonal trajectory is
x
y
dy
dx
2
= ÷
⇒ –2xdx = y dy
⇒ y
2
+ 2x
2
= c
x
y x x
dx
dy ÷
=
sin
x
x
y
dx
dy
sin = +
x e
dx
x
= =
}
1
I.F.
solution of the equation of
}
+ ÷ = = · x x x xdx x x y sin cos sin
c
x
x
x y + + ÷ =
sin
cos
options 1, 2, 3 are correct
) ( cos
2
ydx xdy xy
x
ydx xdy
+ =
÷

} }
= |
.
|

\
|
) (sin(xy d
x
y
d
c y
x
y
+ = sin
options 1, 3 are correct
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Given
2
0
2
x
e dx
·
÷
t
=
}
put
2
x = t
2 2
2
0 0
1
2
2 2 2 2
x t
dt
e dx e
· ·
÷ ÷
t t
= = · =
} }
Put x
2
= t,
xdx =
2
dt
2
0
0 0
1 1 1
(0 1)
2 2 2 2
x t t
dt
e xdx e e
· ·
·
÷ ÷ ÷
(
= = ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
¸ ¸ } }
( )
2 2
2
0 0
x x
x e dx x xe dx
· ·
÷ ÷
= ·
} }
=
2
2
0
0
1
( )
2 2
x
x
e
x e dx
·
·
÷
÷
( | |
( |
÷ ÷ ÷
| (
\ . ¸ ¸
}
=
2
0
1
2 4
x
e dx
·
÷
t
=
}
1 – 2x ≥ 0 and 1
2
1 3
1 s
÷
s ÷
x
34. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)
sgn (e
–x
) = 1, sinx + | sinx| is periodic with period 2π.
Draw the graph of cosx and | x| and find min (cosx, | x| )
f(x) = k
1
+ k
2
=
tan( ) cot( )
2 2
1 1
1 ( 1)
x x
e e
t dt
dt
t t t
+
+ +
} }
f′(x) =
2
2
tan( )
sec ( )
1 tan ( )
x
x
x
·
+ ( )
( )
2
2
1
cosec ( )
cot( ) 1 cot
x
x x
+ ÷
+
= tan(x) – tan(x)
f′(x) = 0
⇒ f(x) is a constant function
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⇒ f(x) = k
1
+ k
2
= f
4
t | |
|
\ .
=
( )
1 1
2 2
1 1
1
1
e e
t dt dt
t
t t
+
+
+
} }
=
( )
( )
2
1 1
2
1 1
1
1
e e
t dt
dt
t
t t
+
=
+
} }
=
1
1
log( ) 1
e
t = (
¸ ¸
∴ k
1
+ k
2
= 1 for all x ∈ 0,
2
t | |
|
\ .
A =
0
sin( )
sin( ) cos( )
x
dx
x x
t
+
}
using
0 0
( ) ( )
a a
f x dx f a x dx = ÷
} }
=
0
sin( )
sin( ) cos( )
x
dx
x x
t
t ÷
t ÷ + t ÷
}
A =
0
sin( )
sin( ) cos( )
x
dx
x x
t
÷
}
A B =
Also A + B =
( )( )
0
2sin( ). sin( )
sin( ) cos( ) sin( ) cos( )
x x
dx
x x x x
t
÷ ÷
}
=
0
1 cos(2 )
cos(2 )
x
x
t
÷
÷
}
=
0
0
1
(1 sec(2 )) log sec(2 ) tan(2 )
2
x dx x x x
t t
(
÷ = ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
}
A + B = π

2
A B
t
= =
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37. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)
4
3
4
1
2
1
3 2 9 1 3 9 + + · · ÷ = + ÷
x x x x
4
3
4
3
2
1
3
2
> + |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
x
for all x
Two functions are identical only when they have common domains and ranges.
39. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)
Solve the equation
f(–x) = f(x)
40. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)
Use the definition
18 8
1
3
1
3 3
1
3
1
27 ) (
3
3
3
÷ = |
.
|

