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ME 306 Fluid Mechanics II Part 3

Turbomachinery
These presentations are prepared by Dr. Cüneyt Sert Department of Mechanical Engineering Middle East Technical University

Ankara, Turkey
csert@metu.edu.tr

Please ask for permission before using them. You are NOT allowed to modify them. 3-1

Fluid Machinery
• Fluid machinery is used to convert hydraulic energy to mechanical energy or vice versa.

Power absorbing Work is done on the fluid Mechanical Energy → Hydraulic Energy

Power producing Work is done by the fluid Hydraulic Energy → Mechanical Energy

Pump

Turbine

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Classification of Fluid Machinery
• Fluid machinery can be classified based on the motion of moving parts. 1 ) Positive Displacement Machines

• Fluid is directed into a closed volume.
• Energy transfer is accomplished by movement of the boundary of the closed volume.

• Closed volume expands and contract, sucking the fluid in or pushing it out.

http://speakeasies.biz

http://www.bicycleaccessories.us

http://en.wikipedia.org

Human heart

Water well pump

Tire pump

Gear pump
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etc.org http://www.britannica. • In ME 306 we’ll study turbomachines (mostly pumps) as black boxes.noehill. without analyzing the details of flow fields inside them. • Turbomachines use rotating shafts with attached blades. vanes.com http://www. i.wikipedia.asp Axial fan Centrifugal pump Pelton wheel Kaplan type hydraulic turbine 3-4 . http://en.e.Classification of Fluid Machinery (cont’d) 2 ) Turbomachines • Turbo means ‘‘spin’’ or ‘‘whirl’’ in Latin.com/ nevada_county_california /cal1012. buckets.

Classification of Turbomachines Turbomachines Power absorbing Incompressible Pump Compressible Power producing Incompressible Compressible • Pumps increase the pressure of a liquid without changing its velocity considerably. • Shown centrifugal (radial) pump is the most common type. 3-5 .standartpompa. • Visit www.com to get more information on sizes and capacities.

Classification of Turbomachines (cont’d) Turbomachines Power absorbing Incompressible Pump Propeller Compressible Power producing Incompressible Compressible • Propellers are very similar to fans. • Pressure difference between the front and back surfaces of the blades create the thrust. 3-6 . but they are used to generate thrust. • Marine propellers work with incompressible water water and aircraft propellers work with compressible air.

3-7 . • Fans create small pressure difference. Their main purpose is to put high amount of fluid into motion.Classification of Turbomachines (cont’d) Turbomachines Power absorbing Incompressible Pump Compressible Power producing Incompressible Compressible Propeller Fan • The main difference between fans. • Shown is axial fan of a wind tunnel. blowers and compressors is the pressure difference they create.

Classification of Turbomachines (cont’d)
Turbomachines

Power absorbing
Incompressible Pump Compressible

Power producing
Incompressible Compressible

Propeller Fan Blower

• Compared to compressors, blowers work with higher amouts of fluid at lower pressure ratios. • They are mostly centrifugal type. • Shown is an industrial type blower.
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Classification of Turbomachines (cont’d)
Turbomachines

Power absorbing
Incompressible Pump Compressible

Power producing
Incompressible Compressible

Propeller Fan Blower Compressor

• Compressors work with smaller flow rates, but create very high pressure ratios. • Shown is a multi-stage axial compressor. • Compressors are used in gas and steam turbines, natural gas pumping stations, turbochargers, etc.
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Classification of Turbomachines (cont’d)
Turbomachines

Power absorbing
Incompressible Pump Compressible

Power producing
Incompressible Compressible

Propeller Fan Blower Compressor Pelton wheel • Pelton wheels are impulse type turbines commonly used to generate electricity. • They convert kinetic energy of a high speed liquid into mechanical energy. • Largest ones used at hydraulic power plants have capacities up to 200 MW.
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• Atatürk Dam has a capacity of 8 x 300 MW. • Common types are Francis and Kaplan. 3-11 .Classification of Turbomachines (cont’d) Turbomachines Power absorbing Incompressible Pump Compressible Power producing Incompressible Compressible Propeller Fan Blower Compressor Pelton Hydraulic wheel turbine • Hydraulic turbines are used at dams to generate electricity using high pressure water. • Shown are the runner blades of the Francis turbines used at Three Gorges Dam / China.

