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Standard of Competency

: The students are able to understand the parts of speech

B. Basic Competencies

The students are competent to identify Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Adjectives, Adverb, Articles, Preposition, Conjunctions, Interjections

A. Text The Education System in Indonesia The Ministry of National Education administers all educational policies, guidelines and implementation in Indonesia. All citizens in the country have to finish 9 years of education, 6 years at elementary level and 3 in middle school. The constitution stated that education in the country is divided into two parts, formal and non-formal. A formal education is divided again into three levels, primary, secondary and tertiary education. Children with ages 5 to 6 or 7, attend kindergarten. It is not mandatory for Indonesian toddlers but the objective is to train them for primary school. Normally, the kindergarten years are divided into "Class A" and "Class B" pupils spending a year in each class. Indonesian attends elementary school from ages 7-12. Based on the national constitution, this stage of education is mandatory to all Indonesian citizens. Part of main education in Indonesia is called Middle School. From ages 13-15 students attend Middle School for 3 years after graduating from elementary school. Indonesian citizens are not required to attend high school based on the national constitution, since they only need 9 years of education. Students may attend to a university after finishing from high school or college. Higher education method in the country consists of college or academy, polytechnic, institute and university. The objective of professional education is to train the students to master certain knowledge and/or capability and it consists of Diploma Education. (Taken from: B. Comprehension Questions Exercise 1: Answer the following questions briefly. Base your answer on the text above! 1. What does minister of national education administer? 2. Does citizen have to attend kindergarten?? 3. What do school, hospital and shops provide? 4. How long do the students spend in the kindergarten?

place. etc b. Adverbs 6. An abstract idea : Ani. an adjective or an adverb. Chandra. etc : book. the USA. a subject complement. When do the students attend the middle school? 6. and abstract idea. Verbs 4. A thing e. Interjections : kata benda : kata ganti (pengganti noun) : kata kerja : kata sifat : kata keterangan : kata sandang : kata depan : kata penghubung : kata seru NOUNS A noun is a word used to name a person. organizations. Proper noun Since the noun represents the name of a specific person. institutions. Common noun . house. Conjunctions 9. Yogyakarta. sight.5. A person b. table. and the UK! C. their holy texts and their adherents are proper nouns. a. Budi. Pronouns 3. Monday. The names of days of the week. PARTS OF SPEECH (JENIS . or thing we always write the proper noun with capital letter. Indonesian. computer. mountain. Articles 7. truth. A proper noun is the opposite of a common noun. etc A noun can function in a sentence as a subject. Animal c.JENIS KATA) Below are several parts of speech or kinds of word that can be found in English: 1. Types of Nouns a. thing. an object complement. Indonesia. Compare the system in Indonesia with the system in Australia. a direct object. Adjectives 5. etc : agreement. dog. religions. horse. months. What does education method consist of? 7. May. Nouns 2. animal. democracy. etc : cat. Prepositions 8. A place d. Example of proper noun: Yogyakarta. an appositive. historical documents. an indirect object. etc : Sleman. place.

or persons. tooth. Non-countable/Uncountable noun A non-countable noun (mass noun) is a noun which does not have a plural form. Concrete noun A concrete noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that you can perceive through your physical senses: touch. mouse. Example: student.A common noun is a noun referring to a person. You need to be able to recognize collective nouns in order to maintain subject-verb agreement. sight. sugar. computer. and is the opposite of a concrete noun. Countable nouns are the opposite of non-countable nouns and collective nouns. etc g. child. clerk. or thing in a general sense -usually. but you usually think of the group as a whole is generally as one unit. A common noun is the opposite of a proper noun. we write it with a capital letter only when it begins a sentence. animals. Countable noun A countable noun or count noun is a noun with both a singular and a plural form. democracy. salt. Example: judge. place. Collective noun A collective noun is a noun naming a group of things. e. information. hearing. files. mountain. and it names anything or anyone that you can count. and which refers to something that you could (would) not usually count. and are the opposite of countable nouns Example: water. agent. team. taste. safety. A non-countable noun always takes a singular verb in a sentence. people. etc PRONOUNS . waves. Abstract noun An abstract noun is a noun which names anything which you can not perceive through your five physical senses. or smell. etc. You can make a countable noun plural and attach it to a plural verb in a sentence. village. freedom. sand. etc c. neighborhood. dog. committee f. group. A collective noun is similar to a noncountable noun. beach. etc d. Example of common noun: town. candy. You could count the individual members of the group. and is roughly the opposite of a countable noun Example: family. Non-countable nouns are similar to collective nouns. A concrete noun is the opposite of an abstract noun. Example of abstract noun: happiness.