\
|
+ · · ÷ |
.
|

\
|
+ = + =
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x x f
= – 10, ∀ x ∈ R
f(x) = minφ(t), – 3 ≤ t ≤ x
φ(x) = | 1| | 1| x x ÷ ÷ +
From the graph
x x'
y
y'
– 1 – 2 1 2
y f x = ( )
y
x

=

2
2
0
f(x) is non-differentiate at x = 0, – 1
f′(100) = 0
10 1 0 10
3 3 1 0
( ) 2 ( 2 ) 0 f x dx dx x dx dx
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= + ÷ +
} } } }
=
0
2
1
2 1 3 x
÷
(
÷ + ÷ (
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
= 5
f(x) = [x][sinπx]
when 0 < x < 1, [x] = 0
⇒ f(x) = 0 in (0, 1)
⇒ f(x) is continuous in (0, 1)
–1 < x < 0 ⇒ [x] = –1.
–π < πx < 0
–1 ≤ sinπx < 0 ⇒ [sinπx] = –1
∴ f(x) = [x] [sinπx] = 1 = constant in (–1, 0)
⇒ f(x) is continuous in (–1, 0)
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f(x) is continuous at x = 0, then
) 0 ( ) 0 ( lim ) 0 ( lim
0 0
f h f h f
h h
= + = ÷
÷ ÷
⇒ p
qe pe
e e e
h h
h h
h h h
h
h
h
=
+
+ +
= ÷
÷
÷
÷
3 2
3 2 1
0
cosec
0
lim ) sin (cos lim
⇒ p
q
e = =
1
g(x) will be as follows
4 2 , 0 2
2 2 , 1 0
( )
2 3 , 2 1
3 , 3 2
x x
x x
g x
x x
x
+ s s ¦ ¹
¦ ¦
+ ÷ s <
¦ ¦
=
´ `
+ ÷ s < ÷
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
÷ s < ÷
¹ )
1 1
lim ( ) 2( 1) 2 0, lim ( ) 2( 1) 3 1
x x
g x g x
+ ÷
÷÷ ÷÷
= ÷ + = = ÷ + =
2 2
lim ( ) 2( 2) 3 1, lim ( ) 3
x x
g x g x
+ ÷
÷÷ ÷÷
= ÷ + = ÷ =
So there is discontinuity at x = –2, x = – 1
46. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)
The function x
2
cos
2
1
÷ is defined and continuous on the interval
(
¸
(

¸

÷
2
1
,
2
1
i.e.,
t +
t
s s t +
t
n x n 2
4
3
2
4
and t +
t
s s t +
t
n x n 2
4
7
2
4
5
The function can be written as
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
=
=
÷
< <
÷
÷
=
÷
< <
÷ s >
=
0 ; 0
...... 4 , 3 , 2 ,
1
1
1
;
1
,.... 4 , 3 , 2 ,
1
1 1
;
1
1 & 1 ; 1
) (
2
2
x
n
n
x
n
n
n
n
x
n n
x x
x f
The nature of the function can be tested at ,...... 3 , 2 , 1 ,
1
= ± = n
n
x
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We observe that at ,
1
n
x = R.H.L. =
,
1
2
n
L.H.L. =
2
) 1 (
1
÷ n
at
n
x
1 ÷
= R.H.L. =
2
) 1 (
1
÷ n
L.H.L =
2
1
n
Hence the given function is discontinuous at
n
x
1
± = , n = 1, 2, 3, .....
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
t +
t
± =
t +
t
± =
= =
· ÷
n x
n x
x x f
n
n
2
, 0
,
2
, 1
) (sin lim ) (
2
n is an integer
Clearly f(x) is discontinuous at infinitely many points .
2
t
± t n
Since 1
2
1
) ( ÷ = x x f is continuous on [0, π] and y = tanx is continuous on
(
¸
(