3-12 . • Afşin-Elbistan thermal power plant has a capacity of 4 x 344 MW.Classification of Turbomachines (cont’d) Turbomachines Power absorbing Incompressible Pump Compressible Power producing Incompressible Compressible Propeller Fan Blower Compressor Pelton Hydraulic Steam wheel turbine turbine • Steam turbines are used at power plants to generate electricity using high temperature and high pressure steam. • 80 % of world’s electricity is produced by steam turbines.

com/watch?v=GpklBS3s7iU 3-13 . • To learn how a turbofan engine operates visit http://www. but they use high temperature and high pressure combustion gases.Classification of Turbomachines (cont’d) Turbomachines Power absorbing Incompressible Pump Compressible Power producing Incompressible Compressible Propeller Fan Blower Compressor Pelton Hydraulic Steam Gas wheel turbine turbine turbine • Gas turbines are similar to steam turbines. each generting a thrust of ~500 kN.youtube. • A Boeing 777 is powered by 2 turbofan engines.

org.Classification of Turbomachines (cont’d) Turbomachines Power absorbing Incompressible Pump Compressible Power producing Incompressible Compressible Propeller Fan Blower Compressor Pelton Hydraulic Steam Wind Gas wheel turbine turbine turbine turbine • As of 2011 Turkey’s wind energy production is 1415 MW. which is about 2 % of all electricity usage. • There are wind turbines with more than 120 m rotor diameter.youtube.com/watch?v=LQxp6QTjgJg) 3-14 . (http://www.tr) • World’s total wind energy capacity is 175 GW.ruzgarenerjisibirligi. producing 6 MW of electricity (enough for 4500 homes) (http://www.

3-15 .Another Classification of Turbomachines Turbomachines Power absorbing Uncased Axial Flow Propeller Cased Impulse Power producing Reaction • Uncased turbomachines do not have a solid casing around them.

In 3-16 .Another Classification of Turbomachines (cont’d) Turbomachines Power absorbing Uncased Axial Flow Propeller Axial Cased Impulse Power producing Reaction Out • Fluid enters an axial flow turbomachine parallel to the axis of rotation. • Fluid leaves the machine also in axial direction.

Another Classification of Turbomachines (cont’d) Turbomachines Power absorbing Uncased Axial Flow Propeller Axial Cased Radial Impulse Power producing Reaction In Out • In radial flow machines fluid intake is parallel to the axis of rotation. 3-17 . • Fluid leaves the machine perpendicular to the rotation axis. • Rotating impeller blades push the fluid in radial direction.

• They can provide efficiencies higher than 95 %. • Their capacities are less than Francis type. 3-18 . less than 200 MW.Another Classification of Turbomachines (cont’d) Turbomachines Power absorbing Uncased Axial Flow Propeller Axial Cased Radial Mixed Impulse Pelton wheel Power producing Reaction Axial (Kaplan) Wind turbine • Kaplan turbines are axial flow machines. • They are preferred for low head and high flow rate configurations.

com 3-19 .Another Classification of Turbomachines (cont’d) Turbomachines Power absorbing Uncased Axial Flow Propeller Axial Cased Radial Mixed Impulse Pelton wheel Power producing Reaction Axial (Kaplan) Radial Mixed (Banki) (Francis) Wind turbine • Francis turbines are the most widely used turbomachines for hydropower. • They are of mixed flow type. • They can provide more than 800 MW power. • For more information http://www.voithhydro.

directindustry.com 3-20 .Parts of a Centrifugal Pump • Centrifugal pump is the most commonly used type of turbomachine. http://pdf. • They are responsible for ~5% of all electricity comsumption of USA.

radial or forward-curved • Closed (shrouded) or open Backward curved Open Forward curved Open.com/watch?v=Vq3hEe5jzSM http://www.youtube.youtube.youtube. It may have different designs such as • Backward-curved.com/watch?v=UrChdDwHybY http://www.Parts of a Centrifugal Pump (cont’d) • For centrifugal pump details watch http://www.com/watch?v=9nL1XhKm9q8 http://www. radial Closed (Shrouded) 3-21 .com/watch?v=RvOzKhUDmJM (Principles and parts) (Pump Parts) (Impeller animation) (Computer aided blade design) • Most important part is the impeller.youtube.

Pump Head (𝑕) 𝑝𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑄 𝑝𝑖𝑛 𝑉𝑖𝑛 𝐴𝑖𝑛 𝑄 𝑧 Datum 𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝐴𝑜𝑢𝑡 • Consider the BE between the inlet (suction) and outlet (discharge) of a pump. • Pump head is a positive quantity with units of length. 2 2 𝑝𝑖𝑛 𝑉𝑖𝑛 𝑝𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 + + 𝑧𝑖𝑛 = + + 𝑧𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑕 𝜌𝑔 2𝑔 𝜌𝑔 2𝑔 • Pump head is the difference between the total heads at pump inlet and outlet. Pump head 3-22 .

known as water horsepower 𝒫𝑓 = 𝜌𝑔𝑄 𝑕 𝑓 for fluid Weight flow rate • Pump head can be defined as the power delivered to the fluid per weight of the fluid flowing through the pump in unit time (weight flow rate). • If suction and discharge pipe diameters are the same → 𝑉𝑖𝑛 = 𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 • For this simplified case 𝑝𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑝𝑖𝑛 ∆𝑝 𝑕 = = 𝜌𝑔 𝜌𝑔 i.Pump Head (cont’d) • Elevation difference between inlet and outlet is generally negligibly small. • Pump head is directly related to the power delivered to the fluid.e. pump head is the pressure rise across the pump expressed as a head. 3-23 .