it. compound verb. his. Note that possessive personal pronouns are very similar to possessive adjectives like my. With pronouns. The objective personal pronouns are: me. it. we would have to repeat a lot of nouns. ours. 2) Objective pronoun An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb. She is too pompous. she. Emphatic/ Reflexive I You We They He She It Me You Us Them Him Her It My Your Our Their His Her Its Mine Yours Ours Theirs His Hers Its Myself Yourself/yourselves Ourselves Themselves Himself Herself Itself 1) Subjective pronoun A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as the subject of the sentence. Adj. . Types of Pronouns a. Julia threw it into the garbage can. hers. preposition. 3) Possessive pronoun A possessive pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as a marker of possession and defines who owns a particular object or person. or infinitive phrase. you. The subjective personal pronouns are I. Example: After reading the pamphlet. themselves. you. and them. The teacher is too pompous. he. we can say:  Do you like the teacher? I don't like her.. you. us. we. Pron. you. Personal pronoun Subjective : Objective Possess.. Pronouns are words like: he. and theirs. her. We would have to say things like:  Do you like the teacher? I don't like the teacher. they. Example: You are surely the strangest child I have ever met. some. and their. yours. each. you. her.Pronouns are small words that take the place of a noun. If we didn't have pronouns. its. The possessive personal pronouns are mine. ours. We can use a pronoun instead of a noun or noun phrases. him. Possess.

preposition. Example: This must not continue. and whichever are also relative pronouns. whomever. whomever. and whatever). whom. himself. yourselves. whom. b. I want these. and occasionally which used to refer to people. Example: The Dean often does the photocopying herself so that the secretary can do more important work. Example: Who will meet the delegates at the railway station? Whom do you think we should invite? What on earth is that? d. Relative pronoun You can use a relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. though. which. obviously. The interrogative pronouns are who. that. these. 5) Intensive pronoun An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to emphasize its antecedent. that. and which. Example: I myself don’t like it. or a verbal. c. You will find who. itself. whom. herself. Interrogative pronoun An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions. The Prime Minister himself visited our class. whom. Demonstrative pronoun A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun. Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns. Theirs will be delivered tomorrow.Example: This is yours. 4) Reflexive pronoun You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence. and that who. ourselves. while whom acts as the object of a verb. yourself. while that and those refer to things that are farther away in space or time. what and the compounds formed with the suffix ever (whoever. or which can also be used as a relative pronoun. Who acts as the subject of a verb. you use them differently. and which and what used to refer to things and to animals. This and that are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and these and those are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases. The reflexive pronouns mentioned above (myself. whichever. Note that the demonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjective. and those.You can use the relative pronouns . The demonstrative pronouns are this. It is also important to note that that can also be used as a relative pronoun. This and these refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time. The compounds whoever. Note that either which or what can also be used as an interrogative adjective. and themselves) can also act as an intensive pronoun. The relative pronouns are who.

any. The word blue is an adjective in the sentence. The verb or compound verb is the critical element of the predicate of a sentence. The guest has arrived. b. . Indefinite pronoun An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. few. State The sky is blue. "The sky is blue. that is. whom and whomever to refer to the objects of a verb. VERBS The verb is perhaps the most important part of the sentence." Therefore. or some. none." Intransitive and Transitive verbs An intransitive verb is an action verb that does not require a direct object or a complement to complete its meaning. each. The verb. A verb or compound verb asserts something about the subject of the sentence and express actions. Note that some indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives. the action of the verb does not transfer to an object. anything. events. anybody. a person or thing that receives the action of the verb. Many like salsa with their chips. and someone. many. or it conveys the state of the subject. or states of being. Often. a verbal or a preposition. You may invite whomever you like to the party. conveys the state of the subject. The sky has a blue state. The word "intransitive" literally means "does not carry across. e. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all. somebody. The verb conveys an understanding of the action expressed. anyone. none. he hit something. any. another. adverbs or adverb phrases will appear in these sentences to expand the basic meaning of the verb. The verb does not convey a sense of action. taking the place of a noun. The verb describes the action. several. Example: The audience laughed. Example: The candidate who wins the greatest popular vote is not always elected. one. Action: Tom hit the ball. everyone. everybody. An indefinite pronoun may look like an indefinite adjective. The most common indefinite pronouns are all.who and whoever to refer to the subject of a clause or sentence. Blue is the color that describes the sky. nobody. is. Tom acted. everything. a. The verb is hit. Example: Something smells good. but it is used differently in a sentence: it acts as a pronoun. some.