¸

÷
t
÷ 1
2
, 1 therefore tan (f(x)) is
continuous on
) (
1
] , 0 [
x f
· t is not defined at the point x = 2, so
) (
1
x f
is not continuous on [0, π]. Now
f
–1
(x) = 2(x + 1), which is clearly continuous on [0, π]
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
+
= + =
+
÷ + ÷ + ÷
1
2
0
1
lim ) 0 ( lim ) ( lim
) 0 ( 2
0 0 0
h
h h h
e
h
h f x f
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷ =
÷
1
2 1
lim
2
0
h
h
e
h
1
) 1 (
2 1
lim
2
2
0
=
÷
÷ ÷
=
÷
h
h
h
e h
h e
Similarly, 1
) 1 (
2 1
lim ) ( lim
2
2
0 0
=
÷ ÷
+ ÷
=
÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
h
h
h x
e h
h e
x f
Hence f(0) = 1
h
e
h
h
f h f
Rf
h
h h
1
1
2
0
1
lim
) 0 ( ) 0 (
lim ) 0 (
) 0 ( 2
0 0
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
+
=
÷ +
= '
+
÷ ÷
h
e
h
h
h
1
1
2 1
lim
2
0
÷
÷
÷
=
÷
3
1
) 1 (
) 1 ( 2 1
lim
2 2
2 2
0
÷ =
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
÷
h
h h
h
e h
e h h e
Similarly,
3
1
) 0 ( ÷ = ' Lf
⇒ f(x) is differentiable at x = 0 and f′(0) = .
3
1
÷
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We have,
f(x) = sinx + cosx, x ∈ [0, 2π]

|
.
|

\
| t
+ = ÷ = '
4
cos 2 sin cos ) ( x x x x f
⇒ f ′(x) > 0 if |
.
|

\
| t
+ t
t
|
.
|

¸
t
e
t
+
2
2 ,
2
3
2
, 0
4
x
|
.
|

\
| t t
|
.
|

¸
t t
÷ e > '
4
9
,
4
5
4
,
4
; 0 ) ( x x f
Since f(x) is defined in [0, 2π]
hence in the given interval f′(x) > 0 for
(
¸
(

\
|
t
t
|
.
|

¸
t
e 2 ,
4
5
4
, 0 x
⇒ f(x) is increasing in
(
¸
(

\
|
t
t
|
.
|

¸
t
2 ,
4
5
4
, 0
Also, f ′(x) < 0 if
2
3
4 2
t
<
t
+ <
t
x
4
5
4
t
< <
t
x
⇒ f(x) is decreasing in |
.
|

\
| t t
4
5
,
4
x
2
+ y
2
– 4x + 2y + 1 = 0
A B
( ) 2 3,0 -
( )
2 3,0 +
x x'
y
y'
(x – 2)
2
+ (y + 1)
2
= 4 …(i)
For 0 ≤ x ≤ 4
0 ≤
3
1
100 35
x x
+ < ⇒ y =
3
100 35
x x
(
+
(
(
¸ ¸
= 0
We have to find the ratio in which x-axis divides the circle given by eq. (i)
Circle cuts x-axis A( )
2 3,0 ÷
and B( )
2 3,0 +
∴ Required area A = ( )
2 3
2
2 3
4 ( 2) 1 x dx
+
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
}
=
4 3 3
3
t ÷
∴ Required ratio =
4 3 3
4
8 3 3
A
A
t ÷
=
t ÷
t +
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53. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)
We have,
7 4 2
4
2 3
4
+ + ÷ = t t
t
S
velocity,
) 4 )( 2 ( ) 8 6 ( 8 6
2 2 3
÷ ÷ = + ÷ = + ÷ = = t t t t t t t t t
dt
ds
u
4 ) 2 ( 3 8 12 3 on accelerati
2 2
2
2
÷ ÷ = + ÷ = = = = t t t
dt
s d
dt
dv
a
12 6
2
2
÷ = = t
dt
da
dt
v d
For maximum velocity, 0 & 0
2
2
< =
dt
v d
dt
dv
⇒ 3t
2
– 12t + 8 = 0