𝒫𝑝 = 𝑇𝑠𝑕𝑎𝑓𝑡 𝜔 > 𝒫𝑓 𝑝 for pump Torque supplied to the pump shaft • Efficiency of the pump is defined as 𝜂𝑝 𝒫𝑓 = < 1 𝒫𝑝 3-24 Rotational speed of the pump . is larger than power delivered to the fluid due to • mechanical and fluidic frictional losses • flow separation on impeller blade surfaces • misalignment of inlet flow velocity with impeller blade geometry • internal leakage. etc. known as brake horsepower (bhp).Pump Efficiency (cont’d) • Power necessary to run the pump.

It is customary to plot 𝒫 and 𝜂 on the same figure. fundamental characteristic is a plot of 𝑕 vs. capacity) 𝑄 • Head • Size of the machine • Rotational speed 𝑕 𝑑 𝑁 or 𝜔 • Power consumption or generation • Efficiency 𝒫 𝜂 • For a pump.Performance of Turbomachines • Important quantities of interest for a turbomachine are • Volumetric flow rate (discharge. 3-25 • . It is customary to plot 𝑄 and 𝜂 on the same figure. For a turbine. fundamental characteristic is a plot of 𝒫 vs. 𝜔 at a given head of 𝑕. 𝑄 at a given rotational speed 𝜔.

a pump can operate only on its performance curve. • Pump is not doing any useful work. 𝑕 Free delivery • There is no load on the pump and 𝑕 = 0. • Pump is not doing any useful work 𝑄 3-26 . • At a given rotational speed (𝜔) a centrifugal pump’s typical performance curve is Shutoff head • Outlet of the pump is blocked and 𝑄 = 0.Performance Curve of a Centrifugal Pump • 𝑕 − 𝑄 curve of a pump is known as its performance (characteristic) curve. • For steady conditions.

• Pumps are designed to work at their maximum efficiency. 𝑄 𝑄 for maximum efficiency 3-27 . 𝒫. Best Efficiency Point (BEP) 𝑕. 𝜂 (or design point) Head (𝑕) 𝑕 for maximum efficiency Efficiency (𝜂) Power (𝒫𝑝 ) Note that these curves are for a given rotational speed 𝜔.Best Efficiency Point (BEP) • The exact operation point of a pump depends on the system it is working in. but this is not always possible.

𝜌 .e. 𝜇 to get the following non-dimensional groups Flow coefficient : 𝜋𝑄 = 𝑄 𝜔𝐷 3 Head coefficient : 𝜋𝑕 = 𝑔𝑕 𝜔 2 𝐷 2 Power coefficient : 𝒫𝑝 𝜋𝒫 = 𝜌𝜔 3 𝐷 5 Reynolds number : 𝜇 1 𝜋𝜇 = = 2 𝜌𝜔𝐷 𝑅𝑒 3-28 . 𝑔𝑕 .Similarity Laws for Pumps • Similitude analysis for a pump is useful • to predict the performance of geometrically similar pumps with different sizes. • Perform a Buckingham-Pi analysis with the following parameters 𝑄 . 𝐷 . i. with different impeller diameters. 𝒫𝑝 . • to predict the performance of a pump working at different speeds. 𝜔 .

𝜋𝑄 ) of two geometrically similar pumps compare with each other? 3-29 . 𝜋𝑕 1 = 𝜋𝑕 2 .Similarity Laws for Pumps (cont’d) • In most pump applications similarity of viscous forces are not as important as the other 𝜋 groups. Exercise : Show that when affinity laws are satisfied efficiencies of two similar operating points (homologous points) are equal. • Two geometrically similar pumps are said to be operating under similar conditions if the remaining three 𝜋 groups are equal. Exercise : How do nondimensional performance curve (𝜋𝑕 vs. 𝜋𝑄 1 = 𝜋𝑄 2 . • These three equalities are known as affinity laws. 𝜋𝒫 1 = 𝜋𝒫 2 where 1 and 2 refer to two different operating conditions of similar pumps.

resulting in the following simplified affinity laws 𝑄1 𝑄2 = 𝜔1 𝜔2 .Similarity Case 1 – Different Rotational Speeds • Consider a pump with a known performance. We want to determine its operation at a different speed. 𝜔1 𝜔2 𝒫𝑝1 3 𝜔1 = 𝒫𝑝 2 3 𝜔2 3-30 . Rotating at 𝜔1 Delivering 𝑄1 and 𝑕1 Using 𝒫𝑝1 Rotating at 𝜔2 Delivering 𝑄2 and 𝑕2 Using 𝒫𝑝 2 • Pump sizes are the same and size parameter 𝐷 drops from nondimensional groups. 𝑕1 𝑕2 2 = 2 .