be. was.Transitive verbs are verbs that have subjects or objects that receive the action. or quantifying words. The ball was kicked hard. prove Sometimes these verbs are linking verbs. are. Example: My husband knits intricately patterned mittens. remain. If. They that do not show action. or are and the sentence still sounds logical. Example: Eleanor listened to the muffled sounds of the radio hidden under her pillow. turn. but in the example sentence. Some nouns. seem. Example: The boy kicked the ball. the sentence makes no sense. An adjective can be modified by an adverb. They are either active voice or passive voice. taste. ADJECTIVES An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing. identifying. Many times the verb looked is an action verb because something is looking for something." The verb looked is used as a linking verb in the example sentence. you have a linking verb on your hands. instead. were. appear. am. How do you tell when they are action verbs and when they are linking verbs? If you can substitute am. you are dealing with an action verb instead. Types of Adjectives: a. Linking Verb Linking verbs are verbs used as linking or action. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies. many pronouns. smell. or by a phrase or clause functioning as an adverb. the linking verb renames or describes the subject. Transitive active verbs are the verbs in sentences with a direct object. The subject is the doer and the direct object is the receiver of the action. look. Possessive adjectives . after the substitution. sometimes they are action verbs. and many participle phrases can also act as adjectives. sound. grow. Words used as linking verbs: feel. is. Examples: The ball was kicked by the boy. If the word happy is used in the subject. then happy would have been an ordinary adjective. or been as an auxiliary or helping verb. looked describes you in the predicate and that makes looked function as a linking verb. The verb in the transitive passive voice always has is. Transitive passive verbs have the subject receiving the action with the doer in a prepositional phrase or omitted in the sentence. being. become. An example "You looked happy. stay.

Sometimes there are two or more fact adjectives. Interrogative adjectives An interrogative adjective (which or what) is like an interrogative pronoun. etc) while opinion objectives tell us what someone thinks of something. his. Demonstrative adjectives The demonstrative adjectives this. except that it modifies a noun. our. d. Indefinite adjectives An indefinite adjective is similar to an indefinite pronoun. that. we put fact adjectives in this order: EVALUATION/ OPINION APPEARANCE/ QUALITY SIZE / MEASURE AGE / PERIOD COLOR/ PATTERN ORIGIN / MATERIAL GEOGRAPHICAL TYPE / FUNCTION TYPE beautiful good bad ugly interesting fascinating intelligent pretty unsightly foul stupid silly ridiculous new-born old young new antique ancient five-year-old brand-new five-day-old century-old mature middle-age teenage red green blue light-yellow striped dark blue deep purple pink brown rose olive aqua lime big / large small / little low high heavy SHAPE French Mexican beach mountain oceanic MATERIAL 1st class multi-purpose wireless HD / 3-D men's FUNCTION triangular square CONDITION ceramic cotton wooden titanium hunting cooking walking running dancing front-loading chipped broken rotten . size.A possessive adjective (my. Sometimes we use two or more adjectives together. They may contain facts objectives or opinion objectives. and what are identical to the demonstrative pronouns. pronoun. Very often. but not always. your. these. Facts objectives give information about something (age. except that it modifies a noun or noun phrase rather than standing on its own. Opinion adjectives usually go before fact adjectives Opinion A delicious An intelligent Facts hot young soup man b. b. however. those. their) is similar or identical to a possessive pronoun. its. or noun phrase Adjectives: word order a. color. but are used as adjectives to modify nouns or noun phrases. c. her. it is used as an adjective and modifies a noun or a noun phrases.