6
48 12
3 2
96 144 12 ±
=
×
÷ ±
= t
⇒ t =
3
3 2 6
for 0 ,
3
3 2 6
2
2
÷
= <
±
t
dt
v d
Clearly acceleration is minimum when t = 2
Stationary points are given by
0 =
dt
ds
i.e., t = 0, 2, 4
Minimum distance is at t = 0, 4
54. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)
We have,
3 3
1
) (
2
+ ÷
÷
=
x x
x
x f
0 2
–ve +ve –ve

2 2 2 2
2
) 3 3 (
) 2 (
) 3 3 (
) 3 2 )( 1 ( 3 3
) (
+ ÷
÷ ÷
=
+ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
= '
x x
x x
x x
x x x x
x f
⇒ f ′(x) = 0 ⇒ x = 0 and 2
Here f ′(x) changes its sign from negative to positive in the neighbourhood of O whereas it changes its sign
from positive to negative in the neighbourhood of 2. Hence f(x) assume maximum and minimum value at x = 2
and 0 respectively.
Now, x
2
– 3x + 3 . , 0
4
3
2
3
2
x x ¬ > + |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
f (x) < 0 for x < 1 and f(x) > 0 for x > 1
O
y
2
x
and x → – ∞ ⇒ f (x) → 0
x → ∞ ⇒ f(x) → 0
∴ Least value of f(x) = f(0) =
3
1 ÷
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and greatest value of f(x) = f(2) = 1
Hence f(x) transform entire real line into
(
¸
(

¸

÷ 1 ,
3
1
Obviously f(x) being a rational integral function is continuous everywhere as x
2
– 3x + 3 ≠ 0 for any x ∈ R
55. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)
We have,
f(x) = 1 + 2sinx + 2cos
2
x, 0 ≤ x ≤
2
t
Then f′(x) = 2cosx – 2sin2x
f′′(x ) = –2sinx – 4cos2x
Now f′(x) = 0 ⇒ 2cosx (1 – 2sinx) = 0

6
,
2 2
1
sin , 0 cos
t t
= ¬ = = x x x
f′′(x) = negative at x =
6
t
⇒ f(x) is greatest at x =
6
t
f′(x)> 0, ∀ x ∈
|
.
|

\
| t
6
, 0
f′(x)< 0, ∀ x ∈ |
.
|

\
| t t
2
,
6
Clearly f(x) is continuous in |
.
|

¸
t
2
, 0
Let f (x) = x
50
– x
20
, ∀ x ∈ [0, 1]
f′(x) = 50 x
49
– 20x
19
= 10x
19
(5x
30
– 2)
. 0 1 0
20 50 20 50
< ÷ ¬ < ¬ < < x x x x x
⇒ f(x) has absolute maximum value 0, at x = 0 and x = 1.
30
1
5
2
, 0 0 ) ( |
.
|

\
|
= ¬ = ' x x f
Clearly f(x) has local minima/least value
.
5
2
5
2
5
2
5
2 3
2
3
5
30
20
30
50
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
=
We have,
h(x) = g(x) – (g(x))
2
+ (g(x))
3
, x ∈ R
h′(x) = g′(x) – 2g(x)g′(x) + 3(g(x))
2
g′(x)
= g′(x) [1 – 2g(x) + 3g(x))
2
]
) (
9
2
3
1
) ( 3
2
x g x g '
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
> 0 or < 0 according as g′(x) > 0 or < 0.
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Clearly the given function is continuous in [–2, 2] and hence it attains every value between its bounds.
59. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)
Find the region in which f ′(x) > 0.
x x x x
x
x
x f
3
sin 2 sin 2 cos 2 sin
sec
2 sin
) ( ÷ = = =
= 2sinx (1 – sin
2
x)
f(x) = –2sinx (sinx – 1)(sinx + 1)
f′(x) = 2(cosx – 3sin
2
x cosx)
3
1
sin and 0 cos 0 ) ( ± = = ¬ = ' x x x f
f′′(x) = –(1 – 3sin
2
x)sinx + 2cosx( 0 – 6sinx cosx)
Clearly f ′′(x) > 0 for sinx =
3
1
÷
⇒ f(x) attains minimum value at
3
1
sin ÷ = x and minimum value is
7
9
9
7
3 3
4
3 3
2
3
2 ÷
>
÷
>
÷
= + ÷ =
Hence, the minimum value of f(x) is
7
9
9
7
3 3
4
÷ > ÷ > ÷
Differentiate f (x) and find critical points.
62. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)
Differentiating the given equation of ellipse
we get,
0
4
2
9
2
= +
dx
dy y x