1 0. • 𝑕 is proportional with the square of 𝜔.2 41 134.1 0.35 1C 0.9 0.77 1E 0.6 26 204.Similarity Case 1 (cont’d) • According to the affinity laws.1 41 114. for similarity case 1 • 𝑄 is proportional with 𝜔.7 15 187.2 0.3 0. Exercise : What determines the operation speed of a pump? Is it something adjustable or should a pump be always run at the same speed? Exercise : Performance data of a centrifugal pump.5 34 196. running at 750 rpm is given in the following table.9 0.55 3-31 . 1A 𝑄(𝑚3 /𝑠) 𝑕 (𝑚) 𝒫𝑝 (𝑘𝑊) 𝜂 0 40 0 0 1B 0.75 1H 0.3 40 152.4 0.85 1G 0. We want to predict the performance of the same pump when it is running at a speed of 900 rpm. • 𝒫𝑝 is proportional with the cube of 𝜔.60 1D 0.85 1F 0.4 38 175.

03 𝑚3/𝑠 𝑕2 = 36 𝑚 𝑁2 = ? .01 0.04 3-32 (desired operating point) 𝑄2 = 0.03 0.Similarity Case 1 (cont’d) Exercise : Head and efficiency of a centrifugal pump running at 1500 rpm are given as 𝑕 = 50 – 200 𝑄 – 24000 𝑄2 𝜂 = 60 𝑄 – 1200 𝑄2 It is desired to deliver 0. Determine a) speed of the pump b) efficiency of the pump c) power consumption of the pump Point 1 (a point similar to point 2) 𝑄1 = ? 𝑕1 = ? 𝑁1 = 1500 𝑟𝑝𝑚 Point 2 60 50 40 𝑕 [𝑚] 30 20 10 0 0 0.03 m3/s of water against a head of 36 m.02 𝑄[𝑚3 /𝑠] 0.

𝒫𝑝1 5 𝐷1 = 𝒫𝑝 2 5 𝐷2 3-33 . resulting in the following simplified affinity laws 𝑄1 𝑄2 3 = 3 𝐷1 𝐷2 . 𝑕1 𝑕2 2 = 2 𝐷1 𝐷2 . Size is 𝐷1 Delivering 𝑄1 and 𝑕1 Using 𝒫𝑝1 Size is 𝐷2 Delivering 𝑄2 and 𝑕2 Using 𝒫𝑝 2 • Rotating speeds are the same. 𝜔 drops from nondimensional groups.Similarity Case 2 – Different Sizes (Impeller Diameters) • Consider a pump with a known performance. We want to determine the operation of a gemoetrically similar pump with a different size rotating at the same speed.

1 𝑄[𝑚3 /𝑠] 0.3 Point 2 (desired operating point) 𝑄2 = 0.1 𝑚3/𝑠 𝑕2 = 70 𝑚 𝐷2 = ? 3-34 . a) Determine the required percent reduction in impeller diameter. b) Determine the percent decrease in power consumption.Similarity Case 2 (cont’d) Exercise : Characteristic curve of a centrifugal pump is given as 𝑕 = 100 – 1000 𝑄2 It is desired to deliver 0. 120 Point 1 (a point similar to point 2) 𝑄1 = ? 𝑕1 = ? 𝐷1 = ? 100 80 𝑕 [𝑚] 60 40 20 0 0 0. For these requirements it is thought that using a similar pump with a smaller impeller would be more efficient.2 0.1 m3/s of water against a head of 70 m.

Marketing department of the company is recommending the design of a new larger pump (called pump B) that will be used to pump refrigerant R-134a at room temperature.38 3-35 a) Plot performance curves of pump A using both dimensional and nondimensional parameters.32 0. .Similarity – Combined Case 1 and 2 Exercise : A pump manufacturing company produces a water pump (called pump A) with an impeller diameter of 6 𝑐𝑚. 𝑄(𝑐𝑚3 /𝑠) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 𝑕 (𝑐𝑚) 180 185 175 170 150 95 54 𝜂 0.81 0.79 0. Data for pump A Perform a preliminary similarity analysis to determine if a scaled-up version of pump A will be suitable or not. b) Calculate the required diameter. rotational speed and power for pump B operating at its BEP.54 0. Its performance data at 𝑁 = 1725 𝑟𝑝𝑚 is shown below. Pump B should be designed such that its BEP occurs as close as possible to a flow rate of 2400 𝑐𝑚3 /𝑠 at a head of 450 𝑐𝑚.70 0.66 0.