. It answers the question When? It is either placed at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. or in what circumstances something happen. an adjective or another adverb. where. Types of adverbs a. An adverb adds more to the meaning of a verb. the comparative degree to compare two unequal nouns. to what degree. Positive bold deep near rich tall Positive careful enjoyable forgetful useful wonderful Positive bad good little Comparative bolder deeper nearer richer taller Comparative more careful more enjoyable more forgetful more useful more wonderful Comparative worse better less Superlative boldest deepest nearest richest tallest Superlative most careful most enjoyable most forgetful most useful most wonderful Superlative worst best least ADVERBS Adverb is a word that gives more information about when.easy shiny prehistoric polka-dot off-road Comparison of adjectives We use the positive degree to compare two equal nouns. the Superlative degree to compare three or more Nouns Example of Positive degree: His house is as big as my house Example of comparative degree: His house is bigger than my house Example of superlative degree: His house is the biggest in the neighborhood. how. Adverb gives explanation on verb. Adverb of Time This shows when an action or something is done or happens. adjective and adverb.

by all means. / He knows how to do it. It answers the question How? It is usually placed just after the verb. Adverb of Manner – This shows how an action or something is done. f. indeed. / He drives quickly. not at all. Example: The time when he arrived. c. To what degree? or How much? It is usually placed before the adjective and the adverb. Interrogative Adverb (Question) For example: When? Where? How? Why? How much/often? h. / The reason why he left. Example: It is too dark for us to see anything. no. Example: I live here. / He fell down. why. Positive comfortably happily kindly loudly noisily Comparative more comfortably more happily more kindly more loudly more noisily Superlative most comfortably most happily most kindly most loudly most noisily ARTICLES . / We always go to school by bus. Adverb of Frequency – This answers the question How often? Example: He will never have finished in time. Example: She sleeps soundly. the Comparative and the Superlative. surely. Relative Adverb: when. / Last night it rained very heavily. These words are the same in form as Interrogative Adverbs. / The scene where the accident occurred. Affirmative Adverb (yes) and Adverb of negation (No) Example: yes. g. Adverb of Degree or Quantity – This answers the questions. adverbs have three degrees of comparison – the Positive. Comparison of Adverbs Similar to the comparison of adjectives. but they are not questions. how. Adverb of Place This shows where an action or something is done or happens. Most adverbs which end in ‘-ly’ form the Comparative with ‘more’ and the Superlative with ‘most’. where. d. b. e. by no means.Example: I phoned you yesterday. I saw her walking along the river last week. It answers the question Where? It is placed after the verb. certainly.

K. b. mountain ranges. d. b. the U. c. f. an honourable man. Ex: a woman b. the moon. that is. Ex: The Eiffel Tower. a European. Ex: an orange 2. The Great Wall of China. certain organizations. Before an adjective when the noun is understood. Example: The Qu’ran. the sun. Before the word one. a useful book. The orange is sweet. countable noun. g. a one-eyed man. an honour. group.. Types of Articles 1. When we mention something for the first time.S. Before a singular. When the same thing or person mentioned again. When there is only one such thing. An is used: a. etc. e. c. etc. Before a word which begins with a consonant.An article is often considered an adjective because it always modifies a noun or noun phrase. Ex: a university. race. Example: the earth. Ex: a one-way street. Ex: I saw a dog. Ex: an apple. e. seas. oceans. a one-year course. Ex: I bought an orange.. Example: The bear is a strong animal. d. Definite Article: The The is used: a. groups of islands. Before the names of holy or important books. The Nile. Before a word which begins with a vowel sound or a silent ‘h’. The Republican Party. an honest man. The Bible. Before a singular. The Pacific Ocean. and countries such as the U. The Dead Sea. Example: The poor need help.A. When a singular noun is used to point out a whole class. political parties. an heir. Indefinite Article: A or An A is used: a. Before a word with a long sound of ‘u’. etc. Ex: an hour.. etc. The United Nations. a uniform. Before the special names of a rivers. Ex: a banana c. Before the names of famous buildings. The Himalayas. countable noun which begins with a vowel or silent ‘h’. a one-day holiday. Articles are not used: . a particular thing or person. etc. Before a noun which begins with a vowel. etc.