y
x
dx
dy
9
4 ÷
=
The tangent is equally inclined to the axes,

y
x
dx
dy
9
4
1
÷
= ± =
⇒ y x y
9
4
,
9
4 ÷
=
13
4
&
3
9
36
81
16
9 4
2 2
 = ± = ¬ = · + y x x x
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f(x) = (x – 2)
n
(x – 1)
4
, n ∈ N
f′(x) = (x – 1)
3
(x – 2)
n – 1
((n + 4)x – (n + 8))
f′(x) = 0 ⇒ x = 1 repeated 3-times
x = 2 repeated (n – 1) times
x =
8
2
4
n
n
+
<
+
, n N ¬ e
When n is even sign of f′(x)
8
4
n
n
+
+
1 2
+
– –
+
f(x) is minima at x = 1 when n is even (By first derivative test)
When n is odd sign of f′(x)
8
4
n
n
+
+
1 2
(+ve) (– ve) (+ve) (+ ve)
f(x) is maxima at x = 1 when n is odd
As f(x) has extrema at x = α, β hence
∴ f ′(α) = 0, f′(β) = 0. αβ < 0
Applying Rolle's theorem, between any two real root of f(x) = 0, at least one real root of f′(x) = 0 must lie.
Hence f (x) = 0 has atleast two real roots, say x
1
& x
2
. So, the third root x
3
is also real because imaginary
roots always occur in conjugate pairs.
We have,
x
x x f
ì
+ =
2
) (

3
1
2
2
0 ) ( , 2 ) ( |
.
|

\
| ì
= ¬ = '
ì
÷ = ' x x f
x
x x f
If
0
2
2 ) ( , 2 , 16
3
>
ì
+ = '' = = ì
x
x f x
Also, at
3
1
2
|
.
|

\
| ì
= x , f′′ (x) > 0
Hence f(x) has maximum value for no real value of λ. When λ = –1, f ′′(x) = 0 if x = 1, therefore f(x) has a
point of inflection at x = 1.
}
dx x x
2
sec
integrating by parts
= xtanx – ∫(1) tanx dx
= xtanx + log|cosx| + K
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= xtanx – log(secx) + K
= xtanx + log cosx + K,
(
¸
(

\
| t
÷ |
.
|

¸
t
e 0 ,
2 2
, 0 x ( cosx is positive in 1
st
and 4
th
67. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)
}
| < < o
| ÷ o ÷
) ( ,
) )( (
1
x dx
x x
K
x
x
dx
+
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
o ÷ |
| + o
÷
=
|
.
|

\
| o ÷ |
÷ |
.
|

\
| | + o
÷
=
÷
}
2
2
sin
2 2
1
2 2
Again, if we put x = αcos
2
θ + βsin
2
θ

K d
x x
dx
+ u = u =
| ÷ o ÷
} }
2 2
) )( (

K
x
K
x
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
o ÷ |
÷ |
÷ = +
|
|
.
|

\
|
o ÷ |
÷ |
=
÷ ÷ 1 1
sin 2 cos 2

|
.
|

\
|
÷
t
=
÷ ÷
x x
1 1
sin
2
cos

|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
o ÷ |
o ÷
= u
o ÷ |
÷ |
= u
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
o ÷ |
o ÷
=
÷
÷
÷
x
x
K
x
1
1
1
sin or
cos
sin 2

} }
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ K
x
x a
xdx
x
a
dx
x
x b 4 sin
4 sin
4 cos
2

} }
+ = ÷ + K
x
x a
dx x
x
a
x
x
a
dx
x
x b 4 sin
4 cos
4
4 sin
4 cos
⇒ 4a = b
We have,
K x e
q
dx
x
qx
e dx x p e
x x x
+ + =
+
+ +
} }
) 1 log(
2
1
) 1 log(
2
2
2