• BE between points 𝑠𝑟 and 𝑝𝑟 2 𝑝𝑠𝑟 𝑉 2 𝑝𝑑𝑟 𝑉𝑑𝑟 𝑠𝑟 + + 𝑧𝑠𝑟 = + + 𝑧𝑑𝑟 − 𝑕 + 𝑕𝑓 𝜌𝑔 2𝑔 𝜌𝑔 2𝑔 𝑝𝑑𝑟 𝑕𝑔𝑡 𝑝𝑠𝑟 Pump Total major and minor losses • If 𝑝𝑠𝑟 = 𝑝𝑑𝑟 = 𝑝𝑎𝑡𝑚 and 𝑉 = 𝑉𝑑𝑟 = 0 𝑠𝑟 𝑕 = 𝑕𝑔𝑡 + 𝑕𝑓 Total geometric head (= 𝑧𝑑𝑟 − 𝑧𝑠𝑟 ) 3-36 . • Following pump works between a suction reservoir (𝑠𝑟) and a discharge reservoir (𝑑𝑟).System Characteristic • A pump works at an operating point on its characteristic curve. • But this operating point depends on the system that the pump is installed in.

• Using the continuity eqution 𝑉𝑖 = 𝑄/𝐴𝑖 and the total loss becomes 𝑕𝑓 = 𝑖 𝐿𝑖 𝑄 2 𝑓𝑖 + 𝐷𝑖 2𝑔𝐴2 𝑖 𝑖 𝑄 2 𝑘𝑖 2𝑔𝐴2 𝑖 or simply 𝑕𝑓 = 𝐾𝑄 2 3-37 .System Characteristic (cont’d) • 𝑕𝑓 consists of major and minor losses calculated as Actual or equivalent pipe length 𝑕𝑓 = 𝑖 𝐿𝑖 𝑉𝑖2 𝑓𝑖 𝐷𝑖 2𝑔 + 𝑖 𝑉𝑖2 𝑘𝑖 2𝑔 Head loss coefficient for minor losses Friction factor Pipe diameter • 𝑉𝑖 ’s are average velocities in suction and discahrge pipes.

3-38 .System Characteristic (cont’d) • Using this 𝑕𝑓 in the BE we get the following system characteristic equation 𝑕 = 𝑕𝑔𝑡 + 𝐾𝑄 2 𝑕 𝑕𝑔𝑡 + 𝐾𝑄 2 𝑕𝑔𝑡 𝑄 • Minimum head the pump should provide is equal to the total geometric head. • Total geometric head (𝑕𝑔𝑡 ) is usually negligibly small for gas flow applications. This part increases with the square of the flow rate. • Additional pump head is necessary to overcome frictional losses.

Total geometric head (𝑕𝑔𝑡 .difference between reservoir levels) can be changed. For example by opening or closing a valve. 𝑕 𝑕𝑔𝑡 + 𝐾𝑄2 3 𝑕𝑔𝑡 + 𝐾𝑄2 2 𝑕 𝑕𝑔𝑡 + 𝐾3 𝑄2 𝑕𝑔𝑡 + 𝐾𝑄2 1 𝑕𝑔𝑡 + 𝐾2 𝑄2 𝑕𝑔𝑡 + 𝐾1 𝑄2 𝑕𝑔𝑡 increases 𝐾 increases 𝑄 𝑄 3-39 . Friction loss can be changed by changing 𝐾.System Characteristic (cont’d) • It is possible to change system characteristic in two ways.

BEP is not necessarily the minimum 𝒫𝑝 point. i.Operating Point • • A pump installed on a system will not work at an arbitrary point. Operating point 𝑕 System characteristic (Demand curve) 𝑕𝑜𝑝 Pump characteristic (Supply curve) 𝑄𝑜𝑝 𝑄 • Normally we want the operating point to be close to the BEP (design point). 3-40 . It will operate at the point where pump and system characteristics intersect.e. • However BEP is not always the most economical operating point as far as the power consumption is concerned.

a) Valve closure is increased such that the frictional loss is doubled. Determine the power consumptions for the following operations.System Characteristic. Flow rate is measured as 22 𝑙𝑝𝑠 while the delivery valve is fully open and the pump running at 600 𝑟𝑝𝑚. b) Pump speed is increased to 720 rpm while keeping the valve fully open. The pump is used to elevate water by 32 𝑚 from a lake to an open tank. Operating Point & Similarity Exercise : Characteristics of a centrifugal pump at 600 𝑟𝑝𝑚 is given below. 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 𝑕 𝑚 𝜂 [%] 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 𝑄 [𝑙𝑝𝑠] 3-41 .