or road. under. pronoun or gerund) to another word by expressing such relationship. Direction d. on. spot In or around Road. in. etc : to. (not a beauty or the beauty) PREPOSITIONS Prepositions are words placed before Nouns and Pronouns. Example: Barcelona is a beautiful city. Ex: We love all beauty. telling them about his trip to Australia Time: At hour part of the day day dates month year season part of day at or before at 5 o’clock. over. etc Ex: In the morning. etc : to. as: a. (not A or The gold) d. Purposes : at. street at 12 North Street at home on South Street He lives at 12 North Street She must be at home now There are many stores on South Street . Before the name of a place. they received a phone call from Randy. position and direction. Time b. during. Before the name of a person: Example: I am a fan of Michael Jackson.a. Before names of materials. country. towards. after. for. street. They are used to show time. before. Location c. (not A or The Michael Jackson) b. Before abstract nouns used in a general sense. town. (not A or The Barcelona) c. at midnight on 8 June on Saturday in May in 2009 in summer in the morning The show will begin at 8 pm They will arrive at noon They got married on 8 June I usually go to movie on Saturday The training will begin in May He started working in 2009 She will start her study in summer They had arrived in the morning I hope I will graduate by next year The assignment must be submitted by Monday On In by Place: At On Point. at 8 pm at noon. etc : at. across. Example: Gold is found in Australia. Prepositions are words that link noun or noun equivalent (noun phrase.

Besides ‘and'. Example: I have a car and a house. other common conjunctions include: because. He walked to his car and got into it. Example: I have a pen and a book. (Joining two adjectives) He eats quickly and noisily. Example: The fisherman is happy walking along the river and carrying a bucket full of fish. She is tired but she cannot sleep. unless. (Joining two adverbs) INTERJECTIONS . She cannot sleep. (Joining two nouns) He joked and we laughed. He got into it. ‘or' and ‘but'. adjectives and adverbs. etc. Conjunctions joining phrases. Will you have tea? Will you have coffee? Will you have tea or coffee? She is tired. Conjunctions joining words. so. (Joining two verbs) She is beautiful and tall. verbs. if. Conjunctions can join nouns. therefore. phrases and sentences together. although.In Touch the base Country City Room on the table in Indonesia in Jakarta in the class Between Two items Among Over By For During While More than two Moving above Next to For + period of time During + noun While + subject + verb How long something goes on When something happens When something happens Mother put the plates on the table People are very friendly in Indonesia It is very crowded in Jakarta The students sit nicely in the class The house is between two large rivers Among his children. Conjunctions joining sentences: Example: He walked to his car. Ahmad is the smartest We’ll talk about the problem over lunch today I sat by the statue with the bag next to me I’ve lived in this house for two years We met a lot of interesting people during our holiday We met a lot of interesting people while we were on holiday CONJUNCTIONS Conjunctions join words.

85 divided by 5 is.. Shall we go? Uh-huh. Hello John. Interjections are short exclamations.. Ah. o expressing surprise expressing pain expressing pleading ouch Uh uh-huh um.Interjections are words or phrases which are introduced into sentences.. eh? Eh! Really? Let's go.. usually more in speaking than in writing.17. umm well expressing pain expressing hesitation expressing agreement expressing hesitation expressing surprise introducing a remark Hmm. They have no real grammatical value but we use them quite often. Oh dear! Does it hurt? Dear me! That's a surprise! It's hot today. Well I never! Well. joy Hi Hmm expressing greeting expressing hesitation/doubt/ disagreement oh.. now I Interjection Ah meaning expressing pleasure expressing realization expressing resignation expressing surprise Alas Dear expressing grief or pity expressing pity expressing surprise Eh asking for repetition expressing enquiry expressing surprise inviting agreement Er Hello expressing hesitation expressing greeting expressing surprise Hey calling attention expressing surprise. eh? Lima is the capital of.I don't know the answer to that. I'm not so sure. Eh? I said it's hot today What do you think of Oh. Oh! You're here! Oh! I've got a toothache. what did he say? example Ah.. Ah! I've won! Alas. please say 'yes'! Ouch! That hurts! Uh. it can't be helped.Peru. she's dead now. How are you today? Hello! My car's gone! Hey! Look at that! Hey! What a good idea! Hi! What's new? . that feels good. Ah well.