} }
+ ÷ + + + dx x e
q
x e
q
dx x pe
x x x
) 1 log(
2
) 1 log(
2
) 1 log(
2 2 2
K x e
q
x
+ + = ) 1 log(
2
2

2
q
p =
Differential and Integral Calculus Success Magnet (Solutions)
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(385)
Let,
} }
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
+
= dx
x
a
b
x
a
dx
x b x a
I
2
2
2 2 2 2 2
tan 1
sec 1
sin cos
1
Set u u = ¬ u = d
b
a
dx x x
a
b
2 2
sec sec tan tan

}
+ u =
u +
u u
= K
ab
d
ab
I ) (
1
tan 1
sec 1
2
2

K
a
x b
ab
K x
a
b
ab
+
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
÷
t
· = + |
.
|

\
|
· =
÷ ÷
tan
cot
2
1
tan tan
1
1 1

k
a
x b
ab
+ |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
÷
tan
cot
1
1

K x
b
a
ab
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
÷
cot cot
1
1
} }
+ + ÷
+
=
÷ ÷
+
dx
x x x
x
dx
x x
x
) 2 2 )( 2 (
4 3
4 2
4 3
2 3
} }
+ +
+
÷
÷
= dx
x x
x
dx
x
2 2
1
2
1
2
(Using partial fraction)
K x x x + + + ÷ ÷ = ) 2 2 log(
2
1
) 2 log(
2
= log(x – 2) + p log (f(x)) + K
⇒ 1 ) 1 ( 2 2 ) ( ,
2
1
2 2
+ + = + + =
÷
= x x x x f p
}
+ =
x
dt t t x f
0
4 4
) sin (cos ) (
}
÷ =
x
dt t t
0
2 2
) cos sin 2 1 (
}
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+ =
x
x
x dt t x f
0
16
4 sin
4
3
4 cos
4
1
4
3
) (

) 4 4 sin(
16
1
) (
4
3
) ( x x x f + t + t + = t +
t + = t + + =
4
3
) (
4
3
4 sin
16
1
4
3
x f x x
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8
3
2
,
4
3
) (
t
= |
.
|

\
| t
t = t f f
Hence
|
.
|

\
| t
· + = t +
2
2 ) ( ) ( f x f x f
and f(x + π) = f(x) + f(π)
For 0 < x < 1, we have
0 < x
2
< 1 ⇒ e
0
<
2
x
e < e
1
} } }
< < · ¬
1
0
1
0
1
0
2
1 dx e dx e dx
x

e dx e
x
< <
}
1
0
2
1
For x ∈ [3, 4], logx and therefore
3
logx are > 1

} }
= < ¬ <
4
3
4
3
3 3
1
log
1
log
1
dx
x
dx
x
Also, 2 log 2 log log log
3
2
< ¬ < ¬ < x x e x
for all x ∈ [3, 4]
2
1
log
2
1
log
1
4
3
3 3
> ¬ >
}
x
dx
x
}
u
u
+ u
2
2 cos sin dx x
0 ] sin 2 [sin
2
1
sin = u ÷ u + u =
⇒ sinθ(1 + 2cosθ) = 0
⇒ sinθ = 0 or 2cosθ = –1
⇒ θ = –π, 0 or
3
2t ÷
in [–π, 0]
f(x) = pe
2x
+ qe
x
+ rx ...(i)
∴ f(0) = p + q = –1 ...(ii)
f ′(log 2) = 2pe
2log2
+ qe
log2
+ r = 31
= (2p)(4) + 2q + r = 31
⇒ 8p + 2q + r = 31 ...(iii)
Differential and Integral Calculus Success Magnet (Solutions)
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} }
+ = ÷
4 log
0
4 log
0
2
) ( ] ) ( [ dx qe pe dx rx x f
x x
2
39
3
2
15
= + = q p ...(iv)
Solving (ii), (iii) and (iv), we get
p = 5, q = –6, r = 3
0 < x < 1 ⇒ 0 < x
2
< 1
⇒ 0 < x
4
< x
3
< x
2
< x < 1