com/watch?v=Qw97DkOYYrg Watch propeller tip cavitation : www. and for a turbine it is the exit. • • • • For a pump. • For a cavitating flow • liquid locally vaporizes forming bubbles. • performance of turbomachine drops.com/watch?v=GpklBS3s7iU 3-42 . • flow becomes unsteady and noisy causing turbomachine to vibrate. • bubbles collapse as they travel to higher pressure regions and cause erosion/surface pitting.youtube.youtube. High speed regions like propeller blade tips are also critical.Cavitation • In a liquid flow cavitation occurs when the local satic pressure falls below the vapor pressure of the liquid. critical low pressure region is the entrance. Listen to the sound of a cavitating pump : www.

Cavitation Damage Damage on Francis turbine blades Damage on centrifugal pump impeller en.pumpfundamentals.wikipedia.wikipedia.org en.com 3-43 .org Damage on propeller blades www.

3-44 . Suction velocity Suction pressure 𝑝𝑠 𝑉 2 𝑝𝑣 𝑠 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻 = + − 𝜌𝑔 2𝑔 𝜌𝑔 Vapor pressure Total head at the suction side of the pump (Datum can be arranged so that 𝑧𝑠 = 0) • Suction side of the pump is the side where fluid enters into the pump. • 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻 is the difference between the total head at the suction side and the head corresponding to the vapor pressure.Cavitation of a Pump and 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻 • Cavitation possibility of a pump is checked using a variable called Net Positive Suction Head (𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻). It is used because it is the critical region due to low pressures.

𝑕 𝑕 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝑅 𝑄 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝑅 3-45 . • It is measured by the manufacturer of the pump and provided as an extra curve on the pump characteristic plot.NPSH (cont’d) • There are two values of 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻 that we work with • 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻 required (𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝑅 ) • 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻 available (𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝐴 ) • 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝑅 is the value that must be exceeded to prevent cavitation.

• Consider the BE for the suction side of a pump 𝑝𝑠𝑟 𝑉 2 𝑝𝑠 𝑉 2 𝑠𝑟 𝑠 + + 𝑧𝑠𝑟 = + + 𝑧𝑠 + 𝑕𝑓𝑠 𝜌𝑔 2𝑔 𝜌𝑔 2𝑔 𝑝𝑠𝑟 = 𝑝𝑎𝑡𝑚 𝑉 = 0 𝑠𝑟 𝑧𝑠 − 𝑧𝑠𝑟 = 𝑕𝑠 𝑕𝑓𝑠 : Frictional losses at the suction side 𝑝𝑠 𝑉 2 𝑝𝑎𝑡𝑚 𝑠 + = − 𝑕𝑓𝑠 − 𝑕𝑠 𝜌𝑔 2𝑔 𝜌𝑔 𝑠𝑟 𝑠 Pump 𝑕𝑠 Suction pipe 3-46 .NPSH (cont’d) • 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝐴 is the value that we need to calculate for the problem of interest.

NPSH (cont’d) • Using the last equation in the definition of 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝐴 𝑝𝑠 𝑉 2 𝑝𝑣 𝑠 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝐴 = + − 𝜌𝑔 2𝑔 𝜌𝑔 → 𝑝𝑎𝑡𝑚 − 𝑝𝑣 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝐴 = − 𝑕𝑓𝑠 − 𝑕𝑠 𝜌𝑔 No cavitation Cavitation • To prevent cavitation 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝐴 ≥ 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝑅 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝐴 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝑅 𝑕 Exercise : What can be done to make 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝐴 larger for the pump shown in the previous slide? Exercise : How does the vapor pressure of water change with temperature? What does this information tell us as far as cavitation prevention is concerned? 3-47 .

three flanged smooth 90o elbows (𝑘 = 0. www. Minor losses at the suction side of the pump are. Estimate the maximum flow rate that can be pumped without cavitation.2 m of cast iron pipe with a diameter of 10 cm and an average roughness of 0. a sharp edged inlet (𝑘 = 0. Reservoir is open to atmospheric pressure.5).standartpompa.05 cm.2 m above the centerline of the pump inlet.NPSH (cont’d) Exercise : 184 mm impeller diameter centrifugal pump of Standart Pompa 32160 series running at 1450 rpm is used to pump water at 25 ℃ from a reservoir whose surface is 1. 3-48 .3 each) and a fully open flanged globe valve (𝑘 = 6).com The piping system from the reservoir to the pump consists of 3.

• To prevent cavitation 𝑆 should be less than a critical 𝑆𝑐 . What does this calculation tell us? 3-49 .Suction Specific Speed (𝑆) • Suction specific speed is a nondimensional version of 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻 𝜔 𝑄 𝑆 = (𝑔 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝑅 )3/4 • It is usually evaluated at the BEP of a pump. • For a family of geometrically similar pumps 𝑆 (evaluated at BEP) should have a fixed value. which is around 3 for centrifugal pumps. • In United States it is a common practice to use the following dimensional form of 𝑆 𝑆𝑑𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 = 𝜔 𝑟𝑝𝑚 𝑄[𝑔𝑝𝑚] (𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝑅 𝑓𝑡 )3/4 Exercise : For the pump given in the previous slide calculate the suction specific speed at BEP and show that it is much larger than the critical value of 3.

3-50 . • For example radial and axial pumps work efficiently at low and high Ns values. 𝑁𝑠 is obtained by combining 𝜋𝑄 and 𝜋𝑕 as follows 𝜋𝑄 𝑁𝑠 = 𝜋𝑕 1/2 3/4 𝜔 𝑄 = (𝑔𝑕)3/4 • 𝑆 is a special version of 𝑁𝑠 obtained by replacing 𝑕 with 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝑅 . • Similar to 𝑆.Specific Speed (𝑁𝑠 ) • • Suction specific speed (𝑆) that we use for cavitation check is actually a specific form of a more general nondimensional number called specific speed. there are dimensional forms (more than one) of 𝑁𝑠 commonly used in the industry. • 𝑁𝑠 is mainly used for preliminary pump selection. • 𝑁𝑠 is useful to classify and compare different types of pumps at their BEP. respectively.

1 0.6 1 2 4 6 10 𝑁𝑠 100 95 90 Radial Adapted from Aksel’s textbook Mixed Axial 𝜂 [%] 85 80 75 70 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.6 1 2 4 6 10 3-51 𝑁𝑠 .2 0.Specific Speed (cont’d) Radial Mixed Axial 0.

• • Pumps can be identical or different. 𝑄 = 𝑄𝐴 = 𝑄𝐵 Pump A provides 𝑕𝐴 Pump B Provides 𝑕𝐵 𝑕 = 𝑕𝐴 + 𝑕𝐵 • • Same 𝑄 goes through both pumps.Series Combination of Pumps • Series combination is used if the head provided by a single pump is not enough. More than two pumps can be combined in series. Total head provided is the sum of individual heads. 3-52 .

Series Combination of Pumps (cont’d) Exercise : Show that for two pumps combined in series overall efficiency is 𝑕𝐴 + 𝑕𝐵 𝜂 = 𝑕𝐴 𝑕𝐵 + 𝜂𝐴 𝜂𝐵 • To get combined pump characteristic. individual pump characteristics are added vertically. • If the pumps are identical 𝑕 Pump A+B System characteristic Operating point Pump A or B 𝑄 3-53 .

Series Combination of Pumps (cont’d) • If the pumps are NOT identical 𝑕 Pump A+B System characteristic Pump A Operating point Pump B 𝑄𝑐 𝑄 • Above a certain 𝑄𝑐 pump B is forced to operate above its free delivery point. For such a case it just creates extra loss and should be shut off and bypassed. 3-54 .

determine the power required to drive both pumps. Pipe diameters are 0.04 0.03 0. Friction factor inside the pipes is 0. are combined in series and used to transport water between two reservoirs with an elevation difference of 𝑧𝑑𝑟 – 𝑧𝑠𝑟 = 50 𝑚. with shown characteristics. Total length of suction and discharge pipes is 120 𝑚.Series Combination of Pumps (cont’d) Exercise : Two identical pumps. 90 70 𝑕 [𝑚] 50 𝜂 [%] 30 10 0 0.02 0.12 𝑚.05 3-55 𝑄 [𝑚3 /𝑠] . Neglecting the minor losses.022.01 0.

More than two pumps can be combined in parallel. • • Pumps can be identical or different.Parallel Combination of Pumps • Parallel combination is used if the flow rate provided by a single pump is not enough. 3-56 . Pump A 𝑄𝐴 𝑄 = 𝑄𝐴 + 𝑄𝐵 Pump B 𝑕 = 𝑕𝐴 = 𝑕𝐵 • • Each pump provides the same head 𝑕. 𝑄𝐵 Total flow rate is the sum of individual flow rates.

Parallel Combination of Pumps (cont’d) Exercise : Show that for two pumps combined in parallel overall efficiency is 𝑄𝐴 + 𝑄𝐵 𝜂 = 𝑄𝐴 𝑄𝐵 + 𝜂𝐴 𝜂𝐵 • To get combined pump characteristic. individual pump characteristics are added horizontally. • If the pumps are identical 𝑕 Pump A+B System characteristic Operating point Pump A or B 𝑄 3-57 .