} } }
< <
1
0
1
0
1
0
2 3 4
) 2007 ( ) 2007 ( ) 2007 ( dx dx dx
x x x
and 1 < x < 2 ⇒ 1 < x
2
< 4
f(x) = 5x
3
– x
2
+ 10x + 8, x ∈ R
f′(x) = 15x
2
– 2x + 10
f′(x) > 0 ∴ a > 0, Disc = (– ve)
⇒ f(x) is strictly increasing function
∴ x ≥ 0
f(x) ≥ f(0) = 8
∴ f(x) ≥ 8 in [0, ∞) (1) is false
 x + 4 > x + 1, x R ¬ e
f(x + 4) > f(x + 1), (2) is true
 f is increasing function ⇒ f is (one – one)
f
–1
exist. (3) is true
Also f(1) < f(2) < f(3). (4) is false
The substitution xy = cosθ reduces the equation to
x xy
dx
dy
= + 2
whereas the substitution cosθ = v reduces it to
2
3
1 2
x v
x
x
dx
dv
=
÷
+
Both of which are linear and the solution turns out to be
2
2cos
x
x kxe
÷
u = +
The substitution xy = t reduces the equation to
2
6 3
x
t
x dx
dt
= +
which integrates to give
4 2
3
x
k
x
y + =
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sin
dy
x
dx
| |
|
\ .
cos(y) – sin(y)cos
dy
x
dx
| |
|
\ .
=
dy
dx
dy
dx
= sin
dy
x y
dx
| |
÷
|
\ .
sin
–1
dy
dx
| |
|
\ .
=
dy
x y
dx
÷
y =
dy
x
dx
– sin
–1
dy
dx
| |
|
\ .
…(i)
Differentiate w.r.t. x,
dy
dx
=
dy
dx
+
2
2
d y
x
dx

2
2
2
1
1
d y
dx
dy
dx
·
| |
÷
|
\ .

2
2
d y
dx
= 0 Or
2
2
1
1
dy
dx x
| |
÷ =
|
\ .
…(ii)
Or
2
2
1
1
dy
dx x
| |
÷ =
|
\ .

dy
dx
= c or
dy
dx
=
2
1
1
x
÷
…(iii)
Put
dy
c
dx
= in (i)
y = cx – sin
–1
(c) …(iv)
(3) is correct
For a particular value of c, eq. (iv) implies
y = 0
(1) is correct
Elliminate
dy
dx
between (iii) and (i) we get
y =
2
2 1
1
1 sin
x
x
x
÷
| |
÷
|
÷ ÷
|
\ .
Choice (4) is correct
As the defferential equation can't be written as a polynomial in derivative, the degree is not defined. Order is
3 - coming from the term
''' y
e .
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At a point (α, β) on the parabola the equation of tangent is
2
2
1
but | = o
|
o ÷
= | ÷
x
y gives .
2
1
2
| + = | x y
On eliminating β we have the desired differential equation as 0 1 2 2
2
= + ÷ |
.
|

\
|
dx
dy
y
dx
dy
x
Given
2
dy a
dx x
| |
=
|
\ .
…(i)
For orthogonal trajectories,
Changing
dy
dx
to
dx
dy
| |
÷
|
\ .
in (i)

2
dy x
dx a
| |
=
|
\ .
dy x
dx a
= ±
dy =
x
dx
a
±
Integrating both sides
3
2
2
( )
3
y c x
a
+ = ±
Squaring
(y + c)
2
(9a) = 4x
3
85. Answer (1, 2, 3, 4)
The form of the primitive is not unique. It can be shown by some manipulation that all these primitives are
equivalent.
The equation is homogeneous of degree 0. Substituting x = vy we have on simplification.
0
2
2 1
=
+
+
+ dv
e v
e
y
dy
v
u
which on integrating and simplifying gives
k ye x
y
x
= + 2