3-58 . For such a case it just creates extra loss and should be shut off and its branch should be blocked with a valve.Parallel Combination of Pumps (cont’d) • If the pumps are NOT identical 𝑕 Operating point System characteristic 𝑕𝑐 Pump A+B Pump B Pump A 𝑄 • Above a certain 𝑕𝑐 pump B is forced to operate above its shutoff head.

) • available space. muddy. etc. • For preliminary pump selection specific speed (𝑁𝑠) and suction specific speed (𝑆) are two commonly used variables. 3-59 . vertical placement limitations that will affect 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻 • maximum allowable noise level • etc.Pump Selection • Two main inputs for pump selection are • required head • required flow rate • Additional consideration for pump selection are • pump speed (depends on the speed of the electric motor) • type of fluid (highly viscous.

Pump Selection (cont’d) • Using the required head and flow rate we can first select a pump family from a manufacturer’s catalogue. 120 100 80 60 40 𝑕 𝑚 30 20 15 10 5 10 15 20 30 40 50 𝑄 [𝑚3 /𝑕] 100 2900 𝑟𝑝𝑚 www. For example for the plot given below at 2900 𝑟𝑝𝑚.standartpompa. ‘‘65-160’’ family is suitable for 𝑄 = 100 𝑚3 /𝑕 and 𝑕 = 30 𝑚.com 200 300 600 3-60 .

• The smallest pump can not provide the required head of 30 𝑚 at the desired flow rate of 100 𝑚3 /𝑕.5 70 65 60 50 40 • There are three similar pumps with impeller diameters of 160 𝑚𝑚. 𝑕 𝑚 50 𝜙 184 50 % 60 65 70 45 𝜙 175 𝜙 160 73. • 𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻𝑅 and 𝒫𝑝 curves are also provided. • One of these three pumps can be selected by considering cavitation possibility. 𝜙 184 𝜙 184 𝜙 175 𝜙 160 𝒫𝑝 𝑘𝑊 10 5 0 Adapted from www. 175 𝑚𝑚 and 184 𝑚𝑚. 35 30 25 20 10 6 2 20 15 N𝑃𝑆𝐻𝑅 𝑚 𝜙 160 • Black curves are iso-efficinecy lines. efficiency and power consumption.com 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 3-61 𝑄 [𝑚3 /𝑕] .Pump Selection (cont’d) • These are the detailed performance curves of the the pumps in ‘‘65-160’’ family running at 2900 𝑟𝑝𝑚.standartpompa.

𝒫𝑡 At a given head 𝑕 𝑁 • Affinity laws used for pumps are valid for turbines too. rotational speed curve at a given head.Turbines • Fundamental performance characteristic or a reaction type turbine is the power produced vs. but it is defined in a slightly different way compared to pumps 𝑁𝑠𝑡 𝜋𝒫 = 𝜋𝑕 1/2 5/4 = 𝜔 𝒫𝑡 𝜌 (𝑔𝑕)5/4 3-62 . • Specific speed can be used for preliminary turbine selection.

6 1 2 4 6 10 3-63 𝑁𝑠𝑡 .4 0.1 0.1 100 95 90 Impulse 0.4 0.Turbine Specific Speed Impulse 0.2 Radial 0.2 0.6 Mixed 1 2 Axial 4 6 10 𝑁𝑠𝑡 Adapted from Aksel’s textbook Francis Kaplan 𝜂 [%] 85 80 75 70 0.

penstock. GA. rotating at 100 𝑟𝑝𝑚 and producing 194 𝑀𝑊 of power at a flow rate of 375 𝑚3 /𝑠 from a head of 54. rotating at 100 𝑟𝑝𝑚 and producing 5.7 𝑚3 /𝑠 from a head of 9. b) Francis type mixed flow turbine at the Smith Mountain hydroelectric power station in Roanoke.Turbines (cont’d) Exercise : Calculate the specific speed of the following turbines a) Francis type radial flow turbine at the Round Butte hydroelectric power station in Madras rotating at 180 𝑟𝑝𝑚 and producing 119 𝑀𝑊 of power at a flow rate of 127 𝑚3 /𝑠 from a head of 105 𝑚.com/watch?v=HzQPNpP55xQ 3-64 . Exercise : Learn the meaning of the following turbine related terms Runner blade. crown.9 𝑚. tail water Exercise : How hydraulic power works ? http://www.youtube. draft tube.youtube. wicket gate. stay vane.37 𝑀𝑊 of power at a flow rate of 63.75 𝑚. VA.com/watch?v=cEL7yc8R42k Virtual turbines http://www. c) Kaplan type axial flow turbine at the Warwick hydroelectric power station in Cordele.